[Elenco soci]


Marconi Marco

Ricercatore TD(B)


Università degli Studi della Tuscia
marco.marconi@unitus.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 35330299300
Orcid: 0000-0002-5677-1459



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Favi C., Marconi M., Mandolini M., Germani M., Sustainable life cycle and energy management of discrete manufacturing plants in the industry 4.0 framework, Applied Energy, 312, (2022). Abstract
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Industry 4.0 (I4.0), through the digitalization and interconnection of manufacturing processes, can offer opportunities to improve production systems' sustainability. Despite the increasing number of scientific review papers related to I4.0 and production sustainability, most approaches and tools for sustainability evaluation lack of a tangible implementation framework. The paper presents a framework that originated from the plant metabolism concept, a simplified version of industrial metabolism. It is based on Energy Material Flow Analysis (EMFA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools for production plants' economic and sustainability assessment, using the I4.0 enabling technologies. A Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method combines the two sustainability pillars for aiding companies in optimizing their production processes towards a reduction of energy/material flows. The combination of EMFA, LCA and MCDM tools into a plant metabolism-based model is the main novelty of this paper. The framework consists of three main phases. The first phase allows to model the manufacturing system by defining the plant layout, the assets, and the input/output flows. The second phase allows gathering information from the manufacturing plant to assess environmental and economic Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) following the LCA principles. The third phase consists of post-processing results, minimizing specific KPIs for establishing the optimal production scenario. A washing machine plant has been chosen as a case study to demonstrate the proposed method's capability in authentic contexts. Besides, the effectiveness in supporting companies in the analysis, identifying criticalities, and the proper energy and material flows management of production plants has been verified. Plant managers could use this framework for managing the production plans. From the scientific standpoint, the proposed method positively contributes to integrating the existing state of the art studies concerning the I4.0-related framework for the sustainability assessment and energy/material flows minimization of production systems.

Keywords: Energy/material flows | Industry 4.0 | Life cycle assessment | Manufacturing plant | Plant metabolism | Sustainable manufacturing

[2] Barbanera M., Marconi M., Peruzzi A., Dinarelli S., Environmental assessment and eco-design of a surgical face mask, Procedia CIRP, 105, 61-66, (2022). Abstract
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After more than one year form the first cases of Sars-Cov-2 infection, it is now clear that the most effective mean to prevent the diffusion of the pandemic is the use of face masks, that however are based on fossil materials and could potentially generate an environmental problem. This study wants to quantitatively investigate the environmental impacts related to the life cycle of a single use surgical mask through the use of the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Results highlight significant impacts due to the material supply and transport, as well as product packaging and distribution. The study outcomes can be also useful to set potential eco-design strategies for the product environmental improvement.

Keywords: COVID-19 | eco-design | life cycle assessment | surgical mask

[3] Landi D., Marconi M., Pietroni G., Comparative life cycle assessment of two different battery technologies: Lithium iron phosphate and sodium-sulfur, Procedia CIRP, 105, 482-488, (2022). Abstract
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The generation, storage and use of electric energy is a relevant issue for the modern society that is dependent from this energy typology for its activities (e.g. heating, goods production). Batteries are key components for the storage of electric energy, to be used for a large set of domestic, industrial and transport applications. The paper investigates the environmental impacts of two different battery technologies used as accumulator in the context of a production plant: (i) the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery, and (ii) the sodium-sulfur (NaS) battery. The analyses have been performed according to the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, by using the ReCiPe method at midpoint and endpoint levels to quantify the potential environmental impacts. Results highlight the principal impact of two different technologies, considering all environmental indicators. Results show that the LiFePO4 solution can be considered the most sustainable solution for the considered industrial application. However, the difference is very small, within 2% and strongly influenced by the energy needed to recharge the batteries during the use phase. Instead, if we consider the production of batteries, the NaS solution resulted the most sustainable solution with an impact in terms of the aggregated single score damage category of about a half in comparison with the LiFePO4 solution.

Keywords: batteries | life cycle assessment | lithium iron phosphate | sodium-sulfur

[4] Marconi M., Pietroni G., Rubino G., Comparing the environmental and economic performances of different substrate pre-treatment processes for diamond coating deposition, Procedia CIRP, 105, 476-481, (2022). Abstract
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The deposition of diamond coatings on hard metals substrates is a common strategy to improve mechanical characteristics of parts (e.g. cutting tools), but requires the pre-treatment of substrates. The study aims to investigate the environmental and economic sustainability of two different substrate pre-treatment processes: (i) two-step chemical etching process, and (ii) high-power continuous wave diode laser method. The cradle to gate study considers the superficial treatment of a WC-Co specimen as functional unit. The Life Cycle Assessment results highlight that for most of the ReCiPe impact categories, the environmental impact of laser treatment is greater than that of the chemical process (+38% in case of Climate Change, +45% in case of ReCiPe endpoint Single score), mainly due to the high energy consumption of the laser. The cost estimation, instead, highlights relevant savings for the laser process (about -98%), due to higher cost of chemicals than for electricity.

Keywords: cost estimation | diamond deposition | life cycle assessment | WC-Co substrate pre-treatment

[5] Landi D., Marconi M., Investigating a Circular Economy Application: Reuse of End of Life Tire Fibers in a Plastic Compound, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 357-364, (2022). Abstract
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According to the European Waste Codes 19.12.08, fibers derived from end-of-life tires (ELT) are classifies as a special waste to be sent to landfill or incineration with energy recovery. However, these activities would pose additional risks including soil pollution, and groundwater contamination. A change in the current ELT waste management practices is needed to reduce the environmental impacts. The aim of this paper is to present and investigate the technical and environmental feasibility of a circular economy path for ELT fibers. Several PP-based compounds have been manufactured and tested to verify the possibility of reusing ELT fibers in such an application. Then a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study has been carried out to compare the proposed reuse scenario with the two standard scenarios for ELT fibers. Reuse scenario leads to environmental savings for several impact categories, even if for some indicators the incineration is preferrable due to the additional resources and energy required needed to treat the dirty ELT fibers before reuse.

Keywords: Circular economy | End of life tires | Life Cycle Assessment | Reinforced compound

[6] Mandolini M., Santucci F., Cicconi P., Santecchia E., Germani M., Palladino M., Favi C., Marconi M., A Numerical Model for Simulating the Selective Laser Melting of Closed Impellers, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 494-501, (2022). Abstract
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The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is accelerating the adoption of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies in the industry. One of the most critical benefits concerns the possibility of manufacturing complex-shaped components, which are not feasible or too expensive using traditional processes. Recent studies are evaluating the SLM manufacturability of closed impellers through laboratory tests. The adoption of numerical simulation models for achieving this goal is still limited due to the complexity of the additive process and the number of phases to be considered. The paper presents a numerical model developed in the ANSYS workbench platform for simulating the SLM process of closed impellers. This work is one of the first studies available in the literature for such a particular kind of components. The paper describes the overall simulation model and the steps required for its definition. Furthermore, boundary conditions and process parameters are provided for a better understanding of the model. A case study illustrates its application to a specific part, intending to evaluate (i) impact between the recoater and the component, (ii) maximum von Mises stress and (iii) maximum displacement during the printing phase and following post-processing. These evaluations will support design and manufacturing engineers during product and process engineering. The promising results of this study are encouraging further research about the application of SLM for closed impellers.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Impeller | Numerical simulation | Selective laser melting

[7] Rossi M., Cappelletti F., Marconi M., Germani M., A Design for De-manufacturing Methodology to Improve the Product End of Life Environmental Sustainability, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 373-380, (2022). Abstract
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De-manufacturing and re-manufacturing are well-known solutions for recovering value from products that have reached their End of Life (EoL) and thus reducing resource exploitation. Although such scenarios are implemented after the use phase, they must be considered since the very early stage of design. The paper proposes a methodology that can be applied at the design stage to detect space for product design improvements, also representing a baseline for organizations approaching de-manufacturing for the first time. The methodology consists of four main steps, in which firstly target components are identified according to their environmental impact; then the disassembly sequence is qualitatively evaluated, and successively quantitatively too. This leads to the identification and evaluation of different EoL scenarios. The application of the methodology to a professional espresso coffee machine highlighted a reduction of impacts up to 52% if re-using and re-manufacturing strategies are implemented.

Keywords: De-manufacturing | Ecodesign | Environmental sustainability

[8] Marconi M., Menghi R., Papetti A., Pietroni G., Germani M., An interactive resource value mapping tool to support the reduction of inefficiencies in smart manufacturing processes, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(2-3), 211-224, (2021). Abstract
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As nearly one third of global energy demand and CO2 emissions are attributable to manufacturing activities, the reduction of energy/resource consumption in the industrial sector is increasingly crucial. Therefore, research and innovation for the factories of the future is not only a matter of developing and integrating new technologies, but also a challenge to make manufacturing less dependent on energy and managed in an optimized way. This requires considering the efficiency of resource exploitation according to a systematic approach. To this aim, the present paper proposes a resource-saving tool, called Resource Value Mapping (RVM), and describes its application in a smart multinational company that produces electromechanical components for the automotive industry. The RVM tool is composed by three main modules that jointly allow the involved stakeholders to collaborate toward the optimization of the plant management: the Cloud data center that represents the repository of the collected real-time and offline data, the Analytics module that is responsible for data elaboration with the aim of calculating a set of key performance indicators useful to identify process inefficiencies, and the Web-based platform that represents the user interface of the tool. The case study demonstrated how such a tool allows (1) mapping the energy/resource flows to multiple levels (machine, line, plant), (2) characterizing them to identify the most critical activities that do not generate value and (3) supporting multiple stakeholders (plant manager, energy manger, operators) in the management of resource anomalies and definition of a more sustainable action plan.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Industrial case study | Plant management | Resource-saving tool | Sustainable manufacturing

[9] Bianchi I., Forcellese A., Marconi M., Simoncini M., Vita A., Castorani V., Environmental impact assessment of zero waste approach for carbon fiber prepreg scraps, Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 29, (2021). Abstract
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In the present paper, the environmental impact of an innovative technology, based on a zero-waste approach, for reclaiming carbon fiber prepreg scraps is assessed. The innovative process, proposed within the European project CIRCE, aims at reclaiming scraps produced during the cutting operation of virgin prepreg, avoiding the waste materials landfilling or incineration. The prepreg scraps were transformed into a ready-to-use raw secondary material by using two specifically developed automated systems for cutting and peeling of the scraps. By exploiting the prepared scraps in a compression molding process, recycled composite parts were produced. The evaluation of the environmental impact was carried out by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, using the different impact assessment methodologies based on the Cumulative Energy Demand, Global Warming Potential and ReCiPe methods. Furthermore, tensile tests were performed at room temperature to investigate the mechanical properties of the recovered scraps products. In order to evaluate the environmental benefits of the innovative compression molding production with recovered prepreg scraps, the LCA analysis was also performed on two different traditional virgin production scenarios, i.e. the compression molding production with virgin prepreg and the autoclave processing with virgin prepregs, both used for the production of CFRP parts. The results show that the reclaim process leads to a strong reduction of the environmental impacts with respect to traditional composite production processes, demonstrating that such process can represent a valid alternative for a more sustainable manufacturing of composite products.

Keywords: Life cycle assessment | Prepreg scraps | Sustainability | Zero waste technology

[10] Rodríguez N.B., Formentini G., Favi C., Marconi M., Engineering design process of face masks based on circularity and life cycle assessment in the constraint of the covid-19 pandemic, Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(9), (2021). Abstract
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Face masks are currently considered key equipment to protect people against the COVID-19 pandemic. The demand for such devices is considerable, as is the amount of plastic waste generated after their use (approximately 1.6 million tons/day since the outbreak). Even if the sanitary emergency must have the maximum priority, environmental concerns require investigation to find possible mitigation solutions. The aim of this work is to develop an eco-design actions guide that supports the design of dedicated masks, in a manner to reduce the negative impacts of these devices on the environment during the pandemic period. Toward this aim, an environmental assessment based on life cycle assessment and circularity assessment (material circularity indicator) of different types of masks have been carried out on (i) a 3D-printed mask with changeable filters, (ii) a surgical mask, (iii) an FFP2 mask with valve, (iv) an FFP2 mask without valve, and (v) a washable mask. Results highlight how reusable masks (i.e., 3D-printed masks and washable masks) are the most sustainable from a life cycle perspective, drastically reducing the environmental impacts in all categories. The outcomes of the analysis provide a framework to derive a set of eco-design guidelines which have been used to design a new device that couples protection requirements against the virus and environmental sustainability.

