Abstract: Large parts produced by injection moulding are usually subjected to large deformations that may be reduced during assembly. The single parts manufacturing specification should refer to the as produced (free) state. On the other hand, the functional specification, derived from the assembly functional specification should address the “as assembled” state. Geometrical inspection, based on the functional specification requires dedicated fixtures to simulate the “as assembled” state. This contribution suggests a procedure, based on FEM simulation, to correlate the geometric specification at the “as assembled” state with the “as produced” (free) state, applied to an industrial case study. The result of the procedure are free state tolerance limits, e.g., manufacturing specification, that allows conformity of the part to the functional specification once assembled. The part may be inspected based on the manufacturing specification fixtureless during mass production. The result of the case study shows a significant reduction in position and orientation error due to the assembly process as it was expected.
Abstract: Shaft-hole pattern fits based on the Boundary Condition design criterion allows a 100% acceptability rate, but they may be not economically convenient. If the rejection rate needs to be statistically quantified and the pattern is itself the alignment feature, therefore promoted as datum feature (Intrinsic datum system), there is no trivial solution to create a tolerance stack-up: a unique assembly function cannot be determined. The focus of this contribution is “2x” patterns: different methodologies to create tolerance stack-up assessing assemblability are discussed and verified through Monte Carlo simulation. An equation to transform the variability seen from the Intrinsic datum system to the one seen from an external arbitrary reference system is given. The mutual distance between any two elements of an “nx” pattern is discussed and the implication of multiplicity and datum system is highlighted. A case, derived from an industrial case study, will be discussed by comparing the result from the simulated manual and automated assembly. A path towards “nx” patterns generalization is also presented.
Abstract: Material extrusion additive manufacturing enables us to combine more materials in the same nozzle during the deposition process. This technology, called material coextrusion, generates an expanded range of material properties, which can gradually change in the design domain, ensuring blending or higher bonding/interlocking among the different materials. To exploit the opportunities offered by these technologies, it is necessary to know the behavior of the combined materials according to the materials fractions. In this work, two compatible pairs of materials, namely Polylactic Acid (PLA)-Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) and Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate (ASA)-TPU, were investigated by changing the material fractions in the coextrusion process. An original model describing the distribution of the materials is proposed. Based on this, the mechanical properties were investigated by analytical and numerical approaches. The analytical model was developed on the simplified assumption that the coextruded materials are a set of rods, whereas the more realistic numerical model is based on homogenization theory, adopting the finite element analysis of a representative volume element. To verify the deposition model, a specific experimental test was developed, and the modeled material deposition was superimposed and qualitatively compared with the actual microscope images regarding the different deposition directions and material fractions. The analytical and numerical models show similar trends, and it can be assumed that the finite element model has a more realistic behavior due to the higher accuracy of the model description. The elastic moduli obtained by the models was verified in experimental tensile tests. The tensile tests show Young’s moduli of 3425 MPa for PLA, 1812 MPa for ASA, and 162 MPa for TPU. At the intermediate material fraction, the Young’s modulus shows an almost linear trend between PLA and TPU and between ASA and TPU. The ultimate tensile strength values are 63.9 MPa for PLA, 35.7 MPa for ASA, and 63.5 MPa for TPU, whereas at the intermediate material fraction, they assume lower values. In this initial work, the results show a good agreement between models and experiments, providing useful tools for designers and contributing to a new branch in additive manufacturing research.
Abstract: Featured Application: This paper proposes a methodology allowing any designer to be able to produce multi-material parts. Nowadays, the use of 3D printing is becoming a key process for on-demand and customized manufacturing. One of the most flexible 3D printing techniques is fused deposition modeling (FDM), where the combination of multiple materials was recently introduced. A quantum leap in part design is possible by integrating local variations between materials that allow for expanded functionality to be built into a single part. Therefore, the process of co-extrusion and material mixing is becoming more and more popular. The process of management and design of the engineered part are still complicated, and there are no commercially available tools that follow the process from design to production of these highly engineered products. This paper proposes a methodology to fill this gap and allow any designer to be able to produce multi-material parts by editing a G-code (computer numerical control programming language) with engineered gradients for FDM technology. More specifically, the proposed approach is based on the modification of the G-code according to a volumetric model describing the local combination of two or more materials. This original aspect allows for a wide extension of the current software capabilities. To explain and test the method, a simple test case was investigated, in which two components of an earphone are consolidated and developed gradually by combining polylactic acid and thermoplastic polyurethane. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach within the limits of the material coextrusion additive manufacturing process.
Abstract: PURPOSE. Digital technology has enabled improvements in the fitting accuracy of denture bases via milling techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trueness and precision of digital and analog techniques for manufacturing complete dentures (CDs). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sixty identical CDs were manufactured using different production protocols. Digital and analog technologies were compared using the reference geometric approach, and the Δ-error values of eight areas of interest (AOI) were calculated. For each AOI, a precise number of measurement points was selected according to sensitivity analyses to compare the Δ-error of trueness and precision between the original model and manufactured prosthesis. Three types of statistical analysis were performed: to calculate the intergroup cumulative difference among the three protocols, the intergroup among the AOIs, and the intragroup difference among AOIs. RESULTS. There was a statistically significant difference between the dentures made using the oversize process and injection molding process (P <.001), but no significant difference between the other two manufacturing methods (P =.1227). There was also a statistically significant difference between the dentures made using the monolithic process and the other two processes for all AOIs (P =.0061), but there was no significant difference between the other two processes (P = 1). Within each group, significant differences among the AOIs were observed. CONCLUSION. The monolithic process yielded better results, in terms of accuracy (trueness and precision), than the other groups, although all three processes led to dentures with Δ-error values well within the clinical tolerance limit.
Keywords: CAD-CAM | Complete denture | Digital denture | Digital workflow | Reference geometry measurement
Abstract: The manufacturing process may lead non-rigid parts to endure large deformations which could be reduced during assembly. The manufacturing specifications of the single parts should refer to their free state or “as manufactured” state; the functional specifications should instead address the “as assembled” state. Therefore, a functional geometrical inspection requires dedicated fixtures to bring the parts in “as assembled” state. In this paper, through a linearized model that considers fixturing and elastic spring-back, we aim to correlate the functional specification to the manufacturing specifications. The model suggests a hybrid approach called “restricted skin model” that allows to reduce the degrees of freedom considering the form error when relevant. Firstly, the framework is verified in a mono-dimensional test case. Subsequently, it is verified including FEM simulation and actual measurement for two simple assemblies. The results show that the model can correctly interpret the theoretical assembly behaviour for actual applications. The use of the “restricted skin model” approach shows a negligible difference when compared to full FEM simulation with differences of 2.1 · 10−7 mm for traslations and 6.0 · 10−3 deg for rotations. The comparison with actual measurement values showed an error of ±0.2 mm at the assembly features. Furthermore, the linearized model allows a possible real-time application during production that enables to adjust manufacturing specification limits in case of process drifting.
Keywords: Compliant assemblies | Deformable assemblies | Geometrical Product Specification | Linearized model | Restricted skin model | Skin model | Tolerancing
Abstract: PURPOSE. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks produced using different digital protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 80 frameworks for RPDs were produced using CAD-CAM technology and divided into four groups of twenty (n = 20): Group 1, Titanium frameworks manufactured by digital metal laser sintering (DMLS); Group 2, Co-Cr frameworks manufactured by DMLS; Group 3, Polyamide PA12 castable resin manufactured by multi-jet fusion (MJF); and Group 4, Metal (Co-Cr) casting by using lost-wax technique. After the digital acquisition, eight specific areas were selected in order to measure the Δ-error value at the intaglio surface of RPD. The minimum value required for point sampling density (0.4 mm) was derived from the sensitivity analysis. The obtained Δ-error mean value was used for comparisons: 1. between different manufacturing processes; 2. between different manufacturing techniques in the same area of interest (AOI); and 3. between different AOI of the same group. RESULTS. The Δ-error mean value of each group ranged between -0.002 (Ti) and 0.041 (Co-Cr) mm. The Pearson’s Chi-squared test revealed significant differences considering all groups paired two by two, except for group 3 and 4. The multiple comparison test documented a significant difference for each AOI among group 1, 3, and 4. The multiple comparison test showed significant differences among almost all different AOIs of each group. CONCLUSION. All Δ-mean error values of all digital protocols for manufacturing RPD frameworks optimally fit within the clinical tolerance limit of trueness and precision.
