Abstract: The study of potteries is still today almost entirely performed manually by archaeologists. The primary limits of the traditional approach are lack of repeatability in the results, the time required for the analysis and difficulty in exchanging information between researchers. Taking advantage of the previous research results obtained by the Authors in this field, a fully automated procedure for the analysis and cataloguing of potteries is presented in this paper. The procedure allows performing the geometric and semantic analysis of sherds, starting from their 3D scanned model. The method can also determine a set of meaningful measurements of the analyzed sherds and classify them according to the analysis results. Finally, the results are collected into a public and web-based application, which can be interacted with by interested people.
Abstract: In this work, the authors aim at developing a reliable and fast methodology to evaluate the wear evolution in tire starting from a complete optical 3D scanning. Starting from a data cloud, a semi-automatic methodology was implemented in MATLAB to extract mean tread radial profiles in correspondence of the desired angular position of the tire. These profiles could be numerically evaluated to establish the presence of irregular wear and the characteristic parameter of the groove depth. The reliability and the robustness of this methodology was firstly tested by applying it to several synthetic case studies modeled in CATIA V5®, where ovalization and presence of defects were also simulated. The groove depth was determined with an error lower than 1% for the ideal model, while the introduction of ovalization and defects leaded to an error of 2.6% in the worst condition. In a second time, the methodology has been successfully applied to experimental measurements carried out in two different wear life of the tire, allowing the tracking of the wear phenomena through the evaluation of the progressive lowering of tread radial profiles.
Abstract: Developing an automatic process for the segmentation and dimensional characterization of high-semantic level features from a ceramic find is an essential prerequisite for obtaining faster, reproducible, and more accurate measurements than the manual approach. These measurements are essential for analyzing, interpreting, and classifying the archaeological pottery, comparing and analyzing similarities, identifying the presence of standard attributes in the ceramics recovered from a specific archaeological site, or studying ancient manufacturing technologies. This paper proposes a new methodology for the recognition and dimensional measurement of a specific class of geometric features starting from high-density tessellated models acquired by 3D scanners, the Constant-Radius Sweeping Features (CRSFs). The recognition process is performed based on a fuzzy algorithm, which aggregates similar adjacent nodes, according to values of appropriate membership functions, into a single geometric feature. CRSFs are frequently seen in ancient artifacts as convex traces on the ceramic surface, such as plastic and molded reliefs, or concave features, such as engravings, graffiti, working signs, and impressions/stampings. Although they are frequently characterized, from a geometric point of view, by free-form surfaces, CRSFs may also be axially symmetrical geometry: this occurs quite often in archaeological pottery in correspondence with rims, bases, or external walls. In the proposed experimentation, the new methodology is applied to three fragments belonging to the same ceramic vessel and sharing a part of its rim. The results show that the algorithmic implementation of rules for CRSF recognition and measurement enables the automation of the entire process, from feature segmentation to the evaluation of the relevant characteristic dimensions, with the benefit of obtaining more robust and precise measurements than those performed manually. Furthermore, in some circumstances, the methodology proposed here allows for assessing dimensional attributes that would otherwise be impossible to evaluate by conventional methods: this is the case of CRSF not attributable to analytical geometric types, as frequently occurs in archaeological ceramics in the form of decorations, grooves, and processing marks.
Keywords: Computer methods in archaeology | Dimensional features for cultural heritage | Fuzzy logic | Geometric feature recognition
Abstract: The dimensional characterization of archaeological fragment is a very complex operation and could prove to be useful for identifying the presence of standard attributes in the ceramics found from a specific archaeological site, or for making comparisons and analysis of similarities or for studying ancient technologies used for manufacture of objects. The dimensional analysis of the fragments is now carried out manually with traditional measuring devices. Typically, the results obtained are inaccurate and non-repeatable measurements. This paper focuses on the dimensional characterization of a specific geometric class of features: the constant radius swept features (called here CRS features). Several archaeological features, such as rims, bases, decorative motifs, processing marks and grooves are referable from a geometric point of view to the class of CRS features. These are detail features, which may be very interesting for the investigation of some aspects related to the historical-archaeological classification of the find. CRS features are often found on worn, damaged (e.g. chipped) or fragmented objects; they are frequently characterized, from a geometric point of view, by free form surfaces and by a limited cross sectional extension. In some cases, CRS features can be of axially symmetrical geometry: this occurs quite frequently in the case of archaeological pottery. For all these reasons, it is often difficult to apply traditional manual methods for the quantitative dimensional characterization of CRS features. This paper describes an original methodology for the measurement of CRS features acquired by scanning technologies. The algorithmic implementation of this methodology, consisting of a suitable processing of the feature nodes, allows to carry out automatically the dimensional characterization of the feature.
