[Elenco soci]


Germani Michele

Professore Ordinario


Università Politecnica delle Marche
m.germani@univpm.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 7003708542
Orcid: 0000-0003-1988-8620



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Cappelletti F., Rossi M., Manuguerra L., Germani M., Design for X Tool to Introduce Sustainability in the Design Process, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 20(2), 234-247, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: In the present market, Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing represent considerable tools to achieve better design and optimize the manufacturing phases. To customize and tailor these tools to the company’s needs, knowledge-based engineering solutions have been developed. The present paper proposes a method to support designers in the optimization of environmental sustainability aspects of their products, through a Knowledge Based Engineering approach. It allows the identification of design criticalities under the environmental issue, and on a life cycle perspective, supporting designers in their activity and favoring the knowledge use and re-use. The approach proposed was applied to develop a prototype version of a tool. It was then applied in a case study of an Italian manufacturer of professional espresso coffee machines to analyze and improve the product recyclability and disassembly level.

Keywords: Design for Environment | Design for X | Design rules | Knowledge-based engineering | Sustainability index

[2] Mandolini M., Sartini M., Favi C., Germani M., An Analytical Cost Model for Laser-Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED), Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 993-1004, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Laser-Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED) is an Additive Manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse powder feedstock. The scientific literature concerning L-DED and cost estimation is not as comprehensive as Laser-powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF). Indeed, a robust and reliable cost model (in terms of the number of materials, machines, and process parameters managed) is not available. The paper aims to define an analytical cost model for L-DED, considering the material, machine, labour, consumables, energy and equipment cost items. The model seeks to evaluate the production cost from the machine setup to the removal of the part. Post-processing steps are not included. The cost model is based on a scientific review of journal papers, handbooks and datasheets from industrial partners. The cost drivers for this model are the overall 3-dimensions of the part, volume, material, accuracy and number of components in the build plate. The meaningful process parameters are the layer thickness, melt pool width and overlap, powder efficiency, laser power, linear energy density, scanning speed, and machine dimensions. The developed cost model was tested on two products: a heat exchanger and a landing gear analyzed in previous works. The comparison led to a deviation of about 10% for the manufacturing cost and printing time.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Cost model | Design to cost | Laser-directed energy deposition | Sensitivity analysis

[3] Brunzini A., Ciccarelli M., Sartini M., Menchi G., Papetti A., Germani M., A Novel Approach to Use Marker-Less Mixed Reality Applications with In-Motion Systems, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1401-1412, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Extended Reality (XR) technologies can be a valid tool for supporting operators with assembly instructions in real-time, directly superimposed on the product. A strategy to face dynamic effects, such as sudden environmental changes and objects in movement, still needs to be defined to implement effective XR applications in moving production lines. The physical environment must be tracked and recognized to determine the position and the orientation of digital content in space. This paper aims to address these open issues by proposing a Mixed Reality (MR) application to support workers in the wire harness process for the tractor’s drivelines production, which requires the product to be in motion. For this aim, the Microsoft Azure Spatial Anchors with Microsoft HoloLens 2 were adopted. The designed and developed MR application allows the operator to display, step-by-step, consecutive work instructions provided through textual indications, pictures, videos, and animations. Through the Azure Spatial Anchors, the digital content can be anchored over the driveline parts. By knowing the speed of the production line and the duration of each wiring task, a time-controlled application has been developed, to assure the visualization of the instruction in correspondence of the relative driveline elements, in the right time. The application has been tested on-field with expert operators. Despite the presence of some drawbacks related both to the driveline motion and technology, the operators’ feedback pointed out satisfactory and promising results since the application allowed them to reduce errors and forgetfulness.

Keywords: Azure Spatial Anchor | In-motion tracking | Industry 4.0 | Mixed Reality | Wire harness process

[4] Formentini G., Favi C., Mandolini M., Germani M., A Framework to Collect and Reuse Engineering Knowledge in the Context of Design for Additive Manufacturing, Proceedings of the Design Society, 2, 1371-1380, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for AM (DfAM) requires the definition of Design Actions (DAs) to optimize AM manufacturing processes. However, AM understanding is still very blurred. Often designers are challenged by selecting the right design parameters. A method to list and collect DfAM DAs is currently missing. The paper aims at providing a framework to collect DfAM DAs according to a developed ontology to create databases (DBs). DBs were tested with two real case studies and geometric features to improve identified. Future developments aim at widening the database to provide all-around support for AM processes.

Keywords: computer-aided design (CAD) | design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) | knowledge-based engineering (KBE) | ontology

[5] Mandolini M., Sartini M., Favi C., Germani M., Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Proceedings of the Design Society, 2, 1411-1420, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Laser Powder Bed Fusion is the most widespread additive manufacturing process for metals. In literature, there are several analytical models for estimating the manufacturing cost. However, few papers present sensitivity analyses for evaluating the most relevant product and process parameters on the production cost. This paper presents a cost model elaborated from previous studies used in a sensitivity analysis. The most relevant process parameters observed in the sensitivity analysis are the 3D printer load factor, layer thickness, raw material price and laser speed.

Keywords: additive manufacturing | cost estimation | design costing | design to x (DtX) | sensitivity analysis

[6] Cappelletti F., Rossi M., Germani M., Closing the Loop Valorization of Industrial Waste of Composite Materials through Re-Design of Products from Detached Value Chains, Proceedings of the Design Society, 2, 981-990, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The literature lacks methodologies to make supply chains of composite materials circular. The proposed approach aims to transform scraps and off-specification products into secondary raw materials. Its novelty is to find innovative applications, instead of re-introducing scraps in the loop they come from. The case study investigates how scraps can be re-worked and re-used as raw material. First, the processes are analyzed; some components are then re-designed to be made of the discarded scraps (composites material). Results reveal that the symbiosis can ensure green, high performing products.

Keywords: circular economy | composite materials | design optimisation | ecodesign | industrial symbiosis

[7] Favi C., Marconi M., Mandolini M., Germani M., Sustainable life cycle and energy management of discrete manufacturing plants in the industry 4.0 framework, Applied Energy, 312, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Industry 4.0 (I4.0), through the digitalization and interconnection of manufacturing processes, can offer opportunities to improve production systems' sustainability. Despite the increasing number of scientific review papers related to I4.0 and production sustainability, most approaches and tools for sustainability evaluation lack of a tangible implementation framework. The paper presents a framework that originated from the plant metabolism concept, a simplified version of industrial metabolism. It is based on Energy Material Flow Analysis (EMFA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools for production plants' economic and sustainability assessment, using the I4.0 enabling technologies. A Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method combines the two sustainability pillars for aiding companies in optimizing their production processes towards a reduction of energy/material flows. The combination of EMFA, LCA and MCDM tools into a plant metabolism-based model is the main novelty of this paper. The framework consists of three main phases. The first phase allows to model the manufacturing system by defining the plant layout, the assets, and the input/output flows. The second phase allows gathering information from the manufacturing plant to assess environmental and economic Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) following the LCA principles. The third phase consists of post-processing results, minimizing specific KPIs for establishing the optimal production scenario. A washing machine plant has been chosen as a case study to demonstrate the proposed method's capability in authentic contexts. Besides, the effectiveness in supporting companies in the analysis, identifying criticalities, and the proper energy and material flows management of production plants has been verified. Plant managers could use this framework for managing the production plans. From the scientific standpoint, the proposed method positively contributes to integrating the existing state of the art studies concerning the I4.0-related framework for the sustainability assessment and energy/material flows minimization of production systems.

Keywords: Energy/material flows | Industry 4.0 | Life cycle assessment | Manufacturing plant | Plant metabolism | Sustainable manufacturing

[8] Cappelletti F., Rossi M., Germani M., How de-manufacturing supports circular economy linking design and EoL - a literature review, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 63, 118-133, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: De-manufacturing is at the basis of the Industry of the Future that competitively and sustainably will manage natural resources. This review retrieved 106 papers investigating the main obstacles that prevent Circular Economy from being a reality and the possible actions to overcome them. The analysis of the literature outlined a great discussion regarding the key topics of CE, de-manufacturing, disassembly and re-manufacturing. The CREDIT analysis proposed by the authors clusters all the risen barriers in 6 factors (Culture, Resources, Economy, Design, Information, Technology) and 18 sub-factors. The CREDIT analysis highlights among the two most critical barriers, the costs of the activities that occur at the EoL stage and the urgency to train designers to approach design thinking to the whole Product Lifecycle; here an innovative focus of research can be more incisive to overcome the actual barriers. Future research needs to focus the attention on the potentialities hidden behind a strong cooperation between academies and enterprises in order to find a balance among the several existing DfX or unveil and tackle their single limitations. Cooperation (industrial symbiosis, academy, etc) and innovative technological solutions of industry 4.0 can help tackle the obstacles.

Keywords: Circular economy | De-manufacturing | Design for de-manufacturing | Design for X | Industry 4.0

[9] Martinelli I., Favi C., Campi F., Lo Presti G.M., Germani M., Gas turbine cost and value management in the conceptual design stage, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 16(1), 389-407, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The development of product concept is a crucial task which cannot leave aside value assessment and product cost management. Value engineering is in charge of ensuring that key operations are performed at the lowest possible cost while still meeting performance, reliability, availability, quality, and safety requirements. This paper aims to describe a systematic approach for comparing design options created during the conceptual design stage of gas turbine components, based on cost evaluation and value analysis. The method allows designers to define design concepts for achieving target costs by combining functional decomposition, conceptual cost modelling, and the Value Analysis Value Engineering (VAVE) method. Functional decomposition allows identifying gas turbine modules and related components providing the main features to develop. Conceptual cost modelling is used as a decision-making design tool to predict the overall cost of gas turbine modules, and VAVE is adopted to find disruptive ideas and design changes whenever the gap between the estimated cost and the target cost is not compliant with the company requirements. The main outcome of the proposed methodology is to anticipate the cost of projects since the very conceptual stages with an acceptable level of accuracy compared with the target cost. The feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed approach in value assessment, cost estimate, and optimization are demonstrated through a case study related to gas turbine blades. In the presented example, product value has been increased by lowering the manufacturing cost of key components while maintaining the same functions. Results highlight how the application of the proposed approach allows to reduce the overall cost of approximately 25% compared with the original design solution and to increase the product value up to 33%.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Gas turbine | Parametric cost estimation | Product cost management | Value analysis value engineering | Value management

[10] Ciccarelli M., Papetti A., Cappelletti F., Brunzini A., Germani M., Combining World Class Manufacturing system and Industry 4.0 technologies to design ergonomic manufacturing equipment, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 16(1), 263-279, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In the era of the fourth industrial revolution, human has still a central role. Manufacturing industries have to deal with human sustainability in order to guarantee workers’ health and well-being. Several studies have proved the importance of ergonomics in workplace design and the benefits related to the adoption of the human-centered approach. The enabling technologies of Industry 4.0 are changing the role of the operator and can support him from a physical and cognitive point of view. On the other hand, companies are increasingly implementing lean philosophies, such as World Class Manufacturing, to maintain their competitiveness by reducing wastes and costs. However, the need arises for a comprehensive methodology to support the design of manufacturing equipment considering human factors by integrating Industry 4.0 technologies and World Class Manufacturing elements. It aims at improving both ergonomic and efficiency aspects of the workstation. The proposed methodology allows identifying and in-depth analyzing the problem, thus finding and implementing a solution that complies with all the requirements and constraints defined. Each step of the methodology can be strengthened by Industry 4.0 technologies. The methodology has been experimented in a real case study with a global company of agriculture and industrial vehicles, leading to the design and implementation of a new equipment. Relevant benefits in terms of ergonomics, efficiency, and process standardization have been achieved.

Keywords: Equipment design | Ergonomics | Human-centered manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Workplace organization pillar | World class manufacturing

[11] Cappelletti F., Menghi R., Rossi M., Germani M., Greenbuild: An Analytical Tool to Support Decision Making in Green Building Design, Key Engineering Materials, 919 KEM, 199-209, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Buildings are one of the largest contributors to negative environmental impacts because of the high consumption of energy and materials during their life cycle. The present work proposes a framework, able to make available information, both of general materials and specific commercial solutions; moreover, it overcomes the current state of the art, since, although focused on environmental sustainability, provides the opportunity to compare simultaneously several choices, also considering their properties and characteristics. Based on the proposed methodology, a tool structure and workflow are presented. The main potentiality is represented by the possibility of executing sustainability assessment already in the early stages of building design using the proposed tool when design choices significantly contribute to the global environmental impact of solutions. A validation procedure to quantitatively evaluate the main tool's limits and potentialities is proposed.

Keywords: Eco-design | Environmental impact | Environmental sustainability | Knowledge

[12] Amadori F., Bardani M., Bernasconi E., Cappelletti F., Catarci T., Drudi G., Ferretti M., Foschini L., Galli P., Germani M., Grosso G., Leotta F., Mathew J.G., Manuguerra L., Mariucci N., Mecella M., Monti F., Pierini F., Rossi M., Electrospindle 4.0: Towards Zero Defect Manufacturing of Spindles, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 3144, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Industry 4.0 represents the last evolution of manufacturing. With respect to Industry 3.0, which introduced the digital interconnection of machinery with monitoring and control systems, the fourth industrial revolution extends this concept to sensors, products and any kind of object or actor (thing) involved in the process. The tremendous amount of data produced is intended to be analyzed by applying methods from artificial intelligence, machine learning and data mining. One of the objectives of such analysis is Zero Defect Manufacturing, i.e., a manufacturing process where acquired data during the entire life cycle of products are used to continuously improve the product design in order to provide customers with unprecedented quality guarantees. In this paper, we discuss the goals of the Electrospindle 4.0 project, which aims at applying Zero Defect Manufacturing principles to the production of spindles.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence | Design for X | Industry 4.0 | Zero Defect Manufacturing

[13] Ciccarelli M., Papetti A., Scoccia C., Menchi G., Mostarda L., Palmieri G., Germani M., A system to improve the physical ergonomics in Human-Robot Collaboration, Procedia Computer Science, 200, 689-698, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In the industry 4.0 era, pursuing social sustainability also means implementing a synergic collaboration between workers and robots. Indeed, robot behavior does not affect only worker safety, but it also influences his health and comfort. In this context, an important topic to be enhanced is the operator's physical monitoring aimed at reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Some research studies deal with the improvement of the worker's posture during human-robot collaboration; however, non-intrusive methods applicable in real industrial scenarios are lacking. To this ending, this paper proposes a system to avoid uncomfortable and unsafe postures based on workers' anthropometric characteristics, posture monitoring by inertial and visual systems, task requirements, and a real-time risk assessment by standard methodology. The system allows the optimization of the robot behavior in order to improve worker's well-being. Finally, the virtual simulation of a real case study is presented.

Keywords: human factors | human-robot collaboration | industry 4.0 | physical ergonomics

[14] Cappelletti F., Papetti A., Rossi M., Germani M., Smart strategies for household food waste management, Procedia Computer Science, 200, 887-895, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The total quantity of food waste in the European Union has been estimated at around 88 million tons per year. 53% of waste is thrown out by households; among this, up to 45,8% is avoidable and strictly related to users' awareness and behavior. In this context, the present research work aims to develop an integrated system able to reduce household food waste. It consists of a smart fridge able to track the stocks, a web application, and a set of services aimed at guiding the user in the food-related daily activities (proper food storage, purchase planning, etc.). Expiration date traceability and proper information management are the cornerstones of the proposed system. The system usability has been evaluated by a group of potential users; their feedback were also the basis of the environmental and economic analysis of the innovative system; the results show great potentialities in both fields.

Keywords: environmental sustainability | food waste | household waste | smart fridge

[15] Rossi M., Cappelletti F., Germani M., Design for environmental sustainability: Collect and use company information to design green products, Procedia CIRP, 105, 823-828, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Environmental policy has paid more and more attention to the impact of products and their life cycle, by establishing goals to be reached very shortly. Decisions at the design stage have a significant impact on the downstream activities, easing or making them difficult, although these take place at a very later time. The paper presents an approach to include in the traditional design process environmental sustainability aspects next to functional and economic drivers. Its novelty stands in the support for companies to structure the acquired knowledge about sustainability; recently a growing number of industrial companies faced the environmental question, and now the problem is not related to the absence of environmental data, but to its effective capitalization and related scarce strategies to support and improve it. The method, starting from the company's data and information, identifies the best strategies to simplify and effectively support the decision-making process. In this way, it not only allows the designers to take advantage of the information coming from product life cycle phases but also it makes possible to lower the environmental impact of a product through their decisions. The output of the method consists of charts, maps, and graphical materials; using them designers can compare, in environmental terms, design alternatives. Different combinations can be analyzed and interpolated to select the best design combinations. The implementation in an industrial case of the method and its output allow its applicability and validation. Starting from environmental data collected by the company over the years, usually used by the marketing department, a critical review has been carried out to derive, from them, useful tools to be used during design choices.

Keywords: Eco-design | environmental sustainability | knowledge

[16] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Messi D., Germani M., A comprehensive method to design and assess mixed reality simulations, Virtual Reality, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The scientific literature highlights how Mixed Reality (MR) simulations allow obtaining several benefits in healthcare education. Simulation-based training, boosted by MR, offers an exciting and immersive learning experience that helps health professionals to acquire knowledge and skills, without exposing patients to unnecessary risks. High engagement, informational overload, and unfamiliarity with virtual elements could expose students to cognitive overload and acute stress. The implementation of effective simulation design strategies able to preserve the psychological safety of learners and the investigation of the impacts and effects of simulations are two open challenges to be faced. In this context, the present study proposes a method to design a medical simulation and evaluate its effectiveness, with the final aim to achieve the learning outcomes and do not compromise the students' psychological safety. The method has been applied in the design and development of an MR application to simulate the rachicentesis procedure for diagnostic purposes in adults. The MR application has been tested by involving twenty students of the 6th year of Medicine and Surgery of Università Politecnica delle Marche. Multiple measurement techniques such as self-report, physiological indices, and observer ratings of performance, cognitive and emotional states of learners have been implemented to improve the rigour of the study. Also, a user-experience analysis has been accomplished to discriminate between two different devices: Vox Gear Plus® and Microsoft Hololens®. To compare the results with a reference, students performed the simulation also without using the MR application. The use of MR resulted in increased stress measured by physiological parameters without a high increase in perceived workload. It satisfies the objective to enhance the realism of the simulation without generating cognitive overload, which favours productive learning. The user experience (UX) has found greater benefits in involvement, immersion, and realism; however, it has emphasized the technological limitations of devices such as obstruction, loss of depth (Vox Gear Plus), and narrow FOV (Microsoft Hololens).