Abstract: The fracture resistance of multilayer zirconia crowns has recently been proven to be improved by using lithium millable disilicate glass–ceramic blocks (D’Addazio in Materials, 2020). Accordingly, the framework and the ceramic coating are designed and milled using a CAD-CAM technology and the two separated prosthetic components are then manually assembled by the dental technician and glued with the fusion of a glass–ceramic material. It is essential, during the CAD phase, to design a gap between the framework and the decorative veneer that will later be filled by the fused ceramic.Since the act of gluing the two parts is manually performed by the dental technician, we aim at investigating the operator influence on the final gap with respect to the designed gap. For this purpose, an original geometrical investigation method was developed to enable the 3D digital analysis of the whole fusion interface. During the CAD design stage, two technicians input a different setting for the gap between the two components. The framework and veneering structure were designed, the milled components were produced, and the zirconia framework was sintered, then the two CAD-on prosthetic components were scanned before and after their fusion/crystallization to analyze the physical internal gap. The results show that manual assembly cancels out any effect of the precision settings adopted during CAD-CAM design of the components, as well as any benefit expected from machining on a CNC milling machine, thus requiring, as a last step, manually retouching the prosthesis to correctly fit in the mouth.
Abstract: Innovative design methods and manufacturing technologies, such as lattice structures optimization and additive manufacturing, allow for the production of functional and extremely complex components. Recent literature shows limits in geometric modeling and data exchange, highlighting some improvements in the design of variable density lattice structures mainly for powder bed fusion technologies. Similar improvements are not available for material extrusion (MEX) technologies which show technological and numerical limits related to the computer numerical control programming language (G-code) generated by computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software. This work aims at overcoming the limits in fabricating graded density shell-based lattice structures for MEX technology by using the infill patterns available in the CAM software and editing the G-code based on a density map defined by volumetric models. Combining two usually separated phases, i.e., the geometric modeling and the CAM processing, several advantages are obtained, considering at the same time some of the technological constraints.The proposed approach is tested on a cubic sample and on a bracket fabricated by a fused filament fabrication technology. The results show that the method allows for the reduction of design efforts, amount of data exchanged, and processing time, obtaining an effective G-code and consistent components.
Abstract: Background: We compare the accuracy of new intraoral scanners (IOSs) in full-arch digital implant impressions. Methods: A master model with six scan bodies was milled in poly(methyl methacrylate), measured by using a coordinate measuring machine, and scanned 15 times with four IOSs: PrimeScan, Medit i500, Vatech EZ scan, and iTero. The software was developed to identify the position points on each scan body. The 3D position and distance analysis were performed. Results: The average and ± standard deviation of the 3D position analysis was 29 μm ± 6 μm for PrimeScan, 39 μm ± 6 μm for iTero, 48 μm ± 18 μm for Mediti500, and 118 μm ± 24 μm for Vatech EZ scan (p < 0.05). Conclusions: All IOSs are able to make a digital complete implant impression in vitro according to the average misfit value reported in literature (150 μm); however, the 3D distance analysis showed that only the Primescan and iTero presented negligible systematic error sources.
Keywords: accuracy | CAD/CAM | dental implant | digital impression | full arch | intra-oral scanner
Abstract: Abstract: The additive manufacturing technology offers new and incredible opportunities in the design of components. Nowadays, structural integrity assessment of additively manufactured components is a formidable challenge that needs to be faced out in order to allow such components to be launched in the market. One of the major drawbacks of additive manufacturing is poor surface finish and loose geometrical tolerance of built parts. In this scenario, hybrid manufacturing, which takes advantage of both subtractive and additive manufacturing, can be considered as a solution worthy of investigation in view of possible applications to save costs and time in the component production. The present work is aimed at assessing microstructural properties of Co-Cr-Mo specimens manufactured by the hybrid subtractive/additive technology, when the additive part is built over the machined one. The results show an excellent metallurgical coupling at the interface between the two differently processed parts.
Abstract: A computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin block material for restoration of single-implant abutments can be milled and cemented on an optimized standard titanium abutment as a cheaper solution or, alternatively, individualization of the crown–abutment connection is required to fulfill the same mechanical requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate how different structural and geometric configurations of the abutment influence the resistance of a nano ceramic resin crown (NCRC). During the test, 30 implants with an internal conical tapered configuration were considered. Each implant received a standard titanium abutment: in group 1, NCRCs were directly bonded to the titanium abutments; in group 2, NCRCs were cemented on a customized zirconia framework and then cemented on a standardized titanium abutment. Three crowns of each group were submitted to a static load test until failure. The remaining crowns were submitted to a fatigue test protocol with a dynamic load. The static and dynamic test showed earlier failure for group 1. In group 1, complete breaking of NCRCs was observed for all samples, with an almost total titanium abutment exposition. In the static tests, group 2 showed a mode of failure that involved only the crown, which partially debonded from the zirconia abutment. Within the limitations of the present preliminary study, it was possible to conclude that the shape of the abutment mainly influences the fatigue strength compared to the static tensile strength. The results of the performed test show that NCRC bonded to the customized zirconia abutments, and presented a 75% survival rate when compared to the same material bonded directly to a standard titanium abutment.
Keywords: CAD-CAM | Fatigue test | NCRC | Patient specific design
Abstract: Purpose: To compare the flexural properties and the adhesion of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS), Streptococcus mutans (SM), and Candida albicans (CA) on heat-polymerized (CV), CAD-CAM milled (CAD), or 3D-printed (3D) Poly (methylmethacry-late) (PMMA). Methods: Ultimate Flexural Strength (UFS), Flexural Strain (FS) (%) at Flexural Strength, and Flexural Modulus (FM) of specimens (65.0×10.0×3.3 mm) from each PMMA group (n=6) were calculated by using the 3-point bending test. The surface roughness profiles (R) were measured before and after polishing with a contact profilometer. LS, SM, and CA adhesion on PMMA specimens (n=18) (10 mm in diameter, 3 mm in height) was assessed after 90 minutes and 16 hours by using scanning electron microscopy. The Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc analysis was performed to compare the groups (alpha=0.05). Results: Mean UFS values were 80.79±7.64 MPa for CV, 110.23±5.03 MPa for CAD, and 87.34±6.39 MPa for 3D. Mean FS values were 4.37±1.04% for CV, 4.71±0.62% for CAD, and 6.19±0.13 % for 3D. Mean FM values were 2542±301 MPa for CV, 3435±346 MPa for CAD, and 2371±197 MPa for 3D. CAD had the lowest average R value (0.29±0.16 µm) before polishing, and bacterial adhesion after 90 minutes of incubation. R value and microbial adhesion were not different amongst groups after polishing and 16 hours of incubation, respectively. Conclusion: The CAD group displayed the best flexural properties, except for FS, the lowest roughness before polishing and bacterial adhesion after 90 minutes of incubation. All tested PMMAs had similar surface roughness after polishing, and microbial adhesion after 16 hours of incubation.
Abstract: One of the open issues in additive manufacturing is the design of conformal lattice structures, leading to an optimal layout of the struts in the design domain. This paper aims to compare different struts distributions in conformal lattices via low computational power methods in a CAD environment. Four approaches for a wireframe virtual model definition are presented for a simple cubic conformal lattice structure. An iterative variable diameter optimization method and two linear structural analyses based on mono-dimensional elements and different theories are compared. These verification methods widen the capability of checking the results so the user can compute the deformation of 3D periodic structures, or other visual results, without spending a huge amount of time and computational power. Results show that both the analysis methods give reliable results and the struts layout based on trivariate NURBS shows the most flexible solution allowing for a real-time variation of the boundary condition.
Abstract: Advancements in additive manufacturing technology have made it possible to create machines that allow the use of a wider range of materials, even simultaneously in the production of a single piece. The production of heterogeneous objects allows to include multifunctionality within the domain by varying the composition in a gradual or net fashion. This paper analyzes the AM technologies that allow multi-material, emphasizing the constrains and the possible applications with the goal of identifying guidelines for design methods development. From the analysis we observe important innovations that permitted to easily process polymeric materials, especially with material extrusion and material jetting. However, the use of ceramic powders and metallic materials for the creation of heterogeneous objects requires the development of methods which remain very limited by the process conditions.
Keywords: Functionally graded materials | Heterogeneous objects | Multi material AM
Abstract: To compare the reference geometry approach to the best-fit (or superimposition) approach in the estimation of geometric accuracy relevant to the digital and the analog workflow to fabricate a complete denture. Starting from a model of an edentulous maxilla, the two measuring methodologies were tested to estimate the geometric accuracy of the intaglio surface of the complete dentures fabricated by CNC milling and injection molding. Eight areas of interest were defined at the intaglio surface of the denture base; a sensitivity analysis determined the minimum number of measuring points to calculate a reliable Δ ¯ error value. A repeatability analysis was performed to assess the consistency of this experimental reference geometry approach with respect to the clinic acceptable requirements. For the analog workflow, the comparison of the reference geometry results to the best-fit results showed a − 76 (post-dam) ÷ 169 µm (right flange) range of the Δ ¯ mean value for the reference geometry approach, to be compared to − 15 (left crest) ÷ 146 µm (right tuberosity) range for the best-fit approach. For the digital workflow, the same comparison showed a − 21 (left crest) ÷ 51 µm (left flange) range for the reference geometry approach, compared to a − 20 (left crest) ÷ 23 µm (left flange) for the best-fit approach. The best-fit approach results in an underestimation of mean Δ ¯ error values and their distribution over the entire prosthesis. The reference geometry approach correctly estimates error values while focusing on the identification of sources of errors in the manufacturing process.
