[Elenco soci]


Motyl Barbara

Ricercatore tempo indeterminato


Università degli Studi di Udine
barbara.motyl@uniud.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 13406163300
Orcid: 0000-0001-9632-9799



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Marzullo D., Motyl B., Vaglio E., Filippi S., Scalzo F., Totis G., Sortino M., Imbriani V., Mazzone G., You J.-H., Experiences of Additive Manufacturing for Nuclear Fusion Applications: The Case of the Wishbone of the Divertor of DEMO Project, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1030-1041, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: The aim of this work is to describe some experiences of additive manufacturing - AM - for nuclear fusion applications. In this paper, a first case study is introduced concerning the realization of a scale prototype of an in-vessel component for tokamak nuclear fusion reactors, a wishbone of the deflector made in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The 3D model of the wishbone component was designed, optimized with simulation, and then fabricated using AM in collaboration with the Laboratory for Advanced Mechatronics - LAMA FVG - and researchers at the University of Udine. For the construction of the prototype, a SLM machine using powder bed metal laser melting was used. The design, simulation and fabrication activities of the AM mock-up are presented in this paper, discussing the main limitations and possibilities arising from the 3D printing of titanium alloy. In addition, a further scale prototype of the wishbone was produced using conventional milling techniques, allowing an economic comparison and evaluation of the two manufacturing processes. The prototypes will then be used for a future evaluation of the mechanical properties of this material (Ti-6Al-4V), first on material samples and then on the mock-ups, under irradiations conditions, due to nuclear fusion applications.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing | Cost evaluation | DEMO divertor | Nuclear fusion | SLM | Ti-6Al-4V alloy

[2] Filippi S., Motyl B., Interactive redesign of products' User eXperience: how to, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 16(1), 65-80, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, User eXperience (UX) is one of the main concerns in developing innovative products. The literature already offers several UX design methods and tools. Among them, the interaction related Mental Models—based UX evaluation method appeared some years ago. Recently, the modular evaluation of key Components of User Experience questionnaire, a tool for quantifying products’ UX, integrated this method. The knowledge acquired thanks to this synergy suggested the way to define and exploit guidelines for interactive redesign of the UX of products. Because of their origin, these guidelines encompass all UX characteristics reputed as meaningful like usefulness, subjective feelings, motivational aspects, emotions, etc. Moreover, these guidelines are generic enough to be used in different situations and on different products; their structure and functioning make them independent from the methods and tools used to collect data and to implement them, widening in this way their applicability in almost any UX interactive redesign activity by almost any researcher/practitioner. The redesign suggestions offered by these guidelines, as well as the procedures to collect and analyze the data to define other guidelines and suggest the best ways to implement them, push different competencies (engineers, UX experts, psychologists, etc.) to work in synergy, just like an interactive design context requires. To date, this research defined ten guidelines; a first adoption in the field starts witnessing their goodness and effectiveness. The paper describes in detail how to define and exploit the guidelines, as well as the first adoption of them in a real redesign context.

Keywords: Components of User Experience (CUE) model | Interaction related mental models (IrMMs)—based UX evaluation method | Interactive User eXperience redesign guidelines | Mental models | Product User eXperience

[3] Motyl B., Filippi S., Baronio G., Villa V., Reasoning About Technical Drawing Online Teaching During COVID-19, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 889-897, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: This work is part of the historic collaboration between the design and methods research groups of the universities of Udine and Brescia. In particular, it presents the results of a survey on the perceptions of engineering students on the online teaching methods activated for the technical drawing courses during the COVID-19 pandemic. 111 students at the University of Udine participated in the survey and the results of the analysis of the responses showed that, in general, online teaching methods are not comparable to face-to-face ones; however, they have been appreciated as they allowed regular teaching during this critical period. Furthermore, opinions and scores from the new teaching methods were more than positive regarding both the availability of the recordings of the lessons and the introduction of generalized corrections of exercises. The authors planned to extend the survey also to the University of Brescia to collect further pieces of information in order to constantly improve this teaching paradigm.

