[Elenco soci]

Pellegrino Arcangelo

Ricercatore tempo indeterminato

Università degli Studi di Salerno

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 7005848067

Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Salvati L., Cappetti N., d’Amore M., Fiorentino A., Pellegrino A., Sena P., Villecco F., HRV Analysis Through the Sphygmic Wave Pulsation of the Femoral Artery, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1495-1504, (2023). Abstract

Abstract: The need, due to road safety reasons, to constantly monitor the physiological conditions of a driver (stress, concentration, fatigue) as well as the alterations to the comfort state of the driving position in long-haul journey, has led many car manufacturers to focus attention on the development of innovative technologies and methods that include the monitoring of biosignals that can be acquired by the driver himself. The possibility of detecting and processing such a signal in real time was the object of this research, which allowed to produce a technology that exploited the analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV), a method widely used in clinical field for the analysis of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) with respect to daily biological rhythm stress, comfort or vigilance. While the conventional cardiac signal acquisition system uses clinical instruments such as the electrocardiograph (ECG), in this study a technique is developed that allows the detection and processing of the pulsation signal at the level of the femoral artery through a sensor placed on the driver's seat. The main advantage consists in having a control in real time by avoiding the application of sensors on the skin. In fact, three fundamental parameters: the heart rate (HR), the interval between beats (RRI) and the typical HRV indices are determined, by using a suitable signal analysis algorithm. The comparison with equivalent values obtained by a conventional ECG device shows a Pearson correlation between 0.35 to and 0.94. This may be of a great help in evaluating thesympathovagal balance.

Keywords: HCD | HRV | RRI

[2] Salvati L., Cappetti N., d’Amore M., Fiorentino A., Pellegrino A., Sena P., Villecco F., Heart Sound Processing Model for a Mat-Shaped Device, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 809-817, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: The development and spread of human-centered products that are increasingly simple and affordable has seen their application areas increase over the years, as well as their effectiveness and reliability. The study of a model based on the interpretation of biosignals is able to provide real-time monitoring of physiological conditions and to offer useful support in both clinical and driving safety fields. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is useful in assessing the dynamics of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and detecting the effects of numerous systemic diseases as well as changes related to the normal daily biological rhythm or to accidental situations of stress or fatigue, as well as comfort or vigilance. The conventional system for the acquisition of the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal uses a methodology that provides for the contact of electrodes with the human skin. This research proposes a detection platform without direct contact with the skin capable of acquiring cardiac signals in real time: through a digital signal processing algorithm able of filtering noise and identifying peaks, heart rate (HR), the interval between beats (RRI) and the characteristic indices of HRV in the time and frequency domain are determined. The parameters were compared with those of a conventional ECG using the Pearson correlation coefficient which produced an index ranging from 0.30 to 0.78 for the tachogram, managing to provide, in the cases less affected by noise, a correspondence in the results of the spectral analysis useful for the evaluation of sympatho-vagal balance.

Keywords: HRV | Human-centered-design | Non-invasive | RRI

[3] Liguori A., Formato A., Pellegrino A., Villecco F., Study of tank containers for foodstuffs, Machines, 9(2), 1-21, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: In this study, we examined a tank container for foodstuff that is generally used for the transport of foodstuffs. With the aid of the “ANSYS R17.0” program code, a numerical model of the tank container for foodstuffs was realized. Further, to validate the considered model, the tank container considered was submitted to the most important ISO tests concerning both its support frame and the tank. The results obtained from the FEM analysis, in terms of displacement for each test, were compared with those provided by the manufacturer and related to the tank container considered, evaluating the difference between the numerical results with the experimental ones. This allowed us to validate the model examined. Furthermore, the results obtained from each test, in terms of stress, have made it possible to locate the areas with the highest equivalent stress and quantify the maximum value, comparing it with the allowable stress. In this way, a better understanding of the structure was achieved, and it was detected that the most stressed area is that of the connections between the container and the frame. Furthermore, modal analysis was carried out, in which the natural frequencies relating to the most dangerous modes of vibrations were found, that is, with the lowest frequency values. Finally, changes for the considered tank container were examined, and it was found that, by changing parameters, such as the thickness of the plate and skirt, and subsequently acting on the arrangement of the corner supports, the highest value of the stresses generated by the loads related to the ISO tests, it is significantly lowered, resulting in a better distributed stiffening of the structure and a reduction, although minimal, of weight. It is evident that this modeling and validation method, suitably integrated by further calculation modules, can be used in an iterative optimization process.