Keywords: Augmented reality | Cognitive load | Medical education | Mixed reality | Simulation | Stress

[17] Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Mandolini M., Engineering knowledge formalization and proposition for informatics development towards a CAD-integrated DfX system for product design, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 51, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Target design methodologies (DfX) were developed to cope with specific engineering design issues such as cost-effectiveness, manufacturability, assemblability, maintainability, among others. However, DfX methodologies are undergoing the lack of real integration with 3D CAD systems. Their principles are currently applied downstream of the 3D modelling by following the well-known rules available from the literature and engineers’ know-how (tacit internal knowledge). This paper provides a method to formalize complex DfX engineering knowledge into explicit knowledge that can be reused for Advanced Engineering Informatics to aid designers and engineers in developing mechanical products. This research work wants to define a general method (ontology) able to couple DfX design guidelines (engineering knowledge) with geometrical product features of a product 3D model (engineering parametric data). A common layer for all DfX methods (horizontal) and dedicated layers for each DfX method (vertical) allow creating the suitable ontology for the systematic collection of the DfX rules considering each target. Moreover, the proposed framework is the first step for developing (future work) a software tool to assist engineers and designers during product development (3D CAD modelling). A design for assembly (DfA) case study shows how to collect assembly rules in the given framework. It demonstrates the applicability of the CAD-integrated DfX system in the mechanical design of a jig-crane. Several benefits are recognized: (i) systematic collection of DfA rules for informatics development, (ii) identification of assembly issues in the product development process, and (iii) reduction of effort and time during the design review.

Keywords: CAD | Design guidelines | Design rules | DfX | Engineering knowledge | Feature recognition | Ontology

[18] Brunzini A., Mandolini M., Caragiuli M., Germani M., Mazzoli A., Pagnoni M., HoloLens 2 for Maxillofacial Surgery: A Preliminary Study, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 133-140, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Since custom-made 3D printed surgical guides for maxillofacial surgery are usually expensive, Augmented Reality (AR) can be efficiently employed to overcome the high costs. The proposed work aims to develop and test an AR application for different maxillofacial surgeries. The application consists in overlaying the cutting lines on the patient’s mandible to guide the clinician during the procedure. It has been realized in Unity and preliminary tested with HoloLens 2 and a 3D printed mandible. Seven participants performed two consecutive trials. The mandible with the obtained surgical lines has been scanned after each test to digitally reconstruct the traced lines and compare them with the surgical lines previously designed. The results allowed the preliminary analysis of the developed AR system’s accuracy and precision. Mean distances from the designed surgical guides showed good accuracy for the genioplasty (deviation error around 1.03 mm) and orthognathic surgery (deviation error around 1.27 mm), suggesting the applicability of HoloLens 2 for these kinds of surgery. On the contrary, the application was not suitable for the mandibular angle osteotomy (deviation error over 2.50 mm).

Keywords: Augmented reality | HoloLens 2 | Maxillofacial surgery | Surgical guides

[19] Papetti A., Ciccarelli M., Brunzini A., Germani M., Investigating the Application of Augmented Reality to Support Wire Harness Activities, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 116-124, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In the industrial context, the wire harness represents a process with a high degree of manual work and significant customizability of final products. To reduce the workers’ mental demand, the augmented reality (AR) can be an effective tool. The existing industrial applications mainly focus on manual assembly assistance, but few solutions have been developed for the wire harness. This paper tries to enhance such a process by supporting operators with an AR application that shows the work instructions and allows reducing their cognitive workload. The main goals are to propose a user-friendly and versatile tool and carry out a structured and complete evaluation of the user experience. Two experimental sessions were conducted in the laboratory by simulating the wire harness assembly and quality inspection. The use of the AR application is efficient and effective especially when instructions far from the workstation are considered as a reference.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Hololens 2 | Human-centered manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Wire harness assembly

[20] Mandolini M., Santucci F., Cicconi P., Santecchia E., Germani M., Palladino M., Favi C., Marconi M., A Numerical Model for Simulating the Selective Laser Melting of Closed Impellers, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 494-501, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is accelerating the adoption of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies in the industry. One of the most critical benefits concerns the possibility of manufacturing complex-shaped components, which are not feasible or too expensive using traditional processes. Recent studies are evaluating the SLM manufacturability of closed impellers through laboratory tests. The adoption of numerical simulation models for achieving this goal is still limited due to the complexity of the additive process and the number of phases to be considered. The paper presents a numerical model developed in the ANSYS workbench platform for simulating the SLM process of closed impellers. This work is one of the first studies available in the literature for such a particular kind of components. The paper describes the overall simulation model and the steps required for its definition. Furthermore, boundary conditions and process parameters are provided for a better understanding of the model. A case study illustrates its application to a specific part, intending to evaluate (i) impact between the recoater and the component, (ii) maximum von Mises stress and (iii) maximum displacement during the printing phase and following post-processing. These evaluations will support design and manufacturing engineers during product and process engineering. The promising results of this study are encouraging further research about the application of SLM for closed impellers.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Impeller | Numerical simulation | Selective laser melting

[21] Rossi M., Cappelletti F., Marconi M., Germani M., A Design for De-manufacturing Methodology to Improve the Product End of Life Environmental Sustainability, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 373-380, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: De-manufacturing and re-manufacturing are well-known solutions for recovering value from products that have reached their End of Life (EoL) and thus reducing resource exploitation. Although such scenarios are implemented after the use phase, they must be considered since the very early stage of design. The paper proposes a methodology that can be applied at the design stage to detect space for product design improvements, also representing a baseline for organizations approaching de-manufacturing for the first time. The methodology consists of four main steps, in which firstly target components are identified according to their environmental impact; then the disassembly sequence is qualitatively evaluated, and successively quantitatively too. This leads to the identification and evaluation of different EoL scenarios. The application of the methodology to a professional espresso coffee machine highlighted a reduction of impacts up to 52% if re-using and re-manufacturing strategies are implemented.

Keywords: De-manufacturing | Ecodesign | Environmental sustainability

[22] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Grassetti F., Moroncini G., Germani M., The effect of systemic sclerosis on use of mobile touchscreen interfaces: Design guidelines and physio-rehabilitation, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 87, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Disability conditions characterized by hand dysfunction are particularly relevant for the use of touchscreen technology. This work investigates the effects of hand impairment produced by systemic sclerosis (SSc) on touchscreen interaction. It aims to fulfil a dual objective: to provide guidelines to design inclusive interfaces and interaction modalities for SSc patients and to design a hand physio-rehabilitation based on a touchscreen application. Eighty patients participated in the observational study and, accordingly, eighty subjects without impairments were recruited as a control cohort. A specific touchscreen application has been designed and developed including three gestures: tap, drag and drop, and pinch-to-zoom. The work allowed identifying the interface features that significantly influence the performance and, consequently, the design rules for the physio-rehabilitation application.

Keywords: Hand impairment | Human-computer interaction | Inclusive design | Interface design | Systemic sclerosis | User-centred design

[23] Campi F., Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., CAD-integrated design for manufacturing and assembly in mechanical design, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 35(3), 282-325, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DfMA) is a consolidated engineering activity that suffers a real integration with 3D CAD systems. DfMA principles are currently applied downstream of the 3D modelling, by following the well-known rules available from the literature and company’s know-how. The paper provides a method to acquire, elaborate and represent DfMA rules sets to aid designers and engineers in developing mechanical products. This research work wants to define a general method able to couple DfMA design guidelines (knowledge-based design) with geometrical product features available by the investigation of the 3D model. The analysis of the 3D CAD model allows to anticipate manufacturing issues and to control manufacturing cost during product design. Moreover, a framework to embed this approach within a 3D CAD system is presented for future development in a software tool. Two case studies, a simple casing made of six parts and a centrifugal pump made of sixty-eight parts, highlight how the proposed method allows easy deployment of this approach in DfMA projects. Several benefits are recognized: (i) anticipation of manufacturing and assembly issues, (ii) reduction of manufacturing and assembly cost and, (iii) reduction of effort and time required by designers during the product development process.

Keywords: cad | design guidelines | dfa | DfM | feature recognition

[24] Ciccarelli M., Papetti A., Germani M., Leone A., Rescio G., Human work sustainability tool, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 62, 76-86, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The work environment influences workers’ well-being and contributes to the growth of personal experiences. In fact, working in an unhealthy workplace can cause stress, frustration, and anxiety. Therefore, companies have to deal with the workers’ well-being in the work environment, making the management of human factors a crucial aspect. In this context, the introduction of Industry 4.0 technologies can support workplace monitoring and improvement. Some researchers propose structured methods that consider several ergonomic domains together; however, it is necessary to create platforms that support data collection, elaboration, and correlation in an integrated way. Accordingly, this paper presents a tool that supports the monitoring of operators’ activities, the data analysis, and the implementation of corrective actions to make the workplace socially sustainable. Preliminary tests were conducted to assess the functionality of the tool architecture and two use cases are presented. They focus on posture analysis and stress detection by inertial sensors and unsupervised machine learning algorithms, respectively.

Keywords: Human factors | Human-centered manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Stress detection | Unsupervised learning | Worker well-being

[25] Mazzoli A., Mandolini M., Brunzini A., Caragiuli M., Germani M., Preliminary Considerations on the Design of Multi-layered Bone Scaffold for Laser-Based Printing, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 784 LNEE, 195-204, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Several implant materials are used in cranial surgery. Still, each one has its drawbacks, such as the risk of infections, low mechanical strength, or low osseointegration. Implants with a porous surface are considered more effective than a smooth and rough coating. The porosity density and structure also influence the mechanical properties of the final implant. Moreover, the implant properties depend on the manufacturing method. This study aims to present a custom-made cranial scaffold composed of two distinct layers. A compact inner one guarantees adequate structural properties to the scaffold. In contrast, a porous outer one lightens the scaffold structure and assures the correct osseointegration. The customized scaffold has been designed through a 3D free-form modeling system. It can be manufactured by 3D printing techniques such as direct metal laser sintering in titanium or via selective laser sintering using PEEK. The advantages and limitations of the multi-layered custom-made scaffold and the related design process are qualitatively described.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Craniofacial reconstruction | Customized scaffolds | Multi-layered scaffolds | Porous scaffolds

[26] Rossi M., Papetti A., Germani M., A comparison of different waste collection methods: Environmental impacts and occupational risks, Journal of Cleaner Production, 368, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Municipal waste management, especially in developed countries, has a significant impact on the environment and humans that need to be quantified and mitigated. This study aims to investigate and compare the environmental impact and occupational risks of the following three municipal waste collection methods in Italy: street bins, door-to-door collection, and a smart bins system. Six waste categories (paper, plastics, glass, metal, organic materials, and residual waste) are analysed. Environmental performances are calculated by the life cycle assessment (LCA) and material and flow analysis (MFA) methodologies. The ergonomic analysis is based on direct observation of municipal waste collectors and the application of standard assessment methods as RULA, NIOSH, and Snook Ciriello. Results: show that the smart bins collection method is environmentally more effective in all the impact categories considered, thanks to the better quality of collected waste. The residual waste flow directed to landfills has a lower value in the case of smart bins (36.63%) in comparison with door-to-door (52.90%) and street bins (89.56%). The use of smart bins allows higher environmental benefits, passing for the Climate Change impact category from −2.80E+01 kg of CO2eq. of the door-to-door system and −2.74E+01 kg of CO2eq. of street bins to −7.13E+01 kg of CO2eq. of smart bins. Regarding the transport phase, the smart bins system determines a reduction of the impact of about 60% if compared with the door-to-door system for all the impact categories considered. On the other hand, acceptable occupational risks result in street and smart waste collection methods, while poor ergonomics conditions are observed during the door-to-door collection. Containers lifting and emptying are the most critical tasks.

Keywords: Ergonomics | Life cycle assessment | Occupational risks | Sustainability | Waste collection

[27] Ciccarelli M., Corradini F., Germani M., Menchi G., Mostarda L., Papetti A., Piangerelli M., SPECTRE: a deep learning network for posture recognition in manufacturing, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a very impactful problem, both socially and economically, in the manufacturing sector. To control their effect, standardised methods and technologies for ergonomic assessment have been developed. The main technologies used are inertial sensors and vision-based systems. The former are accurate and reliable, but invasive and not affordable for many companies. The latter use machine learning algorithms to detect human pose and assess ergonomic risks. In this paper, using data collecting by reproducing the working environment in LUBE, the major Italian kitchen manufacturer, we propose SPECTRE (Sensor-independent Parallel dEep ConvoluTional leaRning nEtwork): a fully sensor-independent learning model based on convolutional networks to classify postures in the workplace. This system assesses ergonomic risks in major body segments through Deep Learning with a minimal impact. SPECTRE’s performance is evaluated using established metrics for imbalanced data (precision, recall, F1-score and area under the precision-recall curve). Overall, SPECTRE shows good performance and, thanks to an agnostic explainable machine learning method, is able to extrapolate which patterns are significant in the input.

Keywords: Computer vision | Deep learning | Ergonomic risks | Human-centered manufacturing | Posture recognition | Work-related musculoskeletal disorders

[28] Cappelletti F., Manes F., Rossi M., Germani M., Evaluating the environmental sustainability of durable products through life cycle assessment. The case of domestic refrigerators, Sustainable Production and Consumption, 34, 177-189, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Sustainability and durability are not always interchangeable concepts, especially for products that require many resources during their long use phases, like energy related products. In addition, the literature either focuses on how the product performances change over time or evaluates the convenience of durable goods. In this context, the present work presents a durability assessment from an environmental perspective. Unlikely the existing literature, it simultaneously compares the different methods that describe how the product performances may vary with time, specifically how the foam aging influences the yearly energy consumption of refrigerators and assess the durability from the environmental point of view under different circumstances. The primary outcomes highlight the need to introduce a more accurate description of product performances during their lifetime (i.e. aging of components) to obtain realistic results. Furthermore, this work enlightens the need to align the analytical report on the deterioration of refrigerators' components and provides alternative exemplifications to assess the environmental sustainability of durability. As far as the latter case is concerned, multiple products can take advantage of it and have durability considered from the environmental point of view.

Keywords: Durability | Energy related products | Environmental assessment | Foam aging | Part substitution

[29] Papetti A., Ciccarelli M., Scoccia C., Palmieri G., Germani M., A human-oriented design process for collaborative robotics, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The potential of collaborative robotics often does not materialize in an efficient design of the human-robot collaboration. Technology-oriented approaches are no longer enough in the Industry 4.0 era. This work proposes a set of methods to support manufacturing engineers in the human-oriented design process of integrated production systems to obtain satisfactory performance in the mass customization paradigm, without impacting the safety and health of workers. It founds the design criteria definition on five main pillars (safety, ergonomics, effectiveness, flexibility, and costs), favors the consideration of different design alternatives, and leads their selection. The dynamic impact of the design choices on the various elements of the system prevails over the static design constraints. The method has been experimented in collaboration with the major kitchen manufacturer in Italy, which introduced a collaborative robotics cell in the drawers’ assembly line. It resulted in a more balanced production line (10% more), a verified risk minimization (RULA score reduced from 5 to 3 and OCRA score from 13.30 to 5.70), and a greater allocation of operators to high added value activities.

Keywords: collaborative robots | ergonomics | human-centered manufacturing | Human-robot collaboration | manufacturing systems design

[30] Favi C., Campi F., Mandolini M., Martinelli I., Germani M., Key features and novel trends for developing cost engineering methods for forged components: a systematic literature review, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 117(9-10), 2601-2625, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Engineering design shows a growing interest in exploring cost analysis to anticipate manufacturing issues and integrate production aspects within the product development process. This research aims to highlight key elements (inputs, parameters, models) to accurately predict the cost of a forged part using a complete model, with important information that can be available during the design phase. For this purpose, a systematic literature review of existing engineering methodologies developed for cost analysis of forged parts (i.e., cost estimation, DtC, and ABC) was performed with characterizations of the different approaches for evaluating the most important topics related to this objective. As a result, the most important insights related to the aim of this review are provided: (i) among quantitative methods, analytical and parametric models are the most suitable approaches to develop a cost estimation, (ii) a cost model based on a linear equation supported by single or multiple variables seems to be the most accurate tool to establish a robust cost analysis in the design of forged components, and (iii) input parameters related to the material type and geometrical features are the most critical cost-drivers in the cost assessment. Moreover, this review contributes to identifying emerging applications and obsolete topics, providing the ground to investigate unexplored areas relevant to future research.

Keywords: CAD | CAE | Cost assessment | Cost model | Engineering knowledge | Forging | Material processing | Systematic literature review

[31] Brunzini A., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Messi D., Barbadoro P., A transdisciplinary approach for the design optimization of medical simulations, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 16, 53-62, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Simulation in healthcare is rapidly replacing more traditional educational methods, becoming a fundamental step in the medical training path. Medical simulations have a remarkable impact not only on learners' competencies and skills but also on their attitudes, behaviors, and emotions such as anxiety, stress, mental effort, and frustration. All these aspects are transferred to the real practice and reflected on patients' safety and outcomes. The design of medical simulations passes through a careful analysis of learning objectives, technology to be used, instructor's and learners' roles, performance assessment, and so on. However, an overall methodology for the simulation assessment and consequent optimization is still lacking. The present work proposes a transdisciplinary framework for the analysis of simulation effectiveness in terms of learners' performance, ergonomics conditions, and emotional states. It involves collaboration among different professional figures such as engineers, clinicians, specialized trainers, and human factors specialists. The aim is to define specific guidelines for the simulation optimization, to obtain enhanced learners' performance, improved ergonomics, and consequently positively affect the patient treatment, leading to cost savings for the healthcare system. The proposed framework has been tested on a low-fidelity simulation for the training of rachicentesis and has allowed the definition of general rules for its enhancement.