Keywords: Circularity | COVID-19 | Eco-design | Engineering design | Environmental analysis | Face masks | LCA | Life cycle assessment | Product development process

[11] Marconi M., Menghi R., A sustainable manufacturing tool for the analysis and management of resource consumption within production processes, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 65-68, (2021). Abstract
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Reducing energy/resource consumption in production processes can significantly improve the environmental performance of manufacturing systems. This paper proposes a sustainable manufacturing method and tool and describes its application in a mechanical engineering company which produces automotive components. The tool allows to map the processes/activities and the related resources consumed, assess the efficiency through specific key performance indicators, identify process criticalities and thus set mitigation or improvement strategies.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Energy management | Resource consumption | Resource mapping | Sustainable manufacturing tool

[12] Armentano I., Barbanera M., Carota E., Crognale S., Marconi M., Rossi S., Rubino G., Scungio M., Taborri J., Calabrò G., Polymer Materials for Respiratory Protection: Processing, End Use, and Testing Methods, ACS Applied Polymer Materials, 3(2), 531-548, (2021). Abstract
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The COVID-19 occurrence is causing a global request for effective measures aimed at mitigating the infection spread. Facemasks have been identified as an essential device for people to protect themselves as well as the others from aerosol containing virus. Facemasks provide a critical barrier, reducing the number of infectious viruses or bacteria in exhaled breath. The present review describes the most relevant literature studies on materials and processing technologies used for facemask development and testing. Antibacterial and antiviral treatments are considered. Testing methods for measuring the actual performance are explained in detail. Strategies related to end use are analyzed in terms of reuse, the sanitization process, and recycling. This work derives from a synergic, multidisciplinary, and interdepartmental collaboration in the workgroup of Tuscia University, founded in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, aimed at providing scientific support and information on facemask materials.

Keywords: coronavirus | facemasks | filtration | polymer | processing

[13] Forcellese A., Mancia T., Simoncini M., Gentili S., Marconi M., Vita A., Nardinocchi A., Castorani V., Comparative life cycle assessment of carbon fiber reinforced composite components for automotive industry, ESAFORM 2021 - 24th International Conference on Material Forming, (2021). Abstract
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Advanced materials, especially carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRP), have gained the attention of different industries which produce lightweight and high-performance components. The most used manufacturing processes to realize these kinds of products are Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and vacuum bag molding with autoclave curing. RTM is based on dry fiber technology and it appears the most promising manufacturing process to realized high-quality carbon fiber parts reducing cost and manufacturing time, especially if high pressure variants are employed. On the other hand, vacuum bag molding with autoclave curing is a very consolidated process which is, however, associated with long manufacturing time and costs as well as to low repeatability of the process due to the high labor input. Out-of-autoclave methods, such as pressure bag molding (PBM) have been developed to overcome the issues of vacuum bag molding process. From the environmental point of view, the manufacturing of CFRP components is associated with high environmental loads due to the impacts related to both raw materials and manufacturing processes. For this reason, reducing the energy consumption of production phases can lead to the development of greener CFRP products. In this context, the main scope of the present research is to evaluate and compare the environmental loads of a component for the automotive industry realized exploiting the RTM, the PBM and the bag molding processes to determine which one is ecofriendlier. This analysis has been conducted following the standard Life Cycle Assessment methodology based on a “cradle to gate” approach. In this way, the use phase and the disposal of the CFRP component have not been included in the analysis. Results have been evaluated by comparing the equivalent CO2 related to each manufacturing process.

Keywords: Carbon fiber composites LCA | CFRP | Environmental impacts | PBM | RTM

[14] Boix Rodríguez N., Marconi M., Favi C., Formentini G., Eco-design actions to improve life cycle environmental performance of face masks in the pandemic era, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 1333-1342, (2021). Abstract
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Face masks are currently considered essential devices that people must wear today and in the near future, until the COVID-19 pandemic will be completely defeated through specific medicines and vaccines. Such devices are generally made of thermoplastic polymers, as polypropylene and polyethylene and are single use products. Even if in this period the sanitary emergency must have the maximum priority, the world society should not completely forget the environmental problem that are causing more and more obvious climate changes with correlated damages to ecosystems and human health. Despite the well-known correlation among anti-COVID protective equipment (or more generally medical devices) and environmental issues, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and eco-design-based studies in this field is very scarce. The present study aims to derive the most important environmental criticalities of such products, by using LCA and product circularity indicators of five different common masks. The final aim is to provide eco-design guidelines, useful to design new face masks by preventing negative impact on the environment.

Keywords: Circular economy | COVID-19 | Ecodesign | Face mask | Sustainability

[15] Formentini G., Rodríguez N.B., Favi C., Marconi M., Challenging the engineering design process for the development of facial masks in the constraint of the COVID-19 pandemic, Procedia CIRP, 100, 660-665, (2021). Abstract
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The most effective ways to mitigate the diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic are social distancing and the use of face masks as barrier to avoid droplets and to filtrate exhalations coming from infected subjects. Currently used face masks are products developed to be used by workers, both in health care and other contexts, where their use is limited in time and the disposal scenario is properly managed. Their use in a pandemic situation can be thus considered a remedial action due to the emergency. New masks or mask families are needed based on the desirable requirements retrieved by the analysis of the current worldwide situation and covering the gap observed in the market. The present paper aims to describe the complete product development process of a new facial mask (or mask family) for a daily use on a pandemic situation. It challenges the time constraint of the COVID-19 pandemic by adopting a four-step approach and concurrent development of the first phases (definition of requirements and functional derivation). The engineering design process allows to derive two different solutions able to fulfil all the requirements (demands and wishes) of final users, by assuring high ergonomic performance, as well as environmental, economic, and social sustainability.

Keywords: COVID-19 | Engineering design | facial mask | pandemic | product development process

[16] Favi C., Marconi M., Rossi M., Cappelletti F., Product Eco-Design in the Era of Circular Economy: Experiences in the Design of Espresso Coffee Machines, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 194-199, (2021). Abstract
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Product eco-design includes several methodologies aimed at supporting companies in the development of sustainable products. Currently, this theme is assuming an important role in both the academia and industry worlds due to the increasing attention to environmental problems and the need for a transition toward circular economy business/organizational models. In this context, the present paper focuses on the industrial sector of espresso coffee machines manufacturing which has several unexploited potentialities. The analysis of the sector specificity (internal and external contexts), as well as of the product lifecycle allowed to define an eco-design framework to guide companies involved in the design and production of espresso coffee machines. Effective eco-design strategies should include the combined use of specific methods, tools and metrics to manage all the most important lifecycle phases (beginning of life, middle of life, end of life) during the design activities in order to set preventive actions that avoid future potential environmental impacts. Only in this way, the environmental and economic benefits of the circular economy paradigm (e.g. remanufacturing/reuse of selected components) can be practically exploited in real industrial contexts. The presented case studies confirmed that the application of design for disassembly rules positively contributes to increase the product performances during maintenance and end of life, while a re-design oriented to component modularity could be a key strategy to pursue remanufacturing for boilers, a key and expensive component included in espresso coffee machines.

Keywords: Circular economy | Coffee machine | Product eco-design | Recycling | Remanufacturing

[17] Rossi M., Papetti A., Marconi M., Germani M., Life cycle assessment of a leather shoe supply chain, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 14(4), 686-703, (2021). Abstract
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The fashion industry is responsible for a significant contribution to environmental pressure in the European Union. The present study aims to quantify the environmental impacts of a leather shoe production chain and identify the most criticalities in terms of companies, processes, and materials. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the impacts related to the production of a pair of classic man leather shoes. Slaughtering and tanning resulted in the less environmentally sustainable stages for almost all the analysed impact categories, except water resource depletion and ozone layer depletion. Such outcomes are mainly due to the high distance from animals’ skin suppliers to slaughterhouses and tanneries, the use of lorries transport, and the large use of unsustainable chemicals to treat the leather. Going downstream, the main hot spot refers to the use of cotton during upper manufacturing and shoe assembly and finishing. Three alternative realistic production scenarios were simulated to find the best sustainable mix. They focused on alternative means of transport, the substitution of cotton, and green purchasing of upper and lining. An environmental impact reduction of about 30% can be obtained if all the suggested scenarios are implemented.

Keywords: environmental impact | footwear industry | Leather shoe supply chain | Life Cycle Assessment

[18] Forcellese A., Marconi M., Simoncini M., Vita A., Environmental and buckling performance analysis of 3D printed composite isogrid structures, Procedia CIRP, 98, 458-463, (2021). Abstract
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Additive manufacturing of composite materials is gaining important market shares, especially in the aerospace field, since it leads to a reduction of the environmental impacts while ensuring high product performances. Structures of particular interest are isogrids due to their high compression strength-to-weight ratio. In this research, isogrids and solid panels were 3D printed using carbon fiber reinforced polyamide. All the parts presented the same width, height and specific resistances but they differ in thickness, ribs dimensions and drying process after printing. A comparison between their environmental impacts and buckling loads have been conducted. The objective was to determine the configuration which leads to the best compromise between sustainability and mechanical performances.

Keywords: Buckling | Composite 3D printing | Isogrid structures | Life Cycle Assessment

[19] Rodríguez N.B., Formentini G., Favi C., Marconi M., Environmental implication of personal protection equipment in the pandemic era: LCA comparison of face masks typologies, Procedia CIRP, 98, 306-311, (2021). Abstract
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In the present global health emergency, face masks play a key role in limiting the diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic, by acting as physical barriers to avoid droplets and filtrate exhalations coming from infected subjects. Since the most widespread devices are disposable products made of plastic materials, this means that relevant quantities of fossil resources will be consumed, and huge amounts of wastes will be generated. The present paper aims to compare the environmental performances of five different typologies of face masks (i.e. 3D printed reusable mask with filter, surgical mask, filtering face-piece masks-FFPs with and without valve, washable masks), considering an average Italian use scenario and the whole mask lifecycle: materials, manufacturing processes, use, sanitization, and disposal. The Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been used to assess the environmental impacts in terms of both ReCiPe midpoints and endpoints. Reusable masks and masks with interchangeable filters could potentially contribute to improve the environmental performances in all the considered impact and damage categories. Eco-design actions can be developed starting from the study results.

Keywords: COVID-19 | environmental analysis | face masks | life cycle assessment | personal protective equipment | waste reduction

[20] Forcellese A., Marconi M., Simoncini M., Vita A., Life cycle impact assessment of different manufacturing technologies for automotive CFRP components, Journal of Cleaner Production, 271, (2020). Abstract
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A comparative life cycle assessment analysis among pressure bag molding and bag molding with autoclave for the manufacturing of car components in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) was carried out. Four scenarios were analyzed: i) autoclave bag molding with aluminum mold, ii) autoclave bag molding with CFRP mold and plastic master, iii) autoclave bag molding with CFRP mold and medium density fiberboard master, and iv) pressure bag molding with aluminum mold. The collected data for life cycle inventory derives from an Italian manufacturer of CFRP car components, scientific references and Ecoinvent database. Cumulative energy demand, global warming potential, ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint methods were used as impact and damage categories for quantifying the environmental impacts of the different manufacturing processes investigated. The results showed that the pre-impregnated composite fibers with thermoset polymer matrix, used as input material for the four investigated scenarios, represents the main source of total environmental impact, due to the use of polyacrylonitrile as a precursor for carbon fibers. The comparison among the environmental assessments of the different scenarios demonstrated that the most impacting process is the autoclave bag molding with composite mold and polyurethane master, whilst the most sustainable process is the autoclave bag molding with aluminum mold.

Keywords: Autoclave process | Carbon fiber reinforced plastics | Life cycle assessment | Pressure bag molding

[21] Barbanera M., Belloni E., Buratti C., Calabrò G., Marconi M., Merli F., Armentano I., Recycled leather cutting waste-based boards: thermal, acoustic, hygrothermal and ignitability properties, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 22(5), 1339-1351, (2020). Abstract
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This study investigates the possibility to reuse finished leather scraps, produced by the leather goods industry during the cutting phase, for the preparation of innovative panels for thermal-noise building insulation. Experimental panels were prepared by chipping the leather cuttings, using polyvinylacetate binder, and pressing the paste in a mold through a mechanical press. Boards were tested for thermal and acoustic performance, thermal stability, hygrothermal, wettability and ignitability properties. Acoustic measurements by means of a Kundt’s tube, and thermal characterization by means of a small hot–box system were performed. The measured thermal conductivity was 0.104 W/(mK) and 0.108 W/(mK) for the 45 °C and 50 °C set-up hot temperatures, respectively. Concerning the acoustic performance, two panels with thickness of 18-mm and 28-mm were produced: they were characterized by a noise reduction coefficient of 0.46 and 0.20 and transmission loss values in the range of 25–33 dB and 25–42 dB, respectively. Results revealed that the leather cutting waste panels were characterized by interesting thermal and acoustic performance, which are of the same order of magnitude of other residual-based insulation panels. The other analyzed properties confirmed the potential application in building insulation.