Abstract: The sweep features of constant radius are particularly significant for the purposes of the historical-archaeological investigation and classification of ancient artifacts. The paper focuses on the automatic recognition of this specific class of features from triangulated 3D models experimentally acquired from cultural heritage objects. This is not a trivial problem. The ancient artifacts, although repeatable, are unique handmade pieces with a geometry commonly characterized by complex and non-analytical shapes. Their surfaces are also usually damaged and worn, so that the related geometric properties are altered or lost. The methodology proposed here is inspired by the one previously developed by the authors for the automatic segmentation of fillets, rounds and grooves from high-density triangulated models of mechanical components. The paper, in particular, focuses on the aspects of this methodology that must be tuned to allow the recognition of the sweep features of constant radius from archaeological finds. The methodology has been implemented and finally applied to an archaeological find acquired by a laser scanner.
Keywords: 3D archaeology | 3D digital models | Computer methods in archaeology | Feature recognition | Laser scanning
Abstract: Ceramics classification and reconstruction are fundamental for the knowledge of history, economy, and art of a site. The method traditionally used by archeologists for their investigation presents a series of significant limitations. The results depend on subjectivity, specialization, personal skills, and professional experience of the operator; hence, they are not reproducible and repeatable. Furthermore, since the method is time-consuming, it is used to analyze only indicative samples that have characteristic components. In order to overcome these limitations, in the last years, some automatic methods for studying ancient pottery’s findings are proposed in literature. All the most promising ones analyze a 3D discrete geometric model of ceramics. By analyzing the voluminous related literature, the hottest topics are 3D geometric model setup, virtual prototyping, geometric model fragment processing, geometric model processing of whole-shape pottery, 3D puzzling of archeological fragments, classification, and additive manufacturing technologies for physical reconstruction of ceramics. In order to help all the researchers involved in this field, this chapter aims to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis of the state of the art for the abovementioned topics. For this purpose, the present review is focused on the presentation of the pros and cons of the techniques used on these different issues.
Keywords: 3D archaeology | Automatic feature recognition | Axis evaluation | Computer methods in archaeology | Computer-based methods for sherd classification and reconstruction | Surface segmentation
Abstract: The detection of the symmetry axis from discrete axially symmetric surfaces is an interesting topic, which is transversal to various fields: from geometric inspection to reverse engineering, archeology, etc. In the literature, several approaches have been proposed for estimating the axis from high-density triangular models of surfaces acquired by three-dimensional (3D) scanning. The axis evaluation from discrete models is, in fact, a very complex task to accomplish, due to several factors that inevitably influence the quality of the estimation and the accuracy of the measurements and evaluations depending on it. The underlying principle of each one of these approaches takes advantage of a specific property of axially symmetric surfaces. No investigations, however, have been carried out so far in order to support in the selection of the most suitable algorithms for applications aimed at automatic geometric inspection. In this regard, ISO standards currently do not provide indications on how to perform the axis detection in the case of generic axially symmetric surfaces, limiting themselves to addressing the issue only in the case of cylindrical or conical surfaces. This paper first provides an overview of the approaches that can be used for geometric inspection purposes; then, it applies them to various case studies involving one or more generic axially symmetric surfaces, functionally important and for which the axis must be detected since necessary for geometric inspection. The aim is to compare, therefore, the performances of the various methodologies by trying to highlight the circumstances in which these ones may fail. Since this investigation requires a reference (i.e. the knowledge of the true axis), the methodologies have been applied to discrete models suitably extracted from CAD surfaces.