Keywords: Design optimization | Human Factors | Simulation-based training | Transdisciplinary design | User experience

[32] Marconi M., Menghi R., Papetti A., Pietroni G., Germani M., An interactive resource value mapping tool to support the reduction of inefficiencies in smart manufacturing processes, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(2-3), 211-224, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: As nearly one third of global energy demand and CO2 emissions are attributable to manufacturing activities, the reduction of energy/resource consumption in the industrial sector is increasingly crucial. Therefore, research and innovation for the factories of the future is not only a matter of developing and integrating new technologies, but also a challenge to make manufacturing less dependent on energy and managed in an optimized way. This requires considering the efficiency of resource exploitation according to a systematic approach. To this aim, the present paper proposes a resource-saving tool, called Resource Value Mapping (RVM), and describes its application in a smart multinational company that produces electromechanical components for the automotive industry. The RVM tool is composed by three main modules that jointly allow the involved stakeholders to collaborate toward the optimization of the plant management: the Cloud data center that represents the repository of the collected real-time and offline data, the Analytics module that is responsible for data elaboration with the aim of calculating a set of key performance indicators useful to identify process inefficiencies, and the Web-based platform that represents the user interface of the tool. The case study demonstrated how such a tool allows (1) mapping the energy/resource flows to multiple levels (machine, line, plant), (2) characterizing them to identify the most critical activities that do not generate value and (3) supporting multiple stakeholders (plant manager, energy manger, operators) in the management of resource anomalies and definition of a more sustainable action plan.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Industrial case study | Plant management | Resource-saving tool | Sustainable manufacturing

[33] Papetti A., Ciccarelli M., Brunzini A., Germani M., Design of ergonomic manufacturing equipment by a human-centered methodology, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 107-111, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Even in the era of the fourth industrial revolution, companies should necessarily deal with human sustainability, with the aim of improving workers’ health and safety and enhancing their skills. Several studies have faced this issue by proposing approaches or framework to boost the consideration of human factors in the workstation design and support ergonomic evaluations. However, the need arises for a methodology that collects and systematizes existing methods and tools in order to create workplaces that fit to human needs. For this aim, this paper proposes a structured methodology that supports the design and engineering of manufacturing equipment in order to improve workstations in terms of ergonomics and efficiency. It allows identifying a problem, solving it and carrying out a complete and objective evaluation from different perspectives. The methodology has been experimented in a real case study in collaboration with a global manufacturer of agriculture and industrial vehicles. Significant benefits in terms of productivity, process standardization and human factors have been achieved.

Keywords: Equipment design | Ergonomics | Human-centered manufacturing | Workplace organization pillar | World class manufacturing

[34] Favi C., Mandolini M., Campi F., Cicconi P., Germani M., DESIGN FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING: A FRAMEWORK TO COLLECT AND REUSE ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE TOWARDS A CAD-BASED TOOL, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 6, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Within the context of modern industries, additive manufacturing (AM) plays a critical role. Design for AM (DfAM) requires defining design actions related to the product's geometry under development. DfAM affects design choices such as the type of process, the material, the geometry, and the model's features. Knowledge-based engineering (KBE) is promising for integrating DfAM principles in the early phases of product development. Still, few limitations are noticed, such as the real interoperability between DfAM and 3D CAD systems, leading to the application of proper DfAM rules downstream of the 3D modeling. This paper aims to describe a method to formalize AM engineering knowledge used as a repository to develop a CAD-integrated decision support tool by acknowledging the current gap. The method uses, as input, geometrical data retrieved by the feature analysis of the 3D CAD model (feature recognition approach) and manufacturing information related to AM processes. The method will allow closing the gap between the design and production departments by creating a knowledge-based system. The outcome of this system does not concern the possibility of predicting the AM process parameters. The system will support engineers in delivering product designs compliant with AM processes. Based on this system, a CAD-integrated DfAM tool can be developed in the future.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Am | Cad | Design for additive manufacturing | Design rules | Design tool | Feature recognition | Knowledge-based system

[35] Papetti A., Ciccarelli M., Scoccia C., Germani M., A multi-criteria method to design the collaboration between humans and robots, Procedia CIRP, 104, 939-944, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The human-robot synergy is a key pillar of the smart factory of the future, aiming at high performance in a risk-free environment. Analyzing the main research themes in this field, a need for design criteria balancing emerges. Safety, ergonomics, productivity, and flexibility are the main requirements to be properly considered and combined. The paper proposes a method to fulfill this goal when designing the collaboration between humans and robots. It also exploits emerging technologies for real-time mapping of the workspace and operations management able to facilitate and simulate this interaction. Opportunities and benefits are presented through a real case study.

Keywords: Collaborative robots | Ergonomics | Human-robot collaboration | Industry 4.0 | Workstation design

[36] Campi F., Mandolini M., Santucci F., Favi C., Germani M., Parametric cost modelling of components for turbomachines: Preliminary study, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 2379-2388, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The ever-increasing competitiveness, due to the market globalisation, has forced the industries to modify their design and production strategies. Hence, it is crucial to estimate and optimise costs as early as possible since any following changes will negatively impact the redesign effort and lead time. This paper aims to compare different parametric cost estimation methods that can be used for analysing mechanical components. The current work presents a cost estimation methodology which uses non-historical data for the database population. The database is settled using should cost data obtained from analytical cost models implemented in a cost estimation software. Then, the paper compares different parametric cost modelling techniques (artificial neural networks, deep learning, random forest and linear regression) to define the best one for industrial components. Such methods have been tested on 9 axial compressor discs, different in dimensions. Then, by considering other materials and batch sizes, it was possible to reach a training dataset of 90 records. From the analysis carried out in this work, it is possible to conclude that the machine learning techniques are a valid alternative to the traditional linear regression ones.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design costing | Early design phases | Machine learning

[37] Cappelletti F., Rossi M., Germani M., Hanif M.S., A methodology to support companies in the first steps towards de-manufacturing, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 131-140, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: De-manufacturing and re-manufacturing are fundamental technical solutions to efficiently recover value from post-use products. Disassembly in one of the most complex activities in de-manufacturing because i) the more manual it is the higher is its cost, ii) disassembly times are variable due to uncertainty of conditions of products reaching their EoL, and iii) because it is necessary to know which components to disassemble to balance the cost of disassembly. The paper proposes a methodology that finds ways of applications: it can be applied at the design stage to detect space for product design improvements, and it also represents a baseline from organizations approaching demanufacturing for the first time. The methodology consists of four main steps, in which firstly targets components are identified, according to their environmental impact; secondly their disassembly sequence is qualitatively evaluated, and successively it is quantitatively determined via disassembly times, predicting also the status of the component at their End of Life. The aim of the methodology is reached at the fourth phase when alternative, eco-friendlier End of Life strategies are proposed, verified, and chosen.

Keywords: Circular economy | Demanufacturing | Ecodesign | EoL strategies | Mechatronics

[38] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Germani M., Adrario E., Mixed reality in medical simulation: A comprehensive design methodology, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 2107-2116, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: In the medical education field, the use of highly sophisticated simulators and extended reality (XR) simulations allow training complex procedures and acquiring new knowledge and attitudes. XR is considered useful for the enhancement of healthcare education; however, several issues need further research. The main aim of this study is to define a comprehensive method to design and optimize every kind of simulator and simulation, integrating all the relevant elements concerning the scenario design and prototype development. A complete framework for the design of any kind of advanced clinical simulation is proposed and it has been applied to realize a mixed reality (MR) prototype for the simulation of the rachicentesis. The purpose of the MR application is to immerse the trainee in a more realistic environment and to put him/her under pressure during the simulation, as in real practice. The application was tested with two different devices: the headset Vox Gear Plus for smartphone and the Microsoft Hololens. Eighteen students of the 6th year of Medicine and Surgery Course were enrolled in the study. Results show the comparison of user experience related to the two different devices and simulation performance using the Hololens.

Keywords: Design methodology | Education | Medical Simulation | Mixed Reality | Training

[39] Rossi M., Favi C., Germani M., Omicioli M., Comparative life cycle assessment of refrigeration systems for food cooling: eco-design actions towards machines with natural refrigerants, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 14(6), 1623-1646, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Refrigeration applications is responsible for approximately 17% of the total electricity and around 8% of greenhouse gas emissions. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment between two refrigeration systems, the first operating with a traditional fluid and the second with a natural refrigerant. The analysis was performed in accordance with international standards ISO 14040/14044 and adopted the attributional life cycle assessment approach. The functional unit was: ‘the storage of meat products, at the temperature of 0°C for a lifetime of 10 years, in refrigerating cells of a medium city supermarket’. Three different scenarios were analysed to investigate the effect of the energy mix in relation to the use of the machines. Results highlight how the choice of the refrigerating fluid has a higher effect on the environmental performances of the machine with a reduction of approximately 10% in a whole life cycle. Scenario analysis shows how the use of such machines in different countries allows a significant reduction of environmental impacts mostly related to the use phase. Eco-design actions were listed and connected with environmental hot spots specifying the life cycle phases and the environmental indicators involved.

Keywords: ecodesign | Life Cycle Assessment | Refrigeration technology

[40] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Germani M., Barbadoro P., Messi D., Adrario E., Mixed Reality Simulation for Medical Training: How It Affects Learners' Cognitive State, Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 264, 339-347, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: A mixed reality (MR) system, by providing visual, auditory, and haptic feedback to the learner, can offer a high level of immersion and realism, especially in the healthcare context. In medical training through MR simulations, it is particularly important to avoid mental overload, discomfort, fatigue, and stress, to guarantee productive learning. The present work proposes a systematic assessment of stress, cognitive load, and performance (through subjective and objective measures) of students during an MR simulation for the rachicentesis procedure. A specific application has been developed to enhance the sense of realism, by showing, over the skill trainer, a digital patient that responds with auditory and visual feedback, based on the learner’s interaction. A sample of 18 students has been enrolled in the pilot study. Preliminary results suggest the effectiveness of the proposed MR application using Hololens: high performances are achieved, and the cognitive conditions are well balanced.

Keywords: Cognitive load | Medical simulation | Mixed reality | Performance | Stress

[41] Cicconi P., Mandolini M., Santucci F., Germani M., Designing die inserts by additive approach: A test case, Procedia CIRP, 100, 702-707, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The die manufacturing industry is widely based on the use of conventional machining tools. However, several studies have proposed Additive Manufacturing (AM) for molds and die inserts in the last ten years. The AM flexibility allows designing and manufacturing complex surfaces. This flexibility can be used to optimize the cooling channels of die inserts (conformal cooling). The research aims to evaluate whether Design for Additive Manufacturing commercial tools can be employed in redesigning die inserts. Besides, the paper describes a method to redesign a die insert for High-Pressure Die Casting using Selective Laser Melting. A test case is proposed to analyze an AM die insert's redesign process for improving the thermal exchange and the material distribution. The simulation of the AM process supports the drafting conclusions from the results.

Keywords: 3D Printing | Additive Design | Conformal Cooling | High Pressure Die Casting | Lattice Structure | Metal Additive Manufacturing | Rapid Tooling

[42] Favi C., Mandolini M., Campi F., Germani M., A CAD-based design for manufacturing method for casted components, Procedia CIRP, 100, 235-240, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper proposes a method to couple manufacturing knowledge in the context of casting with 3D CAD modelling and design. The approach allows formalizing tacit into explicit design knowledge, for aiding engineers during the development of metal casted components. It is based on three main pillars: (i) identification of geometrical features (3D CAD features) and parameters that can cause an issue during the manufacturing process, (ii) definition of a numerical threshold for feature parameters that guarantee the feasibility of the casting process, and (iii) representation of design rules within a CAD system to support product design review. The method is considered the starting point for future developing a software tool (CAD tool plug-in), here just presented. Two case studies are reported with the aim to show the advantages of the proposed method and tool in the identification of manufacturing issues early in the product development process. Results highlight how the CAD-based tool is a useful assistant to avoid design problems related to the metal casting process.

Keywords: CAD | Design for casting | Design rules | DFMA | Embodiment design | Mechanical products

[43] Favi C., Mandolini M., Campi F., Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Design for Manufacturing and Assembly: A Method for Rules Classification, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 354-359, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper provides a method to acquire, process, and represent DfMA rules to help designers and engineers in the development of mechanical products compliant with manufacturing and assembly technology. This research work wants to define a general method able to link DfMA design guidelines (knowledge engineering) with geometrical product features that are available by the investigation of the 3D model. Numerical parameters of design features are related to design guidelines for the identification of manufacturing and assembly issues within the analysis of the 3D model.

Keywords: Design rules | DfMA | Embodiment design | Knowledge formalization | Mechanical products

[44] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Cicconi P., Germani M., Raffaeli R., Parametric Cost Modelling for Investment Casting, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 386-392, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a parametric cost model for estimating the raw material cost of components realized employing the investment casting process. The model is built using sensitivity analysis and regression methods on data generated by an analytic cost model previously developed and validated by the same authors. This is the first attempt of developing a parametric cost model for investment casting based on activity-based costing. The proposed cost model accounts component volume, material density and material price. The error in estimating the raw material cost for components whose volume is within the common range of investment casting is around 11%.

Keywords: Cost estimating relationship | Cost estimation | Investment casting | Parametric cost modelling | Sensitivity analysis

[45] Postacchini L., Cicconi P., Ciarapica F.E., Germani M., Bevilacqua M., A design method for improving assembly and environmental sustainability in packaging solutions: a case study in household appliances, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 14(4), 574-589, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: By using a functional requirement analysis, through Design for Manufacture and Assembly and Design for Environment principles, this paper aims at showing a new design method to improve the overall assembly features and environmental sustainability of a packaging solution. This method provides to rank functional requirements according to three different design specifications and also to the number of relationships they have with each other. At the same time, a ranked order of importance for the packaging parts has been realised, considering the number of performed functions. The purpose of this method is to support the designers in focusing their attention on the most important packaging parts and, at the same time, giving them a clear idea of which are the most important functional requirements to be satisfied. This study has been focused on domestic household packaging, but the provided method can be extended to any particular packaging solution and its findings are still valid. According to the Design for Environmental perspective, the actual and the new resulting packaging solutions have been then compared through Life Cycle Assessment method. The results have shown the new packaging solution being able to cut down the environmental impacts, on average, of approximately 30%.

Keywords: corrugated fibreboard | design for environment | design for manufacture and assembly | expanded polystyrene | Industrial packaging | life cycle assessment

[46] Rossi M., Papetti A., Marconi M., Germani M., Life cycle assessment of a leather shoe supply chain, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 14(4), 686-703, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The fashion industry is responsible for a significant contribution to environmental pressure in the European Union. The present study aims to quantify the environmental impacts of a leather shoe production chain and identify the most criticalities in terms of companies, processes, and materials. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the impacts related to the production of a pair of classic man leather shoes. Slaughtering and tanning resulted in the less environmentally sustainable stages for almost all the analysed impact categories, except water resource depletion and ozone layer depletion. Such outcomes are mainly due to the high distance from animals’ skin suppliers to slaughterhouses and tanneries, the use of lorries transport, and the large use of unsustainable chemicals to treat the leather. Going downstream, the main hot spot refers to the use of cotton during upper manufacturing and shoe assembly and finishing. Three alternative realistic production scenarios were simulated to find the best sustainable mix. They focused on alternative means of transport, the substitution of cotton, and green purchasing of upper and lining. An environmental impact reduction of about 30% can be obtained if all the suggested scenarios are implemented.

Keywords: environmental impact | footwear industry | Leather shoe supply chain | Life Cycle Assessment

[47] Cicconi P., Mandolini M., Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Metal additive manufacturing for the rapid prototyping of shaped parts: A case study, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 18(5), 1061-1079, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Many companies have been evaluating the feasibility and gain of using Additive Manufacturing in their own business. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to produce a shape with complex geometry in a reduced time. Therefore, Additive Manufacturing is often applied in rapid prototyping, which is an essential activity for the evaluation and testing of the design concepts. Even if the advantages and drawbacks of 3D printing are well known in the literature, there is still a lack of tools and methodologies to support a rapid techno-economic analysis for selecting the key manufacturing process between traditional machining tools and 3D printing. A case study on a 3D part of moderate complexity, a gas burner head, fabricated by additive manufacturing, using selective laser melting, has been described in this paper. This test case is focused on the context of rapid prototyping. The 3D part is a gas burner head which has to be printed for testing activity. The analysis focuses on the cost, time, and quality of the built part. An analytical approach has been proposed to calculate the cost of the 3D printing process. The analytical cost is related to the results of the numerical simulations to support the techno-economic analysis. The paper shows a method to compare additive manufacturing and traditional machining processes in rapid prototyping. However, the paper also shows a simulation activity to analyze with more details the 3D printing process in terms of part orientation and deformation of the build.