Keywords: Acoustic characterization | Building insulating systems | Leather cutting waste | Thermal conductivity measurements | Thermal stability

[22] Scafà M., Marconi M., Germani M., A critical review of symbiosis approaches in the context of Industry 4.0, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 7(3), 269-278, (2020). Abstract
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The implementation of symbiosis approaches is recognized as an effective industrial strategy towards the optimization of resource exploitation and the improvement of collaboration in the context of Industry 4.0. An industrial system can be considered as a complex environment in which material, energy, machine, and human resources should cooperate towards the improvement of efficiency and the creation of value. According to this vision, the paper presents a detailed literature review about the existing symbiosis approaches: (i) industrial symbiosis models, which mainly aim at the sharing of resources among different companies, and (ii) human symbiosis, which focuses on how to effectively strengthen the synergy among humans and machines. Strengths, weaknesses and correlations among the most common symbiosis approaches are analysed and classified. Finally, the existing symbiosis models are related with the pillars of the Industry 4.0 paradigm, in order to understand what should be the future directions of research in the context of collaborative manufacturing.

Keywords: collaborative manufacturing | human symbiosis | industrial symbiosis | Industry 4.0

[23] Landi D., Marconi M., Bocci E., Germani M., Comparative life cycle assessment of standard, cellulose-reinforced and end of life tires fiber-reinforced hot mix asphalt mixtures, Journal of Cleaner Production, 248, (2020). Abstract
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A change in the current waste management practices is needed to improve the reuse and recycling rates and limit the increasing environmental impacts (EI) on the environment. The construction sector is one of the major contributors to the global EI, regarding energy consumption, emissions released into the atmosphere and extracted natural resources. In this context, the reuse of waste and scraps from other sectors/production chains (i.e. fibers from end of life tires – ELT) in road pavements potentially represents a best practice. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) among three different typologies of hot mix asphalt mixtures (HMA): standard, cellulose-reinforced and ELT fiber-reinforced. The study focuses on the environmental analysis of the realization and maintenance of 1 m2 of HMA mixtures for a motorway road, during a time lapse of 30 years. The life cycle inventory includes primary data, collected from different industrial companies and from laboratory test, secondary data, derived from the GaBi professional database 2016. The service lives of the different typologies of HMA have been evaluated through a laboratory study and a full-scale application in a trial section located in an important Italian motorway. The porous asphalt mixture containing ELT fibers showed about 70% increase in the fatigue resistance with respect to the porous asphalt mixture containing cellulose fibers. The environmental impacts have been quantified in terms of Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), Global Warming Potential (GWP), and ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint indicators. The obtained results show that raw materials (particularly bitumen) are the most impactful flows for all the three considered mixtures and for all the impact categories. Also the transportation phases contribute with relevant impacts, while energy flows consumed during the HMA preparation and laying are almost negligible. Considering the CED, GWP and ReCiPe endpoint indicators, the ELT fiber-reinforced HMA resulted the best alternative (reduction of 25% in comparison with the standard HMA), followed by the cellulose-reinforced HMA (−10%), thanks to the higher service life. For some ReCiPe midpoint categories (Agricultural land occupation, Freshwater ecotoxicity, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication and Terrestrial ecotoxicity), instead, the worst scenario is the cellulose HMA, due to the high contribution of the cellulose material.

Keywords: Cellulose fiber | End-of-life tires fiber | Hot mix asphalt mixtures | Life cycle assessment

[24] Rossi M., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., An augmented reality system for operator training in the footwear sector, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 18(4), 692-703, (2020). Abstract
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This study presents an augmented reality-based system for the training of assembly line operators in the context of the high-end footwear industry. The proposed multi-layer software architecture, in combination with the AR viewer (Microsoft HoloLens™), guides operators of the shoe assembly/finishing line during the offline training activities. An evaluation protocol has been defined and preliminary experimentation of the system have been conducted in an Italian company that produces classic and luxury leather shoes.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Footwear Industry | Manufacturing | Operator Training

[25] Marconi M., Barbanera M., Calabrò G., Baffo I., Reuse of leather scraps for insulation panels: Technical and environmental feasibility evaluation, Procedia CIRP, 90, 55-60, (2020). Abstract
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Leather material is used in different industrial sectors that generate high quantities of wastes, especially during the cutting phase. This study aims to propose a reuse path for leather scraps focused on the production of an insulation panel. The technical feasibility evaluation demonstrated that the innovative material has acceptable performance to be applied as thermal insulation for building. The preliminary life cycle assessment study compared the environmental performance of the innovative panel against a polyurethane panel. Results demonstrated benefits in some impact and damage categories (-36% in terms of climate change and -15% in terms of ReCiPe single score).

Keywords: Circular economy | Leather scraps | Life cycle assessment | Thermo-acoustic insulation

[26] Favi C., Marconi M., Mandolini M., Germani M., Big data analysis for the estimation of disassembly time and de-manufacturing activity, Procedia CIRP, 90, 617-622, (2020). Abstract
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Design for disassembly is a key enabling strategy for the development of new business models based on the Industry 4.0 and circular economy paradigms. This paper attempts to define a method, based on Data Mining, for modelling disassembly data from large amount of records collected through the observation of de-manufacturing activities. The method allows to build a repository to characterize the disassembly time of joining elements (e.g. screws, nuts) considering different features and conditions. The approach was preliminary tested on a sample of 344 records for nuts disassembly retrieved by in-house tests. Disassembly time and corrective factors were assessed including the analysis of probability distribution function and standard deviation for each feature (i.e. disassembly tool).

Keywords: Big data analysis | Data mining | De-manufacturing | Design for disassembly | Disassembly time

[27] Menghi R., Domizio G.D., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., An energy assessment method for SMEs: Case study of an Italian mechanical workshop, Procedia Manufacturing, 43, 56-63, (2020). Abstract
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Nowadays, climate change requires companies to reduce their energy consumption and make their production systems more efficient. However, the complexity of the methodologies, the lack of transparency or high efforts (personnel/time) make this challenge especially difficult for SMEs. In this context, the present paper proposes a workflow to supports SMEs in a lean energy analysis. Through the implementation of several methodologies, a comprehensive assessment of energy consumption was carried out. The application to a real case study allowed to identify energy inefficiencies and to evaluate the energy saving and performance improvement actions.

Keywords: Energy efficiency assessment | Lean analysis | Manufacturing systems | SME

[28] Marconi M., Papetti A., Rossi M., Di Domizio G., Improving the Shoes Customization Process Through a Digitally-Enabled Framework, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 317-328, (2020). Abstract
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Product customization is largely considered one of the most important competitive factors in several industrial sectors, including high-end footwear. However, in this sector, products are generally manufactured through manual and artisanal operations, processes are not standardized and repeatable, and the personal skills of expert operators play a leading role. The objective of the present paper is to propose a workflow enabled by a framework including several technologies (computer aided design tool, augmented reality systems, traceability infrastructure), to support industrial companies of the high-end footwear sector during the different phases of shoes customization (from configuration to delivery). All these technologies jointly contribute to innovate the shoes customization process by increasing the flexibility of internal processes, improving the ability of companies to answer to specific requirements thanks to the direct involvement of customers, maximizing the efficiency of data sharing, making the organizational, design, production and management processes more efficient and repeatable, and reducing the customer response time.

Keywords: Customization framework | Customization process | Shoes configuration

[29] Rossi M., Marconi M., Menghi R., Papetti A., A Knowledge Repository to Support Ecodesign Implementation in Manufacturing Companies, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 651-661, (2020). Abstract
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In last years, increasing attention on environmental matters is registered and companies are forced by legislations, normative and protocols to increase the environmental performances of their products. Observing the industrial context, it emerges there are several barriers for an effective implementation of eco-design strategies inside design departments. The paper presents a knowledge repository tool, which aims at both, providing a basic guide on environmental sustainability issues and favoring knowledge sharing among design departments. The tool is mainly based on a structured repository in which company materials, organized in different forms, are collected. The repository contains training section, well-organized guidelines, company specific knowledge and milestone. The implementation of the tool in two industrial companies is presented and results of usability and tool effectiveness discussed.

Keywords: Company knowledge | Environmental sustainability | Knowledge sharing

[30] Marconi M., Favi C., Eco-design teaching initiative within a manufacturing company based on LCA analysis of company product portfolio, Journal of Cleaner Production, 242, (2020). Abstract
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Eco-design is the integration of environmental considerations within product design and development. Eco-design represents an important innovation driver for companies; however, well-known barriers limit the diffusion of this design paradigm in the industrial world. Amongst these, lack of eco-knowledge is correlated to the adopted eco-design teaching methods. Previous experience has highlighted that traditional teaching methods such as university lectures or refresher courses are not an effective means for disseminating eco-design knowledge in the industrial world. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel eco-design teaching method based on a transformative strategy for promoting eco-design and facilitating the learning process. This approach, tested in collaboration with an Italian manufacturing firm, is considered the first attempt to implement a repeatable eco-design teaching approach that can be scaled up in different industrial contexts. Several company departments, including management, marketing and commercial affairs, design and engineering, and a testing laboratory were involved in the training program. Technical results show that company employees were able to autonomously implement re-design solutions and improve the environmental performance of a coffee machine upon completion of the course. The quantitative evaluation of formative outcomes through assessment before and after the course highlights a significant increase in the awareness of personnel and knowledge relating to eco-design.

Keywords: Eco-design | Eco-knowledge | Life cycle assessment | Product portfolio | Teaching

[31] Menghi R., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., Energy efficiency of manufacturing systems: A review of energy assessment methods and tools, Journal of Cleaner Production, 240, (2019). Abstract
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Industrial manufacturing is the largest end-use sector in terms of both final energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions (more than 30% of the total); its increase is rapidly altering the world climate. The need to mitigate the environmental impacts of manufacturing processes makes energy efficiency a key success factor for sustainable production. Accordingly, the scientific community's interest in energy management has grown considerably, resulting in several literature reviews on energy modelling and production systems analysis, emissions calculation, sustainability tools and benchmarking techniques. However, a comprehensive analysis of methods and tools aimed at improving energy awareness and assessing their effects on energy efficiency is lacking. To address this gap, this paper undertakes a systematic literature review of energy assessment methods and tools. From the 1367 papers retrieved by searching scientific literature databases, 64 scientific articles met the inclusion criteria and were analysed in detail. The study aims to provide scholars with a picture of the current state of scientific research and to identify the scientific works that could help industry practitioners in energy management. Following the ISO 50001 framework, the methods and tools were divided into three main groups (i.e. energy analysis, energy evaluation and energy-saving measures methods) and the specific findings relating to each group were synthesized. Finally, the paper addresses unresolved issues and challenges and makes suggestions for future research directions.

Keywords: Energy assessment tools and methods | Energy efficiency | Industry | Manufacturing processes | Systematic literature review

[32] Vita A., Castorani V., Germani M., Marconi M., Comparative life cycle assessment and cost analysis of autoclave and pressure bag molding for producing CFRP components, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 105(5-6), 1967-1982, (2019). Abstract
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Composite materials are demonstrating the ability to face the challenge of competitive markets where high-performance, low costs, and reduced manufacturing time are mandatory. Vacuum bagging with autoclave curing is one of the most used manufacturing methods for carbon fiber composite parts. However, it shows some limitations, mainly due to manual operations and long processing time. Out-of-autoclave (OOA) methods, such as pressure bag molding (PBM), can lead to a strong reduction of the manufacturing time through the simplification of lay-up and curing phases. In this paper, a comparative analysis between the autoclave and the PBM processes has been performed, jointly considering both the economic and environmental aspects. An evaluation of the environmental impacts has been carried out following the standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. In addition, costs related to these two manufacturing techniques have been estimated through a parametric approach and successively compared. Different scenarios have been considered to take into account various production batches, mold manufacturing techniques, and end of life alternatives. The analyses show conflicting results demonstrating that a global optimum scenario does not exist and, depending on the chosen indicator and production batch, the best alternative varies. Considering only the environmental indicators, the autoclave process can be considered the most sustainable option, due to the lower consumption of energy.

Keywords: Autoclave | Cost analysis | Life cycle assessment | Out of autoclave processing | Prepreg | Scenario analysis

[33] Rossi M., Papetti A., Marconi M., Germani M., A multi-criteria index to support ecodesign implementation in manufacturing products: benefits and limits in real case studies, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 12(6), 376-389, (2019). Abstract
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The growing attention to environmental sustainability is not reflected in the effective implementation of ecodesign principles in the industrial context. The main barriers are related to the propensity of companies to optimise only specific aspects directly affected by legislation and to the higher priority given to other drivers such as performance, cost and aesthetics. The present paper faces this issue by proposing an approach to support designers to concurrently deal with environmental, economic and technical performance in all the key phases of the product development process (selection of drivers, evaluation of design alternatives, preservation, sharing and reuse of knowledge, etc.). The approach is grounded on a multi-criteria index, called Product Impact Index (PII), which allows weighting different drivers, verifying the satisfaction of the company’s goals, and comparing different design solutions. The method has been successfully applied in two case studies to support the redesign of a cooker hood and a freestanding cooker. Results confirmed its usefulness and effectiveness in overcoming the common barriers to ecodesign implementation in the industrial context.