Keywords: Accuracy | Best fit | CAD–CAM | Complete dentures | Digital manufacturing | RPS
Abstract: Open-cell foams offer several interesting possibilities in numerous technological fields. In fact, they present high surface area to volume ratio as well as enhanced flow mixing and attractive stiffness and strength. However, their complete and reliable characterization has not been completed yet. In fact, there is still no a comprehensive work that relates all the foam geometrical characteristics to their heat transfer and pressure drop features. This paper is the very first outcome of a larger study that aims at realizing open-cell foams via additive manufacturing, testing them, then generating a simulation model based on the real geometries to numerically optimize each parameter. The present manuscript presents the construction of the open-foam via 3D printing and the experimental pressure drop measurements when water flows through the foam.
Abstract: An important issue when designing conformal lattice structures is the geometric modeling and prediction of mechanical properties. This paper presents suitable methods for obtaining optimized conformal lattice structures and validating them without the need for high computational power and time, enabling the designer to have quick feedback in the first design phases. A wire-frame modeling method based on non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) free-form deformation (FFD) that allows conforming a regular lattice structure inside a design space is presented. Next, a previously proposed size optimization method is adopted for optimizing the cross-sections of lattice structures. Finally, two different commercial finite element software are involved for the validation of the results, based on Euler–Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The findings highlight the adaptability of the NURBS-FFD modeling approach and the reliability of the size optimization method, especially in stretching-dominated cell topologies and load conditions. At the same time, the limitation of the structural beam analysis when dealing with thick beams is noted. Moreover, the behavior of different kinds of lattices was investigated.
Abstract: Statement of problem: New polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) materials with enhanced properties have been developed to improve and facilitate implant impression techniques. However, studies on their accuracy are lacking. Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the accuracy and precision of implant impressions made with some recently introduced materials on a simulated patient requiring an all-on-4 implant-supported prosthesis. Well-established polyether materials were also evaluated as a comparison. The variables considered were material type, consistency, splinting or not splinting techniques, and implant angulation. Material and methods: A reference master model was made by inserting 4 implants at angles of 0, 5, and 10 degrees. Eighty impressions were made at 37 °C in wet conditions by using a standardized technique. Eight groups (n=10) were created using monophasic, single-viscosity materials (Hydrorise Implant Medium, HIM-ns; Hydrorise Implant Medium, HIM; Honigum Mono, HM; Impregum, IMP), and 2-viscosity materials (Hydrorise Implant Heavy+Light-ns, HIH+L-ns; Hydrorise Implant Heavy+Light, HIH+L; Honigum Heavy+Light, HH+L; and Permadyne and Garant [Heavy+Light, PeH+L]). Hydrorise materials were used with splinting and not splinting (ns) techniques. The reference points located on the connecting platforms of the transfer copings (TCP) were compared with the same points on the implant connecting platforms (ICP) located in the reference model. The accuracy and precision of the impressions were determined as linear 3D errors and standard deviation between each TCP-ICP couple by using an optical coordinate measuring machine (OCMM). Results: PVS materials were generally better than polyether materials, with Hydrorise materials (HIM and HIH+L) showing significantly better accuracy and precision (30.9 ±14.4 μm and 28.7 ±15.5 μm, respectively) than IMP and PeH+L polyethers (44.2 ±16 μm and 43.8 ±17.6 μm, respectively; P<.001). Honigum materials were statistically similar to Hydrorise materials (P=.765). The values shown by Hydrorise nonsplinted groups (HIH+L-ns and HIM-ns) were not statistically different from those of the splinted polyether impressions (P=.386). The viscosities (monophasic or heavy+light) had no effect on accuracy, but monophasic material positively influenced precision (HIM and HIH+L, P=.001). No correlation was found between implant angulation and accuracy (multilevel analysis and Kendall rank correlation coefficient=-0.065; P=.133). Conclusions: Recently introduced materials designed for implant impressions showed significantly higher accuracy and precision; even with the unfavorable nonsplinting technique, the new materials performed similarly to, or better than, polyether materials. Although the transfer coping splinting technique generally improved the accuracy and precision of Hydrorise materials, the effect was significant only within HIH+L groups.
Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM) brought a revolution in parts design and production. It enables the possibility to obtain objects with complex geometries and to exploit structural optimization algorithms. Nevertheless, AM is far from being a mature technology and advances are still needed from different perspectives. Among these, the literature highlights the need of improving the frameworks that describe the design process and taking full advantage of the possibilities offered by AM. This work aims to propose a workflow for AM guiding the designer during the embodiment design phase, from the engineering requirements to the production of the final part. The main aspects are the optimization of the dimensions and the topology of the parts, to take into consideration functional and manufacturing requirements, and to validate the geometric model by computer-aided engineering software. Moreover, a case study dealing with the redesign of a piston rod is presented, in which the proposed workflow is adopted. Results show the effectiveness of the workflow when applied to cases in which structural optimization could bring an advantage in the design of a part and the pros and cons of the choices made during the design phases were highlighted.
Abstract: Objectives: Implantoplasty (IP) is a treatment option for peri-implantitis. Mechanical concerns were raised on fracture resistance of implants subjected to this procedure. This study aimed to compare two methods of IP in terms of implant wear and fracture resistance, and of surface topography. Material and methods: Eighteen cylindrical screw-shaped dental implants (4 mm diameter, 13 mm length) with an external hexagonal connection were used. IP was performed on the first 6-mm implant surface with a sequence of burs or diamond sonic tips, both followed by an Arkansas finishing. IP duration and implant weight variation were recorded. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to evaluate material loss. Implant fracture resistance was assessed by static compression test. Surface topography analysis was performed with a stylus profilometer. Scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was applied for implant surface morphology and elemental characterization. Results: Micro-CT showed less material loss in sonic compared to burs. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean fracture resistance values reached in bur and sonic, both followed by Arkansas, and with respect to control. IP performed with burs led to a smoother surface compared to sonic. Equivalent final surface roughness was found after Arkansas in both IP procedures. SEM-EDS showed a deburring effect associated to sonic and revealed carbon and aluminum peaks attributable to contamination with sonic diamond tips and Arkansas bur, respectively. Conclusions: IP with sonic diamond tips was found to be more conservative in terms of structure loss. This could have a clinical relevance in case of narrow-diameter implants.
Keywords: bone implant interactions | CT imaging | surface chemistry
Abstract: Demand for innovation represents a driver not only in the industrial field but also in niche markets such as orthodontics. Among different type of orthodontic devices, functional appliances are used for the correction of class II skeletal malocclusion, mostly in young patients. In a previous study based on a systematic design approach, several concepts were generated for this device. This work shortly introduces the concept selection and the interactive design process of the device. The concept consisting of two-side guiding surfaces, obtained by TRIZ inventive principles, has been selected by the decision matrix. This concept consists in guiding the jaw movements without any connections between the parts of the device. Operating on patient morphometrics parameters, the proposed approach allows to establish a virtual interaction during the design of the device by facilitating the collaboration between orthodontist, dental technician, designer and the software, through a dedicated user interface. Dedicated algorithms were also developed to simulate the occlusion correction and the mandible path, and to support the geometric modelling in a virtual environment. As a result, the proposed approach allows manufacturing patient-customized devices using a digital interactive workflow in an innovative way.
Abstract: A 3D numerical model aimed at predicting the deformations of a S355 steel T-joint in both as-welded and post-welding heat treated conditions was developed. Experimental tests were carried out with the objective to collect data necessary to the heat source calibration and model validation in terms of microstructure and joint distortions. All metallurgical phenomena were taken into account such as specific volume change and transformation plasticity induced by solid-state phase transformations. A viscoplasticity model for stress relief processing implemented in Sysweld finite elements code was used. Numerical results showed a satisfactory agreement with experimental ones. Further investigations will be necessary to consider also the validation of residual stress relief effects.