Keywords: COVID-19 | Engineering education | Online teaching | Students survey | Technical drawing

[4] Baronio G., Bodini I., Motyl B., Uberti S., Prototyping, testing, and redesign of a three-wheel trekking wheelchair for accessible tourism applications, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(20), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This work is part of the project called “Gölem project”, started in 2017, about special devices developed to enable the so-called Accessible Tourism. This project aims to design and develop a trekking wheelchair for people with impaired mobility. After an initial phase of design and prototyping, the testing phase has now begun. The objective is to validate several aspects of the design, concerning basic kinematics and dynamics, passenger comfort and physical effort of the carriers. This paper describes the development of qualitative tests for drivability and balance validation of this first prototype. At this stage, a list of features to be investigated was made, suitable trekking paths were chosen, and qualitative experimental field tests were performed. Then, the design of the prototype was modified according to these first experimental results, to improve the wheelchair characteristics. The prototype is now undergoing the modification phase, then further testing will be performed with the use of specific instrumental devices to evaluate the wheelchair itself and to perform the kinematic, dynamical, and comfort characterization.

Keywords: Accessible tourism | Assistive technologies | Design methods | Disabled people | Experimental testing | Hiking wheelchair | Trekking wheelchair | User-centered design

[5] Motyl B., Filippi S., Trends in engineering education for additive manufacturing in the industry 4.0 era: a systematic literature review, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 103-106, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Additive manufacturing represents one of the most promising and innovative technologies of the moment. In fact, it is considered among the nine technological pillars on which Industry 4.0 is based. In particular, it has received a lot of interest from industries, educational institutions and government agencies. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop and train a specialised workforce and to prepare it for these new opportunities. This work aims to investigate, through the completion of a survey based on a systematic review of the literature, the current state of education and dissemination of educational practices related to the training of young engineers at university on the issues of additive manufacturing and related to Industry 4.0. The results show that the introduction of additive manufacturing education represents an important leverage in the preparation of young engineers who benefit from it both in terms of personal preparation and in terms of learning and refining different skills. However, certain aspects, linked to the need to have adequate equipment and a properly trained teaching staff, should not be overlooked.

Keywords: 3D printing | Additive manufacturing | Engineering education | Industry 4.0 | Systematic literature review

[6] Filippi S., Motyl B., Define and exploit guidelines for interactive redesign of products’ User eXperience, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 51-54, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, User eXperience (UX) is one of the main concerns in developing innovative products. This research develops the way to define and exploit guidelines for interactive redesign of the UX of products. Because of their origin, these guidelines will encompass all UX characteristics reputed as meaningful like usefulness, subjective feelings, motivational aspects, emotions, etc.; moreover, the redesign suggestions offered by these guidelines, as well as the procedures to collect and analyse the data to define other guidelines and suggest the best ways to implement them, push different competencies (engineers, UX experts, psychologists, etc.) to work in synergy, just like an interactive design context requires.

Keywords: CUE model | Interactive UX redesign guidelines | irMMs-based method | Mental models | Product User eXperience

[7] Motyl B., Filippi S., Baronio G., Speranza D., Investigating Students’ Perception on the Outcomes of Technical Drawing University Courses, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 379-385, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents the results of a survey carried out with students enrolled in the first two years of the BS in Engineering at three Italian university locations. The study is part of a wider range of methods, tools and aids for the improvement of teaching and learning of technical drawing at university level developed by the University of Brescia, Udine, and Cassino and Southern Lazio. In particular, this work analyses the results of questionnaires related to the basic technical drawing outcomes, taking inspiration from previous research work in this field. What emerges is a positive picture that shows students’ interest in 3D CAD modeling topics such as part or assembly construction, but also their interest in more traditional subjects like sketching and dimensioning.