Keywords: ecodesign | engineering design for sustainable development | knowledge management | Multi criteria index | sustainability

[34] Papetti A., Menghi R., Di Domizio G., Germani M., Marconi M., Resources value mapping: A method to assess the resource efficiency of manufacturing systems, Applied Energy, 249, 326-342, (2019). Abstract
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The assessment and monitoring of energy and resource efficiency is an essential activity toward the implementation of sustainable manufacturing practices. Existing energy/resource assessment methods and tools are not based on a comprehensive approach, lack on the use of specific key performance indicators, are dedicated to expert stakeholders and do not provide useful suggestions for improving production systems. This paper proposes an innovative method, called Resources Value Mapping that aims to map and classify activities and related energy/resource consumptions according to lean philosophy principles (value-added, non value-added, waste). A user-friendly map and two efficiency indicators (Cost Index and Muda Index) are proposed to quantitatively support the identification of criticalities related to activities, processes, lines, plants, etc., and to successively guide the decision-making process during the improvement strategies implementation. The method has been used to analyze a manufacturing plant that produces cooking appliances. The case study demonstrated the applicability of the method in real industrial contexts and its effectiveness in identifying the energy/resource flows (electricity and compressed air), departments (sheet department) and lines (mechanical and hydraulic presses) for which the waste and non value-added consumptions are prominent. The analysis highlighted that less of 20% of the resources consumed during the process creates value, offering wide margins for improvement. Finally, it aided the definition of an action plan leading to relevant reduction of resource consumptions, economic savings and environmental benefits.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Key performance indicators | Lean manufacturing | Resources Value Mapping | Sustainable manufacturing

[35] Mandolini M., Marconi M., Rossi M., Favi C., Germani M., A standard data model for life cycle analysis of industrial products: A support for eco-design initiatives, Computers in Industry, 109, 31-44, (2019). Abstract
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The eco-design of industrial products is a complex task that requires a high level of expertise in environmental science and a very large amount of data about the product under development. Product data for eco-design are not limited to geometrical and technical aspects; they also include information related to the product life cycle. The present paper aims to define a life cycle standard data model (LCSDM) that manages and shares life cycle information along the product development process. The LCSDM is defined as a common and structured framework for data collection in comparative evaluations. The need of a “standard” data model emerges in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA), mainly due to the subjectivity related to the life cycle inventory phase. The standard structure of the LCSDM facilitates the interoperability of eco-design software tools by creating a common framework for the implementation of eco-design initiatives inside product manufacturing companies. The LCSDM is a data structure that is able to represent the relationships among parts and assemblies. Each part or assembly is defined by a set of nodes that characterize the life cycle phases (e.g., Material, Manufacturing, Use, End-of-life, and Transport). A list of attributes is identified according to the environmental features that describe the product life cycle. The LCSDM structure is implemented in an encoding document for data sharing through a generic software language (e.g., XML – eXtensible Markup Language). The implementation of the proposed LCSDM in the design department of a manufacturing company using an eco-design software platform leads to the following benefits: (i) the fulfilment of the LCSDM (XML file) along the product development process, (ii) the use of a unique standard for data sharing among the several eco-design software tools, and (iii) the creation of a robust framework for life cycle assessment. The main drawback of the proposed LCSDM is related to the initial effort required to set up the design software platform (which consists of both standard and eco-design tools) to be able to read, fill, store and share the LCSDM.

Keywords: Data-exchange | Eco-design | Environmental analysis | Inter-operability | Life cycle inventory | Product life cycle

[36] Marconi M., Palmieri G., Callegari M., Germani M., Feasibility Study and Design of an Automatic System for Electronic Components Disassembly, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME, 141(2), (2019). Abstract
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The improvement of the waste management efficiency and sustainability in the electronics sector requires the disassembly and reuse of valuable electronic components, instead of their recycling for precious materials recovery. In this context, this study proposes a robotic system for the disassembly of electronic components, grounded on the revamping of an existing soldering machine. First, the feasibility of an automated process for the end of life (EoL) management of electronic boards is investigated: the disassembly and reuse of electronic components represents a potential cost saving opportunity for producers of industrial electronic boards, other than an effective means to improve the environmental sustainability of the electronics sector. Then, the automatic system has been designed; it is mainly composed by a wave soldering machine, a two-axis manipulator equipped with a suction cup for components picking, and a central control unit to coordinate the motion. Finally, the prototype of the disassembly equipment has been realized. The experimental tests aimed at setting the most relevant process parameters (e.g., working temperatures) and verifying the performance of the developed disassembly equipment. Results confirmed the effectiveness and the reliability of the prototype: all the 450 microprocessors disassembled from 50 boards resulted to be not damaged and thus directly reusable in new boards without the need of additional treatments (e.g., washing).

[37] Marconi M., Germani M., Mandolini M., Favi C., Applying data mining technique to disassembly sequence planning: a method to assess effective disassembly time of industrial products, International Journal of Production Research, 57(2), 599-623, (2019). Abstract
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Design for end-of-life and design for disassembly are enabling design strategies for the implementation of business models based on the circular economy paradigm. The paper presents a method for calculating the effective disassembly sequence and time for industrial products. Five steps support designers in defining liaisons and related properties and precedence among components with the aim to calculate the best disassembly sequence and time. The effective disassembly time is computed considering the actual conditions of a product and its components (e.g. deformation, rust and wear) using corrective factors. This aspect represents the main contribution to the state of the art in the field of design for disassembly. The corrective factors are derived from a specific data mining process, based on the observation of real de-manufacturing activities. The proposed approach has been used for calculating the disassembly times of target components in a washing machine and in a coffee machine. The case studies highlight the method reliability of both: definition of time-effective disassembly sequences and assessment of effective disassembly times. In particular, a comparison of experimental tests shows a maximum deviation of −6% for the electric motor of the washing machine and −3% for the water pump of the coffee machine.

Keywords: data mining | de-manufacturing | design for disassembly | disassembly planning | estimated disassembly time | target disassembly

[38] Marconi M., Papetti A., Scafà M., Rossi M., Germani M., An innovative framework for managing the customization of tailor-made shoes, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 3821-3830, (2019). Abstract
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Product customization aims to consider individual customers preferences in the design of new products, in order to directly involve them in the product development process and to maximize their satisfaction. It can be considered a key competitive factor and a "hot topic" in several industrial sectors, including luxury apparel goods and high-end footwear products. However, currently the design and manufacturing of customized shoes are carried out through artisanal and non-standardized processes, based on the individual expertise of operators. The objective of this study is to define an innovative framework to support the different processes affected by customization. This framework is enabled by different digital technologies, as CAD-based tools, virtual/augmented reality systems, etc., opportunely integrated in the product development process. The main benefits related to the framework implementation in real industrial contexts are an increase of flexibility, the repeatability of processes, a higher efficiency in information exchange, a more effective involvement of final customers, and, as a consequence, the reduction of time to market and production costs for tailor-made shoes.

Keywords: Design for X (DfX) | Design process | Integrated product development

[39] Landi D., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Favi C., Environmental and economic evaluation of the sheet metal stamping process using alternative lubricants, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2019). Abstract
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Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials (e.g. stainless steel) or forming in tribologically difficult conditions (e.g. ironing, punching, deep drawing) require the use of environmentally hazardous lubricants, such as chlorinated paraffin oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes an environmental and economic evaluation of two alternative sheet metal stamping processes. The forming of a sheet metal component for boiler burners has been taken as case study for the analyses. In particular, two different lubricants (standard mineral versus polymer matrix-based lubricant) have been tested and compared. However, the differences among the two processes involves not only the lubrication phase, but also the electric energy consumption during the stamping and degreasing, as well as the typology of solvent (perchloroethylene versus water). Results obtained with the economic analysis show that the use of the alternative lubricant leads to a 16% reduction of the total manufacturing cost, mainly due to the optimization of the degreasing. Concerning environmental results, instead, no relevant differences can be observed for almost all the considered impact categories (ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint), since the optimized phases are not the most critical ones.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Degreasing | Life cycle assessment | Lubricants | Sheet metal stamping

[40] Di Domizio G., Menghi R., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., A method for lean energy assessment of manufacturing systems, Procedia CIRP, 81, 1447-1452, (2019). Abstract
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Manufacturing systems are among the main consumers of energy. Several methods and tools have been developed to support companies toward energy efficiency. However, they generally require high computational effort, onerous measurement campaigns or complex models. In this paper, a method to perform a lean energy assessment starting from the asset characteristics is proposed. It is based on a set of corrective factors that consider both technical and productive aspects. The final goal is to overcome the lack of precise data needed to identify hotspots from the energy point of view. A real industrial case study allows implementing the method and demonstrating its usefulness.

Keywords: Energy assessment | Lean phylosophy | Manufacturing systems

[41] Vita A., Castorani V., Germani M., Marconi M., Comparative life cycle assessment of low-pressure RTM, compression RTM and high-pressure RTM manufacturing processes to produce CFRP car hoods, Procedia CIRP, 80, 352-357, (2019). Abstract
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Advanced composite materials, especially those based on carbon fibers, have been attracting the interest of industrial companies for producing light and high-performance components. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and its variants have been recognized as the most promising processes to manufacture CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) products in a cost-effective way. However, recent research studies highlighted environmental concerns regarding the use of CFRP parts due to the high environmental load related to their production. In this context, the main scope of the present paper is to investigate and compare the environmental impacts of three alternative manufacturing processes for producing CFRP car hoods: RTM, High-Pressure RTM and Compression-RTM. This analysis has been carried out through the standard Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The system boundaries include all the flows related to manufacturing of the hood and an end of life. Results calculated by using the ReCiPe mid-point/end-point method suggest that the eco-friendliest variant is the Compression-RTM.

Keywords: CFRP car hood | Compression RTM | High-Pressure RTM | Life Cycle Assessment | RTM

[42] Favi C., Marconi M., Germani M., Teaching eco-design by using LCA analysis of company's product portfolio: The case study of an Italian manufacturing firm, Procedia CIRP, 80, 452-457, (2019). Abstract
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Eco-design is a design paradigm aiming to the development of sustainable products. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is considered an eco-design tool able to assess the product environmental performances through a life cycle perspective. However, LCA shows some limitations in industry's daily practice and cannot be considered a standard for implementing eco-design. The paper aims to describe the implementation of a novel eco-design teaching approach involving company's employees from different technical departments. LCA analysis of company's product portfolio allowed to create a specific eco-knowledge, used to train designers and engineers on this subject for the implementation of eco-design actions during the development of new products (espresso coffee machine). Results highlighted relevant learning outcomes and significant improvements in terms of environmental sustainability of a new product design.

Keywords: Eco-design | Eco-knowledge | LCA | Teaching

[43] Landi D., Germani M., Marconi M., Analyzing the environmental sustainability of glass bottles reuse in an Italian wine consortium, Procedia CIRP, 80, 399-404, (2019). Abstract
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The wine production constitutes an important sector for the Italian economy. Most of the wine producers are associated in local consortiums, which include small family companies involved in the production of similar products. This study aims to investigate the implementation of circular economy opportunities in the wine production chain. In particular, the reuse of glass bottles in the Piceno wine consortium (central Italy) has been analyzed to quantify the potential environmental benefits. The standard Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been used to compare the standard scenario (recycle of glass) against the circular scenario (cleaning and reuse of bottles within the local consortium). Results demonstrate that the reuse of glass bottles leads to relevant benefits in all the considered impact categories (ReCiPe Midpoint method). The avoided use of virgin glass offsets the additional resources (e.g. energy) consumed during the cleaning of used bottles.