Abstract: Thanks to the great diffusion of additive manufacturing technologies, the interest in lattice structures is growing. Among them, minimal surfaces are characterized by zero mean curvature, allowing enhanced properties such as mechanical response and fluidynamic behavior. Recent works showed a method for geometric modeling triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) based on subdivision surface. In this paper, the deviation between the subdivided TPMS and the implicit defined ones is investigated together with mechanical properties computed by numerical methods. As a result, a model of mechanical properties as a function of the TPMS thickness and relative density is proposed.
Abstract: Recently, the possibility of producing medium-to-large batches has increased the interest in polymer powder bed fusion technologies such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and multi jet fusion (MJF). Only scant data about the characterization of parts produced by MJF can be found in the literature, and fatigue behavior studies are absent. This study analyzes the material properties of Polyamide 12 (PA12) powders and printed specimens using both SLS and MJF technologies. The morphology, crystalline phases, density, porosity, dimensional accuracy, and roughness are measured and compared; tensile and fatigue tests are performed to assess the effect of the technologies on the mechanical behavior of the produced structures. In addition, lattice structure specimens obtained by different geometric modeling approaches are tested to understand the influence of modeling methods on the fatigue life. The PA12 powders printed by both SLS and MJF mainly show by X-Ray Diffraction γ-phase and a small shoulder of α-phase. The crystallinity decreases after printing the powders both in SLS and MJF technology. The printed parts fabricated using the two technologies present a total porosity of 7.95% for SLS and 6.75% for MJF. The roughness values are similar, Ra ≈ 11 µm along the building direction. During tensile tests, SLS samples appear to be stiffer, with a lower plastic deformation than MJF samples, that are tougher than SLS ones. Fatigue tests demonstrate higher dispersion for MJF specimens and an enhancement of fatigue life for both SLS and MJF printed lattice structures modeled with a novel geometric modeling approach that allows the creation of smoother surfaces at nodal points. Scanning electron microscopy on fracture surfaces shows a brittle failure for the SLS tensile specimens, a more ductile failure for the MJF tensile specimens, a crazing failure mechanism for the SLS fatigue tested samples, and a crack initiation and slow growth and propagation for the MJF fatigue tested samples.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing applied to polymeric as well as metallic materials offers a lot of advantages, today not yet fully explored. They can potentially enhance the structural efficiency of the components, which means, for a given loading condition, the section uses as little material as possible. As a matter of fact, the complete freedom in parts shape design could be exploited to increase the fatigue strength of structural components by crack arresters (CAs) design. From classical fracture mechanic theories, it is well known that when the fatigue crack meets a hole, the consequent sudden reduction of the stress concentration ahead of the crack tip promotes the arrest of the crack propagation itself. Using additive manufacturing, it is now possible to design structural components with CAs in the vicinity of crack initiation points like notches. This paper is aimed at exploring, with preliminary experiments supported by numerical analyses, this possibility. It was found that crack arresters effectively enhance the fatigue life of a notched component provided that their shape and position are designed properly.
Abstract: Soundness of additively manufactured parts depends on a lot of process and geometrical parameters. A wrong process design leads to defects such as lack of fusion or keyhole porosity that have a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the printed parts. Process parameter optimization is thus a formidable challenge that requires in general a huge amount of experimental data. Among the others, heat source power and scan speed are the most defects-affecting parameters to be optimized. The energy density is used in literature to quantify their combination. Unfortunately, in different works it was demonstrated that it fails if used as design parameter mainly because it does not take into account the material properties and the interaction between heat source and the powder bed. In this contribution, a modified volumetric energy density equation that takes into account the powder-heat source interaction to optimize the combination of power-scan speed values for porosity assessment in powder bed fusion process design is proposed and verified on both AlSi10Mg alloy and Maraging steel 300.
Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Aluminium alloy | Energy density | Maraging steel | Porosity | Selective Laser Melting
Abstract: Additive manufacturing is an emerging technique that is not only subjected to the interest of academic world because of its peculiar characteristics to obtain new material properties and optimized 3D geometries, but it also finds the interest of the industrial sector because of the possibility to build advanced components never realized until now. Among the additive manufacturing processes, Laser Powder Bed Fusion process is perhaps the most used in producing components out of metallic materials. In particular, thanks to its low density and its hypoeutectic favourable composition, AlSi10Mg alloy is particular suitable for the production of lightweight components by additive manufacturing. However, for safety reasons, their mechanical, static and cyclic, characteristics need to be well understood and predicted. Unfortunately, they are dramatically influenced by process parameters that in turn may promote killer defects dangerous for the fatigue strength of load bearing mechanical components. This contribution is aimed at highlighting the influence of defects on the fatigue resistance of AlSi10Mg samples produced by laser powder bed fusion. The combination of process parameters were obtained that maximizes the fatigue strength and reduces the scattering of the results.
Abstract: The interest in Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has been continuously growing, since they were identified as a suitable way to store large quantities of thermal energy. Despite many PCMs being available on the market, almost all present a relatively low thermal conductivity, which limits the efficiency and the convenience of their use inside Latent Thermal Energy Storage (LTES) units. This paper proposes a novel method to overcome the low thermal conductivity drawback: additive manufacturing was used to realize three innovative 3D metallic periodic structures, with different base pore sizes (10, 20, and 40 mm) and constant porosity, to be filled with a suitable PCM. The samples were experimentally tested by analyzing the temperature field in a paraffin wax, which has a melting temperature of around 55 °C. Furthermore, several videos and images were taken during the charging (i.e. heating and melting) process, obtained by electrical heating (three heat fluxes corresponding to 10, 20, and 30 W were applied) and the discharging (i.e. solidification and cooling) process, where the heat was only rejected by natural convection with ambient still air. The coupling of PCMs and aluminum structures was demonstrated to enhance both the charging and the discharging processes.
Abstract: Statement of problem: The marginal gap and ceramic bond strength of metal-ceramic restorations are important for success. However, studies evaluating the marginal gap and ceramic bond strength of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) produced with 3D printing technologies such as selective laser melting (SLM) are scarce. Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the marginal gap of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy frameworks produced by SLM technology before and after ceramic firing. Additionally, the metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated with the Schwickerath crack-initiation test according to the International Standards Organization (ISO) 9693-1:2012. Material and methods: Conventional impressions were made, and the definitive cast of a patient requiring a 4-unit FPD was scanned. After designing the FPD, the files were sent to a service center for the fabrication of a metal master model, 80 Co-Cr frameworks, and 80 flat specimens (25×3×0.5 mm) with SLM technology. The marginal gap between frameworks and the abutment tooth of the metal master model was nondestructively measured by using an optical coordinate-measuring machine. A total of 80 sets, consisting of 1 framework and 1 flat specimen, were sent to 80 dental laboratory technicians for ceramic firing. Detailed instructions for correct manipulation of the framework and flat specimen were provided. The marginal gap was remeasured, and the 3-point bend test was used to evaluate metal-ceramic bond strength. Results: Only 28 of the 80 dental technicians returned the specimens within a prespecified time and/or in adequate condition. The mean ±standard deviation marginal gap of the framework before ceramic firing was 25 ±9 μm and 34 ±12 μm after firing. The difference was statistically significant (P=.001). The mean ±standard deviation 3-point bend strength was 33 ±9 MPa. Conclusions: Ceramic firing affected the marginal gap; however, all Co-Cr frameworks had a marginal gap lower than 120 μm, which is reported to be a clinically acceptable limit. Most of the specimens (80%) had a metal-ceramic bond strength value higher than the 25-MPa ISO 9693 requirement. Five of 28 dental laboratory technicians were not able to comply with ceramic firing instructions.
Abstract: background: resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis (RBFDP) represents a highly aesthetic and conservative treatment option to replace a single tooth in a younger patient. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture strength and the different types of failure on anterior cantilever RBFDPs fabricated using zirconia (ZR), lithium disilicate (LD), and PMMA-based material with ceramic fillers (PM) by the same standard tessellation language (STL) file. Methods: sixty extracted bovine mandibular incisives were embedded resin block; scanned to design one master model of RBFDP with a cantilevered single-retainer. Twenty cantilevered single-retainer RBFDPs were fabricated using ZR; LD; and PM. Static loading was performed using a universal testing machine. Results: the mean fracture strength for the RBFDPs was: 292.5 Newton (Standard Deviation (SD) 36.6) for ZR; 210 N (SD 37.6) for LD; and 133 N (SD 16.3) for PM. All the failures of RBFDPs in ZR were a fracture of the abutment tooth; instead; the 80% of failures of RBFDPs in LD and PM were a fracture of the connector. Conclusion: within the limitations of this in vitro study, we can conclude that the zirconia RBFDPs presented load resistance higher than the maximum anterior bite force reported in literature (270 N) and failure type analysis showed some trends among the groups.