Keywords: CAD | Engineering education | Students’ surveys | Technical drawing

[8] Moty B., Baronio G., Speranza D., Filippi S., TDT-L0 a Test-Based Method for Assessing Students’ Prior Knowledge in Engineering Graphic Courses, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 454-463, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Since students attending basic engineering courses are numerous and show different background regarding high school, experience, skills and attitudes, it has become important for educators to assess the level of their prior knowledge. In Italy, in order to access university engineering courses (BS degree level), students usually must take an entrance test; it assesses their knowledge about basic subjects such as mathematics, physics and chemistry, as well as their logical and linguistic skills. However, this test does not refer to technical subjects, e.g., the technical drawing. The two university research units of Udine and Brescia collaborate in developing the Technical Drawing Test-Level 0 (TDT-L0), a test-based method to assess students’ prior knowledge about basic engineering graphics topics like axonometric and orthographic projections, sectional views, basic dimensioning standards, etc. This paper describes the definition of the test contents - the selection of the questions to ask to the students - as well as the way to analyze the collected information and exploit the results to improve the learning and teaching experience of both students and educators. An adoption of the TDT-L0 at the University of Udine is reported as first validation.

Keywords: Engineering education | Prior knowledge assessment | Technical drawing | Test

[9] Motyl B., Filippi S., Investigating the Relationships Between Additive Manufacturing and TRIZ: Trends and Perspectives, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 903-911, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: As Industry 4.0 is the driving force behind the manufacturing industry in this period, increasing importance is being attached to its enabling technologies, formerly known as the nine pillars. In particular, within this context, interest in Additive Manufacturing – AM is constantly growing. For this reason, the authors have considered as appropriate to carry out a literature search to assess whether there is any relationship between AM processes and product design and development practices after 2011. Particularly, the authors were interested in considering the use of additive technologies in relation to the TRIZ – theory of inventive problem solving - and its tools. To this end, it has been decided to carry out a search among the publications contained in the Scopus Database. 115 potential papers have been identified for analysis. After a careful selection, 14 papers, containing information on AM and TRIZ useful for our survey, were selected. Reading these works, it was possible to identify current research trends related to the use of creative problem solving strategies such as TRIZ and its combined use with AM, ranging from the definition of particular integrated methodologies of product development to the definition of guidelines for Design for AM or technological predictions, the state of the art of current research, highlights possible levers of intervention and potential developments and future trends.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Research trends | TRIZ

[10] Motyl B., Baronio G., Speranza D., Filippi S., Correction: TDT-L0 a Test-Based Method for Assessing Students’ Prior Knowledge in Engineering Graphic Courses (Advances in Design Engineering, LNME, (2020), 454-463, (10.1007/978-3-030-41200-5_50)), Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, C1, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The book was inadvertently published with an error in Chapter 50. The author’s name has been changed from ‘Barbara Moty’ to ‘Barbara Motyl’.

[11] Baronio G., Bodini I., Copeta A., Dassa L., Grassi B., Metraglia R., Motyl B., Paderno D., Uberti S., Villa V., Integrated approach to the innovation of technical drawing teaching methods, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 705-713, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Motivations for the research activity on teaching methods could be listed as: Institutional duty; reduction of evaluation costs; establishing convenient relationships between teaching, research and publications; developing educational programs for non-academic learners; consolidating learning outcomes. Teaching is the most commonly recognized mission of university, and evaluation has a cost in terms of time and resources, both precious: At least a portion of the exam, the one concerning factual knowledge, may be done in economies of scale. The most of basic technical drawing teachers works with very large classes and faces the dilemma of choosing what to sacrifice among teaching quality, research projects, earning opportunities, personal interests, etc. A possible partial solution to such a dilemma is to work on projects aimed at teaching innovation, so to create convenient relationships between teaching, research and publications. A further consequence of lowering the cost of evaluation would be to make cost effective a more tests and, consequently, to achieve less temporary learning. Not just simple notions but also skills and abilities. In this paper the authors presents a structured synthesis of teaching innovation experiences of a ten-year span. Over time, they were divided into four integrated directions: definition of prerequisites, expected outcome evaluation grids; authentic assessment methods; teaching and learning tools.

Keywords: Design methods | Engineering education | Learning techniques | Technical drawing

[12] Speranza D., Padula F., Motyl B., Tornincasa S., Marcolin F., Vezzetti E., Martorelli M., Parenthood perception enhancement through interaction with 3D printed fetal face models, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 527-535, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper deals with parenthood perception (maternal and paternal) after the visualization and interaction (touch) with a 3D printed facial fetal model. The model is created using Additive Manufacturing techniques, starting from the image elaboration of routine ultrasound data. In this study, the method used for the elaboration and construction of 3D printable models of fetal faces starting from routine ultrasound images is briefly described. In addition, we present the results of a new survey conducted with future parents at the Altamedica clinic (Rome, Italy) to verify whether there are any benefits derived from the use of 3D printing models with future parents, both regarding the improvement of the parenthood experience, and the improvement of the understanding and collaboration with the physicians in case of fetal malformations, using 3D models coupled with the data of routine ultrasound examinations.