Keywords: 3D printing simulation | Additive manufacturing | Cost analysis | Metal printing | Rapid prototyping

[48] Campi F., Mandolini M., Favi C., Checcacci E., Germani M., An analytical cost estimation model for the design of axisymmetric components with open-die forging technology, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 110(7-8), 1869-1892, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Open-die forging is a manufacturing process commonly used for realising simple shaped components with high mechanical performances and limited capability in terms of production volume. To date, an analytical model for estimating the costs of components manufactured with this technology is still an open issue. The paper aims to define an analytical model for cost estimation of axisymmetric components manufactured by open-die forging technology. The model is grounded on the analysis of geometrical features available at the design stage providing a detailed cost breakdown in relation to all the process phases and the raw material. The model allows predicting product cost, linking geometrical features and cost items, to carry out design-to-cost actions oriented to the reduction of manufacturing cost. The model is mainly conceived for design engineers, cost engineers and buyers, respectively, for improving the product design, the manufacturing process and the supply chain. Cost model and related schemas for collecting equations and data are presented, including the approach for sizing the raw material and a set of rules for modelling the related cost. Finally, analytic equations for modelling the cost of the whole forging process (i.e. billet cutting, heating, pre-smoothing, smoothing, upsetting, max-shoulder cogging, necking and shoulders cogging) are reported. The cost model has been tested on eight cylindrical parts such as discs and shafts with different shapes, dimensions and materials. Two forge masters have been involved in the testing phase. The absolute average deviation between the actual and estimated costs is approximately 4% for raw material and 21% for the process. The absolute average deviation on the total cost (raw material and manufacturing process) is approximately 5%.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Cost model | Design features | Design-to-cost | Hot forging | Manufacturing parameters | Open-die forging

[49] Cicconi P., Manieri S., Nardelli M., Bergantino N., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A constraint-based approach for optimizing the design of overhead lines, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 14(3), 1121-1139, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The use of computational methods in engineering design is a long-standing issue. Several mathematical approaches have been investigated in the literature to support the design optimization of engineering products. Most of them are focused on the optimization of a single structure, without considering a system of structures. The design of supports for electric lines requires tools for the management and sizing of a system of structures that interacts with each other under specific load conditions. This paper deals with a framework to support the design optimization of an overhead line using methods related to the theory of the Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The object-oriented model of a transmission line has been described and then implemented into a prototypical software platform. The parameters to be considered as variables are defined by the designer at the beginning of the optimization process. These variables are geometrical dimensions, poles locations, cable pre-tension, etc. The set of constraints is related to normative, climate conditions, datasheets, material limits, and expert knowledge. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, a case study has been developed considering a variable number of constraints and parameters. In particular, the case study is focused on the design of a low-voltage sub-network between two distribution substations.

Keywords: Constraint satisfaction problem | Design optimization | Multi-objective optimization | Overhead lines

[50] Cicconi P., Nardelli M., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Integrating a constraint-based optimization approach into the design of oil & gas structures, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 45, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Currently, design optimization is widely applied in civil and mechanical engineering. Optimization strategies are used to enhance the product performance and reduce the cost, lead time and environmental impacts related to the product lifecycle. In this context, evolutionary algorithms are used for determining the optimum solution in engineering problems. The design of complex products, such as those that are engineered to order, often requires the study of subproblems. Modularization is a common practice to reduce the complexity; however, the configuration practices are difficult to be applied in engineered to order products. As a solution, the integration of the optimization tools and model-based simulations is proposed to manage the complexity. However, even when a commercial software is available to support the parameter optimization, there may exist a lack of design tools that can be integrated with the product structure of an engineered to order product. This paper describes a design optimization approach that integrates a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) tool with model-based simulations in a collaborative design context. A platform tool is developed using the. NET and MiniZinc languages. The case study is focused on the design optimization of a 700-ton steel structure. In particular, the optimization analysis considers the mechanical behavior, weight, and cost reduction.

Keywords: Constraint satisfaction problem | Design optimization | Engineer-to-order | Oil & gas | Steel structures

[51] Scafà M., Marconi M., Germani M., A critical review of symbiosis approaches in the context of Industry 4.0, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 7(3), 269-278, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The implementation of symbiosis approaches is recognized as an effective industrial strategy towards the optimization of resource exploitation and the improvement of collaboration in the context of Industry 4.0. An industrial system can be considered as a complex environment in which material, energy, machine, and human resources should cooperate towards the improvement of efficiency and the creation of value. According to this vision, the paper presents a detailed literature review about the existing symbiosis approaches: (i) industrial symbiosis models, which mainly aim at the sharing of resources among different companies, and (ii) human symbiosis, which focuses on how to effectively strengthen the synergy among humans and machines. Strengths, weaknesses and correlations among the most common symbiosis approaches are analysed and classified. Finally, the existing symbiosis models are related with the pillars of the Industry 4.0 paradigm, in order to understand what should be the future directions of research in the context of collaborative manufacturing.

Keywords: collaborative manufacturing | human symbiosis | industrial symbiosis | Industry 4.0

[52] Leone A., Rescio G., Siciliano P., Papetti A., Brunzini A., Germani M., Multi sensors platform for stress monitoring of workers in smart manufacturing context, I2MTC 2020 - International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Proceedings, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: In factories of the future, advanced automation systems (e.g., cobots, exoskeletons, cyber physical systems) will reduce the physical effort of workers and compensate their limitations as well as ensure more flexibility, agility, and competitiveness. However, the activities of the operator 4.0 will entail an increased share of complex cognitive tasks. Therefore, monitoring the mental load will be increasingly important to ensure work environments that promote healthy life and wellbeing for all at all ages. For this aim, this paper proposes a framework to analyze heart rate, galvanic skin response and electrooculogram signals in order to extract features able to detect an excessive stress or cognitive load. Two wearable devices are used: Empatica E4 wristband and J!NS MEME electrooculography glasses. The proposed framework has been experimented through a laboratory test focused on LEGO brick-based simulations of manufacturing activities.

Keywords: Electrodermal activity | Electrooculogram | Heart rate | Physiological measurements | Stress monitoring | Wearable sensors

[53] Cicconi P., Castorani V., Germani M., Mandolini M., Vita A., A multi-objective sequential method for manufacturing cost and structural optimization of modular steel towers, Engineering with Computers, 36(2), 475-497, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper proposes a methodological approach for the multi-objective optimization of steel towers made from prefabricated cylindrical stacks that are typically used in the oil and gas sector. The goal is to support engineers in designing economical products while meeting structural requirements. The multi-objective optimization approach involves the minimization of the weights and costs related to the manufacturing and assembly phases. The method is based on three optimization levels. The first is used in the preliminary design phase when a company receives a request for proposal. Here, minimal information on the order is available, and the time available to formulate an offer is limited. Thus, parametric cost models and simplified 1-D geometries are used in the optimization loop performed by genetic algorithms. The second phase, the embodiment design phase, starts when an offer becomes an order based on the results of the first stage. Simplified shell geometries and advanced parametric cost models are used in the optimization loop, which present a restricted problem domain. In the last phase involving detailed design, a full 3-D computer-aided design model is generated, and specific finite-element method simulations are performed. The cost estimations, given the high levels of detail considered, are analytic and are performed using dedicated software.

Keywords: Engineering-to-order (ETO) | Manufacturing cost estimation | Multi-objective optimization | Numerical simulation | Sequential optimization | Tubular steel towers

[54] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Germani M., Raffaeli R., A framework for analytical cost estimation of mechanical components based on manufacturing knowledge representation, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 107(3-4), 1131-1151, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a novel framework for manufacturing and cost-related knowledge formalization. This artefact allows industries to capitalize the knowledge of experienced practitioners in the field of manufacturing and assembly, so that it can be used by designers for quickly and analytically estimating the production costs of components during product development. The framework consists of the following: (i) a cost breakdown structure used for splitting out the manufacturing cost, (ii) a data model (cost routing) to collect the knowledge required to define a manufacturing process, (iii) a data model (cost model) for collecting the knowledge required to compute the manufacturing cost of each operation within a manufacturing process, and (iv) a workflow to define the manufacturing process. The proposed framework provides several advantages: (i) knowledge formalization of product manufacturing cost, (ii) knowledge sharing among design/engineering departments, and (iii) knowledge capitalization for decision-making process. The proposed framework is used to formalize the knowledge required for analytically estimating the manufacturing cost of open-die forged components. Results highlight that the framework addresses the most important requirements for a knowledge-based cost estimation system.

Keywords: Computer-aided process planning | Design to cost | Knowledge elicitation | Manufacturing cost estimation | Manufacturing knowledge | Product design

[55] Landi D., Marconi M., Bocci E., Germani M., Comparative life cycle assessment of standard, cellulose-reinforced and end of life tires fiber-reinforced hot mix asphalt mixtures, Journal of Cleaner Production, 248, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: A change in the current waste management practices is needed to improve the reuse and recycling rates and limit the increasing environmental impacts (EI) on the environment. The construction sector is one of the major contributors to the global EI, regarding energy consumption, emissions released into the atmosphere and extracted natural resources. In this context, the reuse of waste and scraps from other sectors/production chains (i.e. fibers from end of life tires – ELT) in road pavements potentially represents a best practice. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) among three different typologies of hot mix asphalt mixtures (HMA): standard, cellulose-reinforced and ELT fiber-reinforced. The study focuses on the environmental analysis of the realization and maintenance of 1 m2 of HMA mixtures for a motorway road, during a time lapse of 30 years. The life cycle inventory includes primary data, collected from different industrial companies and from laboratory test, secondary data, derived from the GaBi professional database 2016. The service lives of the different typologies of HMA have been evaluated through a laboratory study and a full-scale application in a trial section located in an important Italian motorway. The porous asphalt mixture containing ELT fibers showed about 70% increase in the fatigue resistance with respect to the porous asphalt mixture containing cellulose fibers. The environmental impacts have been quantified in terms of Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), Global Warming Potential (GWP), and ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint indicators. The obtained results show that raw materials (particularly bitumen) are the most impactful flows for all the three considered mixtures and for all the impact categories. Also the transportation phases contribute with relevant impacts, while energy flows consumed during the HMA preparation and laying are almost negligible. Considering the CED, GWP and ReCiPe endpoint indicators, the ELT fiber-reinforced HMA resulted the best alternative (reduction of 25% in comparison with the standard HMA), followed by the cellulose-reinforced HMA (−10%), thanks to the higher service life. For some ReCiPe midpoint categories (Agricultural land occupation, Freshwater ecotoxicity, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication and Terrestrial ecotoxicity), instead, the worst scenario is the cellulose HMA, due to the high contribution of the cellulose material.

Keywords: Cellulose fiber | End-of-life tires fiber | Hot mix asphalt mixtures | Life cycle assessment

[56] Landi D., Vita A., Germani M., Interactive optimization of the resin transfer molding using a general-purpose tool: a case study, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 14(1), 295-308, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Simulation tools for liquid composite molding processes are a key to predict and solve manufacturing issues of composite materials. Numerical processes are commonly used to analyse and predict mould filling, considering also resin cure and exothermic reactions. These evaluations are usually performed through dedicated software tools that require highly specialized operators and purchasing costs. The present study relates to a multi-objective optimization approach for evaluating the effect of different process parameters of the resin transfer molding (RTM) process using a multi-purpose tool. Starting from a simple case, useful for analysing the effect of mesh type and size on the simulations, and then increasing the complexity of the models, virtual simulations have been validated through real tests. Afterward, this approach has been used for the optimization of the RTM process for the manufacturing of an automotive component. Gate positions, injection pressure and resin temperature have been optimized using finite-volume analysis with a multi-objective genetic algorithm. Finally, the parameters have been used in real experiments in order to validate the efficiency and the reliability of multi-purpose tool in simulating RTM processes.

Keywords: Multi-objective optimization | Process simulation | RTM | Virtual prototyping

[57] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Cicconi P., Germani M., AN ANALYTICAL COST MODEL for INVESTMENT CASTING, Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN Conference, 1, 987-996, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Analytical cost estimation of investment casted products during design phase is a complex task since the quantity of parameters to be evaluated. So far, there is a short literature on such cost estimation models. This paper attempts to improve the cost model presented by Boothroyd and Dewhurst. Improvements (mainly focused on cluster assembly and investment, sintering and melting phases) were defined and verified in cooperation with two foundries. Tested on eight components, deviation between estimated and actual costs is around 14% for manual production lines and 6% for automatic ones.

Keywords: cost estimation | design costing | design for x (DfX) | investment casting | process modelling

[58] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Postacchini L., Monteriù A., Pallotta E., Prist M., Ciarapica F.E., Germani M., Analysis of LGV usage for the improvement of a customized production, Procedia Manufacturing, 51, 1606-1613, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper describes an approach for analyzing the use of a Laser-Guided Vehicle (LGV) in the context of the small and medium-sized enterprise. The use of LGVs is an efficient solution to provide more flexibility in the context of Just-In-Time production; however, the investment cost can limit this application. A methodology has been proposed in this work to analyze the technical feasibility of using an LGV in the manufacturing industry of customized products. The test case focuses on the study of a laser-guided system to optimize the handling of molds for customized production. In this scenario, an LGV is proposed to substitute manual carts used for moving molds from the warehouse to the injection machines. The traditional path included an intermediate station for pre-heating the molds in hot-air ovens. The proposed solution includes the study of an induction heating system on the LGV to optimize time and energy consumption.

Keywords: Customized production | Laser Guided Vehicle | Life Cycle Cost | System modeling

[59] Papetti A., Gregori F., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A method to improve workers' well-being toward human-centered connected factories, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 7(5), 630-643, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most actual and consistent drivers for the industry is sustainability, which includes three main pillars: environment, economics, and society. While numerous methods for environmental and economic sustainability assessment have been proposed, social sustainability assessment is still lacking in structured methods and tools, although human has always played a key role. Moreover, technological development is pushing the industrial world toward a new paradigm, the “Industry 4.0,” which embeds topics such as data digitalization, cyber-physical systems, and machine learning. It entails significant changes in human resources management, without reducing their importance. Humans were part of the manufacturing system from the first industrial revolution, and no automation or digitalization can be possible without humans. The industry can no longer underestimate the reasonable application of human factors and ergonomics principles to the workplace. For this purpose, the paper provides a novel transdisciplinary engineering method to measure and promote social sustainability on production sites. It exploits Internet of Things technology to support the (re)design of manufacturing processes and plants toward human-centered connected factories. To improve the workers' well-being has positive effects on their health, satisfaction, and performance. The method has been implemented in a real industrial case study within the footwear industry. The sole finishing process has been analyzed from different perspectives to solve ergonomics-related problems and implement effective improvement strategies.

Keywords: Human factors | Human-centered connected factories | Industry 4.0 | Manufacturing ergonomics | Social sustainability

[60] Mandolini M., Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., A decision-making approach for procuring custom-made machineries and components, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 6, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper wants to improve the procurement processes for custom-made machineries and components. Indeed, the current methods and software platforms adopted by industries for purchasing machineries do not consider value generated through the entire lifecycle. Furthermore, the purchasing process of custom-made components from external suppliers is often and still characterized by several negotiation activities. This paper wants to improve this context by proposing two approaches to fostering the procurement processes. The first objective is to define an approach for standardizing the method for configuring machineries to be supplied from suppliers and to establish an approach for estimating their costs. The most important benefits of such an approach consist of (i) machinery selection based on the Total Value of Ownership (TVO), and (ii) optimized suppliers' selection by strengthening relationships between customers and suppliers. The second objective is to define a method and a software platform for managing the procurement phase of custom-made components. The most important benefits of this approach consist of (i) the standardization of procurement policies for custom and standard components, and (ii) the faster budgeting process. Future work consists of defining a reference model for gathering primary data required for TVO computation and defining standard agreements between suppliers and customers.

Keywords: Multi-criteria decision making | Suppliers selection | Total Cost of Ownership | Total Value of Ownership

[61] Rossi M., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., An augmented reality system for operator training in the footwear sector, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 18(4), 692-703, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This study presents an augmented reality-based system for the training of assembly line operators in the context of the high-end footwear industry. The proposed multi-layer software architecture, in combination with the AR viewer (Microsoft HoloLens™), guides operators of the shoe assembly/finishing line during the offline training activities. An evaluation protocol has been defined and preliminary experimentation of the system have been conducted in an Italian company that produces classic and luxury leather shoes.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Footwear Industry | Manufacturing | Operator Training

[62] Moroncini G., Brunzini A., Papetti A., Filippini E., Maurizi V., Cesaretti G., Gesuita R., Gabrielli A., Germani M., Development of the optimal touchscreen interface for patients with scleroderma, Journal of Scleroderma and Related Disorders, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Impaired hand function is a major contributor to overall disability and reduced health-related quality of life in scleroderma patients. A relevant issue concerns interaction of scleroderma subjects with touchscreen interfaces. This study aims at investigating this problem assessing scleroderma patients’ performance with a novel, aptly designed, touchscreen application in order to identify critical items of touchscreen technology which may impair or facilitate the use by scleroderma subjects. Eighty scleroderma patients performed this novel application including three games, each of which tested a different gesture: tapping, dragging/dropping, and pinching-to-zoom. Eighty healthy subjects without hand impairments were recruited as controls. Scleroderma patients performed worse than healthy users in each game, and statistically significant negatively impacting items were identified. In the second phase of the study, the 10 worst touchscreen performers within the scleroderma cohort were recruited for a physio-rehabilitation trial based on the daily use at home of a modified version of the software application downloaded into the personal devices of patients. The results of this study allow introduction of guidelines to design accessible touchscreen interfaces for subjects with scleroderma and suggest that touchscreen technology may be included in self-administered physio-rehabilitation programs for scleroderma hand.

Keywords: hand | hand disability | hand rehabilitation | Scleroderma | SSc | systemic sclerosis | touchscreen | touchscreen application | touchscreen device | touchscreen interface

[63] Papetti A., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A framework to promote social sustainability in industry 4.0, International Journal of Agile Systems and Management, 13(3), 233-257, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Industrial process digitalisation is pervading numerous areas of production system, including sustainability. The study presents a method to affirm how the social sustainability of a company also passes through the protection of the welfare of the worker and describes a case study focused on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The method considers different aspects including the characteristics of the worker/s, the working context, and the content of the work activity. According to the objectives of social sustainability in the factory environment multifactorial variables related to the workers wellbeing have been defined. IoT system and ad-hoc questionnaires can be used to collect such variables. Following the proposed method, the results of the case study offer many in-depth insights, from the objective analysis of personal characteristics to the organisation of work, and from the application of international standards to the evaluation of psychological parameters.