Keywords: axially symmetric surfaces | Axis of symmetry | geometric inspection | geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing | high-density triangular models
Abstract: From archaeological excavations, huge quantities of material are recovered, usually in the form of fragments. Their correct interpretation and classification are laborious and time-consuming and requires measurement, analysis and comparison of several items. Basing these activities on quantitative methods that process 3D digital data from experimental measurements allows optimizing the entire restoration process, making it faster, more accurate and cheaper. The 3D point clouds, captured by the scanning process, are raw data that must be properly processed to be used in automatic systems for the analysis of archeological finds. This paper focuses on the integration of a shape feature recognizer, able to support the semantic decomposition of the ancient artifact into archaeological features, with a structured database, able to query the large amount of information extracted. Through the automatic measurement of the dimensional attributes of the various features, it is possible to facilitate the comparative analyses between archaeological artifacts and the inferences of the archaeologist and to reduce the routine work. Here, a dedicated database has been proposed, able to store the information extracted from huge quantities of archaeological material using a specific shape feature recognizer. This information is useful for making comparisons but also to improve the archaeological knowledge. The database has been implemented and used for the identification of pottery fragments and the reconstruction of archaeological vessels. Reconstruction, in particular, often requires the solution of complex problems, especially when it involves types of potsherds that cannot be treated with traditional methods.
Keywords: 3D archaeology | Computer methods in archaeology | Information search and retrieval | Measurement precision in archaeol-ogy | Similarity metric
Abstract: In industry, today's approach to assembly design is still largely based on a bottom-up approach which, in contrast with the most advanced top-down techniques, is unfit to deal with very large and complex products. The reason for this lies in the high number of relationships to be established between parts and in the lack of a high-level control of the assembly design. This makes the management of design changes a labor-intensive process and the capture of design intent difficult to achieve. The paper, referring to the most advanced research fields of Concurrent Engineering and Knowledge-Based Engineering, focuses on a top-down modelling approach based on skeleton, which constitutes the most natural but still scarcely exploited way to attain a high reactivity to design modifications. Through the application of suitable methodologies, such as that one for a SKeLeton geometry-based Assembly Context Definition (SKL-ACD), the skeleton is also able to capture and codify assembly process engineering information since the early phases of the product development process. With the purpose of promoting the knowledge of these skeleton-based modelling techniques, that have a great relevance for training professional, technical and mechanical engineers, this paper implements the SKL-ACD methodology to an industrial case study in order to identify, with a unique and repeatable workflow, the reference geometrical entities and the mutual relationships to embed into the product skeleton. The skeleton types and the related fields of use are also described, placing particular emphasis on problems or shortcomings still not resolved, especially in consideration of the need to assist the designer in defining the impact of a parameter on assembly modification and in avoiding loops while defining formulas. A new tool, in the form of a multilayer graph, is finally proposed that is able to display and differentiate clearly the formulas, the design parameters and the impact of their modification on skeleton entities and members of the assembly.
Abstract: The registration permits to positioning in a single reference system point clouds acquired from different points of view. Since this is typically obtained with an iterative numerical method, it represents an important source of error in the entire reverse engineering process. As all iterative methods, such errors depend on the choice of the initial solution; therefore, this process requires an expert user who, by using dedicated software, choices the sequence of clouds to be registered, imposes for each pairwise the first attempt registration, launches the iterative method, and verifies the final result. With the aim to minimize the error and the user's interaction, some devices are proposed in the market (turntable or the anthropomorphic arm, etc.). The above-mentioned hardware and software tools cannot be used in the cultural heritage applications involving large and detailed objects. In this paper, an automatic alignment method of point clouds is proposed. The method uses as inputs the constant radius features, which are frequently detectable on cultural heritage objects. The automatic alignment of the point clouds is based on the recognition, the segmentation, and the registration of the sweep lines identifiable from these features.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to model and to compare the results of the mechanical characterization, carried out on numerical models and real specimens, of uniform P-scaffolds with different porosity values. The analysis includes the morphological characterization of 3D printed specimens and the implementation of a FEM shell model to reproduce a compressive test suitable for mechanical properties evaluation of PLA scaffolds. Young modulus and yield strength were also obtained, in order to verify the numerical model accuracy, by experimental tests on 3D printed PLA scaffolds. Numerical results showed that the shell model was able to reproduce, more efficiently compared to a solid model proposed in a previous work, both elastic and plastic behavior of the scaffolds, providing elastic modulus values very close to the experimental ones. On the other hand, the not very high quality of the 3D printing, detected by MicroCT analysis, caused a significant dispersion in the yield strength numerical values respect to the real data. Anyway, an inverse correlation between mechanical properties and porosity was found as expected. The elastic modulus values were similar to the typical values of the trabecular bone for whose regeneration this kind of scaffolds is usually employed.