Keywords: 3D ultrasound | Additive manufacturing | Fetal face | Image processing | Parenthood perception | Survey

[13] Villa V., Motyl B., Paderno D., Baronio G., TDEG based framework and tools for innovation in teaching technical drawing: The example of LaMoo project, Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 26(5), 1293-1305, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: This work presents the development of an integrated framework and related tools for innovation and improvement in the teaching of Technical Drawing. This framework is based on the “Technical Drawing Evaluation Grid—TDEG.” This grid is currently used, by the authors, for the definition and the development of different kinds of tools for supporting both teaching and learning and for the evaluation of Technical Drawing and engineering graphics topics knowledge in general. In particular, this paper focuses on the problems related to knowledge evaluation and assessment of Technical Drawing using online tests. Then, the LaMoo project which is a tool under development for the structured construction of questions for online tests in Moodle environment is presented.

Keywords: assessment methods | engineering education | Moodle test | teaching methods | technical drawing

[14] Piana E.A., Uberti S., Copeta A., Motyl B., Baronio G., An integrated acoustic–mechanical development method for off-road motorcycle silencers: from design to sound quality test, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(3), 1139-1153, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Vehicle noise is one of the main sources of complaints because it is widespread and active in almost all environments, from urban areas to rural context. The present work aims to describe a practical procedure to design silencers for off-road motorcycles so that, once produced, they are lightweight, do not affect the engine performances and cut noise emissions to a sustainable limit. The required noise reduction, usually around 35–40 dB, can be achieved only by carefully designing the exhaust system. The first part of the paper provides the theoretical background of noise propagation in ducts, describes the main attenuation devices as tools the designer can use in the development process and outlines the workflow. In the second part, a case study of silencer optimization is presented: the noise emitted by a real off-road motorcycle is characterized and, once the sound pressure level and the mass flow generated by the engine are known, a silencer fulfilling noise attenuation, size and pressure drop requirements is designed, 3D-modeled and rendered. The outcome of the acoustic design process can be used to perform virtual sound quality tests, which can be of interest for manufacturers to catch the attention of passionate users.

Keywords: Acoustic design | Design methods | Mechanical design | Off-road motorcycle silencer | Virtual modeling | Virtual sound testing

[15] Uberti S., Copeta A., Baronio G., Motyl B., An eco-innovation and technical contaminated approach for designing a low environmental impact off-road motorcycle, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(1), 281-295, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: What does it make some sports such as off-road motorcycle to be perceived as non-environmentally-friendly? Are the activities themselves or the actual and/or traditional way of their fulfillment? How is it possible to make them more environmentally sustainable without giving up the fun? This paper aims to give an answer to these questions, analyzing the case of off-road motorcycling. It is clear that some of negative consequences of such sport are due to the bad behavior and scarce ecological awareness of its practitioners, while it is often neglected that other aspects are related to the present characteristics of its means: the motorcycles. The present work, starting with the analyses of the environmental damages related to this sport, tries to give an answer focusing on the technical aspects of actual motorcycles that can be related to such damages. In particular, the authors propose the application of an integrated eco-innovation and technical contaminated approach for the design and development of a new concept of off-road motorcycle to meet the requirements of low environmental impact and light weight of the vehicle, while maintaining the pleasure of riding in the nature.