Keywords: Circular economy | LCA | Reuse | Wine bottle

[44] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Raffaeli R., An analytical cost estimation approach for generic sheet metal 3D models, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(5), 936-950, (2019). Abstract
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This paper defines a systematic workflow for production cost estimation of sheet metal stamped components. The approach represents a solution toward the adoption of Design to Cost methods during early product design. It consists in a sequence of steps that, starting from a 3D CAD model with annotations (material, roughness and tolerances) and production information (batch and production volume) leads to the manufacturing cost through an analytic cost breakdown (raw material, stamping and accessory processes, setup and tooling). The calculation process mainly consists in a first step where geometric algorithms calculate the sheet metal blank (dimensions, shape, thickness) and specific product features (e.g. flanges, louvers, embossing, etc.). The following steps allow to calculate the raw material, the stamping process and the process-related parameters, which are the manufacturing cost drivers (e.g. press, stamping rate/sequence/force and die dimensions/weight). The manufacturing cost is the sum of the previous calculated items. Testing the approach for three different components, the average absolute deviation measured between the estimated and actual cost was less than 10% and such a result looks promising for adopting this method for evaluating alternative design solutions.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Design to cost | Feature recognition | Sheet metal stamping

[45] Favi C., Marconi M., Germani M., Mandolini M., A design for disassembly tool oriented to mechatronic product de-manufacturing and recycling, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 39, 62-79, (2019). Abstract
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The easy disassembly of certain product components is a prerequisite to guarantee an efficient recovery of parts and materials. This is one of the first step in the implementation of circular economy business models. Design for Disassembly (DfD) is a particular target design methodology supporting engineers in developing industrial products that can be easily disassembled into single components. The paper presents a method and a software tool for quantitatively assessing the disassemblability and recyclability of mechatronic products. The time-based method has been implemented in a software tool, called LeanDfD, which calculates the best disassembly sequences of target components considering disassembly precedencies, liaisons among components, and specific properties to model the real condition of the product at its End-of-Life (EoL). A dedicated repository has been developed to store and classify standard times and corrective factors of each disassembly liaison and operation. This knowledge feeds the two LeanDfD tool modules: (i) product disassemblability module, which allows to carry out the time-based analysis and to improve the disassemblability performance of target components, and (ii) product recyclability module, which estimates the quantities of materials that could be potentially recycled at the product EoL. The LeanDfD tool functionalities have been defined starting from the means of the user stories and the developed tool framework, data structure, databases and use scenarios are described. A group of designers/engineers used the tool during a re-design project of a washing machine, considering the disassemblability as the main driver. The case study highlights how the proposed DfD method and tool are able to support the implementation of re-design actions for improving product de-manufacturability and EoL performance. The LeanDfD features aid engineers in making a quick and robust assessment of their design choices by considering quantitative disassemblability and recyclability metrics.

Keywords: Design for disassembly tool | Disassembly sequence planning | Disassembly time | Recyclability

[46] Papetti A., Marconi M., Rossi M., Germani M., Web-based platform for eco-sustainable supply chain management, Sustainable Production and Consumption, 17, 215-228, (2019). Abstract
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The increasing focus on environmental practices has led academia and industry to address eco-sustainability in different ways. Recent improvements to supply chain management (SCM) have also included environmental sustainability as a key factor, in addition to common drivers such as risk, supply quality, and cost. Although several eco-sustainable SCM approaches have been proposed, often those solutions remain too theoretical and difficult to implement. This paper contributes to this research topic by proposing a web-based platform capable of tracing suppliers and related processes along the entire product supply chain (SC). This platform is a powerful decision-making tool for improving overall SC environmental sustainability. A structured methodology is defined and implemented that can efficiently model complex SCs, share data between actors, and measure its environmental sustainability. To demonstrate the platform applicability and validate its effectiveness in industrial settings, a case study of industrial partners involved in the production of leather shoes is provided.

Keywords: Environmental sustainability | Supply chain management (SCM) | Supply chain traceability | Web-based platform

[47] Marconi M., Manieri S., Germani M., Raffaeli R., A digitally-enabled integrated approach to design and manufacture shoe lasts, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(3), 593-610, (2019). Abstract
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In the era of the fourth industrial revolution the efficient sharing and exploitation of information are key success factors for companies. In order to maintain competitiveness and to answer to the requests for highly customized products, shoe last producers need to innovate their processes, by adopting digital technologies. The present paper proposes an innovative integrated approach for shoe last design and manufacturing. The process is enabled by CAD/CAM technologies, which allow to integrate the design and manufacturing phases, and by haptic technologies, which allow to interact with the virtual models to simplify the successive planning and manufacturing operations. The final aim is to support traditional companies in the implementation of the Industry 4.0 paradigm. The test case about marking operation confirms that the adoption of the proposed approach leads to a sensible improvement in the company operational efficiency, thanks to the reduction in the number of repetitive tasks.

Keywords: CAD/CAM technologies | Haptic interface | Industry 4.0 | Shoe last design

[48] Favi C., Moroni F., Manieri S., Germani M., Marconi M., Virtual reality-enhanced configuration design of customized workplaces: A case study of ship bridge system, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(2), 345-357, (2019). Abstract
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The paper proposes a design method for the configuration of customized workplaces supported by the use of VR tool. The method allows to consider end-users anthropological features and configuration aspects related to the workplace (e.g. equipment). The adoption of VR technology allows supporting the configuration process, engaging end-users in the final customization. A yachts’ ship bridge console is proposed as a case study and a VR-enhanced configuration tool has been developed for the equipment configuration. The adoption of this tool in this specific field shows different advantages such as efficiency in configuration and time saving for the development of workplaces design alternatives. Another benefit of this approach is the automatic generation of an associated BoM and its management through PLM tools.

Keywords: Anthropological aspects | Configuration | Design | Ergonomics | Ship bridge system | VR

[49] Marconi M., Germani M., Favi C., Raffaeli R., CAD feature recognition as a means to prevent ergonomics issues during manual assembly tasks, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 15(5), 734-746, (2018). Abstract
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Feature-based modeling and feature recognition algorithm are state of the art technologies, mainly used to favor the integration and exchange of data between design and manufacturing phases. This paper aims to investigate the possibility to extend the use of the feature recognition as a means for the prevention of ergonomics issues during the manual assembly phase, such as Work-related Musculo-Skeletal Disorders (WMSDs). Starting from the features analysis of a 3D product model, the proposed five steps method allows preventively identifying potential ergonomics issues. The main novelty of this study is related to the correlation between design tools, product virtual representations (e.g. 3D models), assembly and ergonomics aspects. Results obtained with two case studies, a cooker hood and a tool-holder carousel, confirm the usefulness of the proposed method in helping designers to prevent potential ergonomics issues for operators involved in the assembly phase.

Keywords: Ergonomics | Feature recognition | Manual assembly | Virtual product model | Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders

[50] Landi D., Gigli S., Germani M., Marconi M., Investigating the feasibility of a reuse scenario for textile fibres recovered from end-of-life tyres, Waste Management, 75, 187-204, (2018). Abstract
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The management of end-of-life tyres (ELTs) is regulated by several national and international legislations aiming to promote the recovery of materials and energy from this waste. The three main materials used in tyres are considered: rubber (main product), which is currently reused in other closed-loop applications; steel, which is used for the production of virgin materials; and textile fibres (approximately 10% by weight of ELTs), which are mainly incinerated for energy recovery (open-loop scenario). This study aims to propose and validate a new closed-loop scenario for textile fibres based on material reuse for bituminous conglomerates. The final objective is to verify the technical, environmental, financial, and economic feasibility of the proposed treatment process and reuse scenario. After characterization of the textile material, which is required to determine the technological feasibility, a specific process has been developed to clean, compact, and prepare the fibres for subsequent reuse. A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out to quantify the environmental benefits of reusing the fibres. Finally, a cost benefit analysis based on the LCA results was conducted to establish the long-term financial and economic sustainability. From a technological point of view, the tyre textile fibres could be a promising substitute to the reinforcement cellulose commonly used in asphalts as long as the fibres are properly prepared (compaction and pellet production) for application in the standard bituminous conglomerate production process. From an environmental point of view, relevant benefits in terms of global warming potential and acidification potential reduction were observed in comparison with the standard incineration for energy recovery (respectively −86% and −45%). Moreover, the proposed scenario can be considered as financially viable in the medium to long term (cumulative generated cash flow is positive after the 5th year) and economically sustainable (expected net present value of more than €3,000,000 and economic rate of return of approximately 30%). Finally, the sensitivity and risk analyses show that no specific issues are foreseen for the future implementation in real industrial applications.

Keywords: Circular economy | Cost–benefit analysis | End-of-life tyres | Feasibility evaluation | Reuse scenario

[51] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Implementation of a software platform to support an eco-design methodology within a manufacturing firm, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 11(2), 79-96, (2018). Abstract
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The paper aims to explore the implementation of an eco-design methodology and the related software platform (G.EN.ESI–Green ENgineering dESIgn) within technical departments of a manufacturing firm. The G.EN.ESI eco-design methodology is based on the life cycle thinking concept and the software platform is conceived as a set of inter-operable software tools able to efficiently exchange data among them and with the traditional design systems (i.e. CAD, PDM and PLM). A multinational company, designing and producing household appliances, adopted the proposed methodology and related software platform for redesigning two cooker hood models with the aim to improve their environmental performances. Design and engineering departments evaluated the methodology and platform impact on the product development process, as well as the platform inter-operability with traditional design tools. The results indicate that methodology and software platform satisfy the requirements of the enterprise in terms of: (i) degree of expertise and training requirement on this subject, (ii) low impact in a consolidated design process and, (ii) good level of inter-operability among heterogeneous tools. However, the testing results highlight the necessity of a further platform optimisations in terms of software integration (single workbench made by integrated software tools with the same graphical user interface).

Keywords: BoM: Bill of Material | CAD: Computer-Aided Design | CAE: Computer-Assisted Engineering | CAS: Computer-Aided Software | CBR: Case Base Reasoning | CREER: Cluster Research, Excellence in Ecodesign & Recycling | DB: Database | DfD: Design for Disassembly | DfEE: Design for Energy Efficiency | Eco-design methodology | eco-design software platform | EDIMS: EcoDesign Integration Method for SMEs | EoL: End of Life | EPD: Environmental Product Declaration | FMEA: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis | G.EN.ESI: Green ENgineering dESIgn | GUI: Graphic User Interface | interoperability evaluation | LCA: Life Cycle Assessment | LCC: Life Cycle Costing | LCT: Life Cycle Thinking | LE: Large Enterprises | LED: Light Emission Diode | PDM: Product Data Management | PDP: Product development Process | PLM: Product Life cycle Management | PMMA: Poly Methyl Methacrylate | product environmental sustainability | R&D: Research and Development | REACH: Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals | RoHS: Restriction of Hazardous Substances | SME: Small and Medium Enterprises | WEEE: Waste od Electric and Electronic Equipment | XML: Extensible Markup Language

[52] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Time-based disassembly method: how to assess the best disassembly sequence and time of target components in complex products, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 95(1-4), 409-430, (2018). Abstract
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Circular economy (CE) is a new business model that is pressing manufacturing companies to think about closed loop scenarios for materials and products. Design for End-of-Life (DfEoL) and Design for Disassembly (DfD) are key enabling methods for the effective application of this model. The paper presents a time-based method for the calculation of disassembly sequences, adopting basic theories and techniques in this topic and integrating new concepts for the assessment of the disassembly time. The method consists of five steps and starts from the documentations (e.g., CAD model) generally available early in the product development process. The first three steps encompass the product analysis by including (i) the definition of target components from the general assembly, (ii) the analyses of the virtual model, and (iii) the assessment of the so-called level matrix, which is based on the concept of disassembly levels and liaisons characterization among components. The last two steps allow for the assessment of the time-based disassembly sequence by including (iv) the analysis of feasible sequences and (v) the generation of the best disassembly sequence for target components. The method mainly overcomes two issues highlighted in the literature regarding the reliability of the disassemblability analysis using a time-based approach and the quality of results accounting for the real condition of the product at the time of disassembly. The calculation of the effective disassembly time is grounded on a specific repository developed to gather knowledge about the disassembly tasks and related disassembly time. This is the main contribution and novelty of the proposed approach. By using the proposed method, different target components of a washing machine are analysed with the aim of demonstrating the robustness of the method and its consistency in the estimation of disassembly time. A maximum deviation of 10% between the estimated and measured disassembly times is noticed.

Keywords: De-manufacturing | Design for disassembly | Disassembly sequence planning | Disassembly time calculation | Level matrix | Target disassembly

[53] Scafà M., Marconi M., Germani M., A critical review of industrial symbiosis models, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 7, 1184-1193, (2018). Abstract
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The growing attention on sustainable development themes, in line with an increasing awareness of the exhaustibility of natural resources, has made the traditional linear economic model obsolete. Therefore, the concept of "Circular Economy" was developed to favour products and materials recovery and regeneration. To this end Industrial Symbiosis represents a promising approach to foster the transformation towards this type of economy, based on resource efficiency, sustainable manufacturing, materials, energy, water and/or by-products exchange and sharing between different companies. In this context, the aim of this paper is to present a classification and a critical discussion about existing industrial symbiosis models. According to the presented literature review, industrial symbiosis can be realized thorough the implementation of three different models: (i) industrial symbiosis districts that develop from a bottom-up approach and are based on resources sharing and materials exchanging, (ii) eco-industrial parks that develop from a top down approach and are determined by eco-sustainable infrastructures and systems, and (iii) networks for industrial symbiosis that evolve through cognitive/relational tools and are based on resources supply and demand intersection. The final objective of this study is to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of each model, to explore the applicability in real contexts, and to identify potential economic and environmental benefits (e.g. reduction of polluting emissions and landfilled wastes, economic savings due to reuse of scraps, energy sharing). The study concludes by identifying research gaps, reflecting on possible application of industrial symbiosis and proposing suggestions for future work.