Keywords: Ergonomics | Human factors | Human-centred manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Internet of things | IoT | Social sustainability | User-centred workplace | Worker wellbeing

[64] Favi C., Marconi M., Mandolini M., Germani M., Big data analysis for the estimation of disassembly time and de-manufacturing activity, Procedia CIRP, 90, 617-622, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for disassembly is a key enabling strategy for the development of new business models based on the Industry 4.0 and circular economy paradigms. This paper attempts to define a method, based on Data Mining, for modelling disassembly data from large amount of records collected through the observation of de-manufacturing activities. The method allows to build a repository to characterize the disassembly time of joining elements (e.g. screws, nuts) considering different features and conditions. The approach was preliminary tested on a sample of 344 records for nuts disassembly retrieved by in-house tests. Disassembly time and corrective factors were assessed including the analysis of probability distribution function and standard deviation for each feature (i.e. disassembly tool).

Keywords: Big data analysis | Data mining | De-manufacturing | Design for disassembly | Disassembly time

[65] Landi D., Cicconi P., Germani M., Analyzing the environmental sustainability of packaging for household appliances: A test case, Procedia CIRP, 90, 355-360, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, packaging represents around 35% of the total municipal solid waste yearly generated. This paper aims at analyzing a methodology to support the redesign of a sustainable packaging for the household appliances. The approach considers the environmental impacts related to geometrical parameters and materials. In particular, here the test case is focused on the packaging for kitchen hoods. Through the proposed method, based on the use of virtual prototyping tools, an eco-design approach has been identified to analyze the main environmental impacts. A packaging redesign has been performed to reduce waste and increase the use of the components from the perspective of the circular economy. This study has been performed in accordance with the international standards ISO 14040/14044, by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from Cradle to Gate. The integration with a CAD tool has been considered to redefine the packaging shape, materials, and internal composition, keeping the same standard requirements (performance, security, etc.). LCA software SimaPro 8.5 has been used to carry out the life cycle assessment, and ReCiPe method has been chosen for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). A comparison has been proposed between a traditional packaging for household appliances and a new solution which integrates an interior part in molded pulp. The results show the possibility to cut down the environmental impacts of approximately 15% by a redesign with a molded pulp interior and avoiding EPS structures.

Keywords: Molded pulp | Sustainable design | Sustainable packaging

[66] Menghi R., Rossi M., Papetti A., Germani M., A methodology for energy efficiency redesign of smart production systems, Procedia CIRP, 91, 319-324, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: In the recent years, many methodologies and tools to support the energy efficiency re-design of production systems have been developed, however, they do not investigate the real-time manufacturing process. In this paper, a methodology for energy efficiency re-design of production systems in a context of smart manufacturing is proposed. The continuous production-machine data collection with operator feedbacks enables the creation of a knowledge-based repository that provides useful support during the design of manufacturing systems. A case study in an automotive sector company has allowed to implement the methodology and to assess its effectiveness.

Keywords: Energy efficiency design | knowledge management | manufacturing systems | smart manufacturing

[67] Papetti A., Rossi M., Menghi R., Germani M., Human-centered design for improving the workplace in the footwear sector, Procedia CIRP, 91, 295-300, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Especially in the footwear sector, the transition from the mass production to the mass customization increasingly requires Industry 4.0 solutions that do not reduce the human contribution to production processes but facilitate and value it to increase the job satisfaction. In this context, this paper proposes a method to (re)design the workplace according to a multiperspective ergonomic assessment. It efficaciously combines the analysis of physiological and environmental parameters by Internet-of-Things, the ergonomics risks identification by experts and the subjective evaluation of workers well-being. The method has been experimented in an Italian factory that produces customized shoes for the luxury market.

Keywords: Artisanal production | Ergonomics | Human-centered manufacturing | Workplace

[68] Menghi R., Domizio G.D., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., An energy assessment method for SMEs: Case study of an Italian mechanical workshop, Procedia Manufacturing, 43, 56-63, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, climate change requires companies to reduce their energy consumption and make their production systems more efficient. However, the complexity of the methodologies, the lack of transparency or high efforts (personnel/time) make this challenge especially difficult for SMEs. In this context, the present paper proposes a workflow to supports SMEs in a lean energy analysis. Through the implementation of several methodologies, a comprehensive assessment of energy consumption was carried out. The application to a real case study allowed to identify energy inefficiencies and to evaluate the energy saving and performance improvement actions.

Keywords: Energy efficiency assessment | Lean analysis | Manufacturing systems | SME

[69] Vita A., Castorani V., Germani M., Manufacturing, process simulation and mechanical tests of a thick component produced by compression-RTM process, ECCM 2018 - 18th European Conference on Composite Materials, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Advanced composite materials have been attracting the interest of many automotive companies for producing light and high-performance components. Out-Of-Autoclave methods have been recognized as the most promising processes to produce CFRP components. One of the most interesting process is Compression-RTM. The aim of this research is to demonstrate the validity of the C-RTM process for producing parts with a thickness greater than 10 mm. The authors fabricated a preform made by 17 layers of PAN based carbon fibre 800 g/m2 and 600 g/m2 twill fabric and injected more than 700 g of matrix. Process simulations have been run to test different boundary conditions without producing physical prototypes. Flexural tests have been performed to compare the behavior of thick parts produced by C-RTM with the ones produced by prepreg and autoclave. The results show comparable strength values between the samples tested. DSC, void content and ultrasound measurements have been investigated to fully understand the physical properties of the finished component. Moreover, cycle times has been analysed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method both from process and product performances points of view. Results show that thanks to the use of C-RTM the manufacturing time decreases by 68% with respect to the autoclave processes.

Keywords: Compression Resin Transfer Molding | Experimental tests | Process simulation | Thick CFRP components

[70] Landi D., Vita A., Borriello S., Scafà M., Germani M., A methodological approach for the design of composite tanks produced by filament winding, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 17(6), 1229-1240, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: In this paper, an original approach for the virtual prototyping of composite pressure tanks is proposed. The main tests to be conducted for the homologation of the vehicle tank is the burst pressure, which is a quasi-static test. This method aims to reduce the finite element model development time by the integration between the computational software MATLAB and the FEA tool Abaqus. Since the dome shape has fundamental influence on the mechanical performances of the composite pressure vessel, the presented procedure allows the designer to quickly import the suitable dome geometry into Abaqus, without the need of going through CAD software. The first step of the method here reported is the definition of all the geometric and operational parameters necessary to the construction of the dome meridian profile. The second step is to enter those parameters in a MATLAB script, which is able to integrate the dome profile differential equation, to generate the whole tank profile and to import this profile into Abaqus. Once the geometry has been imported, a FE model of the high-pressure vessel can be built and virtual simulations can be performed. This approach could be implemented in a dome optimization process to find which dome meridian profile gives the best tank performances.

Keywords: Composite Vessels | Filament Winding | Virtual Prototyping

[71] Landi D., Rossi M., Favi C., Brunzini A., Germani M., A virtual design approach to simulate the hob energy performance, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 17(5), 1101-1115, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Eco-design strategies aim to integrate environmental considerations into product design and development. Several regulations, directives and standards have been issued on this topic during last years. In particular, European Directive (2009/125/EC) establishes the eco-design requirements related to domestic and commercial kitchen appliances (e.g. cookers, hobs, grills). The present paper focuses on the virtual product eco-design of domestic induction heating cookers, which are becoming one of the leading cooking systems due to their advantages, e.g. energy efficiency, rapid heating, cleanliness, and user safety. The adoption of numerical analysis tools for the simulation of cooktops use phase, based on thermodynamic modelling, allows to provide useful information regarding the performance of cooking system at each phase of cooking. The paper provides a progress beyond the state-of-art on thermodynamic models for induction hob simulation considering interaction between the cooktop and the pot in the work environment. The goal of the paper is therefore to propose a methodology able to support designers in evaluating heating performances of induction cooking appliances, early in the design phases, through a virtual and multi-physical product model. Thermodynamic performances are determined by measuring several parameters and reproducing the energy consumption test by the mean of a virtual prototyping tool. Results highlight how the proposed model is adherent with the real tests following a specific standard in this sector with a maximum deviation of 3.2% considering the different cooking pot sizes.

Keywords: Design methodology | Eco-design strategies | Virtual Prototyping

[72] Cicconi P., Manieri S., Bergantino N., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A design approach for overhead lines considering configurations and simulations, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 17(4), 797-812, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, the contribution of the CAD modeling is not yet well exploited into the design of overhead lines. Even if some commercial tools are available, they are very similar to configuration tools with design rules related to reference normative. Sometimes, if 2D/3D CAD tools are employed, they are viewers or customized versions with specific features for the design of overhead lines. This situation limits the interoperability between the design of overhead lines and traditional software employed in the design of civil structures and infrastructures. Moreover, an information modeling approach is still lacking in current tools for the management of additional data about maintenance, cost, etc. In the context of overhead lines, the paper aims at showing an information modeling approach with a platform software which includes a configuration tool, a CAD module, an analytical-based solver, a costing tool, and a Finite Element Method solver. The CAD module is employed to define a 3D model including, as tag-objects, a set of information regarding the lifecycle design of overhead lines. Finally, a Finite Element Model solver enhances a second level of validation and enables advanced simulations.

Keywords: Computer-aided design | Configurations | Finite Element Model | Information Modeling | Overhead lines

[73] Scafà M., Serrani E.B., Papetti A., Brunzini A., Germani M., Assessment of Students’ cognitive conditions in medical simulation training: A review study, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 958, 224-233, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Although performance measures are strongly used in the field of medical education to evaluate skills of trainees and medical students, the assessment of their cognitive state is relatively “uncommon”. This fact is disadvantageous if we consider the introduction of technologies as physical medical simulators and augmented/virtual reality devices, which may represent an improvement in the students’ immersion in the simulated scenario or, conversely, a potential risk of a serious information overload. Therefore, a precise assessment of the cognitive conditions is an essential element of the design process of a medical training session. This study aims to provide the current state in literature on the assessment of cognitive state during medical simulation training sessions. It provides critical insights on the validity and reliability of current metrics and helps in the selection of measurements tools when applied in simulation-based training contexts.

Keywords: Cognitive conditions | Human factors – stress and workload | Medical simulation | Training

[74] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Serrani E.B., Scafà M., Germani M., How to Improve Medical Simulation Training: A New Methodology Based on Ergonomic Evaluation, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 963, 145-155, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: An adequate medical education is the key driver of healthcare quality improvement. Technological innovations have led to consistent improvement in learning outcomes but the systematic measurement of students performance and cognitive workload need further research. The aim of this paper is to propose an innovative method for the Design and Development of new advanced learning models, to be used in the training of medical students, which includes also the analysis of students performance and cognitive ergonomics. A web-based survey, on team simulation training and technology role, has been administered to 180 medical students. On the basis of this analysis, a list of guidelines for the design of medical education training has been proposed.

Keywords: Advanced learning technologies - cognitive ergonomics | Augmented reality | Instructional design | Medical simulations | Mental workload | Training

[75] Menghi R., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., Energy efficiency of manufacturing systems: A review of energy assessment methods and tools, Journal of Cleaner Production, 240, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Industrial manufacturing is the largest end-use sector in terms of both final energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions (more than 30% of the total); its increase is rapidly altering the world climate. The need to mitigate the environmental impacts of manufacturing processes makes energy efficiency a key success factor for sustainable production. Accordingly, the scientific community's interest in energy management has grown considerably, resulting in several literature reviews on energy modelling and production systems analysis, emissions calculation, sustainability tools and benchmarking techniques. However, a comprehensive analysis of methods and tools aimed at improving energy awareness and assessing their effects on energy efficiency is lacking. To address this gap, this paper undertakes a systematic literature review of energy assessment methods and tools. From the 1367 papers retrieved by searching scientific literature databases, 64 scientific articles met the inclusion criteria and were analysed in detail. The study aims to provide scholars with a picture of the current state of scientific research and to identify the scientific works that could help industry practitioners in energy management. Following the ISO 50001 framework, the methods and tools were divided into three main groups (i.e. energy analysis, energy evaluation and energy-saving measures methods) and the specific findings relating to each group were synthesized. Finally, the paper addresses unresolved issues and challenges and makes suggestions for future research directions.

Keywords: Energy assessment tools and methods | Energy efficiency | Industry | Manufacturing processes | Systematic literature review

[76] Menghi R., Papetti A., Germani M., Product Service Platform to improve care systems for elderly living at home, Health Policy and Technology, 8(4), 393-401, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Background: Population aging is inducing governments to redesign their healthcare models. One policy measure aimed at reducing healthcare expenditures and improving services is to encourage people to age-in-place. Scientific research has been trying to find ICT-enabled solutions to the growing problem of elderly home care. However, such research is often technology-oriented and neglects the end-user perspective. It does not consider the real needs of older people and all stakeholders involved in their healthcare. Method: A user-centered design approach was adopted with the involvement of older people, experts dealing with the aging population, and the whole stakeholders’ chain. Through surveys, focus groups, and brainstorming sessions, it was possible to determine the main features of the product service platform. Results: Starting from a large-scale survey of elderly people living in Italy, this paper presents the requirements and the architecture of a product service platform aimed at improving the independence and elderly quality of life. This work proposes an elderly-centered platform that works as an aggregation point of an articulated social health system, provides multiple tailored services, and optimizes the use of local resources. Conclusions: The involvement of the end-user and all the stakeholders allowed for the consideration of different perspectives and the creation of a value network that aggregates existing services, resources, and information with new opportunities to achieve common benefits. This work provides guidelines on how to develop this type of platform by exploiting the potential of each stakeholder without creating new barriers. Technology, caregivers, and society are combined synergistically to provide tailored services able to satisfy specific users’ needs.

Keywords: Aging in place | Community-based eldercare | Healthcare information technology | Product service platform | Smart environments

[77] Vita A., Castorani V., Germani M., Marconi M., Comparative life cycle assessment and cost analysis of autoclave and pressure bag molding for producing CFRP components, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 105(5-6), 1967-1982, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Composite materials are demonstrating the ability to face the challenge of competitive markets where high-performance, low costs, and reduced manufacturing time are mandatory. Vacuum bagging with autoclave curing is one of the most used manufacturing methods for carbon fiber composite parts. However, it shows some limitations, mainly due to manual operations and long processing time. Out-of-autoclave (OOA) methods, such as pressure bag molding (PBM), can lead to a strong reduction of the manufacturing time through the simplification of lay-up and curing phases. In this paper, a comparative analysis between the autoclave and the PBM processes has been performed, jointly considering both the economic and environmental aspects. An evaluation of the environmental impacts has been carried out following the standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. In addition, costs related to these two manufacturing techniques have been estimated through a parametric approach and successively compared. Different scenarios have been considered to take into account various production batches, mold manufacturing techniques, and end of life alternatives. The analyses show conflicting results demonstrating that a global optimum scenario does not exist and, depending on the chosen indicator and production batch, the best alternative varies. Considering only the environmental indicators, the autoclave process can be considered the most sustainable option, due to the lower consumption of energy.

Keywords: Autoclave | Cost analysis | Life cycle assessment | Out of autoclave processing | Prepreg | Scenario analysis

[78] Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Comparative life cycle assessment of metal arc welding technologies by using engineering design documentation, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 24(12), 2140-2172, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Purpose: The paper aims to analyze and compare the environmental performances of metal arc welding technologies: gas metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), submerged arc welding (SAW), and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW). Welding is considered one of the most energy-intensive processes in manufacturing. This study was performed in accordance with the international standard ISO 14040/14044 by using attributional life cycle assessment (aLCA). Methods: The functional unit is defined as the “the development of 1 metre of welding seam (qualified by ASME section IX requirements) to join 25 millimetres thick of metal plates made in carbon steel material and considering a V-bevel configuration.” Different configurations of base/filler materials and standardized bevel geometries have been analyzed as welding scenarios. The inventory considers all inputs (e.g., electric energy and filler material) and outputs (e.g., fume emissions and slags) involved in each welding process. A framework for data collection starting from available project documentation is presented as an innovative solution for the inventory phase. The impact assessment includes the human health, resources (midpoints/endpoint), and ecosystems (endpoint) categories from the ReCiPe (H) and cumulative energy demand (CED) methods. Results and discussion: This study reveals a notable dominance in terms of the environmental burdens of GTAW and SMAW processes, as they present higher impacts in most of the impact categories. SMAW is the most energy-consuming process, and this aspect is reflected in the environmental performance. Conversely, GMAW presents the least environmental load, accounting for less than one third compared with GTAW in terms of the CED indicator and performing very well in terms of the ReCiPe endpoint indicator. Via analysis of different scenarios, the main outcomes are the following: (i) the use of V bevels significantly increases the environmental load when the metal plate thickness increases and (ii) the use of specific materials such as Inconel alloy exacerbates the environmental concerns associated with welding processes. Conclusions: The use of project documentation allows robust analysis of welding activity. Sensitivity analysis shows how the range of values for specific parameters (e.g., volts and amps) affects each technology in a different manner. Indeed, those ranges have a limited impact on the result accuracy (up to 20%) for more automatized welding processes (e.g., GMAW, SAW, and FCAW), in which only a small number of parameters are set by the operator, and the operator skills are less influential on the quality of the weld.

Keywords: Environmental impacts | LCA | LCI | Metal arc welding | Welding technologies

[79] Rossi M., Papetti A., Marconi M., Germani M., A multi-criteria index to support ecodesign implementation in manufacturing products: benefits and limits in real case studies, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 12(6), 376-389, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The growing attention to environmental sustainability is not reflected in the effective implementation of ecodesign principles in the industrial context. The main barriers are related to the propensity of companies to optimise only specific aspects directly affected by legislation and to the higher priority given to other drivers such as performance, cost and aesthetics. The present paper faces this issue by proposing an approach to support designers to concurrently deal with environmental, economic and technical performance in all the key phases of the product development process (selection of drivers, evaluation of design alternatives, preservation, sharing and reuse of knowledge, etc.). The approach is grounded on a multi-criteria index, called Product Impact Index (PII), which allows weighting different drivers, verifying the satisfaction of the company’s goals, and comparing different design solutions. The method has been successfully applied in two case studies to support the redesign of a cooker hood and a freestanding cooker. Results confirmed its usefulness and effectiveness in overcoming the common barriers to ecodesign implementation in the industrial context.