Keywords: ISO tests | Numerical simulation | Tank containers for foodstuff

[4] Salvati L., D’amore M., Fiorentino A., Pellegrino A., Sena P., Villecco F., On-road detection of driver fatigue and drowsiness during medium-distance journeys, Entropy, 23(2), 1-12, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Background: The detection of driver fatigue as a cause of sleepiness is a key technology capable of preventing fatal accidents. This research uses a fatigue-related sleepiness detection algorithm based on the analysis of the pulse rate variability generated by the heartbeat and validates the proposed method by comparing it with an objective indicator of sleepiness (PERCLOS). Methods: changes in alert conditions affect the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and therefore heart rate variability (HRV), modulated in the form of a wave and monitored to detect long-term changes in the driver’s condition using real-time control. Results: the performance of the algorithm was evaluated through an experiment carried out in a road vehicle. In this experiment, data was recorded by three participants during different driving sessions and their conditions of fatigue and sleepiness were documented on both a subjective and objective basis. The validation of the results through PER-CLOS showed a 63% adherence to the experimental findings. Conclusions: the present study con-firms the possibility of continuously monitoring the driver’s status through the detection of the ac-tivation/deactivation states of the ANS based on HRV. The proposed method can help prevent accidents caused by drowsiness while driving.

Keywords: Driver conditions | Fatigue | Heart rate variability | On-road experiment | Sleepiness

[5] Liguori A., Armentani E., Bertocco A., Formato A., Pellegrino A., Villecco F., Noise reduction in spur gear systems, Entropy, 22(11), 1-17, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: This article lists some tips for reducing gear case noise. With this aim, a static analysis was carried out in order to describe how stresses resulting from meshing gears affect the acoustic emissions. Different parameters were taken into account, such as the friction, material, and lubrication, in order to validate ideas from the literature and to make several comparisons. Furthermore, a coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) analysis was performed, which was an innovative way of evaluating the sound pressure level of the aforementioned gears. Different parameters were considered again, such as the friction, lubrication, material, and rotational speed, in order to make different research comparisons. The analytical results agreed with those in the literature, both for the static analysis and CEL analysis—for example, it was shown that changing the material from steel to ductile iron improved the gear noise, while increasing the rotational speed or the friction increased the acoustic emissions. Regarding the CEL analysis, air was considered a perfect gas, but its viscosity or another state equation could have also been taken into account. Therefore, the above allowed us to state that research into these scientific fields will bring about reliable results.

Keywords: Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian analysis | Entropy | Gearboxes | Noise reduction

[6] Salvati L., d'Amore M., Fiorentino A., Pellegrino A., Sena P., Villecco F., Development and testing of a methodology for the assessment of acceptability of LKA systems, Machines, 8(3), (2020). Abstract

Abstract: In recent years, driving simulators have been widely used by automotive manufacturers and researchers in human-in-the-loop experiments, because they can reduce time and prototyping costs, and provide unlimited parametrization, more safety, and higher repeatability. Simulators play an important role in studies about driver behavior in operating conditions or with unstable vehicles. The aim of the research is to study the effects that the force feedback (f.f.b.), provided to steering wheel by a lane-keeping-assist (LKA) system, has on a driver's response in simulators. The steering's force feedback system is tested by reproducing the conditions of criticality of the LKA system in order to minimize the distance required to recover the driving stability as a function of set f.f.b. intensity and speed. The results, obtained in three specific criticality conditions, show that the behaviour of the LKA system, reproduced in the simulator, is not immediately understood by the driver and, sometimes, it is in opposition with the interventions performed by the driver to ensure driving safety. The results also compare the performance of the subjects, either overall and classified into subgroups, with reference to the perception of the LKA system, evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The proposed experimental methodology is to be regarded as a contribution for the integration of acceptance tests in the evaluation of automation systems.

Keywords: Driving simulator | Lane keeping assist | Steering wheel torque

[7] Formato A., Ianniello D., Pellegrino A., Villecco F., Vibration-based experimental identification of the elastic moduli using plate specimens of the olive tree, Machines, 7(2), (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Mechanical parameters of the olive wood plate have been computed by data inversion of vibrational experimental tests. A numerical-experimental method has allowed the evaluation of the two transverse shear moduli and the four in-plane moduli of a thick orthotropic olive tree plate. Therefore, the natural flexural vibration frequencies of olive trees plates have been evaluated by the impulse technique. For our purposes, we define the objective function as the difference between the numerical computation data and the experimental ones. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was chosen as optimization strategy in order to minimize the matching error: the evaluation of the objective function has required a complete finite element simulation by using the ANSYS code. As input, we have used the uniaxial test data results obtained from the olive plates. The converged elastic moduli with n = 10 natural modes were E1 = 14.8 GPa, E2 = 1.04 GPa, G12 = 4.45 GPa, G23 = 4.02 GPa, G13 = 4.75 GPa, ν12 = 0.42, and ν13 = 0.42. The relative root mean square (RMS) errors between the experimental frequencies and the computed one is 9.40%. Then, it has been possible to obtain a good agreement between the measured and calculated frequencies. Therefore, it has been found that for plates of moderate thickness the reliability of the estimated values of the transverse shear moduli is good.