Keywords: Collaborative platform | Eco-industrial parks | Industrial symbiosis | Industrial symbiosis districts | Resource efficiency

[54] Palmieri G., Marconi M., Corinaldi D., Germani M., Callegari M., Automated disassembly of electronic components: Feasibility and technical implementation, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2018). Abstract
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The paper deals with the feasibility of a flexible robotic cell for the disassembly of electronic components. First, the need for an automated process for the end of life management of electronic boards is motivated: the reuse of electronic components represents a potential cost saving opportunity for a class of electronic board producers, other than an effective means to improve the waste management efficiency and the sustainability of the electronics sector. Then, starting from a state of the art survey, a technical implementation of the cell is proposed. Finally, some preliminary tests of the disassembly equipment, aimed at setting the most relevant process parameters, are described.

[55] Landi D., Marconi M., Meo I., Germani M., Reuse scenarios of tires textile fibers: An environmental evaluation, Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 329-336, (2018). Abstract
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End of Life Tires (ELT) constitute a major portion of End of life Vehicles (ELV). The treatment process of ELTs is primarily aimed at recovering steel and rubber, which jointly represent the main portion of the ELT material and are currently applied in different sectors. During the treatment of ELTs, other sub-products are generated in significant quantities (about 10-15% in weight), as textile fibers that currently are landfilled or used for energy recovery. The aim of this study is a comparative evaluation of the environmental impacts related to three different end of life scenarios for the textile fibers. In addition to landfilling and incineration, this study considers the possibility to reuse textile fibers as reinforcement in bituminous conglomerates. Results obtained through the Life Cycle Assessment study confirms that the reuse scenario leads to a relevant reduction of impacts in terms of Global Warming Potential. However, by considering other environmental metrics the reuse scenario is not always the less impactful one.

Keywords: End of life tires | environmental impact | fiber material | second life application

[56] Marconi M., Gregori F., Germani M., Papetti A., Favi C., An approach to favor industrial symbiosis: The case of waste electrical and electronic equipment, Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 502-509, (2018). Abstract
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Waste management, in particular waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), currently represents an important issue for the modern society. A transition toward circular economy and industrial symbiosis models is needed to mitigate the environmental problem and recover value from end of life (EoL) materials/products. This study aims to define an approach and a platform, dedicated to the WEEE sector, to favor the creation of industrial symbiosis opportunities. Through this structured approach, demand of virgin materials and components, and supply of EoL products are linked to find potential collaborations. In this way, EoL components/materials could be reused in different applications, thus closed-loop lifecycles can be created through industrial symbiosis. A case study focused on the reuse of plastics from electrical cables is shown to demonstrate that in the WEEE sector the implementation of industrial symbiosis models can lead to win-win scenarios for all the involved stakeholders.

Keywords: closed-loop scenarios | End of life platform | industrial symbiosis approach

[57] Menghi R., Ceccacci S., Papetti A., Marconi M., Germani M., A method to estimate the total VOC emission of furniture products, Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 486-493, (2018). Abstract
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In the last decade, the environmental sustainability has become an important issue that drives more and more the consumer decisions. Consequently, industrial companies are called to meet the growing demand for more sustainable products. Especially in the furniture sector, customers pay serious attention to the emissions that negatively affect human health and so they request products with low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. This represents a big challenge because it requires the strictly control of each component provided by all the supply chain actors through expensive laboratory tests. For this aim, the present paper proposes a method to estimate the total VOCs emissions of furniture products starting from the characteristics of all semi-finished products (e.g., geometric features, product composition, process information and functionality) and through the definition of an appropriate impact scale based on historical data. It allows making the supply chain (SC) more sustainable, limiting costly chamber tests.

Keywords: Furniture products | Indoor air quality | Product declaration | Sustainable Manufacturing | VOC emissions

[58] Favi C., Germani M., Campi F., Mandolini M., Manieri S., Marconi M., Vita A., Life Cycle Model and Metrics in Shipbuilding: How to Use them in the Preliminary Design Phases, Procedia CIRP, 69, 523-528, (2018). Abstract
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Maritime vessels are complex products with long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing. The paper aims to introduce a specific life cycle model and related metrics in shipbuilding design, supporting decision-making processes of material selection, manufacturing/assembly practices, maintenance, use, etc. The model provides a common structure for life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) including the way to retrieve and to collect necessary data for the analysis starting from the available project documentation and design models. Different design configurations (materials, welding methods, etc.) for hull and hatches of a luxury yacht have been analysed using the proposed model.

Keywords: design | LCA | LCCA | maritime vessels | shipbuilding

[59] Marconi M., Landi D., Meo I., Germani M., Reuse of Tires Textile Fibers in Plastic Compounds: Is this Scenario Environmentally Sustainable?, Procedia CIRP, 69, 944-949, (2018). Abstract
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Even if specific directives have been issued to regulate the management of End of Life Tires (ELT), several materials are still not properly recovered. This is the case of textile fibers obtained from the treatment of ELTs. This study aims to investigate and quantify the environmental impacts related to the reuse of tires textile fibers as second-life material for the preparation of plastic compounds. The Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been used to compare the baseline scenarios (landfilling and incineration) with the reuse scenarios. Results obtained confirms that reuse scenarios are generally more environmental sustainable than the currently implemented strategies.

Keywords: End of life tires | Life Cycle Assessment | Material reuse | Textile fiber

[60] Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Germani M., Traceability as a means to investigate supply chain sustainability: The real case of a leather shoe supply chain, International Journal of Production Research, 55(22), 6638-6652, (2017). Abstract
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In recent years, the growing attention to environmental challenges has shown that these issues are becoming of more and more interest to both research and industry. Companies are expected to ensure their products are fully traceable and more sustainable, which requires the involvement of all of the actors in the production network. According to this aim, this study proposes a structured approach that uses the traditional traceability concept as a means to identify the main information needed to assess environmental impacts along the whole supply chain (SC). The proposed approach is composed of four main steps: (i) SC modelling to identify all stakeholders and their inter-relations, (ii) data sharing to collect all relevant data, (iii) data elaboration to calculate performance at different levels of detail and (iv) result interpretation to optimise the SC. The distributed implementation of the approach at different SC steps represents a useful means to practically realise a sustainable SC management. A case study involving a leather shoe SC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in identifying criticalities, supporting the selection of the most appropriate suppliers and correctly setting a management strategy towards the optimisation of internal and external traceability and environmental sustainability performances.

Keywords: Collaborative network | Environmental sustainability | Sustainable supply chain | Sustainable supply chain management | Traceability

[61] Favi C., Germani M., Luzi A., Mandolini M., Marconi M., A design for EoL approach and metrics to favour closed-loop scenarios for products, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 10(3), 136-146, (2017). Abstract
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Recently, environmentally conscious design and extended producer responsibility have become key aspects for companies that need to develop products that are sustainable along their whole life cycle. Design for End of Life (EoL) is a strategy that aims to reduce landfill waste through the implementation of closed-loop product life cycles. It is important to consider disassembly and EoL scenario management as early as the design phase. For these reasons, this paper presents an approach to help designers in the evaluation and subsequent improvement in product EoL performance. The method is based on four innovative EoL indices that compare different EoL scenarios for each product component. In this way, the designer can modify the product structure or the liaisons to maximise the reuse and remanufacture of components as well as material recycling. The presented case studies confirm the validity of the approach in helping designers during the redesign phase of goods and products to reduce the quantity of materials and industrial wastes sent to landfill.

Keywords: closed-loop scenarios | Design for EoL | EoL indices | EoL management

[62] Favi C., Germani M., Gregori F., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Rossi M., Environmental sustainability awareness in product design practices: A survey of Italian companies, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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This paper aims to analyze the attitude and the awareness of environmental sustainability issues within diverse Italian industrial companies. A survey has involved a balanced sample of companies operating in different industrial sectors. Considering the survey's results it can be concluded that: (i) environmental sustainability is an opportunity and a current market requirement, (ii) environmental sustainability is not formalized, since specific methods and tools are not used in technical departments, and (iii) environmental decisions are mainly made by specific key figures (i.e. energy/environmental manager). This analysis can be considered as a useful starting point for the framework formalization of eco-design approaches and tools able to bring eco-design principles into the work of technical departments with the aim to foster the future development of green and sustainable products and services.

[63] Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., Favi C., Lifecycle tools as a support for the eco-design innovation of domestic appliances, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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The goal of sustainable development through the product innovation is a global challenge that Academia and Industries are addressing. The regulatory pressure and the growing demand of eco-friendly products by consumers are two of its main drivers, especially in the household appliances sector. For this aim, manufactures need to change the design approach in order to extend the boundaries of the benchmark analysis of possible innovations: (i) multi-objective criteria should be taken into account such as the environmental issues, costs, technical performances, etc., and (ii) a life cycle thinking has to be adopted to consider long terms benefits or impacts. However, the literature highlights the lack of structured methods able to support the R&D activity according to these perspectives. For this aim, the present paper provides a systematic approach, which exploits lifecycle and innovation tools to effectively support designers in the development of sustainable solutions in a long term perspective. The proposed approach has been applied in real case study to increase the energy efficiency of a domestic refrigerator. In particular, the insulation module has been redesigned by comparing several alternatives in terms of environmental performances and costs over the product lifespan to effectively evaluate the consistency of the developed eco-innovations.

[64] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., A 4M Approach for a Comprehensive Analysis and Improvement of Manual Assembly Lines, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1510-1518, (2017). Abstract
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Design for Assembly (DfA) is a well-known technique that supports in the reduction of manufacturing costs. Traditional DfA methods are generally focused on the product design lacking of a holistic view. The proposed 4 M approach takes into account all the most important aspects involved in the manual assembly: Method, Machine, Man and Material. The final goal is to provide a means for the concurrent improvement of the product design, the workstation ergonomics, and the assembly tasks. Results obtained with the electric spindle motor case study confirmed the usefulness of the approach in optimizing the manual assembly.

Keywords: 4M approach | Design for assembly | Machine | Man | Material | Method

[65] Marconi M., Germani M., An end of life oriented framework to support the transition toward circular economy, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 5(DS87-5), 199-208, (2017). Abstract
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Circular economy is recognized as the most effective economic model to face issues related to waste management and resource scarcity. This requires to efficiently manage the End of Life (EoL) phase, which represents the joining link to close the product lifecycle. The objective of this paper is the definition of a framework to monitor product EoL during the most affecting phases. It is founded on the concept that it is better to prevent issues, by designing optimized products and creating favourable operative conditions, other than solve problems related to EoL. The EoL-oriented framework integrates three innovative resources: (i) a Design for Disassembly Tool to identify product criticalities, (ii) a Disassembly Knowledge Database to support the redesign phase and (iii) a Collaborative EoL platform for the sharing of relevant data and materials. The final aim is to provide companies with a set of integrated methodologies and tools able to support the decision-making process at different levels (from conception to EoL management), in order to design product with improved performances in terms of disassemblability, maintainability, de-manufacturing and EoL.

Keywords: Circular economy | Design for X (DfX) | Product lifecycle management (PLM) | Sustainability

[66] Marconi M., Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Mengarelli M., A Collaborative End of Life platform to Favour the Reuse of Electronic Components, Procedia CIRP, 61, 166-171, (2017). Abstract
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Electronics plays an essential role in many products and this leads to a larger production of e-wastes, currently recovered through impactful recycling processes. This paper proposes a web-based platform to implement reuse scenarios for electronic components. The objective is to create a structured portal where all the stakeholders can collaborate to extend the components lifespan and implement new circular business models. The final goal is to "close the gap" between the beginning and the end of life. The case study (industrial application) shows relevant benefits for the involved electronics manufacturer both in terms of environmental impact and economic savings.

Keywords: Collaborative platform | Decsion support system | Electronics reuse | EoL mangement

[67] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., A Software Tool for the Analysis and Management of Resource Consumptions and Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing Plants, Procedia CIRP, 61, 341-346, (2017). Abstract
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The paper presents a lifecycle approach and the related software tool for the analysis and management of resource consumptions and environmental impacts of manufacturing plants. The approach, based on the industrial metabolism model, takes into account all the production and assembly aspects. The tool is able to assess the optimum working conditions for the minimization of resource consumptions (e.g. electricity) or environmental emissions (e.g. CO2). It provides a tangible support to guide decision-making strategies to move manufacturing towards sustainability. A manufacturing plant has been analysed for the model validation and the management of production scenarios, optimizing environmental and energy loads.