Keywords: ecodesign | engineering design for sustainable development | knowledge management | Multi criteria index | sustainability

[80] Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Mandolini M., A data framework for environmental assessment of metal arc welding processes and welded structures during the design phase, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 105(1-4), 967-993, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Welding is a widely used technology that allows the joining of thick metal plates for the development of large structures (e.g. piping, tanks, vessels). Many industries are intensively using welding for manufacturing and assembly activities. Sustainability assessment of welded structures is currently performed with misleading information in terms of data heterogeneity (nature) and quality (source). The data required to carry out a robust environmental analysis are spread among different documents and become available only when the project is finalized. This paper aims to define a data framework for a life cycle inventory of metal arc welding processes to preventively assess the environmental performances of different processes for comparison and decision-making analysis. The framework is presented as innovative solutions for life cycle inventory that provide (i) a common data structure (model), (ii) necessary data (input/output), and (iii) physical allocation/placement of data (project design documents). This study was performed in accordance with the international standard organization ISO 14040/14044 by using an attributional life cycle assessment (aLCA). Two structures (an oil and gas riser and a ship hull) were investigated considering the same functional unit: the manufacturing, use, and disposal of a welded structure able to guarantee the engineering requirements (according to a specific standard) in terms of strain, stress, and corrosion allowance over the expected lifetime of 20 years. In both cases, the share of welding process in respect to an overall product/structure life cycle impact assessment is strictly dependant on the project design choice and can be negligible for high-corrosion-resistance materials (e.g., Inconel alloy). On the other hand, the use of traditional metals (e.g., carbon steel) allows a large decrease of the environmental load, and the influence of the welding process becomes significant in a life cycle perspective.

Keywords: Data framework | Design documents | Eco-design | LCA | LCI | Metal arc welding

[81] Cicconi P., Postacchini L., Pallotta E., Monteriù A., Prist M., Bevilacqua M., Germani M., A life cycle costing of compacted lithium titanium oxide batteries for industrial applications, Journal of Power Sources, 436, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, although the lithium-ion batteries have been widely applied in the context of electric vehicles for passengers, lead-acid batteries are still prevalent in motive-power applications, such as electric pallet jacks and laser guided vehicles. The battery cost is the main disadvantage that limits the employment of lithium-ion solutions in such applications. Several strategies for reducing the battery life cycle cost have been discussed in the scientific literature. The opportunity charging is one of them, even though it is suitable only for batteries having high lifecycles and high charging/discharging rates, such as the Lithium Titanium Oxide ones. This paper aims at assessing a feasible solution to reduce the life cycle cost of the energy storage units for laser guided vehicles. A tool has been proposed to analyze the Total Cost of Ownership of batteries, under the adoption of an opportunity charging strategy. Simulations of energy consumption have also been included, to predict the battery cycles and the operation costs. The life cycle analysis has investigated the use of a compacted Lithium Titanium Oxide battery in comparison with a traditional lead-acid battery. The results have shown the feasibility of the Lithium Titanium Oxide solution and its economic advantage in an industrial context.

Keywords: Laser guided vehicle | Li-ion batteries | LTO | Opportunity charging | Total cost of ownership

[82] Papetti A., Menghi R., Di Domizio G., Germani M., Marconi M., Resources value mapping: A method to assess the resource efficiency of manufacturing systems, Applied Energy, 249, 326-342, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The assessment and monitoring of energy and resource efficiency is an essential activity toward the implementation of sustainable manufacturing practices. Existing energy/resource assessment methods and tools are not based on a comprehensive approach, lack on the use of specific key performance indicators, are dedicated to expert stakeholders and do not provide useful suggestions for improving production systems. This paper proposes an innovative method, called Resources Value Mapping that aims to map and classify activities and related energy/resource consumptions according to lean philosophy principles (value-added, non value-added, waste). A user-friendly map and two efficiency indicators (Cost Index and Muda Index) are proposed to quantitatively support the identification of criticalities related to activities, processes, lines, plants, etc., and to successively guide the decision-making process during the improvement strategies implementation. The method has been used to analyze a manufacturing plant that produces cooking appliances. The case study demonstrated the applicability of the method in real industrial contexts and its effectiveness in identifying the energy/resource flows (electricity and compressed air), departments (sheet department) and lines (mechanical and hydraulic presses) for which the waste and non value-added consumptions are prominent. The analysis highlighted that less of 20% of the resources consumed during the process creates value, offering wide margins for improvement. Finally, it aided the definition of an action plan leading to relevant reduction of resource consumptions, economic savings and environmental benefits.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Key performance indicators | Lean manufacturing | Resources Value Mapping | Sustainable manufacturing

[83] Landi D., Castorani V., Germani M., Interactive energetic, environmental and economic analysis of renewable hybrid energy system, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 13(3), 885-899, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the commitments of the European community is to increase the share of energy produced from renewable sources in order to minimize costs and risks, or that the society has to bear to produce electricity, in addition to compliance with European pollutant gas (CO2, SO2, NOx and PM) objectives. An ever-increasing body of research aims to study the actual energy savings of buildings with systems of renewable energy production implemented with storage systems, evaluating the potential energy savings. To date, however, the analysis of the environmental impacts of the total life cycle was not taken into account. Thus, no assessment has been made whether the amount of energy saved (esaved) outweighs the energy needed for production, use and disposal (einvested). This study presents an approach for the analysis and evaluation of the energy flows, environmental impacts and cost of a new modular and integrated system of renewable electricity generation and intelligent electrochemical storage systems, that allows auto-production and self-consumption of electricity in residential buildings (smart grid). The results show that the total impact depends on the configuration chosen, from the consumption profile and the types of users. If the duration of use is short and the savings achieved are small, the expected benefits will not always be achieved, in terms of costs for the user and the environmental impact.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Environmental impact | Self-consumption

[84] Landi D., Cicconi P., Germani M., A design methodology for the virtual energy labelling of cooking ovens, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 13(3), 851-871, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, the increasing of global climate change and warming is leading governments, consumers, and firms towards a low-carbon economy. A lot of research shows that about 75% of the environmental impacts related to energy-related products is due to the use phase. Therefore, energy-related products, such as household appliances, are responsible for the consumption and depletion of natural resources. The eco-design of household appliances is a necessary approach to analyze and reduce the environmental impacts related to these products, considering materials, efficiency, and energy consumptions. In Europe, as well in China and America, the eco-design is becoming an Integrated Product Policy to support the Energy Labelling of several energy-related and consuming products. This paper deals with a design methodology to support the eco-design of cooking ovens by the simulation of the product performance. Two simulation cases have been analyzed: the energy consumption, which is provided by EU regulations No 66/2014 and No 65/2014 and the baking test. Even if regulations only provide the energy consumption test, the baking test is necessary to analyze the functional quality of the product. Therefore, two levels of simulations are necessary to complete the eco-design approach of cooking ovens. The results show that the proposed methodological approach can reduce the time-to-market and enhance the design optimization from the early design phases.

Keywords: CFD | Electric oven | Energy labelling | Gas oven | Heating ovens

[85] Gigli S., Landi D., Germani M., Cost-benefit analysis of a circular economy project: a study on a recycling system for end-of-life tyres, Journal of Cleaner Production, 229, 680-694, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: End-of-life vehicles (ELV)represent a relevant waste source in Europe, even if ELV recycling is a priority of the European Union waste legislation and Environment Action Programmes (EAPs). End-of-Life Tires (ELTs)constitute a relevant portion of ELV waste. Textile fibre, which is a relevant portion of the ELT material, is considered as a special waste (European Waste Catalogue – EWC code 19.12.08). The main problem related to textile fibre is its contamination with rubber which does not allow to obtain a pure product economically and qualitatively useable. The aim of this paper is to illustrate an innovative technology for ELT fibre's recycling, which allows to transform textile fibre into a useful secondary raw material for different applications. In particular, the use of ELT fibre as additive for bituminous conglomerates has been investigated. The different processes have been analysed from an environmental point of view, applying the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. It came up there is an impact reduction in case the ELT fibre is reused as additive for bituminous conglomerates, instead of disposing it (through incineration). Moreover, the financial and economic sustainability of the related technological process has been evaluated to check whether the process is sustainable in the long term. Starting from the results of the Life Cycle Assessment, economic performance indicators have been calculated, by applying the European Commission methodology for cost-benefit analysis. According to the present cost-benefit analysis, in the medium and long term the system is financially viable, and the high economic profitability makes the process economically sustainable. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis as well as a risk assessment have been carried out in order to identify critical variables, evaluate risks and define risk mitigation measures. According to the sensitivity analysis performed, the project is not highly risky since even in the worst scenario the possible loss is moderate. Based on the results of this analysis, it can be concluded that this ELT fibre's recycling system can be replicated across Europe, conveniently fostered by national policies (such as subsidies, value added tax etc.).

Keywords: Circular economy | Cost-benefit analysis | End-of-life tyres | Second applications

[86] Mandolini M., Marconi M., Rossi M., Favi C., Germani M., A standard data model for life cycle analysis of industrial products: A support for eco-design initiatives, Computers in Industry, 109, 31-44, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The eco-design of industrial products is a complex task that requires a high level of expertise in environmental science and a very large amount of data about the product under development. Product data for eco-design are not limited to geometrical and technical aspects; they also include information related to the product life cycle. The present paper aims to define a life cycle standard data model (LCSDM) that manages and shares life cycle information along the product development process. The LCSDM is defined as a common and structured framework for data collection in comparative evaluations. The need of a “standard” data model emerges in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA), mainly due to the subjectivity related to the life cycle inventory phase. The standard structure of the LCSDM facilitates the interoperability of eco-design software tools by creating a common framework for the implementation of eco-design initiatives inside product manufacturing companies. The LCSDM is a data structure that is able to represent the relationships among parts and assemblies. Each part or assembly is defined by a set of nodes that characterize the life cycle phases (e.g., Material, Manufacturing, Use, End-of-life, and Transport). A list of attributes is identified according to the environmental features that describe the product life cycle. The LCSDM structure is implemented in an encoding document for data sharing through a generic software language (e.g., XML – eXtensible Markup Language). The implementation of the proposed LCSDM in the design department of a manufacturing company using an eco-design software platform leads to the following benefits: (i) the fulfilment of the LCSDM (XML file) along the product development process, (ii) the use of a unique standard for data sharing among the several eco-design software tools, and (iii) the creation of a robust framework for life cycle assessment. The main drawback of the proposed LCSDM is related to the initial effort required to set up the design software platform (which consists of both standard and eco-design tools) to be able to read, fill, store and share the LCSDM.

Keywords: Data-exchange | Eco-design | Environmental analysis | Inter-operability | Life cycle inventory | Product life cycle

[87] Gulla F., Brunzini A.M., Papetti A., Germani M., Re-design of the Household Appliance UI to make it an Adaptive System, 2019 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Consumer Technologies, ISCT 2019, 63-67, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Everyday life is increasingly rich in man-machine interactions and new challenges in user interface design arise. In particular, it emerges the need of adaptable solutions that learn from the user's behavior to improve their experience. In this context, the paper aims to redesign an existing UI to make it an Adaptive System. The introduction of an adaptive module allows finding the optimal interface features combination based on the user profile and previously interactions. The experimentation results demonstrate the adaptability and versatility of the proposed application by evaluating the user satisfaction and the perceived adaptability with respect to the native application.

Keywords: adaptive interfaces | household appliances | usability | user-centered

[88] Landi D., Consolini A., Germani M., Favi C., Comparative life cycle assessment of electric and gas ovens in the Italian context: An environmental and technical evaluation, Journal of Cleaner Production, 221, 189-201, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper aims to analyse and compare the environmental and technical performances of two domestic oven technologies (one powered by natural gas and one by electric energy) considering the Italian context, such as Italian social and food habits. These household appliances are subject to energy labelling and are the most diffused cooking systems along with hobs. This study was performed in accordance with the international standards ISO 14040/14044 and adopted the attributional LCA approach. The analysis is related to the functional unit “the baking of food, considering the Italian context and a lifetime of 10 years”. The analysis includes all phases of the life cycle except for maintenance and transport, which were considered negligible for this analysis. The materials and manufacturing phases necessary for the production of the two ovens were considered in the analysis, and the data were provided by the ovens’ manufacturers. The products’ use phase was considered through the measurement of resources (both natural gas and electric energy) consumed during the cooking simulation by experimental tests that simulated a heating cycle of a standard load represented by a brick. The product end-of-life phase was considered in accordance with the current regulations and statistical data in this sector. The EcoInvent database was used as a reference for background data. The ReCiPe life cycle impact assessment method was used for the assessment of the environmental impact categories. This study shows the dominance, in terms of the environmental impact, of the electric oven with respect to the gas oven in every indicator considered in the analysis. In particular, the electric oven accounts has an approx. 3 times greater impact than the gas oven on the climate change, freshwater ecotoxicity and marine ecotoxicity impact categories, while for the ozone depletion, fossil depletion metal depletion and natural land transformation categories, the results are similar, with a slight dominance of the electric oven (approx. 2–5%). This finding is related to the use phase and results from the different energy carriers used and the time required for cooking in the two cases. Indeed, the nature of the energy carrier for the electric oven and the time required for cooking (based on the energy efficiency test) is longer compared to those of the gas oven. This result, which is clearly in favour of the gas oven in the Italian context, leads to the conclusion that the main contribution to the environmental load of the electric oven is the Italian electricity grid mix, which is mainly based on non-renewable sources. Therefore, this analysis depends on the geographic area of interest, and the results can significantly change if different contexts are analysed.

Keywords: Cooking appliances | Electric oven | Environmental impacts | Gas oven | LCA | LCI

[89] Gullà F., Menghi R., Papetti A., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Gaggioli A., Germani M., Prototyping adaptive systems in smart environments using virtual reality, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 13(2), 597-616, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Smart environment is a key challenge for current ICT research: it is one of the solutions that can enhance people’s quality of life and enable users with impairment to live independently. Over the years, scientific research has proposed several solutions to help and improve the capabilities of its occupants, but they are often developed for a specific context (e.g. particular disease or impairment). These systems do not adapt to the real needs of users with different profiles, and neglect that the user’s requirements may evolve over time. This research work aims to develop a new adaptive smart system able to support users (with and without disabilities) in performing daily tasks by recognizing their preferences and actions and adapting the system feedback consequently. With the aim to develop an easy, efficient and usable adaptive smart system, the final users have been involved in the whole design and development process. The system was validated through a virtual reality system allowing the user interaction evaluation and helping the usability improvement.

Keywords: Adaptive and adaptable user interface | Bayesian network | ICT | Smart environment | User-centered design | Virtual reality system

[90] Marconi M., Palmieri G., Callegari M., Germani M., Feasibility Study and Design of an Automatic System for Electronic Components Disassembly, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME, 141(2), (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The improvement of the waste management efficiency and sustainability in the electronics sector requires the disassembly and reuse of valuable electronic components, instead of their recycling for precious materials recovery. In this context, this study proposes a robotic system for the disassembly of electronic components, grounded on the revamping of an existing soldering machine. First, the feasibility of an automated process for the end of life (EoL) management of electronic boards is investigated: the disassembly and reuse of electronic components represents a potential cost saving opportunity for producers of industrial electronic boards, other than an effective means to improve the environmental sustainability of the electronics sector. Then, the automatic system has been designed; it is mainly composed by a wave soldering machine, a two-axis manipulator equipped with a suction cup for components picking, and a central control unit to coordinate the motion. Finally, the prototype of the disassembly equipment has been realized. The experimental tests aimed at setting the most relevant process parameters (e.g., working temperatures) and verifying the performance of the developed disassembly equipment. Results confirmed the effectiveness and the reliability of the prototype: all the 450 microprocessors disassembled from 50 boards resulted to be not damaged and thus directly reusable in new boards without the need of additional treatments (e.g., washing).

[91] Mandolini M., Brunzini A., Germani M., Manieri S., Mazzoli A., Pagnoni M., Selective laser sintered mould for orbital cavity reconstruction, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 25(1), 95-103, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Purpose: Orbital fractures are the most commonly encountered midfacial fractures, and usually, the fracture involves the floor and/or the medial wall of the orbit. This paper aims to present an innovative approach for primary and secondary reconstructions of fractured orbital walls through the use of computer-assisted techniques and additive manufacturing. Design/methodology/approach: First, through the 3D anatomical modelling, the geometry of the implant is shaped to fill the orbital defect and recover the facial symmetry. Subsequently, starting from the modelled implant, a customised mould is designed taking into account medical and technological requirements. Findings: The selective laser sintered mould is able to model and form several kind of prosthetic materials (e.g. titanium meshes and demineralised bone tissue), resulting in customised implants and allowing accurate orbital cavity reconstructions. The case study proved that this procedure, at the same time, reduces the morbidity on the patients, the duration of surgery and the related costs. Originality/value: This innovative approach has great potential, as it is an easy and in-office procedure, and it offers several advantages over other existing methods.