Keywords: Eco-innovation | Environmental impact | LCA | Off-road motorcycle | Rear suspensions | Terramechanics

[16] Baronio G., Copeta A., Motyl B., Uberti S., Gölem project: Concept and design of a trekking/hiking wheelchair, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9(11), (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This work concerns the growing interest in accessible tourism and describes the early stages of development of Gölem project. In particular, it takes into account accompanying activities of disabled people in mountain areas. Although literature and market analysis highlight the presence of different technical solutions used for the movement of disabled persons on rough terrains, there are only a couple of solutions based on the help of guides: Joëlette© and TrailRider©. Even if the use of these devices is generally satisfactory, our analysis has highlighted the presence of some limitations such as the difficulty of maintaining the lateral balance of the devices (which involves a considerable physical effort for the guides) and their reduced comfort for the passenger. This article describes the activities developed within the Gölem project. Its main goals are to design and to test an improved model of trekking/hiking wheelchair taking into account passengers comfort and better functionality of the device. At this moment, the design and modeling phases with the definition of dynamic parameters and of the suspension system of the device have been completed. The prototype implementation phase is in progress. Future activities will provide validation and field testing of the new solution with users.

Keywords: Accessible tourism | Comfort design | Disabled people | Mountain | Suspension system design | Trekking/hiking wheelchair

[17] Speranza D., Citro D., Padula F., Motyl B., Marcolin F., Calì M., Martorelli M., Additive manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of 3D fetal faces, Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, 2017, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper deals with additive manufacturing techniques for the creation of 3D fetal face models starting from routine 3D ultrasound data. In particular, two distinct themes are addressed. First, a method for processing and building 3D models based on the use of medical image processing techniques is proposed. Second, the preliminary results of a questionnaire distributed to future parents consider the use of these reconstructions both from an emotional and an affective point of view. In particular, the study focuses on the enhancement of the perception of maternity or paternity and the improvement in the relationship between parents and physicians in case of fetal malformations, in particular facial or cleft lip diseases.

[18] Motyl B., Baronio G., Uberti S., Speranza D., Filippi S., How will Change the Future Engineers’ Skills in the Industry 4.0 Framework? A Questionnaire Survey, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1501-1509, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Industry 4.0 represents one of the most challenging themes for engineering design and also for engineering education. At this moment there are few studies in the field of engineering teaching that aim to investigate how the educational needs of students and of the industrial workforce are changing. On this basis, this research would like to investigate which are the necessary skills and expertise young engineers require to be ready for the Industry 4.0 framework. In particular, a questionnaire was developed to analyze this situation. It has been administered to students enrolled in the first and second year of the engineering undergraduate degrees held in three Italian universities: Brescia, Udine and Cassino. During two different academics years, a total of 463 students participated to the survey. The questions were aimed to investigate some key issues of Industry 4.0, and the students’ digital belief and behaviors at their entrance in the university education system. The collected answers provided a picture of the actual situation in these three universities with some relevant considerations about engineering education. So, the fundamental question that authors want to answer is “Are the Italian engineering students effectively ready for Industry 4.0 or do we still work on it?”

Keywords: digital skills | Engineering Education | Industry 4.0 | questionnaire | student skills

[19] Speranza D., Baronio G., Motyl B., Filippi S., Villa V., Best practices in teaching technical drawing: Experiences of collaboration in three Italian universities, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 905-914, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This work present some best practice cases in teaching technical drawing done by three Italian Universit ies: Brescia, Udine, and Cassino and Southern Lazio. The intention to innovate and improve the basic technical drawing courses offered by these three Universities started in 2014. The objective of this collaboration was the development of some tools to help the students in understanding the fundamental concepts of technical drawing. The first tool developed, in order of time, was the Technical Drawing Evaluation Grid – TDEG. Starting fro m this tool, other learning aids were developed for the undergraduate engineering st u-dents. Some of them are: an online test for students’ self-assessment of technical drawing knowledge; a questionnaire to collect students’ opinions on different technical drawing and engineering design topics; a method for the improvement of students’ motivation to study; and a self-learning tool for teaching manufacturing dimensioning. The preliminary results of these different practices are presented and discussed in the following, posing the basis of the definition of some best practice methods that can be used for the improvement of the teaching and learning of technical drawing basic concepts for engineering students.