Keywords: Environmnetal impacts optimization | Plant lifecycle management | Resource consumption optimization | Software tool | Sustainable production

[68] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Disassembly knowledge classification and potential application: A preliminary analysis on a washing machine, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2016). Abstract
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Circular economy is largely recognized as the univocal economic model that guarantees a long-term sustainability, decoupling the economic growth and the finite resources consumption. As a prerequisite, it requires to realize product closed-loop lifecycles. However, the management of the EoL phase during the design process is a complex task, due to the fact that it is the most far away phase, in terms of time, from the moment of the product conception. For this reason, usually, manufacturers and EoL stakeholders do not actively collaborate in optimizing the product lifecycle performances. This paper wants to overcome this lack proposing a method to formalize, collect and classify the EoL knowledge. The main outcome is a structured database containing positive and negative knowledge about best practices and disassembly problems faced during dismantling activities. The knowledge classification rules are based both on product characteristics (e.g. product families, target components, assembly methods, etc.) and on other more general aspects (e.g. motivations of the disassembly, handling difficulties, etc.). Through the sharing of this knowledge, the gap between design departments and EoL stakeholders can be reduced with the aim to improve EoL performances and the overall resource efficiency. This work is focused on an out-of-service washing machine case study. The product has been manually disassembled by expert operators, observing and rating the significant problems. Their interpretation has allowed to create a set of specific design guidelines, organized according to the defined rules. The classified knowledge has been used by non-expert designers (undergraduate students) as a tool to guide the redesign activities. Different design solutions (e.g. homogenization of screws, reduction of component number, etc.) have been implemented to configure a new washing machine version, improved from the disassemblability point of view. The obtained results have confirmed the usefulness of the disassembly knowledge sharing in supporting Design for EoL activities and, furthermore, in non-skilled operators training. In conclusion, this research work contributes to the state of the art linking stakeholders involved in the Beginning of Life (BoL) with stakeholders responsible of the EoL management. Furthermore, the proposed work leads to relevant improvements in product lifecycle performances. The proposed knowledge database represents the needed resource to effectively extend the producer responsibility and to close the current gap between manufacturers and dismantlers.

[69] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Mengarelli M., A method to assess the environmental profile of in-house machining processes, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2016). Abstract
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A growing interest toward sustainability actions at every level is characterizing the industrial sector. Following the environmental trend, further developments and improvements regarding the sustainability assessment of manufacturing processes is needed. With a particular focus on machining processes, the optimization of working parameters can represent a valid step forward in sustainable manufacturing. This paper aims to provide companies with the needed tool to independently asses the environmental performance of their customized machining operations. The purpose of the presented work is then to demonstrate that energy consumption calculated with empirical mathematical models available in literature, gives the greatest contribution to the environmental impact for a selection of machining processes by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Such objective lead to a clear need of specific models for the calculation of environmental impact of machining processes instead of available LCA datasets. Available mathematical models are adopted to provide a realistic energy consumption profile by using processing time variables. Such values are calculated through 3D models whose are used to recognize the needed manufacturing operations together with relative processing times. In order to validate the previous assumption, a couple of machining processes have been selected as reference and analyzed by setting up a detailed Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) model. Results shown that among the different inputs and outputs, the energy consumption carries the highest impact. Over 90% of the total impact for the chosen impact categories (Global Warming Potential and Eco-Costs) is attributable to the energy consumption meaning that, for the sake of simplification, the environmental profile of such operations is overlapped by its energy consumption.

[70] Rossi M., Germani M., Marconi M., A decision support tool to foster sustainability in industrial context, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2016). Abstract
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In the last few years, the environmental problem has become a very serious issue and the research world has answered to this growing interest with the development of a high number of ecodesign methods and tools. However their use in real contexts is still quite low, due to their complexity, time consuming and need for specific knowledge. From this reason, it comes the need for tools that support designers in the implementation of ecodesign strategies. This paper presents the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology and tool, which represents the knowledge and the best practices for manufacturing products. It supports designers in the re-design process of products, by allowing them to gradually acquire knowledge and to solve problems in a rapid and simplified way, through the collection and sharing of ecodesign knowledge in a structured Database. The tool has been tested into two industrial companies to verify its potentialities, evaluate its usability and identify its limits.

[71] Mengarelli M., Marconi M., Germani M., A Lifecycle-enhanced Global Manufacturing Platform for Enterprises, Procedia CIRP, 52, 192-197, (2016). Abstract
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A growing interest toward the adoption of a lifecycle perspective in product design is characterizing current industrial trends. The cooperation of global manufacturing actors is fundamental to retrieve information from each lifecycle stage. From this background, a lifecycle based platform is proposed to efficiently set up feasible design configurations by including global manufacturing information. Starting from a set of input parameters, the idea is to collect lifecycle information in a customized XML structure in order to draw up the environmental profile. Such platform can also be adopted as an organized "knowledge repository" enhancing information sharing among the global manufacturing network.

Keywords: Eco-design | Global manufacturing | Life cycle approach | SMEs

[72] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Includes Knowledge of Dismantling Centers in the Early Design Phase: A Knowledge-based Design for Disassembly Approach, Procedia CIRP, 48, 401-406, (2016). Abstract
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Nowadays, a large number of goods (e.g. appliances and electronic products) must be treated in dismantling centers after the conclusion of their lifecycle. Selective disassembly is necessary to accomplish environmental directives and to increase their sustainability. Dismantling centers developed internal non-standardized procedures to remove dangerous components and to minimize disassembly costs. The proposed approach aims to create a collection of the disassembly knowledge coming from dismantling centers as a repository for design actions oriented to End-of-Life. The final goal is to define a knowledge-based Design for Disassembly approach to support companies in designing products with improved disassemblability and maintainability.

Keywords: Design for disassembly | Disassembly Knowledge | Dismantling center

[73] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., PLANTLCA: A Lifecycle Approach to Map and Characterize Resource Consumptions and Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing Plants, Procedia CIRP, 48, 146-151, (2016). Abstract
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The paper presents a lifecycle approach applied to the whole factory plant to characterize primary resource consumptions and environmental impacts for the different processes. The method is based on specific environmental models, defined for each process of a manufacturing plant. The goal is to provide a tangible support to guide decision-making strategies in order to move manufacturing towards sustainability. A case study of a washing machine factory plant has been analyzed to highlight the critical working areas in terms of environmental and energy loads and to support the identification of the corrective actions to increase the overall sustainability.

Keywords: Industrial metabolism | Life Cycle Assessment | Plant lifecycle

[74] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Mengarelli M., Mengoni M., Rossi M., An approach to foster eco-design in 'traditional' companies without eco-knowledge, International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 18(2-3), 150-167, (2016). Abstract
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The adoption of an eco-design approach is a key challenge for the total quality environmental management (TQEM). Recently, several eco-design methodologies have been presented, but none can be easily integrated in the traditional design process of manufacturing companies. The research presented in this paper aims to define a methodology, called G.EN.ESI, to help designers (especially those ones without a specific know-how on eco-design), during the development of sustainable products. In order to aid designers in the assessment of the environmental and cost impacts of a product, also a set of software tools have been defined. Using such a platform, the designer is supported by a robust workbench to perform all the analyses required to evaluate the product eco-sustainability for each phase of the product lifecycle. This software platform is essential for companies which want to implement the G.EN.ESI methodology without upsetting their own consolidated modus operandi and the internal organisation.

Keywords: Eco-design | Eco-design methodology | Environmental assessment tools | Environmental strategy | Integrated platform | Supply chain management | Sustainable design | Total quality environmental management | TQEM

[75] Mengarelli M., Cortesi S., Buttol P., Marconi M., Reale F., A bridge between CAD and LCA to optimise the life cycle inventory phase, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 52, 549-560, (2016). Abstract
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Having environmental indications such as those provided by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), while designing a product would reduce the time required by the trial-and-error approach resulting from environmental checks only at the end of the process, directing the development towards more sustainable solutions from the beginning. To achieve this, the design and environmental analysis should be more integrated, as well as the respective tools. The project idea discussed in this paper aims to overcome this barrier by defining an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) structure designed to carry Life Cycle Inventory data from Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools to Life Cycle Assessment tool. The idea is to exploit overlapping data between the CAD system and LCA instruments, which are currently not being considered. This process will contribute to the reduction of time required for data input and the amount of mistakes.

Keywords: CAD | Eco-design | LCA | LCI

[76] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Investigating the sustainability of product supply chains, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 1(DS 80-01), 181-190, (2015). Abstract
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According to the growing pressure on Sustainability issues from governances, manufacturing industries must pay their attention to optimize their processes. Anyway, it is necessary go behind this preliminary approach, extending the boundaries from the single company to the other actors that operate in the same supply chain. In this context, the paper proposes a methodology to increase the sustainability and to guarantee the traceability along the whole product supply chain. The methodology allows to model any supply chain, through the data collection from all the actors involved, and to measure the environmental sustainability, through the implementation of a distributed software system. The experimental case study, which involved a leather shoe supply chain, allowed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in the selection of suppliers and in the optimization of the supply chain, taking into account the environmental aspects together with the other constraints such as design, costs and quality.

Keywords: Design for X (DfX) | Supply chain modelling | Sustainability | Traceability

[77] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Rossi M., Usability demonstration of the g.en.esi eco-design platform: The cooker hood case study, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2015). Abstract
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Due to the increasing pressure of legislations and market, the environmental sustainability is becoming a key competitive factor for companies. In specific markets, as the Northern Europe one, customers are very careful on the quality and sustainability of products, thus companies has to design and manufacture green goods. In this context, there is a strong need of effective design tools and platform which allows to configure products applying the life cycle paradigm and with the "environment on mind". Currently in the market there are only few examples of products designed taking into account the ecodesign concepts. In particular, for mechatronic or energy using products only the use phase is usually considered and all the re-design strategies aim to reduce the energy consumption. This is essentially due to the fact that there is a lack of tools and design platforms, which are easy to use and well integrated with the traditional design tools and with the design processes of companies. This paper wants to demonstrate the usefulness of a set of interoperable eco-design tools, the G.EN.ESI platform, in supporting the re-design of a mechatronic product. The proposed case study, realized in collaboration with an Italian leading company in the sector of household appliances, focuses on the improvement of a domestic cooker hood with the final objective to obtain a more sustainable product. The in-depth experimentation, for the duration of more than 3 months, involved different stakeholders within the company (designers, environmental expert, etc.), with the aim to validate the G.EN.ESI platform tools in different phases of the re-design process. The case study showed that the use of the platform has supported the company in the identification of the environmental hot-spots and during the product re-design phase, considering the whole life cycle. The re-engineered cooker hood exhibits relevant improvements in the most important environmental and economic indicators (environmental impact, energy efficiency, disassemblability, recyclability, etc.). Also a detailed analysis of the platform usability has been performed in order to measure if the tools completely fulfil the expectations of the final users. Finally, the level of integration within the company processes has been evaluated with a dedicated questionnaire. The results of these last analyses showed that the G.EN.ESI platform is appropriate to support a company to improve the sustainability of their products without the needs to heavily alter the traditional design process.

[78] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., A system to increase the sustainability and traceability of supply chains, Procedia CIRP, 29, 227-232, (2015). Abstract
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The paper proposes a system to increase the environmental sustainability and to guarantee the traceability along the whole product supply chain. A methodology to efficiently model complex supply chains, share data between all the actors and measure the environmental sustainability, has been developed and implemented in a distributed software system. The experimental case study, realized in collaboration with a manufacturer of leather products, allowed demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach in the selection of suppliers and in the optimization of the whole supply chain, taking into account the environmental aspects together with the other constraints such as design, costs and quality.

Keywords: Life cycle assessment | Supply chain sustainability | Traceability

[79] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Rossi M., Investigating the sustainability of production lines: A method for impacts evaluation, Proceedings of the Summer School Francesco Turco, 09-12-September-2014, 360-366, (2014). Abstract
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Recently, the environmental problem has become a key issue for the modern society, due to the increase of pollution and global warming. Manufacturing industry is recognized as one of the main responsible of this situation, since it uses a large amount of energy and emits a relevant part of the total carbon dioxide. The only possible way to face this problem is the implementation of sustainable manufacturing approaches, in order to measure and reduce the global environmental impact of companies. In this context, the present paper focuses on a method for the pre-emptive evaluation of the environmental and economic sustainability of manufacturing lines/plants, considering the whole life cycle from line manufacturing and initial set-up, to the end of life (i.e. reuse/dismantling). A special attention has been paid in the use phase, since this one represents the most critical stage, as for all the energy using equipment. Its accurate modelling, considering each energy typology (electrical, thermal, etc.) with the relative detailed use scenarios (multiple working points for each equipment), is an essential prerequisite to estimate the global sustainability with an acceptable accuracy. The concurrent LCA and LCC analyses, realized on the basis of the production line life cycle model, considering the different cost items and environmental impacts, permits a company to estimate the overall sustainability of an existing or new line, understanding the most important criticalities, and evaluating possible alternatives through comparative analyses. A case study has been conducted thanks to the collaboration of a manufacturer of plastic extruded pipes. It demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed approach in the identification of the most critical line equipment/functional groups and in the evaluation of different scenarios for the line replacement, both from an environmental and economic point of view.