Keywords: Customized implant | Orbital cavity reconstruction | Reverse engineering | Selective laser sintering | Surgery | Surgical guide

[92] Marconi M., Germani M., Mandolini M., Favi C., Applying data mining technique to disassembly sequence planning: a method to assess effective disassembly time of industrial products, International Journal of Production Research, 57(2), 599-623, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for end-of-life and design for disassembly are enabling design strategies for the implementation of business models based on the circular economy paradigm. The paper presents a method for calculating the effective disassembly sequence and time for industrial products. Five steps support designers in defining liaisons and related properties and precedence among components with the aim to calculate the best disassembly sequence and time. The effective disassembly time is computed considering the actual conditions of a product and its components (e.g. deformation, rust and wear) using corrective factors. This aspect represents the main contribution to the state of the art in the field of design for disassembly. The corrective factors are derived from a specific data mining process, based on the observation of real de-manufacturing activities. The proposed approach has been used for calculating the disassembly times of target components in a washing machine and in a coffee machine. The case studies highlight the method reliability of both: definition of time-effective disassembly sequences and assessment of effective disassembly times. In particular, a comparison of experimental tests shows a maximum deviation of −6% for the electric motor of the washing machine and −3% for the water pump of the coffee machine.

Keywords: data mining | de-manufacturing | design for disassembly | disassembly planning | estimated disassembly time | target disassembly

[93] Longhi S., Monteriù A., Freddi A., Frontoni E., Germani M., Revel G.M., Preface, The First Outstanding 50 Years of “Università Politecnica delle Marche”: Research Achievements in Physical Sciences and Engineering, vii-x, (2019).
[94] Longhi S., Monteriù A., Freddi A., Frontoni E., Germani M., Revel G.M., The first outstanding 50 years of “università politecnica delle marche”: Research achievements in physical sciences and engineering, The First Outstanding 50 Years of “Università Politecnica delle Marche”: Research Achievements in Physical Sciences and Engineering, 1-402, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The book describes the significant multidisciplinary research findings at the Università Politecnica delle Marche and the expected future advances. It addresses some of the most dramatic challenges posed by today’s fast-growing, global society and the changes it has caused. It also discusses solutions to improve the wellbeing of human beings. The book covers the main research achievements in the different disciplines of the physical sciences and engineering, as well as several research lines developed at the university’s Faculty of Engineering in the fields of electronic and information engineering, telecommunications, biomedical engineering, mechanical engineering, manufacturing technologies, energy, advanced materials, chemistry, physics of matter, mathematical sciences, geotechnical engineering, circular economy, urban planning, construction engineering, infrastructures and environment protection, technologies and digitization of the built environment and cultural heritage. It highlights the international relevance and multidisciplinarity of research at the university as well as the planned research lines for the next years.

Keywords: Higher education | History of UNIVPM | University development | University governance | UNIVPM

[95] Bevilacqua M., Ciarapica F.E., Germani M., Giacchetta G., Mandolini M., Mandorli F., Mengoni M., Paciarotti C., Smart, eco-sustainable and human-centered product development processes: 21st century manufacturing Industries, The First Outstanding 50 Years of “Università Politecnica delle Marche”: Research Achievements in Physical Sciences and Engineering, 161-175, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The development of new and valuable products, from conceptual design to production, is to date supported by advanced methodologies based on ICT tools allowing many controls and checks before proceeding to heavy spending investment decisions. The increasing use ICT allow highlighting product design process and solutions able to improve people’s quality of life. Key product development principles based on human-centered approaches and eco-sustainability concepts prove to be themain factors affecting both the products’ users as well as the product manufacturing staff. This paper outlines product’s development approaches state of the art, foreseeing at the same time possible research trajectories to define manufacturing industry future scenario based on more sustainable economical, environmental and social design choices.

[96] Marconi M., Papetti A., Scafà M., Rossi M., Germani M., An innovative framework for managing the customization of tailor-made shoes, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 3821-3830, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Product customization aims to consider individual customers preferences in the design of new products, in order to directly involve them in the product development process and to maximize their satisfaction. It can be considered a key competitive factor and a "hot topic" in several industrial sectors, including luxury apparel goods and high-end footwear products. However, currently the design and manufacturing of customized shoes are carried out through artisanal and non-standardized processes, based on the individual expertise of operators. The objective of this study is to define an innovative framework to support the different processes affected by customization. This framework is enabled by different digital technologies, as CAD-based tools, virtual/augmented reality systems, etc., opportunely integrated in the product development process. The main benefits related to the framework implementation in real industrial contexts are an increase of flexibility, the repeatability of processes, a higher efficiency in information exchange, a more effective involvement of final customers, and, as a consequence, the reduction of time to market and production costs for tailor-made shoes.

Keywords: Design for X (DfX) | Design process | Integrated product development

[97] Mandolini M., Brunzini A., Brandoni Serrani E., Pagnoni M., Mazzoli A., Germani M., Design of a custom-made cranial implant in patients suffering from Apert syndrome, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 709-718, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: This study defines a methodological procedure for the design and manufacturing of a prosthetic implant for the reconstruction of a midsagittal bony-deficiency of the skull due to the Apert congenital disorder. Conventional techniques for craniofacial defects reconstruction rely on the mirrored-image technique. When the cranial lesion extends over the midline or in case of bilateral defects, other approaches based on thin plate spline interpolation or constrained anatomical deformation are applied. The proposed method uses the anthropometric theory of cranial landmarks identification for the retrieval of a template healthy skull, useful as a guide in the successive implant design. Then, anatomical deformation of the region of interest and free-form modelling allow to get the customized shape of the implant. A full bulk and a porous implant have been provided according to the surgeon advises. The models have been 3D printed for a pre-surgical analysis and further treatment plan. They fulfilled the expectancies of the surgeon thus positive results are predictable. This methodology results to be reproducible to any other craniofacial defect spanning over the entire skull.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing | Apert Syndrome | Biomedical design | Design process | Implant design

[98] Nardelli M., Cicconi P., Savoretti A., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A knowledge based approach to support the conceptual design of ETO products, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 2417-2426, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The ever-increasing competitiveness, due to the market globalization, has forced the industries to modify their design and production strategies. A key point is the development of products that fulfil the individual customer needs as close as possible. ETO companies manufacture new products according to the customer technical requirements given in the request for proposal. Computational Design Synthesis is the research area focused on activities to automate the design phase in the production of products such ETO structures. In this context, Knowledge Based Engineering applications are usually applied to automate design routines and to implement a multidisciplinary product design. Knowledge should be elicited and formalized, so that it can allow the past cases retrieval and the connection between customer specifications and the product configuration tasks. This paper proposes an approach for the rapid definition of the product structure related to a ETO product, including the early cost evaluation in configurations. The research scope aims at defining a framework to support the knowledge repository, which is the Knowledge Based used to design new products and estimate their costs.

Keywords: Design engineering | Design methodology | DSM | Embodiment design | Engineer-To-Order

[99] Rossi M., Favi C., Russo A.C., Germani M., An eco-knowledge tool to support eco-design implementation inside design departments, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 3151-3160, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: In last years, an increasing attention on environmental matters is registered. Companies face environmental matters to increase the environmental performances of their products, forced by numerous legislations, normative and protocols and induced to the growing attention of consumers toward environmentally friendly products. However, observing the industrial context, it emerges there are several barriers for implementation of eco-design strategies inside design departments. The paper presents a tool which aims at both providing a basic guide on environmental sustainability issues and favouring the knowledge sharing among the different actors of the product design process. The core of the tool is a repository in which company materials, organized and collected in different forms, are collected. The repository contains several parts: training, guidelines, knowledge and milestone, accordingly to the type, structure and form of materials stored. The eco-design tool functions, structure, and workflow are presented and then preliminary test cases are described.

Keywords: Design engineering | Ecodesign | Sustainability

[100] Castorani V., Landi D., Mandolini M., Germani M., Design optimization of customizable centrifugal industrial blowers for gas turbine power plants, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(6), 1098-1111, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, design processes demand agile and flexible tools and methods to meet market needs. Virtual prototyping techniques are widespread in design strategies and practices, because these technologies reduce the project development lead-time and cost related to physical prototyping. The aim of this paper is the study and application of an approach for the modeling, simulation and geometrical optimization of fans for gas turbine air supply. Fan is a type of machine used to move a fluid, typically a gas such as air, exploiting the kinetic energy of a rotating impeller. It consists mainly of two components: housing and rotor. There is extensive literature on the design and optimization of industrial fan, but main works refer to a small or medium standardized fan, where it is possible to study many parameters and perform many experimental tests. The paper presents an approach for the efficiency optimization of large and customizable centrifugal industrial blowers for gas turbine air supply. The design variables investigated in this study were the blades quantity, orientation and shape. The proposed optimization method has been used for the design optimization of a blower for gas turbine power plant. The response surfaces allowed defining correlation between design variables and efficiency. The optimized design was 18 % more efficient than the original one.

Keywords: Computer aided engineering | Genetic algorithms | Geometric optimization | Industrial fan | Response surface methodology | Virtual prototyping

[101] Favi C., Campi F., Mandolini M., Martinelli I., Germani M., Conceptual cost estimation of multistage Axial Compressor modules, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 14, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Development of product architectures is a fundamental task in the conceptual design of complex products such as axial compressor of gas turbines. The definition of cost-effective architectures results from the introduction of conceptual cost estimation models aiming at the assessment of economical performances of different modules. Conceptual cost estimation means the product cost assessment in conceptual design phase. These models vary based on the technical and geometrical features of the defined product modules as well as to the specific manufacturing processes. The paper aims to describe the approach for early design cost estimation of Axial Compressor modules. The approach includes the design workflow and the required steps to build product architectures driven by cost indicator. The main limitation overtaken by the adoption of the proposed approach is the needs of a design tool able to characterize cost-effective design solution and to guide designer in product definition with the right level of confidence. The axial compressor product has been analyzed to retrieve different architectures and a case study of a rotor disc module is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in the development of conceptual cost models starting from preliminary design information.

Keywords: Axial Compressor | Conceptual Costing | Conceptual Design | Product Architecture | Product Module

[102] Mandolini M., Favi C., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A should costing approach for manufacturing companies, International Journal of Agile Systems and Management, 12(4), 382-406, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most important drivers for developing competitive products is cost. However, scientific and industrial communities are missing an effective cost management framework (including a solid method and a reliable tool) for supporting the product development process, from the initial design phases to procurement. For this reason, the paper presents a holistic ‘should costing’ methodology able to foster collaboration on cost-oriented solutions among company’s departments. The ‘should costing’ methodology and the related tool enable a systematic review of cost evolution, focusing on the opportunities to reduce costs, from the conceptual design stage through the overall production stages. In addition, the paper presents requirements for efficient implementation of a should-cost tool considering enterprise software solutions already available in manufacturing companies. A couple of companies (product manufacturers) adopted the recommended ‘should costing’ framework and quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the deployment process are presented as results. The benefits related with the adoption of the proposed should costing approach in relation with the traditional product development process is presented as well.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Design to cost | PDP | Product design | Product development process | Should costing | Suppliers selection

[103] Campi F., Favi C., Mandolini M., Germani M., Using design geometrical features to develop an analytical cost estimation method for axisymmetric components in open-die forging, Procedia CIRP, 84, 656-661, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Hot forging is an industrial process where a metal piece is formed through a series of dies which permanently change the shape of the part. Open-die forging is a particular type of hot forging in which the used dies are generally flat and the part to be formed has a simple shape. Manufacturing cost estimation is a well-debated topic, especially for traditional manufacturing technologies. However, only few models are available in scientific literature for the open-die forging process. This lack is due to the complexity of the process, characterized by a low level of automation and a high degree of expertise required to develop the process. The paper proposes an analytical model for the cost estimation of axisymmetric components realized using open die-forging. The model uses as input the geometrical features of the part (e.g. dimensions, shape, material and tolerances), and gives as output: (i) the time required for the process development, (ii) the amount of material needed for the part processing and, (iii) the forging machine size/type, from the cutting of the billet to the piece deformation. Two cylindrical discs have been analysed for validating the proposed cost estimation model. The case studies show that the cost models give an accurate result in terms of cost breakdown, allowing the designer a quick calculation of process costs.

Keywords: Analytical cost model | Cost estimation | Design features | Hot forging | Open-die forging

[104] Martinelli I., Campi F., Checcacci E., Lo Presti G.M., Pescatori F., Pumo A., Germani M., Cost estimation method for gas turbine in conceptual design phase, Procedia CIRP, 84, 650-655, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Introduction of new gas turbine machines on market is a complex project that requires optimization of different performance parameters such as power, efficiency, maintenance plan, product cost and life. The ability to control cost and impact on performances and life strongly decreases from conceptual to detailed design phase. Actually, 80 % of product’s cost and performances are committed based on decisions made in conceptual design. This Paper describes a systematic procedure to estimate the cost of multiple design alternatives during conceptual design phase, comparing different cross sections for gas turbine solutions. Examples of parametric costing tool for part family will be described, to show the approach that allows to estimate costs in conceptual design phase, when detailed design has not been developed and lack of information is a daily topic. The idea is to be able to read design information of each part from an enhanced cross section and enter parametric costing tool to have a preliminary cost estimation in conceptual phase. Doing that for each part or module present, it will be possible to estimate total cost of the product. The scope is to create an internal database where the whole know-how and best practices are stored. This database can be examined in early program stages, to reduce time to market and avoid pursuing solutions that would not be viable or convenient, in a sort of digital twin approach. Another positive aspect pursued and presented, is the positive impact on engineering productivity, that directly reflects on program development cost.

Keywords: Conceptual costing | Gas turbine | New product introduction | Parametric cost estimation | Target cost

[105] Landi D., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Favi C., Environmental and economic evaluation of the sheet metal stamping process using alternative lubricants, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials (e.g. stainless steel) or forming in tribologically difficult conditions (e.g. ironing, punching, deep drawing) require the use of environmentally hazardous lubricants, such as chlorinated paraffin oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes an environmental and economic evaluation of two alternative sheet metal stamping processes. The forming of a sheet metal component for boiler burners has been taken as case study for the analyses. In particular, two different lubricants (standard mineral versus polymer matrix-based lubricant) have been tested and compared. However, the differences among the two processes involves not only the lubrication phase, but also the electric energy consumption during the stamping and degreasing, as well as the typology of solvent (perchloroethylene versus water). Results obtained with the economic analysis show that the use of the alternative lubricant leads to a 16% reduction of the total manufacturing cost, mainly due to the optimization of the degreasing. Concerning environmental results, instead, no relevant differences can be observed for almost all the considered impact categories (ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint), since the optimized phases are not the most critical ones.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Degreasing | Life cycle assessment | Lubricants | Sheet metal stamping

[106] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Germani M., Manufacturing processes re-engineering for cost reduction: The investment casting case study, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The production cost is one of the most important drivers for product competitiveness. For increasing profits, a manufacturing process re-engineering is mandatory. This practice passes through systematic procedures for process selection, cost estimation and results analysis. This paper presents a method for evaluating different manufacturing alternatives for cost reduction. This method, composed of eight steps (most of them retrieved from the scientific literature), permits engineers to consider important aspects, such as the choice of cost estimation tools, the collection of data related to production processes, the impact related to the introduction of new production processes and the interpretation of results. Authors adopted such method for evaluating economic benefits of introducing a new manufacturing technology (i.e. investment casting) for three components of a food packaging machine. The adoption of the proposed method leads to compare investment casting vs. machining. The paper presents a detailed discussion of the economic benefits (return on investment, cash flows and manufacturing cost breakdown) related to the introduction of the investment casting technology.

Keywords: Concurrent engineering | Design for manufacturing | Design to cost | Investment casting | Product design

[107] Castorani V., Landi D., Mandolini M., Germani M., CFD simulations of filter houses for power plant gas turbine: Evaluation of differences between 2D and 3D models, Dyna (Spain), 94(2), 145-149, (2019).
[108] Vita A., Castorani V., Mandolini M., Papetti A., Germani M., Cost and temperature homogeneity optimization of the heating system for composite materials air press molding, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(6), 1084-1097, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Due to their high strength to weight ratio, composites materials have been historically used in high performance applications. Nowadays, they are no longer considered elitist materials due to the decrease of manufacturing costs reached thanks to innovative process processes such as Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) or pre-preg molding. The latter is suitable for structural parts, but its use is limited to simple geometry components without undercuts due to the rigid counter mold. Thus, a method called Air Press Molding (APM) has been developed. It exploits an inflatable counter mold to compact the laminate on the mold. This paper presents a Multi-Objective optimization approach for minimizing cost and temperature inhomogeneity of the heating system of the APM process. By using Genetic Algorithms and the Response Surface Methodology, the authors redesigned a 1250 [kg] aluminum mold, reaching a cost saving of 15 % and reducing the temperature variance of 77 %.

Keywords: Composite materials | Mold heating | Multi-Objective optimization | OOA processes

[109] Cicconi P., Postacchini L., Bergantino N., Capuzzi G., Russo A.C., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A decision theory approach to support action plans in cooker hoods manufacturing, Dyna (Spain), 94(3), 203-208, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, Knowledge-Based systems are widespread decision-making tools applied in product design and manufacturing planning. The series production requires agile and rapid decision-making methods to support actions in manufacturing lines. Therefore, agent-based tools are necessary to support the detection, diagnosis, and correction of accidental production faults. The context of Industry 4.0 has been enhancing the integration of sensors in manufacturing lines to monitor production and analyze failures. The motivation of the proposed research is to study and validate decision theory methods to be applied in smart manufacturing. This paper shows a Knowledge-Based approach to support action decision-making processes by a Bayesian network model. The proposed method aims at solving production problems detected in the manufacturing process. In particular, the focus is on the automatic production of cooker hoods. A case study describes how the approach can be applied in the real-time control actions, after a problem in quality is detected.