Keywords: Flexural vibration frequencies | Levenberg-Marquardt method | Olive tree | Orthotropic material

[8] Formato G., Romano R., Formato A., Sorvari J., Koiranen T., Pellegrino A., Villecco F., Fluid-structure interaction modeling applied to peristaltic pump flow simulations, Machines, 7(3), (2019). Abstract

Abstract: In this study, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling was applied for predicting the fluid flow in a specific peristaltic pump, composed of one metallic roller and a hyperelastic tube pumping a viscous Newtonian fluid. Hyperelastic material dynamics and turbulence flow dynamics were coupled in order to describe all the physics of the pump. The commercial finite element software ABAQUS 6.14 was used to investigate the performance of the pump with a 3D transient model. By using this model, it was possible to predict the von Mises stresses in the tube and flow fluctuations. The peristaltic pump generated high pressure and flow pulses due to the interaction between the roller and the tube. The squeezing and relaxing of the tube during the operative phase allowed the liquid to have a pulsatile behavior. Numerical simulation data results were compared with one cycle pressure measurement obtained from pump test loop data, and the maximum difference between real and simulated data was less than 5%. The applicability of FSI modeling for geometric optimization of pump housing was also discussed in order to prevent roller and hose parts pressure peaks. The model allowed to investigate the effect of pump design variations such as tube occlusion, tube diameter, and roller speed on the flow rate, flow fluctuations, and stress state in the tube.

Keywords: Hyperplastic models | Peristaltic pump | Pulsatile flow | Turbulence models

[9] Formato A., Ianniello D., Romano R., Pellegrino A., Villecco F., Design and development of a new press for grape marc, Machines, 7(3), (2019). Abstract

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal geometry of a variable pitch conical helicoid to be used in a pressing machine for grape pomace, also known as grape marc. This study attempted to understand if the optimized geometry of the considered helicoid after every pitch resulted in volume decrease DVc, equal to that obtained during the pressing phase of grape pomace DVp, using an optimized membrane press. The conical helicoid with variable pitch was replaced in a machine that offered continuous pressing of grape pomace using a cylindrical helicoid with constant pitch (constant pressure distribution, not optimized, along the cochlea axis). As this was a machine already available in the market, the overall dimensions were already established-5.95 m in length and 1.5 m in width. The pressure distribution p1 and volume change DVp, obtained during the grape pomace pressing phase in the optimized membrane press (producing high-quality wine) was taken into consideration in this research. Furthermore, the optimized pressure distribution p1 was applied in seven phases during the pressing process, and a consequent volume change value DVp was obtained for each phase. Therefore, this study determined the geometry of the variable pitch conical helicoid, which, after every pitch, resulted in volume changing DVc that was similar to the volume changing DVp obtained by the optimized membrane press. For this scope, calculations were realized using the Mathematica 10 program code, which, on being assigned the overall dimensions, slope angle of the helicoid, and volume for the first pitch value, determined the radius and pitch values of the helicoid, total volume, and volume change DVc. It was also noted that by appropriately varying the geometric parameters (taper and pitch of the helicoid), different options of pressure distribution on grape pomace can be obtained, thus enabling improvement and optimization of product quality.

Keywords: Continuous press | Grape pomace pressing | Winemaking process

[10] Naviglio D., Formato A., Scaglione G., Montesano D., Pellegrino A., Villecco F., Gallo M., Study of the grape cryo-maceration process at different temperatures, Foods, 7(7), (2018). Abstract

Abstract: This research aimed to determine the effects of cryo-maceration at different temperatures on polyphenol content during the winemaking process of Chardonnay wine. Samples of Chardonnay grapes were subjected to rapid cooling processes by direct injection of liquid CO 2 to obtain final temperatures of 10.0, 8.0, 6.0 and 4.0 ◦ C and yield different batches of grape mash. Subsequently, each batch underwent the winemaking process to produce four different wines. The wines obtained were characterized by chemical analyses. We observed higher extraction of polyphenolic compounds with low-temperature cold maceration, particularly when the temperature was reduced from 10.0 to 6.0 ◦ C. Conversely, when the temperature was reduced below 6.0 ◦ C, the increase in polyphenol content in wine was negligible, whereas CO 2 consumption increased. Furthermore, a numerical simulation was performed to determine the pipe length, L 0 , after which the temperature was constant. This condition is very important because it guarantees that after the length L 0 , the thermodynamic exchange between liquid CO 2 and is complete, eliminating the possibility of liquid CO 2 pockets in the cyclone.