Keywords: Best practices | Collaboration | Teaching & learning tools | Technical drawing

[20] Baronio G., Motyl B., Paderno D., Technical Drawing Learning Tool-Level 2: An interactive self-learning tool for teaching manufacturing dimensioning, Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 24(4), 519-528, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: This work presents an interactive self-learning tool named Technical Drawing Learning Tool-Level 2—TDLT-L2—for teaching manufacturing dimensioning to engineering students. The tool was designed for the students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor in Management and Mechanical Engineering of the Universities of Brescia and Udine. It consists of a simple interactive tool, based on video and drawing animations, aimed at demonstrating the connection between real and simple machining processes and workpiece dimensions on technical drawing. TDLT-L2 is currently available in two versions: as a standalone application for Windows or Android based operating systems and as a set of interactive PDF documents. It was conceived as the first module of a package of tools that will be developed, based on the learning levels proposed in the Technical Drawing Evaluation Grid—TDEG. A preliminary evaluation of TDLT-L2 effectiveness was done involving the Management and Mechanical engineering students of Udine in some dimensioning exercises. The statistically considerations done on the obtained results confirmed the validity of the tool as a self-learning instrument with an average increase of marks of about 8.8%. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 24:519–528, 2016; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/cae; DOI 10.1002/cae.21728.

Keywords: engineering education | manufacturing dimensioning | multimedia application | self-learning tool | technical drawing

[21] Motyl B., Filippi S., Comparison of creativity enhancement and idea generation methods in engineering design training, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8510 LNCS(PART 1), 242-250, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: The research presented in this paper aims at evaluating how simple and intuitive are the learning, understanding, and application of some creativity enhancement methods by non-expert users in an engineering design context. The three methods under investigation are TRIZ, C-K theory and SCAMPER. To evaluate the training experience the authors set an evaluation framework based on Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation and used a questionnaire to collect students' experiences. The results show that the understanding and the consequent application of the three creativity enhancement and idea generation methods are judged positively by the participants. In particular, TRIZ method represents the most appreciated at all, while SCAMPER stands out for its intuitiveness and easiness of use. Finally, C-K theory is revealed as the newest one and very promising for future developments. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

Keywords: C-K theory | engineering education | SCAMPER | training evaluation | TRIZ

[22] Motyl B., Filippi S., Integration of creativity enhancement tools in medical device design process, Procedia Engineering, 69, 1316-1325, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper aims at presenting the integration of different creativity enhancement tools, from C-K theory and TRIZ, in medical device design. After the description of the current development process, the paper focuses on the application of C-K mapping and TRIZ tools in a case study concerning the improvement of knee implants for total knee replacement - TKR - surgery. The analysis of this case study highlights that the synergy between TRIZ and C-K theory is possible. As a result, C-K theory represents a good way for structuring design reasoning mostly in the conceptual phases of product innovation and development and it may be also used to explore market information, while TRIZ is suitable for formulating and refining the design problem in a structured way. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of DAAAM International Vienna. Keywords:. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: C-K theory | Creativity in engineering | Medical product development | Total knee replacement -TKR | TRIZ

[23] Sortino M., Motyl B., Totis G., Preventive evaluation of mould production cost in aluminium casting, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 70(1-4), 285-295, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Preventive evaluation of costs is strategic for the whole manufacturing industry and especially for companies whose manufacturing technology is based on expensive machinery, tools and fixtures, such as injection moulding of aluminium. Preventive evaluation of production costs and time is even more relevant for the mould producer, in order to quickly prepare commercial offers with an acceptable degree of accuracy. In this paper, the application of a parametric approach for the evaluation of the labour content in the production of mould for injection moulding of aluminium automotive components is presented. The approach is based on simple geometrical features of the part to be produced derived from their 3D model using the basic tools of CAD systems. The data acquired from a specialized mould production company was analysed by factor analysis in order to determine the structure of the labour content and then parametric modelling was applied. The results evidenced an acceptable degree of accuracy of the estimate combined with an exceptional ease of application. © Springer-Verlag London 2013.