Keywords: Energy consumption | Environmental and economic sustainability | Sustainable manufacturing

[80] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Morbidoni A., Rossi M., ECO-design platform within an extended enterprise: How to implement it?, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2014). Abstract
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Nowadays, the environmental issue has become increasingly important and has taken a leading role in the product design process. The product sustainability pass through the use of specific software tools supporting the design phase. Their integration, to build up a platform, is a key aspect toward the implementation of an effective eco-design approach. Even if the approaches presented in literature to create an eco-design platform aim to integrate environmental aspects during the design process, a proper tools integration is not existing. To overcome these limitations, the paper presents an ecodesign platform in which tools for the improvement of the product environmental characteristics are contained. The tools of the platform are used to calculate the environmental impact of a product for each product life cycle phase: manufacturing, transportation, use and End of Life. The platform is completed by a tool containing the eco-design guidelines, also specific for the industrial sector of the company, used to suggest the designers how to improve the product eco-sustainability. The end users of the platform consist of designers from the design office but also from every department relevant for the project, mainly R&D, production, purchasing department, and quality. In particular, the following roles have been considered as users: designer, product manager, environmental manager and buyer. Designers and company experts use the same workspace, made of different tools. They can detail all the product life cycle phases, quantify the product performances, modify its.

[81] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., An integrated approach and it platform to optimise electric motor engineering and design, International Journal of Information Technology and Management, 13(2-3), 134-153, (2014). Abstract
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Electric motors are one of the most common electrical components. The design phase is the most important stage in which 'green' customised solutions can be ideated, evaluated and optimised. Different aspects have to be concurrently addressed to achieve a high quality product in a short time to market. The present paper describes an innovative approach and software platform to configure and simulate customised electric motors. A key feature of the platform is a knowledge-based system that aims to standardise the design process. The platform integrates different software tools to support the development and verification of several design aspects, such as energy efficiency, manufacturing costs and environmental impacts. It also provides a collaborative area to support collaboration along the whole supply chain. Different case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of the platform application in supporting designers in the creation of innovative products. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Keywords: Collaborative design | Cost estimation | Eco-design | Electric motors | Energy efficiency | Integrated approach | IT platform | Knowledge-based system | LCA | Life cycle assessment | Optimisation

[82] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Rossi M., An approach to analytically evaluate the product disassemblability during the design process, Procedia CIRP, 21, 336-341, (2014). Abstract
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In order to favor the implementation of closed-loop scenarios at the product End of Life (EoL), it is essential to consider the disassembly phase during the design process. In this context, the paper presents a design for disassembly approach to quantitatively estimate the product disassemblability. The methodology is based on a knowledge database about liaisons, which have been classified and characterized with different properties, in order to take into account the liaison specificity and real conditions in the moment of the disassembly. Starting from the product structure and liaisons between components, the methodology allows to analytically calculate the disassembly time and cost of components/sub-assemblies. The case study (combination oven) demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach in identifying the product criticalities which is necessary to consider during the redesign phase in order to improve the product disassemblability performances.

Keywords: Corrective factors | Design for disassembly | Disassembly time and cost

[83] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., A method for the estimation of the economic and ecological sustainability of production lines, Procedia CIRP, 15, 147-152, (2014). Abstract
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This paper presents a method to evaluate the environmental and economical sustainability of a manufacturing line/plant along its whole life cycle. The concurrent analysis of LCA and LCC allows the process engineers to estimate the production sustainability during the design of a new production line. The method considers costs and environmental impacts of the initial deployment (i.e. initial investment and set-up), use (i.e. workload or maintenance required by each machine) and end of life (i.e. retirement) of the analyzed system. The approach has been tested in a company that manufactures extruded pipes with the aim to evaluate the relative benefits. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Energy consumption | Environmental and economical sustainability | Sustainable manufacturing

[84] Rossi M., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., Morbidoni A., Eco-design guidelines and eco-knowledge integration in product development process, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 5 DS75-05, 161-170, (2013). Abstract
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The product eco-sustainability is recognized as a key factor for competitive products and recently lots of international directives (guidelines) have been issued. This paper aims to define a new methodology integrated in the product development process that, through the application of the most common eco-design guidelines and design past experiences, supports designers in the development of eco-sustainable products. Eco-design guidelines retrieved from the literature are subdivided according to a well-organized structure in "high level of abstraction" and "high level of detail" ones. In addition, Eco-knowledge is defined as all the choices and their related environmental performances, designers made during the design process of a product. The implementation of the proposed methodology in the product development process of an Italian cooker hood producer, allows to analyze the benefits achievable in terms of product eco-sustainability improvement. This analysis highlights that the proposed approach supports the implementation of eco-design principles, also in those companies without a specific background in eco-design.

Keywords: CBR | Decision making | Eco design | Eco-design guidelines | Sustainability

[85] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Mengarelli M., Mengoni M., Rossi M., Promoting eco-design: A software platform for sustainable product design, Proceedings of the Summer School Francesco Turco, 11-13-September-2013, 303-308, (2013). Abstract
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Purpose During past years several eco-design methodologies have been previously defined but none can be easily integrated in the traditional design process of manufacturing companies. This paper wants to overcome this lack and aims to define a methodology, called G.EN.ESI, to help also those designers without a specific know-how on eco-design, during the development of sustainable products. Design/methodology/approach The proposed methodology is composed by six main steps defined to link the eco-design activities with the traditional design activities, to the aim of defining a TO-BE design process. Also new tools have been defined in order to help designers in the assessment of the environmental and cost impacts of a product. These tools have been integrated in an univocal software package, called G.EN.ESI platform. The platform is composed by four tools for the definition of the life cycle model of the product (one for each product life cycle phase), two tools for the assessment of the environmental and cost impacts and a tool to guide the decision-making process. Furthermore, a web module to retrieve the necessary data from the supply chain subjects has been defined. Finally, the link with the CAD and PLM systems is proposed to increase the usability of the platform. Originality/value Using such a platform, the designer is supported by a robust workbench to perform all the analyses required to evaluate the product eco-sustainability for each phase of the product lifecycle. Hence, this software package is essential for companies to implement all the methodology steps without the need to heavily alter the consolidated modus operandi and the internal organization.

Keywords: Eco-design methodology | G.EN.ESI platform | Sustainable design

[86] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Morbidoni A., Rossi M., A case-based reasoning approach to support the application of the eco-design guidelines, Re-Engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability - Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 81-86, (2013). Abstract
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The product eco-sustainability is recognized as a key factor for competitive products and recently, lots of international directives (guidelines) have been issued. However, in literature does not exist research on the practical application of the guidelines during the design phase. The paper aims to define a new approach to support the product design, applying the most common eco-design guidelines integrated with the designers past experiences. This approach consists in a Case- Based Reasoning tool containing a repository of eco-design guidelines and knowledge relative to the past designers experience. The approach has been tested during the re-design process of a cooker hood.

Keywords: CBR | Eco-design guidelines | Eco-sustainability

[87] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Dufrene M., Zwolinski P., A methodology and a software platform to implement an eco-design strategy in a manufacturing company, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2013). Abstract
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During past years several eco-design methodologies have been previously defined but none can be easily integrated in the traditional design process of manufacturing companies. This paper wants to overcome this lack and aims to define a methodology, called G.EN.ESI, to help also those designers without a specific know-how on eco-design, during the development of sustainable products. The methodology has been also contextualized in the traditional product design process, re-engineering this one with new input/output data, actors and specific tools, to demonstrate the applicability in real contexts. The re-engineered process is supported by a new set of integrated software tools, called G.EN.ESI platform. It is made of four tools for the definition of the product life cycle model, two tools for the evaluation of the environmental impact and Life Cycle Cost and a tool to guide the decision-making process during the re-design phase of a product. Furthermore, a web module to retrieve the necessary data from the supply chain subjects has been defined. Finally, the link with the CAD and PLM systems is proposed to increase the usability. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

[88] Germani M., Dufrene M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Zwolinski P., Integrated software platform for green engineering design and product sustainability, Re-Engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability - Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 87-92, (2013). Abstract
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Nowadays, industrial products, particularly household appliances, are strongly related to environmental issues. Due to high levels of uncertainty regarding design embodiments at the early design phase, new methods and tools are essential to provide designers a basis to determine the degree of sustainability of a given product. The paper aims to integrate ecodesign activities within the traditional flow of the product design process through the development of an integrated software platform which supports the decision-making task for product sustainability in the early phase of product design.

Keywords: Design for environment | Eco-design | Product development process

[89] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Promoting and managing end-of-life closed-loop scenarios of products using a design for disassembly evaluation tool, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 3(PARTS A AND B), 1339-1348, (2012). Abstract
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In recent years, environmentally conscious design has become a fundamental approach for industries which have to consider the variable environment during the design process. Waste management is one of the most important aspects to be handled, to reduce the disposal in landfills and to encourage the sustainable 3R approach: Reuse, Recycling and Remanufacturing. Product disassembly is an essential phase of the product lifecycle, necessary to evaluate the End-of-Life (EoL) strategies and to reduce environmental impact. In order to minimize the impact on production and costs it is very important to consider EoL scenarios during the embodiment design phase, when designer's decisions influence product structure. Design for Disassembly (DFD) is a powerful method to reduce disassembly time and costs. However, there are no useful tools which provide guidelines to improve the product disassemblability or promote specific EoL scenarios. For these reasons this paper describes an innovative Design for Disassembly approach and related tool to support designers in product disassemblability evaluation. The tool has the scope to manage EoL scenarios for industrial waste in the early design phases and to share metadata with the traditional design tools. Disassembly costs is one of the most important parameters during the evaluation of EoL scenarios. Six indices are presented to evaluate the economic and environmental feasibility of the EoL strategies. The calculation of the six indices permits alternative EoL scenarios to be compared and encourage the recyclability, reusability or re-manufacturability of a product. These evaluations can be used to foster a particular EoL scenario, as early on as in the design process. The preliminary analysis on mechatronic products underline the utility of the software tool and indices. Product re-design, realized using this approach, shows a relevant decrease in environmental impacts and disassembly costs. As a consequence, the new product has a relevant percentage of components with a closed-loop lifecycle. © 2012 by ASME.

[90] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., Innovative software platform for eco-design of efficient electric motors, Journal of Cleaner Production, 37, 125-134, (2012). Abstract
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Electric motors are one of the most common electrical components used both in industrial and household applications. In order to reduce world energy consumption and environmental impact, electric motors need to be improved in terms of efficiency and eco-sustainability. For this reason it is necessary to improve environmental consciousness, favouring the application of eco-design guidelines in the design phase, which is the most important stage where "green" solutions can be rapidly ideated, evaluated and optimized. Different aspects have to be concurrently considered in order to achieve a high quality product in a short time to market. In this context, the present paper describes an innovative web-based software platform to configure and simulate customized energy efficient electric motors. The core of the platform is a knowledge-based system which aims to standardize the design process according to the rules which represent the company know-how and best practices. The platform integrates different software tools to support the development from conceptual design to detailed design, and from the configuration of design solutions up to environmental impact assessment and manufacturing cost evaluation. It also provides a collaborative area in order to improve the collaboration among remote users involved in the design process, thanks to the sharing of important design data and models. The presented practical case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the platform application. The achieved results demonstrate the improvement of the configured solutions in comparison with the traditional adopted motors. The new motors exhibit both a considerable increase in energy efficiency and at the same time relevant improvement in product sustainability combined with acceptable production costs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Collaborative design | Eco-design | Electric motors | Energy efficiency | Knowledge-based system

[91] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., LeanDfd: A design for disassembly approach to evaluate the feasibility of different End-of-Life scenarios for industrial products, Leveraging Technology for a Sustainable World - Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 215-220, (2012). Abstract
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Product disassembly is an important phase of the product lifecycle. It occurs to minimize the maintenance time and evaluate the End-of-Life (EoL) strategies, for example component reuse/recycling. These scenarios should be considered during the design process when decisions influence product architecture/structure. In this context, the present work describes an approach to support the designer's evaluation of disassemblability by using the 3D CAD model structure and suitable key indices related to product features. A software system allows the product model to be analyzed and evaluates the disassemblability degree. An experimental case study facilitates the approach demonstration and highlights product performance.

Keywords: Design for disassembly | End-of-Life | Industrial products

[92] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., Tirabassi A., EROD: New collaborative design platform for developing energy efficient electric motors, 2011 IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference, IEMDC 2011, 59-64, (2011). Abstract
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In recent years International and Communitarian directives have focused their attention on the problem of energy consumption. In this context electric motors play a key role and designers must improve products considering this direction. This paper presents an innovative platform, called EROD (Energy Reduction Oriented Design), which consists of multiple software modules with different functionalities to support the whole design process of electric motors. The goal of EROD platform is to achieve energy efficient and sustainable electric motors and related devices. The platform facilitates knowledge and data sharing among design team members, it arranges the workflow activities and finally it promotes collaborative design sessions. All functionalities are implemented within the same web-based platform. This guarantees interoperability among different tools and leads up to significant reduction of development time due to the elimination of errors and iterations. The platform was tested to design five innovative electric motors for industrial and household applications. Results show that the new developed motors improve current solutions in terms of energy efficiency and environmental impact during use. © 2011 IEEE.

Keywords: collaborative design | efficiency | electric motors | environmental impact | optimization