Keywords: Chardonnay grapes | Cryo-maceration | Liquid carbon dioxide | Numerical simulation | Polyphenols

[11] Formato A., Guida D., Ianniello D., Villecco F., Lenza T.L., Pellegrino A., Design of delivery valve for hydraulic pumps, Machines, 6(4), (2018). Abstract

Abstract: After briefly recalling the main problems that arise in the study of globe valves for alternative pumps, a methodology has been set up in order to refine the design. The obtained method has the advantages of simplicity and independence from empirical diagrams. In summary, from the obtained equation, the suitable values of the parameters can be deduced, based on the assigned data (capacity Q0 and number of rounds n) of all the dimensions of the valve or of the valves. Depending on the parameter values, it is possible to identify the most suitable kind of valve: a single dish-shaped valve, a ring valve, a valve with several rings or a group of valves.

Keywords: Capacity | Design | FEM | Fluent | Valve

[12] Villecco F., Pellegrino A., Evaluation of uncertainties in the design process of complex mechanical systems, Entropy, 19(9), (2017). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper, the problem of the evaluation of the uncertainties that originate in the complex design process of a new system is analyzed, paying particular attention to multibody mechanical systems. To this end, the Wiener-Shannon's axioms are extended to non-probabilistic events and a theory of information for non-repetitive events is used as a measure of the reliability of data. The selection of the solutions consistent with the values of the design constraints is performed by analyzing the complexity of the relation matrix and using the idea of information in the metric space. Comparing the alternatives in terms of the amount of entropy resulting from the various distribution, this method is capable of finding the optimal solution that can be obtained with the available resources. In the paper, the algorithmic steps of the proposed method are discussed and an illustrative numerical example is provided.

Keywords: Complexity | Design | Fair division | Multibody systems | Non-probabilistic entropy | Uncertainty

[13] Villecco F., Pellegrino A., Entropic measure of epistemic uncertainties in multibody system models by axiomatic design, Entropy, 19(7), (2017). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper, the use of the MaxInf Principle in real optimization problems is investigated for engineering applications, where the current design solution is actually an engineering approximation. In industrial manufacturing, multibody system simulations can be used to develop new machines and mechanisms by using virtual prototyping, where an axiomatic design can be employed to analyze the independence of elements and the complexity of connections forming a general mechanical system. In the classic theories of Fisher and Wiener-Shannon, the idea of information is a measure of only probabilistic and repetitive events. However, this idea is broader than the probability alone field. Thus, the Wiener-Shannon's axioms can be extended to non-probabilistic events and it is possible to introduce a theory of information for non-repetitive events as a measure of the reliability of data for complex mechanical systems. To this end, one can devise engineering solutions consistent with the values of the design constraints analyzing the complexity of the relation matrix and using the idea of information in the metric space. The final solution gives the entropic measure of epistemic uncertainties which can be used in multibody system models, analyzed with an axiomatic design.

Keywords: Arrow's impossibility theorem | Axiomatic design | Axioms | Information | Multibody systems | Non-probabilistic entropy

[14] Sena P., D'Amore M., Pappalardo M., Pellegrino A., Fiorentino A., Villecco F., Studying the influence of cognitive load on driver's performances by a fuzzy analysis of lane keeping in a drive simulation., IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 46(21 PART 1), 151-156, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: The psycho-physical state of a driver has been widely recognized as the crucial point in any issue concerning the development of models headed to improve the vehicle safety, either inherent and active, so much so that almost all the new in-vehicle technology, currently developing at a rapid rate, introduces devices to continuously monitor the driver. This paper describes the architecture of a real time, performance-based, driver monitoring system able to detect the decrease in driver performances due to driver distraction, fatigue, sleepiness and alcohol or drugs ingestion. The system processes the instantaneous lateral position of the vehicle on the road. This allows to work out an index of the lane keeping precision by means of the lateral position standard deviation (SDLP). This latter and the road environment complexity has been processed by a fuzzy inference system that has, as an output, a score reflecting the driver's ability to maintain adequate lane-tracking movements for a given road scenario. Fuzzy membership functions and inference rules has been based and optimized on data obtained on 12 subjects performing driving simulation under both baseline condition and two different cognitive overload situations induced by different secondary tasks, one with visual distraction, the other characterized by a pure cognitive load, respectively. Aim of the work is to attain to a black-box type devices that could both provide warnings or reminding in case of risky driving and encourage the driver to improve his behavior. Advantages would also come for parents of novice drivers promptly alerted for improper driving and even for the car insurance companies that could reward safe drivers.