Abstract: Secondary features, such as fillets, rounds, chamfers and grooves, are simple transitions between primary features, generally introduced in order to remove the sharp edges created by the intersection of primary features. Being able to distinguish secondary from primary features is important in various application contexts, such as reverse engineering, automatic geometric inspection of real scanned objects, and for preparation of models for FEM analysis and CNC tool-path generation. The process for the recognition of secondary features from high-density tessellated models of real work-pieces is intrinsically complex for several reasons. This explains why, currently, there are no methodologies able to recognize automatically secondary features and the investigation on secondary features is mostly focused on B-Rep models. In a previous paper, the authors proposed a method for secondary features recognition from discrete geometric models synthetically generated. Here the methodology is extended to discrete geometric models experimentally acquired, for which the recognition is a very complex process, due to the object discretization, to its non-ideal geometry and to measurement errors.
Keywords: Blending features | Feature recognition | Fuzzy logic | Point cloud segmentation
Abstract: The paper aims at providing an overview on the current automation level of geometric verification process with reference to some aspects that can be considered crucial to achieve a greater efficiency, accuracy and repeatability of the inspection process. Although we are still far from making this process completely automatic, several researches were made in recent years to support and speed up the geometric error evaluation and to make it less human-intensive. The paper, in particular, surveys: (1) models of specification developed for an integrated approach to tolerancing; (2) state of the art of Computer-Aided Inspection Planning (CAIP); (3) research efforts recently made for limiting or eliminating the human contribution during the data processing aimed at geometric error evaluation. Possible future perspectives of the research on the automation of geometric verification process are finally described.
Keywords: Automatic geometric verification | Computer-Aided Inspection Planning | Error evaluation | Feature Recognition | GPS standards | Model of specification for tolerancing | Partition
Abstract: The construction of the artificial emissary of Fucino Lake is one of the most ambitious engineering buildings of antiquity. It was the longest tunnel ever made until the 19th century and, due to the depth of the adduction inlet, it required a monumental and complex incile, which, for functionality, cannot be compared to other ancient emissaries. The Roman emissary and its "incile" (Latin name of the inlet structure) were almost completely destroyed in the 19th century, when Fucino Lake was finally dried. Today, only few auxiliary structures such as wells, tunnels, and winzes remain of this ancient work. As evidence of the ancient incile remains a description made by those who also destroyed it and some drawings made by travelers who, on various occasions, visited the site. This paper presents a virtual reconstruction of the Roman incile, obtained both through the philological study of the known documentation, interpreting iconographic sources that represent the last evidence of this structure, and through the survey on the territory. The main purpose is to understand its technical functionalities, the original structures, and its evolution during the time, taking into account the evolution of the Fucino Lake water levels, technological issues, and finally o_ering its visual reconstruction.