Keywords: Aluminium | Cost estimation | Geometrical indicators | Injection moulding | Mould production

[24] Sortino M., Belfio S., Motyl B., Totis G., Compensation of geometrical errors of CAM/CNC machined parts by means of 3D workpiece model adaptation, CAD Computer Aided Design, 48, 28-38, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: In modern industry conditions, it is very important to develop methodologies for reducing costs and achieving the maximum quality of machined parts, especially considering the dimensional accuracy of workpieces. Geometrical and dimensional inaccuracies are due to several factors, such as workpiece and tool deformation during machining, thermal distortions, tool wear, and machine tool inaccuracy. There are two main approaches used to improve the accuracy of workpieces: mapping the tool-workpiece displacement and altering the finishing tool path or the interpolated tool position to compensate the dimensional errors. The aim of this paper is to propose a new compensation approach, based on adaptation of the geometrical 3D CAD model used to generate trajectories by CAM software. The concept is to produce a first workpiece using a CAM-generated tool path. Then, the workpiece is measured using optical methods and the displacements between the ideal workpiece model and the measured point-cloud are calculated. Eventually, the displacement vectors are applied to calculate a compensated workpiece model. Such model is then used as a reference by CAM software to calculate the compensated tool path, which is applied for production of subsequent workpieces. The mathematical background and implementation details are given together with an example of application to a benchmark workpiece purposely machined with inaccurate tools. As the results show, the new approach was able to compensate the geometrical inaccuracies of the benchmark workpiece.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: 3D Model adaptation | Computer aided manufacturing | Error compensation | Machining

[25] Bandera C., Filippi S., Motyl B., Survey on virtual prototyping technologies for orthopedic implants and prosthesis design, ASME 2011 World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality, WINVR 2011, 199-206, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, Virtual Prototyping (VP) methods are widely used for product design and development purposes. In particular, VP methods are now used also for the orthopedic products development process, to better understand the functional performance of prostheses or implants within the musculoskeletal system. In fact, developing validated virtual models of joints or of other anatomical structures may reduce design and prototyping costs and compress development cycles. The purpose of this paper is to point out first the state of art of both the VP technologies and the kinds of virtual models used in the medical field, with particular attention to those used for the design and development of orthopedic products. Then, it focuses on a qualitative analysis of some biomechanical simulation software packages (LifeMOD, AnyBody, and OpenSim) as tools for the improvement of the product design and development processes. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

Keywords: Biomechanical simulation | Orthopedic devices | Product design and development cycle | Virtual prototyping

[26] Filippi S., Motyl B., Ciappina F.M., Classifying TRIZ methods to speed up their adoption and the ROI for SMEs, Procedia Engineering, 9, 172-182, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: The interest about TRIZ is increasing day by day in the Small and Medium Enterprises - SMEs. Many of them ask for solutions but sometimes they cannot manage the costs coming from a deep review of their design projects. Our research group is carrying on a project to customize the adoption of TRIZ by the SMEs. The goal is to speed up this adoption and to disclose the Return Of Investment - ROI - as early as possible. The project classifies and subdivides TRIZ methods in order to foresee the generation of solutions falling into different categories. This classification has been exploited and validated in the field thanks to the collaboration with a hi-tech SME, the Sei Laser Converting srl. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: Creativity in design | Product innovation | Product redesign | TRIZ

[27] Filippi S., Motyl B., Bandera C., Comparing parametric solid modelling/reconfiguration, global shape modelling and free-form deformation for the generation of 3D digital models of femurs from X-ray images, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 12(1), 101-108, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: At present, computer assisted surgery systems help orthopaedic surgeons both plan and perform surgical procedures. To enable these systems to function, it is crucial to have at one's disposal 3D models of anatomical structures, surgical tools and prostheses (if required). This paper analyses and compares three methods for generating 3D digital models of anatomical structures starting from X-ray images: parametric solid modelling/reconfiguration, global shape modelling and free-form deformation. Seven experiences involving the generation of a femur model were conducted by software developers and different skilled users. These experiences are described in detail and compared at different stages and from different points of view. © 2009 Taylor & Francis.