Abstract: Abstract: Additive manufacturing techniques areknown for the unrivalled geometric freedom they offer todesigners. It is one of the mainstays of “metal 3D-printing”,compared to casting, which, in contrast, implies morerestrictions because some shapes do not cool evenly or may needmoulds or forms. Despite the possible presence of defects insideadditive manufactured components, such as oxide films, pores orunmelted powder, they can be strongly reduced or controlled byprocess parameters optimization. That seems not true for acasting component, in which defects can vary a lot from zone tozone according to the solidification conditions. Porosityinducing process parameters in selective laser melted AlSi10Mgaluminium alloy are carefully analysed with the aim to findoptimal conditions that guarantee the maximum material densityand the best mechanical properties. Finally, a model is proposedthat correlates the amount of pores with the alloy ultimatetensile strength.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing technology offers new design possibilities compared to traditional casting processes applied to metallic materials. Not only there are no limits in shape, but a higher microstructure control is allowed compared to traditional processes. Irrespective of the sample dimensions, the solidification defects induced by SLM process depend only on process parameters and do not vary from zone to zone of the component like in a casting component: the higher the casting dimensions and thickness variations, the lower the microstructure homogeneity resulting from different cooling conditions inside the casting itself. The effect of process parameters on porosity, in selective laser melted AlSi10Mg aluminium alloy, is carefully analysed with the aim to find optimal conditions that guarantee the maximum material density and the best mechanical properties.
Abstract: The current requests for continuous innovation represent a challenge in every industry as well as in the field of orthodontics. Aim of this work was to develop new concepts of a functional appliance for the correction of class II skeletal malocclusion through a systematic design methodology. Staring at the existing devices in this field, taking into account the literature and the patient’s needs, the customers’ requirements were identified by Quality Functional Deployment. Systematic methods such as morphological method, theory of inventive problem solving and other creative methods were used for generating concepts some of which are presented at the end of the paper.
Abstract: The freedom in geometry given by additive manufacturing allows to produce cellular materials, also called lattice structures, with unit cells and mesoscale features that are impossible to obtain with traditional manufacturing techniques. The geometric modeling of lattice structures still presents issues such as robustness and automation, but, with a novel modeling approach based on subdivision surface algorithm, these troubles were limited. Furthermore, the subdivision method smooths surfaces, avoiding sharp edges at nodal points and increasing performances in fatigue properties. The aim of this work is twofold; a. The subdivision surface method is validated through fatigue tests on specimen additively manufactured by selective laser melting technology in SS316L stainless steel; dynamic tests were carried out on two types of lattice structures based on cubic cell: one obtained with a traditional modeling method, one obtained with a subdivision surface approach. b. Additional tests on bulk cylindrical samples, allowed to propose a preliminary model that describes the fatigue behaviour of additively manufactured lattices as a function of the bulk material properties, considering the shape and scale effects coming from stress concentration factor, increased area, surface roughness and porosity of the part. Results show that the subdivision surface approach improves the fatigue life of lattice structures, as expected. More, the lattices have a worse fatigue life compared to the bulk samples due to the scale and shape effects, that results in a higher sensibility to surface and internal defects related to the manufacturing process.
Abstract: Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) automated technique (computer-aided design (aCAD)) for the measurement of three canine femoral angles: anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), femoral neck angle (FNA) and femoral torsion angle. Methods:Twenty-eight femurs equally divided intotwo groups (normal and abnormal) were obtained from 14 dogs of different conformations (dolicomorphic and chondrodystrophicCT scans and 3D scanner acquisitions were used to create stereolithographic (STL) files, which were run in a CAD platform. Two blinded observers separately performed the measurements using the STL obtained from CT scans (CT aCAD) and 3D scanner (3D aCAD), which was considered the gold standard method. C orrelation coefficients were used to investigate the strength of the relationship between the two measurements. Results: A ccuracy of the aCAD computation was good, being always above the threshold of R 2 of greater than 80 per cent for all three angles assessed in both groups. a LDFA and FNA were the most accurate angles (accuracy >90 per cent). Conclusions: The proposed 3D aCAD protocol can be considered a reliable technique to assess femoral angle measurements in canine femur. The developed algorithm automatically calculates the femoral angles in 3D, thus considering the subjective intrinsic femur morphology. The main benefit relies on a fast user-independent computation, which avoids user-related measurement variability. The accuracy of 3D details may be helpful for patellar luxation and femoral bone deformity correction, as well as for the design of patient-specific, custom-made hip prosthesis implants.
Keywords: 3D computation | accuracy | dogs | femur
Abstract: Purpose: Compare the accuracy of intraoral digital impression in full-arch implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis acquired with eight different intraoral scanner (Ios). Methods: A polymethyl methacrylate acrylic model of an edentulous mandible with six scan-abutment was used as a master model and its dimensions measured with a coordinate measuring machine. Eight different Ios were used to generate digital impression: True Definition, Trios, Cerec Omnicam, 3D progress, CS3500, CS3600, Planmeca Emelard and Dental Wings. Fifteen digital impressions were made. A software called “Scan-abut” was developed to analyse and compare the digital impression with the master model, obtaining the scanning accuracy. The three-dimensional (3D) position and distance analysis were performed. Results: Mean value of the 3D position analysis showed that the True Definition (31 μm ± 8 μm) and Trios (32 μm ± 5 μm) have the best performance of the group. The Cerec Omnicam (71 μm ± 55 μm), CS3600 (61 μm ± 14 μm) have an average performance. The CS3500 (107 μm ± 28 μm) and Planmeca Emelard (101 μm ± 38 μm) present a middle-low performance, while the 3D progress (344 μm ± 121 μm) and Dental Wings (148 μm ± 64 μm) show the low performance. The 3D distance analysis showed a good linear relationship between the errors and scan-abutment distance only with the True Definition and CS3600. Conclusions: Not all scanners are suitable for digital impression in full-arch implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis and the weight of the output files is independent from the accuracy of the Ios.
Keywords: Accuracy | Dental implant | Digital impression | Full arch | Intraoral scanner
Abstract: Minimal surfaces are receiving a renewed interest in biomedical and industrial fields, due to the capabilities of additive manufacturing technologies which allow very complex shapes. In this paper, an approach for geometric modeling of variable thickness triply periodic minimal surfaces in a CAD environment is proposed. The approach consists of three main steps: the definition of an initial mesh, the adoption of a subdivision scheme and the assignment of a variable thickness by a differential offset. Moreover, the relationship between relative density and mesh thickness was established for two types of minimal surfaces: Schoen’s gyroid, Schwarz’ Primitive. The proposed method improves the main issues highlighted in literature in the modeling of cellular materials and allows to easily obtain a consistent polygonal mesh model satisfying functional requirements. Two test cases were presented: the first shows a gradient thickness gyroid; in the second the relative density obtained by topology optimization was adopted in our modeling approach using a Schwarz’ Primitive. In both cases, guidelines for selecting the geometric modeling parameters taking into account the specific additive manufacturing process constraints were discussed. The proposed method opens new perspectives in the development of effective CAD tools for additive manufacturing, improving the shape complexity and data exchange capacity in cellular solid modeling.
Abstract: Purpose: To determine the trueness and precision of frameworks manufactured with a selective laser melting/milling hybrid technique (SLM/m) and conventional milling by comparing the implant-platform/framework interface with those of the original computer-aided design (CAD). Materials and Methods: Using a virtual 6-implant-supported full-arch framework CAD drawing, 27 titanium replicas were manufactured by 3 independent manufacturing centers (n = 9/center) using a hybrid SLM/m technology (labs 1 and 2) or the conventional milling technique (lab 3). Using an opto-mechanical coordinate measuring machine, the frameworks’ misfit distribution and patterns were analyzed, and the position error between paired platform positions within each framework was evaluated to calculate the misfit tendency for each group. A multilevel analysis using a mixed-effects model was conducted (α = 0.05). The trueness was evaluated as the dimensional difference from the original, while the precision as the dimensional difference from a repeated scan. Results: The 3 dimensional misfits differed significantly among the 3 groups, with the milled group exhibiting the least accurate outcome (p = 0.005). The mean 3D positioning errors ranged from 8 to 16 µm and from 9 to 22 µm for the SLM/m technique (labs 1 and 2, respectively), and from 20 to 35 µm for conventional milling (lab 3). Regarding the misfit distribution pattern, the misfit increased with the distance between paired platform positions in all groups. Conclusions: All groups had 3D misfits well within the error limits reported in the literature. The 3D misfits of new hybrid (SLM/milling) and conventional (milling) procedures differed significantly among them, with the milling technique the less accurate and precise. The largest errors in all groups were found between the most distant implants, resulting in a correlation between the framework span and the inaccuracies.