Keywords: 3D virtual reconstruction This research received no external funding | Archaeology | Monumental heritage | Remote sensing
Abstract: Fillets, rounds, chamfers and grooves are secondary features which are typically present in real manufactured mechanical components to satisfy some manufacturing and functional requirements. Despite the broad array of research conducted on feature recognition, the investigation of secondary features is a relatively new topic. All of the pertinent studies have been focusedonly on the recognition of secondary features from B-Rep models. The recognition and segmentation of secondary features from a discrete model is a non-trivial problem due to the same geometric descriptors that may be applied to both primary and secondary features. Moreover, although in real-world mechanical parts primary features are planes, cylinders or cones, the secondary features may be non-analytical and complex-shaped geometries. Further sources of uncertainty are the measurement errors and non-ideal geometries of the real objects to which the method is applied. To overcome these problems, a new and original method to segment secondary features of tessellated geometric models is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of geometric-differential properties and provides specific strategies that reduce its sensitivity to all of the above-mentioned uncertainties without affecting its selectivity. The proposed method, described in detail in this paper, is tested in some very critical cases, and the results are presented and discussed.
Keywords: 3D mesh segmentation | 3D scanning | Blending features | Features recognition | Fuzzy logic | STL
Abstract: The classification of ceramic archaeological fragments is based on shape, dimensions, decorations, technological elements, color and material. Nowadays, all of these features are still recognized and analyzed by a skilled operator. It follows that the resulting characterization of shape and sizes of archaeological fragments is poorly reproducible and repeatable. With a view to overcome these limitations, a computer-based methodology, able to extract automatically several quantitative information from high-density discrete geometric models acquired by the laser scanning of archaeological fragments, was proposed. In this paper, the set of quantitative information obtainable is furtherly broadened, by including the segmentation of some types of morphological features, the identification of the fragment shape type, the evaluation of the longitudinal profile and the estimation of a larger set of dimensional features. Finally, a new 3D information framework is proposed to store the large variety of quantitative information extracted.
Abstract: This paper gives a contribution to the automatic recognition of significant features of ancient ceramics, useful for the historical and/or archeological investigation. These very common type geometric features are obtained by a sweeping action that leaves negative or positive traces, characterized by a cross section with one or more constant radii. The paper proposes a novel methodology that, analyzing the principal curvatures at the points of high-density geometric models of ceramic vessels, acquired by laser scanning, identifies the nodes potentially attributable to these features of constant radius. The recognition process is not trivial since it is affected by uncertainties. To overcome the limits of a recognition based on crisp sets, the recognition rule, proposed for the feature segmentation, is implemented by a fuzzy approach. The method has been tested in the identification of embossed decorations in an ancient olla and it proves to be promising for further applications on other types of geometric features of constant radius.
Abstract: Te design of bone scafolds for tissue regeneration is a topic of great interest, which involves diferent issues related to geometry of architectures, mechanical behavior, and biological requirements, whose optimal combination determines the success of an implant. Additive manufacturing (AM) has widened the capability to produce structures with complex geometries, which should potentially satisfy the diferent requirements. These architectures can be obtained by means of refned methods and have to be assessed in terms of geometrical and mechanical properties. In this paper a triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS), the Schwarz's Primitive surface (P-surface), has been considered as scafold unit cell and conveniently parameterized in order to investigate the efect of modulation of analytical parameters on the P-cell geometry and on its properties. Several are the cell properties, which can afect the scafold performance. Due to the important biofunctional role that the surface curvature plays in mechanisms of cellular proliferation and diferentiation, in this paper, in addition to properties considering the cell geometry in its whole (such as volume fraction or pore size), new properties were proposed. Tese properties involve, particularly, the evaluation of local geometrical-diferential properties of the P-surface. Te results of this P-cell comprehensive characterization are very useful for the design of customized bone scafolds able to satisfy both biological and mechanical requirements. A numerical structural evaluation, by means of fnite element method (FEM), was performed in order to assess the stifness of solid P-cells as a function of the changes of the analytical parameters of outer surface and the thickness of cell. Finally, the relationship between stifness and porosity has been analyzed, given the relevance that this property has for bone scafolds design.