Keywords: 3D modelling of anatomical structures | CAS systems | Orthopaedic surgery | Surgical planning

[28] Filippi S., Motyl B., Bandera C., Analysis of existing methods for 3D modelling of femurs starting from two orthogonal images and development of a script for a commercial software package, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 89(1), 76-82, (2008). Abstract
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Abstract: Background: At present the interest in medical field about the generation of three-dimensional digital models of anatomical structures increases due to the widespread diffusion of CAS - computer assisted surgery - systems. Most of them are based on CT - computer tomography - or MR - magnetic resonance - data volumes but sometimes this information is not available; there are only few X-ray, ultrasound or fluoroscopic images. Methods: This paper describes the study and the development of a script for a commercial software package (3ds Max) able to reconfigure the template model of a femur starting from two orthogonal images representing the specific patient's anatomy. Results: The script was used in several tests as summarized in this paper and the results appear to be interesting and acceptable, even for the medical experts that evaluated them. Conclusions: The script developed in this work allows the generation of the 3D model of a femur in a very simple way (the user interface has been developed obeying to the main usability guidelines) and using a widespread commercial package. The quality of the results can be compared to the quality of more expensive and specialized systems. © 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Bone modelling | Computer aided design | Free form deformation | Image-based reconfiguration

[29] Bandera C., Filippi S., Motyl B., Validating CSCW strategies and applications for rapid product development in the investment casting process, International Journal of Production Research, 44(9), 1659-1680, (2006). Abstract
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Abstract: The aim of this study is to apply and validate a general-purpose working methodology, derived from the analysis of processes which come from two different domains (the field of medicine and the preservation of cultural heritage), in the investment casting process. CSCW methods and tools have proven to be the best 'gluing tool to bond the different activities, and thus heavily exploited during the customization of the general-purpose working methodology. This paper describes a case study performed in an industrial sector and related to the investment casting application field. It was chosen to test methodology and to demonstrate its wide applicability. The case study involved the realization of a centrifugal pump impeller, where the application of this CSCW-based methodology has delivered important results such as the reduction of product development time and the drastic reduction of production costs.

Keywords: CSCW | IDEF modelling | Rapid prototyping | Virtual team-working

[30] Sansoni G., Docchio F., Trebeschi M., Filippi S., Motyl B., Virtual and rapid prototyping by means of 3D optical acquisition and CAD modeling: Application to cultural heritage and to the automotive domain, Virtual Modelling and Rapid Manufacturing - Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, 251-257, (2005). Abstract
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Abstract: In this paper, the activity aimed at the contact less acquisition, the generation of polygonal descriptive models, the generation of NURBS-based models and the reproduction by means of rapid prototyping tools of pieces of interest in both the heritage and the automotive domains are presented. The work gives an insight of how three-dimensional range cameras and suitable data modeling can be helpful in the reverse engineering and in the virtual representation of complex shapes. In addition, the research represents a valuable example of Computer Support Collaboration Work (CSCW) for the restoration and the rapid prototyping of the objects. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group.

[31] De Momi E., Pavan E., Motyl B., Bandera C., Frigo C., Hip joint anatomy virtual and stereolithographic reconstruction for preoperative planning of total hip replacement, International Congress Series, 1281, 708-712, (2005). Abstract
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Abstract: The purpose of the present work was to develop a tool for preoperatively planning the Total Hip Replacement (THR). Starting from the MR images, the 3D surface model of both the pelvis and the femur was built and the surgical operation was virtually performed. Data coming from gait analysis were added to visualize the physiologic movement of the hip joint. The resulting triangular mesh was sufficiently accurate to allow the building of the stereolithographic model of the joint by means of rapid prototyping technique. The plastic bones allow the user to have an enhanced vision of the surgical procedure to be performed. © 2005 CARS and Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging | Rapid prototyping | Surgical planning | Total hip replacement

[32] Bandera C., Filippi S., Motyl B., Reverse engineering of a turbine blade: Comparison between two different acquisition techniques, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, Courses and Lectures, 486, 635-644, (2005). Abstract
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Abstract: Reverse Engineering is a rapidly evolving discipline. Nowadays shape acquisition systems have reached enough capabilities to reproduce complex free form objects. This paper presents a comparison between two different acquisition systems to evaluate their performances and their easy to use capabilities and to evaluate quality and accuracy of the 3D reconstructed models. To achieve this task, a complex free form object, a steam turbine blade, was acquired. After shape acquisition and data elaboration of this particular object an evaluation of the two systems characteristics and of the 3D CAD reconstructed models were done and results are illustrated here.

Keywords: Methods comparison | Reverse engineering | Turbine blade