Keywords: Cognitive load | Drive simulator | Fuzzy logic | Safe driving

[15] Sena P., Attianese P., Carbone F., Pellegrino A., Pinto A., Villecco F., A fuzzy model to interpret data of drive performances from patients with sleep deprivation, Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, 2012, (2012). Abstract

Abstract: The search for safe vehicles is increasing with both diffusion of high traffic density over the world and availability of new technologies providing sophisticated tools previously impossible to realize. Design and development of the necessary devices may be based on simulation tests that reduce cost allowing trials in many directions. A proper choice of the arrangement of the drive simulators, as much as of the parameters to be monitored, is of basic importance as they can address the design of devices somehow responsible for the drivers safety or, even their lives. This system setup, consisting of a free car simulator equipped with a monitoring system, collects in a nonintrusive way data of the car lateral position within the road lane and of its first derivative. Based on these measured parameters, the system is able to detect symptoms of drowsiness and sleepiness. The analysis is realized by a fuzzy inferential process that provides an immediate warning signal as soon as drowsiness is detected with a high level of certainty. Enhancement of reliability and minimisation of the false alarm rate are obtained by operating continuous comparison between learned driver typical modalities of operation on the control command of the vehicle the pattern recorded. © 2012 Pasquale Sena et al.

[16] Villecco F., Pellegrino A., Design optimization of a natural gas substation with intensification of the energy cycle, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2010, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: Natural gas is currently the natural substitute of petroleum as an energy source, since the foreseen ending up of this latter in the next decades. As a matter of fact, natural gas is easier to handle, less dangerous to be transported, somehow environmentally more friendly. The gas ducts operate with large flow rates over very long distances at high pressures, which are usually lowered in proximity of the final substations by lamination valves which, in fact, dissipate energy. However, a careful management of the pressure reduction may allow an energy recovery while using the gas expansion to operate a turbine. In this case, gas must be preheated to compensate for the energy required by the expansion. A proper control of all the parameters involved becomes crucial to an intelligent use of these resources. In this paper, the possibility of using a pre-heating system has been examined as a way to intensify the energy cycle in an expansion substation of the city gas network. Fuzzy logic has been used to optimize the natural gas expansion in a turbine to produce electrical energy. A fuzzy system has been designed and realized to control the whole process of gas expansion, from the gas pre-heating to the pressure reduction. The system operates over the whole year, accounting for the pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate variations experienced in the gas line. The exit values of the latter and the inlet value of the gas pressure are selected as input variables, being the output variable the temperature of the pre-heating water at the heat exchanger inlet. © 2010 Arcangelo Pellegrino and Francesco Villecco.

[17] Pappalardo M., Pellegrino A., Application of non-probabilistic information, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 157-158(SPEC. ISS.), 232-235, (2004). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper we analyse the applications of MaxInf principle in a real problem of optimisation of a typical industrial manufacturing. After we reminded the theory of information we examine an example where is possible to determine a polynomial equation that approximates a set of value with a constant deviation that represents the same error for every point or the same information. © 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: MaxInf principle | Non-probabilistic information

[18] Donnarumma A., Pappalardo M., Pellegrino A., Measure of independence in soft design, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 124(1-2), 32-35, (2002). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper is analysed the problem, using soft models, of soft dependence of parameters in design systems. A new form of computing, called Soft Computing, is recently used in many emerging disciplines because it is tolerant to imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth. The Soft Computing uses many disciplines as Bayesian inference and maximum entropy method. The logic relationship that ties the different elements can be defined more easily using the axioms of soft design emanating from MinEnt principle. The fundamental axiom of design is: valid design has minimum values of information and depends on a finite and limited number of independent, or soft dependent, parameters. © 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Keywords: Axiomatic design | Entropy | MaxEnt | Soft Computing | Soft design | Uncertainty

[19] Pappalardo M., Pellegrino A., Damore M., Giordano P., Russo P., A fuzzy logic assisted electrodynamic balance for unit operations on single levitated particles, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Processing and Manufacturing of Materials, IPMM 1999, 1, 703-709, (1999). Abstract

Abstract: An electrodynamic balance (EDB) as a tool for unit operations on single sub-millimeter particles is described. Fine control of the particle position is designed and realized using either fuzzy logic concepts or traditional PID schemes. Precision and efficacy of the two methods are compared. A simple application to the drying of a droplet is shown.