Abstract: Constant radius geometric features are a common type of manufacturing features of ancient ceramics. They are obtained by a sweeping action of a tool, which leaves negative or positive traces characterized by a cross-section with one or more constant radii. The automatic recognition and dimensional characterization of these features could be useful for understanding the technology used to manufacture ceramics. Thus, a new perspective in archaeological investigations can be furnished. For this purpose, in this paper a new computer-based methodology suited to segmenting constant radius geometric features and measuring their dimensional parameters is proposed. Starting from a 3D discrete geometric model of the ceramic, the region pertaining to these features is determined and measurements of their radii are performed. Due to the uncertainties of various sources, which affect the investigated object, the required process is not trivial. In order to solve this problem, the segmentation phase is conducted using a non-conventional logic suitable for exploring the object with a fuzzy sensitivity, and the measurement is performed by a robust fitting method applied to the segmented entities. The methodology has been tested in the identification of embossed decorations of an ancient olla. The combined effects of the feature segmentation process together with the measure detection approach on the obtained results are critically analyzed and discussed.
Keywords: Computer methods in archaeology | Fuzzy logic | Geometric features recognition | Metrology for cultural heritage
Abstract: A new method for secondary features segmentation, performed on high-density tessellated geometric models, is proposed. Four types of secondary features are considered: fillets, rounds and grooves. Sharp edges are also recognised. The method is based on an algorithm that analyses the principal curvatures. The nodes, potentially attributable to a fillet of given geometry, are those with a certain value for the maximum principal curvature. Since the deterministic application of this simple working principle shows several problems, due to the uncertainties in the curvature estimation, a fuzzy approach is proposed. In order to segment the nodes of a tessellated model belonging to secondary features of a given radius, an appropriate set of membership functions is defined and evaluated based on some parameters, which affect the quality of the curvature estimation. A region-growing algorithm connects the nodes pertaining to a same secondary feature so that, for a given radius, one or more secondary features may be recognized. The method is applied and verified in some test cases.
Keywords: Computational geometry | Features extractions | Fuzzy logic | Mechanical engineering computing | Region growing algorithm
Abstract: In tissue engineering, biocompatible porous scaffolds that try to mimic the features and function of the bone are of great relevance. In this paper, an effective method for the design of 3D porous scaffolds is applied to the modelling of structures with variable architectures. These structures are of interest since they are more similar to the stochastic configuration of real bone with respect to architectures made of a unit cell replicated in three orthogonal directions, which are usually considered for this kind of applications. This property configures them as, potentially, more suitable to satisfy simultaneously the biological requirements and those relative to the mechanical strength. The procedure implemented is based on the implicit surface modelling method and the use of a triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS), specifically, the Schwarz's Primitive (P) minimal surface, whose geometry was considered for the development of scaffolds with different configurations. The representative structures modelled were numerically analysed by means of finite element analysis (FEA), considering them made of a biocompatible titanium alloy. The architectures considered were thus assessed in terms of the relationship between the geometrical configuration and the mechanical response to compression loading.
Abstract: The present work aims at the numerical prediction of the performance of a Contra-Rotating Propellers (CRP) system for a Remotely Piloted Aerial Vehicles (RPAV). The CRP system was compared with an equivalent counter-rotating propellers configuration which was set by considering two eccentric propellers which were rotating at the same speed. Each contra-rotating test case was built by varying the pitch angle of blades of the rear propeller, while the front propeller preserved the original reconstructed geometry. Several pitch configurations and angular velocities of the rear propeller was simulated. Comparisons showed an improvement of the propulsive efficiency of the contra-rotating configuration in case of larger pitch angles combined with slower angular velocities of the rear propeller.
Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology whose goals are on the one hand the formulation of a tolerance specification that is consistent with the functional, technological and control needs and, on the other, the automatic control of tolerance. The key aspect of the methodology is the digital model of the product, referred to as GMT (Geometric Model of Tolerancing), which gives a complete, consistent and efficient description of its geometrical and dimensional properties with the aim of being able to specify, simulate, manufacture and inspect them. By means a real test case, the potentialities of a first implementation of the proposed methodology are critically discussed.