Abstract: The diffusion of design tools suitable for regular lattice structures was recently stimulated by the spread of additive manufacturing technologies that enable the fabrication of complex geometries, exceeding the limits of traditional manufacturing methods. Fillet radii play a fundamental role in the design of lattice materials, reducing the stress concentration and improving fatigue life. However, only simplified beam and 2D models are available in the literature, which are unable to capture the actual stiffness and stress concentrations in the cell nodes of the 3-D beam based lattice structures with fillets. In this paper, four types of polyamide 12 cells, fabricated by selective laser sintering technology, based on cylindrical elements, are studied by finite element (FE) analysis, evaluating the influence of struts and fillet radii on the mechanical properties. In order to study a single cell, specific boundary conditions, simulating the presence of adjacent cells, were adopted in FE analysis. As a result, a model describing mechanical properties as a function of geometrical characteristics is obtained. By this model, it is possible to replace the complex shape of a lattice structure with its boundary, simplifying numerical analyses. This approach, called homogenization, is very useful in the design process of lightweight structures and can be adopted in optimization strategies. Numerical outcomes show that the effect of fillet radius is not negligible, especially in cells having a large number of struts. Moreover, experimental tests were also carried out showing a good agreement with the numerical analysis. Finally, an interactive design process for lattice structures based on experimental and numerical outcomes is proposed.
Abstract: The use of a Latent Thermal Energy Storage (LTES) system using suitable Phase Change Materials (PCMs) is an effective way of storing energy because of its high-energy storage density and isothermal nature of the storage processes. Unfortunately, PCMs present a few unfavorable thermophysical properties, among those the low thermal conductivity, which are limiting the development of efficient, reliable and convenient LTESs. However, LTES represents a promising technology, which can unlock unprecedented opportunities for multiple-sources energy integration, waste heat recovery, and efficient energy management. This paper aims at investigating new 3D periodic structures obtained via metallic additive manufacturing developed to enhance the phase change process during both loading and unloading processes of different paraffin waxes and sugar alcohols. The tests were run by imposing 20 W during the loading process and the monitoring the temperature distribution within the PCM.
Keywords: Additive manufacturing | PCM | Phase change | Renewable energy | Thermal energy storage
Abstract: Nowadays, topology optimization and lattice structures are being re-discovered thanks to Additive Manufacturing technologies, that allow to easily produce parts with complex geometries. The primary aim of this work is to provide an original contribution for geometric modeling of conformal lattice structures for both wireframe and mesh models, improving previously presented methods. The secondary aim is to compare the proposed approaches with commercial software solutions on a piston rod as a case study. The central part of the rod undergoes size optimization of conformal lattice structure beams diameters using the proposed methods, and topology optimization using commercial software tool. The optimized lattice is modeled with a NURBS approach and with the novel mesh approach, while the topologically optimized part is manually remodeled to obtain a proper geometry. Results show that the lattice mesh modelling approach has the best performance, resulting in a lightweight structure with smooth surfaces and without sharp edges at nodes, enhancing mechanical properties and fatigue life.
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing | Case study | Lattice structures | Modeling approaches | Optimisation
Abstract: According to recent studies, a new paradigm in the geometric modeling of lattice structures based on subdivision surfaces for additive manufacturing overcomes the critical issues on CAD modeling highlighted in the literature, such as scalability, robustness, and automation. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the subdivided lattice structures was investigated and compared with the standard lattices. Five types of cellular structures based on cubic cell were modeled: struts based on squared or circular section, with or without fillets and cell based on the subdivision approach. Sixty-five specimens were manufactured by selective laser sintering technology in polyamide 12 and tensile and fatigue tests were performed. Furthermore, numerical analyses were carried out in order to establish the stress concentration factors. Results show that subdivided lattice structures, at the same resistant area, improve stiffness and fatigue life and reduce stress concentration while opening new perspectives in the development of lattice structures for additive manufacturing technologies and applications.
Abstract: The unique capabilities of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies highlight limits in commercial CAD tools. In this manuscript, after a synthetic description of the main AM technologies based on international standards classification, geometric modeling methods and data exchange file formats available in the literature are presented. Twelve geometric models have been studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the file format, noting the file dimension and the time to open and close the file. As a result, a roadmap in the development of new tools for design in AM is drawn, taking into account the new possibilities offered by AM technologies.
Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Data exchange | Design for additive manufacturing | Geometric modeling
Abstract: Purpose: This study describes a method for measuring the accuracy of the virtual impression. Methods: In vitro measurements according to a metrological approach were based on (1) use of an opto-mechanical coordinate measuring machine to acquire 3D points from a master model, (2) the mathematical reconstruction of regular geometric features (planes, cylinders, points) from 3D points or an STL file, and (3) consistent definition and evaluation of position and distance errors describing scanning inaccuracies. Two expert and two inexpert operators each made five impressions. The 3D position error, with its relevant X, Y, and Z components, the mean 3D position error of each scanbody, and the intra-scanbody distance error were measured using the analysis of variance and the Sheffe’s test for multiple comparison. Results: Statistically significant differences in the accuracy of the impression were observed among the operators for each scanbody, despite the good reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.897). The mean 3D position error of the digital impression was between 0.041 ± 0.023 mm and 0.082 ± 0.030 mm. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, which was performed using a single commercial system for preparing digital impressions and one test configuration, the data showed that the digital impressions had a level of accuracy comparable to that reported in other studies, and which was acceptable for clinical and technological applications. The distance between the individual positions (#36 to #46) of the scanbody influenced the magnitude of the error. The position error generated by the intraoral scanner was dependent on the length of the arch scanned. Operator skill and experience may influence the accuracy of the impression.
Keywords: Accuracy | CAD–CAM | Digital impression | Opto-mechanical measuring
Abstract: Improving soft tissue attachment and reducing bacterial colonization on titanium abutments are key factors for the long-term maintenance of healthy soft and hard peri-implant tissues. This in vitro study was conducted to compare the biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of four different surfaces: uncoated Ti6Al4V, anodized, and coated with titanium nitride or zirconium nitride. Surface topography was investigated with a high-resolution system for measuring surface finishes. Human gingival fibroblast (HGF) adhesion and proliferation were examined using MTT assay, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging, immunofluorescence analysis and real-time PCR for selected target genes. The hemolysis and AMES tests were performed to assess the chemical compounds’ blood compatibility and mutagenic potential, respectively. Antibacterial activity was tested against five bacterial strains isolated from the oral cavity (Streptococcus salivarius, S. sanguinis, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. oralis), and the percentage of dead bacteria was calculated. Roughness measurements confirmed a substantial similarity between the surfaces and their compatibility with clinical applications. MTT assay, SEM analysis and immunofluorescence staining showed adhesion and proliferation of HGFs cultured on all the examined surfaces. PCR confirmed that HGFs produced extracellular matrix components efficiently on all the surfaces. No hemolytic activity was detected, and the AMES test confirmed the surfaces’ clinical safety. For all tested bacterial strains, biofilms grown on the zirconium nitride surface showed a higher percentage of dead bacteria than on the other disks. The titanium nitride surface inactivated bacterial biofilms, too, but to a lesser extent.
Abstract: The aim of this ex vivo study was to test a novel three-dimensional (3D) automated computer-aided design (CAD) method (aCAD) for the computation of femoral angles in dogs from 3D reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) images. The repeatability and reproducibility of three manual radiography, manual CT reconstructions and the aCAD method for the measurement of three femoral angles were evaluated: (1) anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA); (2) femoral neck angle (FNA); and (3) femoral torsion angle (FTA). Femoral angles of 22 femurs obtained from 16 cadavers were measured by three blinded observers. Measurements were repeated three times by each observer for each diagnostic technique. Femoral angle measurements were analysed using a mixed effects linear model for repeated measures to determine the levels of intra-observer agreement (repeatability) and inter-observer agreement (reproducibility). Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements using the aCAD method were excellent (intra-class coefficients, ICCs ≥ 0.98) for all three angles assessed. Manual radiography and CT exhibited excellent agreement for the aLDFA measurement (ICCs ≥ 0.90). However, FNA repeatability and reproducibility were poor (ICCs < 0.8), whereas FTA measurement showed slightly higher ICCs values, except for the radiographic reproducibility, which was poor (ICCs < 0.8). The computation of the 3D aCAD method provided the highest repeatability and reproducibility among the tested methodologies.
Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to propose a consistent approach to geometric modeling of optimized lattice structures for additive manufacturing technologies. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed method applies subdivision surfaces schemes to an automatically defined initial mesh model of an arbitrarily complex lattice structure. The approach has been developed for cubic cells. Considering different aspects, five subdivision schemes have been studied: Mid-Edge, an original scheme proposed by the authors, Doo–Sabin, Catmull–Clark and Bi-Quartic. A generalization to other types of cell has also been proposed. Findings: The proposed approach allows to obtain consistent and smooth geometric models of optimized lattice structures, overcoming critical issues on complex models highlighted in literature, such as scalability, robustness and automation. Moreover, no sharp edge is obtained, and consequently, stress concentration is reduced, improving static and fatigue resistance of the whole structure. Originality/value: An original and robust method for modeling optimized lattice structures was proposed, allowing to obtain mesh models suitable for additive manufacturing technologies. The method opens new perspectives in the development of specific computer-aided design tools for additive manufacturing, based on mesh modeling and surface subdivision. These approaches and slicing tools are suitable for parallel computation, therefore allowing the implementation of algorithms dedicated to graphics cards.
Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to verify whether or not stock and computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) abutments show similar precision in the connection with the respective implants. Materials and Methods: Ten CAD/CAM titanium abutments were compared with 10 stock titanium abutments. Each abutment fit a regular-platform implant (Institute Straumann). Implants and abutments were measured independently and then connected. During the connection procedure, the torque was measured using a six-axes load cell. Then, outer geometric features of the implant-abutment connection were measured again. Finally, the assembly was sectioned to provide the analysis of inner surfaces in contact. The geometric measurements were performed using a multisensored opto-mechanical coordinate measuring machine. The following parameters were measured and compared for the CAD/CAM and stock titanium abutment groups, respectively: width of interference and interference length between the conical surfaces of the implant and abutment; and volume of material involved in the implant-abutment connection. Results: Interference width mean ± SD values of 18 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 μm were calculated for the stock and CAD/CAM titanium abutment groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P = .02). Furthermore, the interference length mean ± SD values of 763 ± 10 and 816 ± 43 μm were calculated for stock and CAD/CAM titanium abutment groups, respectively. The difference was also statistically significant (P = .04). Finally, the volume of material involved in the implant-abutment connection was compared between stock and CAD/CAM titanium abutment groups; the mean ± SD values of 0.134 ± 0.014 and 0.108 ± 0.023 mm3 were significantly different (P = .009). Conclusion: Both standard and CAD/CAM abutment groups showed a three-dimensional (3D) seal activation after the screw tightening. Nevertheless, stock titanium abutments showed a significantly higher volume of material involved in the implant-abutment connection compared with that of CAD/CAM titanium abutments.
Abstract: Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed.
Abstract: In the fabrication process of aspheric glass lens and molds, shape characterization is a fundamental task to control geometrical errors. Nevertheless, the more significant geometrical functional aspect related to the optical properties is the curvature, which is rarely investigated in the manufacturing process of lenses. Algorithms for the assessment of shape and curvature errors on aspheric surface profile are presented. The method has been investigated on profiles measured before and at different steps of the membrane polishing process. The results show how surface roughness, shape, and curvature change during the polishing process as a function of the machining time.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing technologies enable the fabrication of parts characterized by shape complexity and therefore allow the design of optimized components based on minimal material usage and weight. In the literature two approaches are available to reach this goal: adoption of lattice structures and topology optimization. In a recent work a Computer-Aided method for generative design and optimization of regular lattice structures was proposed. The method was investigated in few configurations of a cantilever beam, considering six different cell types and two load conditions. In order to strengthen the method, in this paper a number of test cases have been carried out. Results explain the behavior of the method during the iterations, and the effects of the load and of the cell dimension. Moreover, a visual comparison between the proposed method and the results achieved by topology optimization is shown.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this preliminary in vitro investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of an intraoral scanner in fully edentulous arches rehabilitated with 6 implants; in this clinical condition it is particularly difficult to ensure sufficient accuracy standards. MATERIALS AND METHODS. For this study a reference metal master model was provided: it had 6 implant analogs inserted to simulate a fully rehabilitated edentulous arch with implants. A scanbody made of PEEK (Polyether Ether Ketone) was inserted in each analog and the positions of each scanbody were calibrated by means of a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). The master model, fitted with the scanbodies and a silicone gingiva, was acquired with the True Definition Scanner (TDS). Several series of scans were taken, each of them consisting of 10 close acquisitions, in order to arrange the calibration of the master model and the series of scans with TDS in the same day. From the mesh of each scan, a segmentation was performed to identify known points referable to both plane and cylinder shapes of the scanbodies. This operation was automatically performed by implementing a dedicated algorithm developed in the Rhinoceros 5.0 software. RESULTS. The results herein are related to one set of 10 acquisitions of the master model. Dimensional analysis assessed the effective diameter of the scanbodies measured by TDS and was compared with the reference diameter measured using a CMM, thus obtaining the dimensional error in the body diameter of the scanbody. The values of dimensional errors varied from a minimum of 15 μm to a maximum of about 39 μm, with standard deviations of up to 9 μm. The location analysis allowed to determine the average location error of the scanbodies centers with respect to the reference positions: they were in a range from 14 to 21 μm, with standard deviations of less than 10 μm. CONCLUSIONS. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the intraoral scanner under investigation proved to be able to scan a 6 implants full arch with a level of accuracy in line with other data reported in scientific literature, or even with smaller error rates. This level of accuracy is capable of fulfilling the accuracy requirements considered clinically acceptable.
Keywords: Full arch digital impressions | Implants | Intraoral scanner | Scanning dimension errors | Scanning position errors
Abstract: Objective: To define and validate a method for the measurement of 3-dimensional (3D) morphometric parameters in polygonal mesh models of canine femora. Study Design: Ex vivo/computerized model. Sample Population: Sixteen femora from 8 medium to large-breed canine cadavers (mean body weight 28.3 kg, mean age 5.3 years). Methods: Femora were measured with a 3D scanner, obtaining 3D meshes. A computer-aided design-based (CAD) software tool was purposely developed, which allowed automatic calculation of morphometric parameters on a mesh model. Anatomic and mechanical lateral proximal femoral angles (aLPFA and mLPFA), anatomic and mechanical lateral distal femoral angles (aLDFA and mLDFA), femoral neck angle (FNA), femoral torsion angle (FTA), and femoral varus angle (FVA) were measured in 3D space. Angles were also measured onto projected planes and radiographic images. Results: Mean (SD) femoral angles (degrees) measured in 3D space were: aLPFA 115.2 (3.9), mLPFA 105.5 (4.2), aLDFA 88.6 (4.5), mLDFA 93.4 (3.9), FNA 129.6 (4.3), FTA 45 (4.5), and FVA −1.4 (4.5). Onto projection planes, aLPFA was 103.7 (5.9), mLPFA 98.4 (5.3), aLDFA 88.3 (5.5), mLDFA 93.6 (4.2), FNA 132.1 (3.5), FTA 19.1 (5.7), and FVA −1.7 (5.5). With radiographic imaging, aLPFA was 109.6 (5.9), mLPFA 105.3 (5.2), aLDFA 92.6 (3.8), mLDFA 96.9 (2.9), FNA 120.2 (8.0), FTA 30.2 (5.7), and FVA 2.6 (3.8). Conclusion: The proposed method gives reliable and consistent information about 3D bone conformation. Results are obtained automatically and depend only on femur morphology, avoiding any operator-related bias. Angles in 3D space are different from those measured with standard radiographic methods, mainly due to the different definition of femoral axes.
Abstract: Bone tissue engineered 3-D constructs customized to patient-specific needs are emerging as attractive biomimetic scaffolds to enhance bone cell and tissue growth and differentiation. The article outlines the features of the most common additive manufacturing technologies (3D printing, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and selective laser sintering) used to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds. It concentrates, in particular, on the current state of knowledge concerning powder-based 3D printing, including a description of the properties of powders and binder solutions, the critical phases of scaffold manufacturing, and its applications in bone tissue engineering. Clinical aspects and future applications are also discussed.
Keywords: 3D printing | Additive manufacturing technologies | Binder | Bone | Depowdering | Powder | Scaffold | Sintering
Abstract: By definition, osseointegration means close contact between bone and implant. Bone response is related to implant surface properties. Various surfaces have been studied and applied to improve the biological properties of the implant and thereby favor the mechanism of osseointegration. This strategy aims to promote osseointegration by means of a faster and stronger bone formation, improving stability during the healing process, and thus allowing for earlier loading of the implant. Dental implant osseointegration has so far been studied in various animal models. The development of a method based on tissue engineering for assessing the osseointegration process in vitro could prove a valid biomimetic alternative to sacrificing animals. In this study, flat cylindrical dental implants with moderately rough surfaces and machined implants were set in bovine bone blocks. Then, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were three dimensionally cultured onto these blocks in osteo-endothelial medium for up to 30 days to mimic the osseointegration process in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression were used to examine stem cell commitment. Mechanical pull-out tests were also performed. SEM analysis identified cells with an osteoblast morphology adhering to the surface of the implants after their removal. Gene expression analysis showed that ADSCs seeded onto the bone blocks were able to express osteoblast and endothelial markers. The implants with the moderately rough surface generated higher pull-out strengths when compared with the machined implants. Nevertheless, the pull-out test values were higher for implants placed in bone blocks with ADSCs than for those set in scaffolds without stem cells. Our results demonstrate the validity of the method adopted and its potential for use in the in vitro assessment of the biological behavior of dental implant surfaces.