Abstract: A new method for secondary features segmentation, performed in highdensity acquired geometric models, is proposed. Four types of secondary features are considered: fillets, rounds, grooves and sharp edges. The method is based on an algorithm that analyzes the principal curvatures. The nodes, potentially attributable to a fillet of given geometry, are those with a certain value for maximum principal curvature. Since the deterministic application of this simple wor king principle shows several problems due to the uncertainties in the curvature estimation, a fuzzy approach is proposed. In order to segment the nodes of a tessellated model that pertain to the same secondary features, proper membership functions are evaluated as function of some parameters, which affect the quality of the curvature estimation. A region growing algorithm connects the nodes pertaining to the same secondary feature. The method is applied and verified for some test cases.
Keywords: Computational geometry | Features extractions | Fuzzy logic | Mechanical engineering computing | Region growing algorithm
Abstract: In orthopaedics, cellular structures can be used as three-dimensional porous biomaterials that try to mimic the characteristics and function of the bone. The progress in manufacturing techniques, mainly in the field of additive manufacturing, can potentially allow the production of highly controlled pore architectures and customized implants that, however, need more sophisticated design methodologies. In this paper, the design of porous biocompatible structures based on mathematically defined surfaces (triply periodic minimal surfaces) has been considered in respect of the approach that considers unit cells entirely modelled in CAD environment. Two types of unit cell have been here considered: the cubic and the P-cell. The cubic cell is created by a 3D CAD s/w from solid features that are combined together. The P-cell is modelled using an implicit function to describe the outer surface of the cell. Two are the design parameters of the P-cell: thickness and radius. The variation of these parameters allows modifying the architecture of the basic unit of the scaffold. The modification of the radius is carried out by a procedure, based on scaling and truncation operations. The thickness of the cell is modified by thickening and closure operations on the P-isosurface. The effect of these variations on the mechanical behaviour of the scaffold has been numerically evaluated by the estimation of the stiffness of each structure considered. The results demonstrated the huge potentiality of the method and stiffness values compatible with those required for biomechanical applications.
Keywords: Bone implants | Design | Porous materials | Scaffolds
Abstract: The present paper proposes a new method for axis identification in discrete axially symmetrical geometric models. This method is based on-a-never-used-before property of the axially symmetrical surfaces for which the symmetry line of any section curve of the surface (or of a portion of it in the case of an incomplete axially symmetrical surface) always intersects the axis of symmetry of the surface. Thus the working principle of the method makes it very robust to local defectiveness, measurement noise and outliers. In order to compare it with the most cited methods presented in literature, several types of tests have been designed and performed. The robustness of those methods, on the one hand, has been evaluated by defining the Statistical Confidence Boundary at 1σ confidence level. The trueness of the method, on the other hand, has been evaluated on geometric models obtained by measuring real objects. The high robustness, which characterizes the proposed method, makes it particularly suitable for product geometric inspection where high accuracy is required.
Abstract: The fatigue behaviour is examined in terms of calorimetric effects. Aluminum alloy and steel have been chosen as reference materials. Heat sources accompanying the fatigue mechanisms are derived from thermal images provided by an infrared camera. A processing method allows identifying separately thermoelastic and dissipative sources. Thermoelastic effects are compared to theoretical predictions given by the basic, linear, isotropic thermoelastic model. Dissipation amplitudes are analyzed as a function of the loading frequency and stress amplitude applied to the fatigue specimen. Finally, the heterogeneous character of the fatigue development is studied both in terms of thermoelastic and dissipation sources.
Abstract: In this paper an associative-parametric approach is proposed in order to model the mesh of an aeronautical concept starting from a set of high-level structural primitives. This approach allows the designer to carry out the geometric modelling and the automatic mesh generation within one software environment in a fast and interactive way. The structural optimisation process is then simplified, with a relevant man-hours saving. A lower number of data transfers between different software is, moreover, involved with less problems related to the data corruption. To assure orders of continuity higher than C0 between adjacent instances, a suitable mathematical description of the structural primitives has been proposed. This description assures the maintenance of the required continuity constraints when the mesh is modified. Appropriate schemes of dependences are identified to guarantee the automatic propagation of the modifications complying with the continuity constraints.
Keywords: Fatigue limit evaluation | Local energy approach | Thermographic methodologies
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