Abstract: Purpose: The study aims to evaluate three-dimensionally (3D) the accuracy of implant impressions using a new resin splinting material, "Smart Dentin Replacement" (SDR). Materials and Methods: A titanium model of an edentulous mandible with six implant analogues was used as a master model and its dimensions measured with a coordinate measuring machine. Before the total 60 impressions were taken (open tray, screw-retained abutments, vinyl polysiloxane), they were divided in four groups: A (test): copings pick-up splinted with dental floss and fotopolymerizing SDR; B (test): see A, additionally sectioned and splinted again with SDR; C (control): copings pick-up splinted with dental floss and autopolymerizing Duralay® (Reliance Dental Mfg. Co., Alsip, IL, USA) acrylic resin; and D (control): see C, additionally sectioned and splinted again with Duralay. The impressions were measured directly with an optomechanical coordinate measuring machine and analyzed with a computer-aided design (CAD) geometric modeling software. The Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test was used to compare groups. Results: While there was no difference (p=430) between the mean 3D deviations of the test groups A (17.5μm) and B (17.4μm), they both showed statistically significant differences (p<.003) compared with both control groups (C 25.0μm, D 19.1μm). Conclusions: Conventional impression techniques for edentulous jaws with multiple implants are highly accurate using the new fotopolymerizing splinting material SDR. Sectioning and rejoining of the SDR splinting had no impact on the impression accuracy.
Keywords: Accuracy | Edentulous jaw | Implant impression technique | Impression copings | Passive fit | Splinting material
Abstract: Additive manufacturing technologies enable the fabrication of innovative parts not achievable by other technologies, such as cellular structures, characterized by lightness and good mechanical properties. In this paper a novel modeling and optimization method is proposed to design regular cellular structures. The approach is based on generative modeling of a structure by repeating a unit cell inside a solid model, obtaining a beam model, and on an iterative variation of the size of each section in order to get the desired utilization for each beam. Different structures have been investigated, derived by six cell types in two load conditions. Taxonomy of cell types as a function of relative density and compliance were proposed in order to support the design process for additive manufacturing of cellular structures.
Abstract: The manufacturing process of freeform glass components for precision optics is usually based on contour CNC grinding and polishing operations. To predict the geometrical precision of the production process, a correlation between the geometrical error and the process parameters is required. This is even more important in the polishing operation which is the final stage of the process. In this work a model for material removal estimation in deterministic polishing of glass moulds is proposed and validated. The model is developed for CNC ball polishing of free-form surfaces, where the pad, made of a polyurethane layer superimposed to a rubber bulk, moves along a scanning path, in a suspension of cerium oxide. As many models in literature the removed material can be estimated by pressure and sliding velocity between polishing pad and workpiece. Adopting the Hertz theory these physical characteristics can be related to the CAD-CAM-CNC parameters, e.g. tool and workpiece shape, dimension and modulus of elasticity, feed rate, feed step, tool rotational speed and radial tool deformation. The model validation was performed on ground glass flat samples polished with different process parameters, measuring the removed material by a contact probe profilometer. The developed model shows a satisfactory estimation of removal material as a function of the process parameters.
Abstract: Precision free-form components are functionally complex objects with very accurate surfaces. In the manufacturing of these parts the complete and correct characterization of geometrical errors is an important aspect since it allows the adoption of preventive actions to control errors causes such as the thermo-mechanic behaviour of the machine tool, the removal mechanism of the cutting operation, the wear of the tool, the lubricant action, etc. In this work an advanced method of geometry characterization has been adopted to investigate the various contributions of the geometric error, resulting from the machining of any free-form geometry. The method allows the effective estimation of the size contribution error as well as form, orientation and position deviation. The method consists in an iterative process that minimize the distance of the cloud of points measured to an optimized offset of the nominal model of the component. At the end of minimization process, optimal parameters are used for the complete shape characterization of the part.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Current methodologies in the prevision of post-surgical features of the face in orthognathic surgery are mainly 2-D. An improvement is certainly given by the introduction of CT, but its acceptance is controversial due to its high biological cost. As an alternative, in this study an effective procedure for the construction of a 3-D textured digital model of the face and dental arches of patients with dentofacial malformations using a 3-D laser scanner at no biological cost is presented. METHODS: A 3-D Laser scanner Konica-Minolta VIVID 910 is used to obtain multiple scans from different perspectives of the face of patients with dentofacial malocclusions requiring orthognathic surgery. These multiple views are then recombined, integrating also the maxillary and mandibular arch plaster casts, to obtain the 3-D textured model of the face and occlusion with minimal error. RESULTS: A viable methodology was identified for the face and occlusal modeling of orthognathic patients and validated in a test case, confirming its effectiveness: the 3-D model created accurately describes the actual features of the patient's face; the proposed methodology can be easily applied in the clinical routine to accurately record the steps of the surgical treatment and to perform accurate anthropometric analyses of the facial morphology, and thus constitute the necessary database for the development of previsional tools in orthognathic surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method is effective in recording all the morphological facial features of patients with dentofacial malformations, to develop a facial modification database and tools for virtual surgery.
Abstract: Surface polishing is a typical example of a machining process based on mixed chemical-mechanical phenomena, as pointed out in the recent literature on the polishing process (CPM - Chemical Mechanical Polishing). In this work, a model is proposed for the assessment of surface roughness evolution in the polishing process of glass moulds, used in the manufacturing of ophthalmic lenses, in order to identify the influence of the operating parameters on the material removal rate (MRR). In this model the evolution of surface roughness during the polishing process is based on Reye hypothesis. According to such hypothesis, the removed material in a specific time interval is proportional to the friction work: the removed material per unit area can be computed by adequately integrating the bearing ratio curve (Abbott-Firestone) of the surface; the friction work per unit area is proportional, according to the dynamic friction coefficient, to the integral of the product of pressure and velocity in the time interval. A similar result can be also obtained adopting other wear models, e.g. the Preston or Archard approaches. The model validation was performed on ground glass flat samples polished with increasing values of MRR. Pressure and velocity distributions on the sample surface were established according to the polishing machine operating parameters by means of the Hertz theory; the surface roughness of the sample was mapped using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The developed model shows a satisfactory estimate of surface roughness evolution during the polishing process and confirms the experimental results found in literature.
 Concheri G., Savio G., Meneghello R.,
Curvature estimation for optical analysis, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2006,
Abstract: In the productive process of moulds for ophthalmic lenses, the availability of a specialized tool for the analysis of the optical property of 3D virtual models of ophthalmic lenses and relevant injection moulds, may reduce the tests on physical prototypes during the design phase. The optical properties of interest are usually power and astigmatism of the lens surface. Both of them are proportional to the geometric curvature of the lens surfaces. Therefore the identification of the optical properties of a surface can be brought back to the computation of the minimum and maximum curvature maps on lens surface. Some commercial software tools able to perform curvature analysis on both physical and virtual models exist, but they show some limitations: methods and algorithms used to compute the desired parameters are not declared, the size of the area used to compute the desired parameter cannot be set by the operator and no estimate on the accuracy of the computed results is given. These last two issues are crucial: the area considered in the analysis should be related to the area actually used; the accuracy of the adopted algorithm should be verified and compared with the eye sensitivity to geometric errors of the lens surface. Aim of the present work is to describe the functioning principles of a software tool for curvature analysis and optical properties computation of either virtual models expressed as high resolution meshes or physical prototypes of lenses sampled using a Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs), that overcomes the cited limitations. Such tool will be included into an integrated tool for design, analysis, manufacturing and verification of ophthalmic lenses.
Abstract: The use of non-cemented prosthetic components in implant surgery is demanding a high quality of bone beds in order to allow for a good level of osseointegration. Two parameters are significant in the evaluation of the quality of the host bone: roughness, which reports on the presence of gaps and peeks, and flatness, which reports on the total percentage of bone which lies in a given interval from the prosthesis. Robot assisted cutting of 32 pig femours and tibiae was performed using various techniques and options. This paper demonstrates roughness and flatness can be taken of the order of the limits necessary for osseointegration, by using a milling cutting tool mounted on a strong support, in this case a robot arm, improving on the results obtained by similar studies referred to hand sawed bones by 10 times.
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