Keywords: Bayesian Network | Cooker Hoods | Industry 4.0 | Knowledge Base

[110] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., An analytic hierarchy method for anticipating the selection of the supplying strategy at the design stage, Dyna (Spain), 94(3), 161-167, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The selection of cost-efficient supplying strategy is a process that involves different aspects, most of them linked with the design phase. Usually, this activity is performed at the procurement stage and does not engage designers and engineers who have drawn up the quality and cost characteristics of products. The paper presents a simplified analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for the concurrent evaluation of economic and quality factors of different supplying strategies. The goal of the AHP is to provide a tangible tool for designers and engineers for comparing supplying alternatives early in the design process. The hierarchy approach is used to organize objectives, criteria and alternatives according to priorities. A complex assembly of a machine tool has been analysed as a case study and four different suppliers with different features have been investigated using the AHP. Results highlight that, even if the lowest production cost can be obtained with Far East suppliers, considering quality criteria, national or local suppliers turn out to be the more appropriate and robust choice. The sensitivity analysis is beneficial to understand the level of confidence associated with the selection of one supplier in comparison with the other supplying strategies.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process | Manufacturing Strategy | Product Design | Supplier Selection | Vendor Rating

[111] Di Domizio G., Menghi R., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., A method for lean energy assessment of manufacturing systems, Procedia CIRP, 81, 1447-1452, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Manufacturing systems are among the main consumers of energy. Several methods and tools have been developed to support companies toward energy efficiency. However, they generally require high computational effort, onerous measurement campaigns or complex models. In this paper, a method to perform a lean energy assessment starting from the asset characteristics is proposed. It is based on a set of corrective factors that consider both technical and productive aspects. The final goal is to overcome the lack of precise data needed to identify hotspots from the energy point of view. A real industrial case study allows implementing the method and demonstrating its usefulness.

Keywords: Energy assessment | Lean phylosophy | Manufacturing systems

[112] Scafà M., Papetti A., Brunzini A., Germani M., How to improve worker’s well-being and company performance: A method to identify effective corrective actions, Procedia CIRP, 81, 162-167, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: In manufacturing context, social dimension is often neglected. With Industry 4.0, companies focus more on technologies and data. However, human continues to play a key role in cyber-physical systems and company growth. This work proposes a method to help the company to evaluate workers’ experience and identify the optimal solution to improve workers’ well-being and company performance. It starts from personalized social analysis within a production plant to identify ergonomics problems and intelligently suggest effective corrective actions. The latter are selected achieving the best trade-off between social, economic and productive aspects. Three case studies are proposed to validate the method.

Keywords: Human factors | Industry 4.0 | Manufacturing systems | Social sustainability

[113] Favi C., Campi F., Mandolini M., Germani M., Using engineering documentation to create a data framework for life cycle inventory of welded structures, Procedia CIRP, 80, 358-363, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Welding is considered an energy-intensive manufacturing system and it represents one of the most impacting construction process. The paper aims to define a structured data framework for life cycle inventory of a welding process starting from engineering and design documentation. The use of design documentation allows to perform robust LCA analysis which permits to compare the environmental performances of the most widely used welding technologies early in the design process. The necessary information to fill the data framework can be retrieved by available documentation developed in the preliminary design phase allowing to anticipate the life cycle analysis before the construction phase. A ship hull structure designed to be manufactured by the use of GMAW and GTAW welding processes has been analyzed as case study. The use of data framework facilitates the inventory phase creating a consistent and robust inventory for LCA.

Keywords: Data framework | Documentation | LCA | LCI | Welding technologies

[114] Vita A., Castorani V., Germani M., Marconi M., Comparative life cycle assessment of low-pressure RTM, compression RTM and high-pressure RTM manufacturing processes to produce CFRP car hoods, Procedia CIRP, 80, 352-357, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Advanced composite materials, especially those based on carbon fibers, have been attracting the interest of industrial companies for producing light and high-performance components. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and its variants have been recognized as the most promising processes to manufacture CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) products in a cost-effective way. However, recent research studies highlighted environmental concerns regarding the use of CFRP parts due to the high environmental load related to their production. In this context, the main scope of the present paper is to investigate and compare the environmental impacts of three alternative manufacturing processes for producing CFRP car hoods: RTM, High-Pressure RTM and Compression-RTM. This analysis has been carried out through the standard Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The system boundaries include all the flows related to manufacturing of the hood and an end of life. Results calculated by using the ReCiPe mid-point/end-point method suggest that the eco-friendliest variant is the Compression-RTM.

Keywords: CFRP car hood | Compression RTM | High-Pressure RTM | Life Cycle Assessment | RTM

[115] Favi C., Marconi M., Germani M., Teaching eco-design by using LCA analysis of company's product portfolio: The case study of an Italian manufacturing firm, Procedia CIRP, 80, 452-457, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Eco-design is a design paradigm aiming to the development of sustainable products. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is considered an eco-design tool able to assess the product environmental performances through a life cycle perspective. However, LCA shows some limitations in industry's daily practice and cannot be considered a standard for implementing eco-design. The paper aims to describe the implementation of a novel eco-design teaching approach involving company's employees from different technical departments. LCA analysis of company's product portfolio allowed to create a specific eco-knowledge, used to train designers and engineers on this subject for the implementation of eco-design actions during the development of new products (espresso coffee machine). Results highlighted relevant learning outcomes and significant improvements in terms of environmental sustainability of a new product design.

Keywords: Eco-design | Eco-knowledge | LCA | Teaching

[116] Landi D., Germani M., Marconi M., Analyzing the environmental sustainability of glass bottles reuse in an Italian wine consortium, Procedia CIRP, 80, 399-404, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The wine production constitutes an important sector for the Italian economy. Most of the wine producers are associated in local consortiums, which include small family companies involved in the production of similar products. This study aims to investigate the implementation of circular economy opportunities in the wine production chain. In particular, the reuse of glass bottles in the Piceno wine consortium (central Italy) has been analyzed to quantify the potential environmental benefits. The standard Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been used to compare the standard scenario (recycle of glass) against the circular scenario (cleaning and reuse of bottles within the local consortium). Results demonstrate that the reuse of glass bottles leads to relevant benefits in all the considered impact categories (ReCiPe Midpoint method). The avoided use of virgin glass offsets the additional resources (e.g. energy) consumed during the cleaning of used bottles.

Keywords: Circular economy | LCA | Reuse | Wine bottle

[117] Cicconi P., Pallotta E., Russo A.C., Raffaeli R., Prist M., Monteriù A., Longhi S., Germani M., A model-based approach to support the design of mold heating for composites, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 391-401, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Molding is one of the most widely used processing technologies in manufacturing. Among typical molding parameters, the mold temperature is a critical one for the quality of the molding process. A solution to this issue can be the employment of induction heating which, through a high-frequency electromagnetic field, produces eddy currents and a consequent rapid heating of the material into the cavity of the mold. The necessity to maintain the mold walls at the operative temperature makes the induction heating to be one of the most efficient non-contact means of heating. In fact, induction heating is characterized by quickness, efficiency, and energy saving; however, the design and the sizing of an induction heating system is complex due to different parameters involved in the electromagnetic and thermal phenomena. In this context, the paper aims to define a methodology to support engineers in the design and sizing of an induction heating system for molds, taking as case study a mold for composite parts. A model-based approach is proposed to analyze and simulate the mold heating, considering three different levels of modelling: Analytical (0D), Finite-Difference Methods (2D) and Finite Element Methods (3D). The Analytical approach investigates the solution of the physical equations applied to the volume of the material involved. Instead, the Finite-Difference approach (2D) solves the heat transfer problem by discretizing the domain and by solving for temperature at discrete points. Finally, the Finite Element method (3D) solves partial differential equations on a 3D discretized domain.

Keywords: Epoxy-Based carbon fiber prepregs | Induction heating | Model-Based simulations | Mold heating | Resin curing | Virtual prototyping

[118] Papetti A., Cavalieri L., Ceccacci S., Gullà F., Germani M., A structured and user-friendly method to conduct an all-round evaluation of Smart Products, Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, 11(2), 113-133, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The Internet of Things market is rapidly increasing and offers a wide variety of Smart Products (SPs) apparently similar but with different potentialities that the average user fails to perceive. In order to reduce purchase risks, consumers rely on online product reviews, which do not often reflect the effective quality of the products. For this aim, this paper proposes a systematic method to objectively evaluate SPs in a comprehensive way to support the consumer in choosing the product that most satisfies his/her needs. It has been implemented on three different SPs categories: body scales, blood pressure monitors, and activity trackers.

Keywords: customer satisfaction | Internet of Things | products reviews | smart products ratings | systematic evaluation method

[119] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Raffaeli R., An analytical cost estimation approach for generic sheet metal 3D models, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(5), 936-950, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper defines a systematic workflow for production cost estimation of sheet metal stamped components. The approach represents a solution toward the adoption of Design to Cost methods during early product design. It consists in a sequence of steps that, starting from a 3D CAD model with annotations (material, roughness and tolerances) and production information (batch and production volume) leads to the manufacturing cost through an analytic cost breakdown (raw material, stamping and accessory processes, setup and tooling). The calculation process mainly consists in a first step where geometric algorithms calculate the sheet metal blank (dimensions, shape, thickness) and specific product features (e.g. flanges, louvers, embossing, etc.). The following steps allow to calculate the raw material, the stamping process and the process-related parameters, which are the manufacturing cost drivers (e.g. press, stamping rate/sequence/force and die dimensions/weight). The manufacturing cost is the sum of the previous calculated items. Testing the approach for three different components, the average absolute deviation measured between the estimated and actual cost was less than 10% and such a result looks promising for adopting this method for evaluating alternative design solutions.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Design to cost | Feature recognition | Sheet metal stamping

[120] Gullà F., Menghi R., Germani M., Study of the Usability of an Adaptive Smart Home Interface for People with Alzheimer’s Disease, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 540, 261-269, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Research on information technologies has seen in the last 20 years a very fast growth showing an increase of attention to the development of solution able to satisfy people with different characteristics and needs. Today, one of the main research topics aims at the definition of technologies and tools to support elderly people independent living. In this context, the present paper proposes a new home automation system able to support people with the early-stage dementia in kitchen management. This system is managed through an adaptive interface, which guides the user in kitchen activities, provides information on the functioning of all devices in the kitchen specifically, allows to set and control all household appliances in a simple and intuitive way and gives information, adapting to the end-user’s capabilities and needs. Although this preliminary evaluation only included a small number of participants, the results showed that the introduction of a new smart home system can be useful to individuals suffering early-stage dementia to facilitate independent living and remain longer in their own homes.

[121] Papetti A., Marilungo E., Menghi R., Cavalieri L., Carbonari S., Germani M., A Novel Model for Improving the Social Healthcare of the Italian Older People. Step 1: Sample Analysis, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 540, 329-339, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The present research paper would propose a novel social healthcare model for Italian older people, having carried out an in-deep analysis of the current scenario. In fact, studying older people over 75 who live in the inner areas of the Marche region has allowed acquiring the knowledge of their main needs and characteristics. This paper aims to study such the sample considering that nowadays the society trend is characterized by an increasing number of older people in comparison with previous decades. Then, the improvement of the current social healthcare model becomes an important challenge, trying to support older people in being more autonomous and less isolated, escaping from the potential related depression. According to the survey results, the services that a novel social healthcare model should provide are suggested.

[122] Favi C., Marconi M., Germani M., Mandolini M., A design for disassembly tool oriented to mechatronic product de-manufacturing and recycling, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 39, 62-79, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The easy disassembly of certain product components is a prerequisite to guarantee an efficient recovery of parts and materials. This is one of the first step in the implementation of circular economy business models. Design for Disassembly (DfD) is a particular target design methodology supporting engineers in developing industrial products that can be easily disassembled into single components. The paper presents a method and a software tool for quantitatively assessing the disassemblability and recyclability of mechatronic products. The time-based method has been implemented in a software tool, called LeanDfD, which calculates the best disassembly sequences of target components considering disassembly precedencies, liaisons among components, and specific properties to model the real condition of the product at its End-of-Life (EoL). A dedicated repository has been developed to store and classify standard times and corrective factors of each disassembly liaison and operation. This knowledge feeds the two LeanDfD tool modules: (i) product disassemblability module, which allows to carry out the time-based analysis and to improve the disassemblability performance of target components, and (ii) product recyclability module, which estimates the quantities of materials that could be potentially recycled at the product EoL. The LeanDfD tool functionalities have been defined starting from the means of the user stories and the developed tool framework, data structure, databases and use scenarios are described. A group of designers/engineers used the tool during a re-design project of a washing machine, considering the disassemblability as the main driver. The case study highlights how the proposed DfD method and tool are able to support the implementation of re-design actions for improving product de-manufacturability and EoL performance. The LeanDfD features aid engineers in making a quick and robust assessment of their design choices by considering quantitative disassemblability and recyclability metrics.

Keywords: Design for disassembly tool | Disassembly sequence planning | Disassembly time | Recyclability

[123] Papetti A., Marconi M., Rossi M., Germani M., Web-based platform for eco-sustainable supply chain management, Sustainable Production and Consumption, 17, 215-228, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The increasing focus on environmental practices has led academia and industry to address eco-sustainability in different ways. Recent improvements to supply chain management (SCM) have also included environmental sustainability as a key factor, in addition to common drivers such as risk, supply quality, and cost. Although several eco-sustainable SCM approaches have been proposed, often those solutions remain too theoretical and difficult to implement. This paper contributes to this research topic by proposing a web-based platform capable of tracing suppliers and related processes along the entire product supply chain (SC). This platform is a powerful decision-making tool for improving overall SC environmental sustainability. A structured methodology is defined and implemented that can efficiently model complex SCs, share data between actors, and measure its environmental sustainability. To demonstrate the platform applicability and validate its effectiveness in industrial settings, a case study of industrial partners involved in the production of leather shoes is provided.

Keywords: Environmental sustainability | Supply chain management (SCM) | Supply chain traceability | Web-based platform

[124] Marconi M., Manieri S., Germani M., Raffaeli R., A digitally-enabled integrated approach to design and manufacture shoe lasts, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(3), 593-610, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: In the era of the fourth industrial revolution the efficient sharing and exploitation of information are key success factors for companies. In order to maintain competitiveness and to answer to the requests for highly customized products, shoe last producers need to innovate their processes, by adopting digital technologies. The present paper proposes an innovative integrated approach for shoe last design and manufacturing. The process is enabled by CAD/CAM technologies, which allow to integrate the design and manufacturing phases, and by haptic technologies, which allow to interact with the virtual models to simplify the successive planning and manufacturing operations. The final aim is to support traditional companies in the implementation of the Industry 4.0 paradigm. The test case about marking operation confirms that the adoption of the proposed approach leads to a sensible improvement in the company operational efficiency, thanks to the reduction in the number of repetitive tasks.

Keywords: CAD/CAM technologies | Haptic interface | Industry 4.0 | Shoe last design

[125] Favi C., Moroni F., Manieri S., Germani M., Marconi M., Virtual reality-enhanced configuration design of customized workplaces: A case study of ship bridge system, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(2), 345-357, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper proposes a design method for the configuration of customized workplaces supported by the use of VR tool. The method allows to consider end-users anthropological features and configuration aspects related to the workplace (e.g. equipment). The adoption of VR technology allows supporting the configuration process, engaging end-users in the final customization. A yachts’ ship bridge console is proposed as a case study and a VR-enhanced configuration tool has been developed for the equipment configuration. The adoption of this tool in this specific field shows different advantages such as efficiency in configuration and time saving for the development of workplaces design alternatives. Another benefit of this approach is the automatic generation of an associated BoM and its management through PLM tools.

Keywords: Anthropological aspects | Configuration | Design | Ergonomics | Ship bridge system | VR

[126] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., An Ecodesign approach for the lightweight engineering of cast iron parts, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 99(9-12), 2365-2388, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Lightweight engineering is a current topic in mechanical industry. The mass reduction is a common design objective to reduce product cost and environmental impacts. Virtual prototyping tools are widely applied to study new lightened solutions and check the compliance with regulations and standards. However, an integrated approach, involving simulations and life-cycle analysis, is necessary to support design optimization and decision-making. The scope of this study concerns the definition of an Ecodesign approach to support the lightweight engineering of cast iron parts through the redesign of the product shape. In particular, this paper deals with the optimization of a ductile cast iron manhole. The test case shows a redesign method which considers structural analysis with environmental impacts. The structural analysis has been evaluated using a finite element method tool. In particular, the simulation results have been compared and validated with physical tests. The environmental analysis is based on the methodology provided by the standardized ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006. The proposed LCA study considers the phases of manufacturing and transport related to one ductile iron product. The described manufacturing phase is related to a Chinese foundry which produces roughly 12,000 tons of ductile cast-iron castings. The results show the possibility to achieve about 20% of mass reduction for one casting. Considering such mass decreasing, the related reduction in terms of carbon emission is about 7%. Summarizing, this paper shows a design approach to integrate the structural improvements with the reduction of the environmental impacts related to a lighter weight casting.

Keywords: Cast ductile iron | Design optimization | Life-cycle assessment | Lightweight engineering | Manhole | Virtual prototyping

[127] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Marchionne M., Germani M., A model-based simulation approach to support the product configuration and optimization of gas turbine ducts, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 15(6), 807-818, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, product configuration and optimization are very important topics in several industrial applications such as the manufacturing of Engineered-to-order (ETO) products, where there is a fierce increase in market competition. The product configuration allows past design solutions to be reused and new product variants to be defined and pre-designed. However, the delivery of new configurations of products requires a technical feasibility analysis before closing the contract of the order with the customer. There is a lack of commercial tools which can support the designer from the early configuration phase to the product optimization with the automatic generation of geometric models and simulations. While traditional software tools can be used for the product configuration, with automation in the CAD modeling, other ones can combine optimization algorithms with numerical simulations. However, the combination of all these design levels requires the development of a dedicated platform tools. The research aims to reduce time and cost related to the early design phase of an oil & gas system, focusing on gas turbine ducts. The paper proposes a methodological approach to integrate the design optimization with the product configuration using Model-Based simulations to verify the technical feasibility and to optimize the product design. As a test case, the early design of a gas turbine chimney is proposed.

Keywords: Model-Based simulation | oil & gas | Product configuration | Product optimization | Virtual prototyping

[128] Cicconi P., Landi D., Russo A.C., Nardelli M., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A CSP-based design framework for appliances under energy labelling, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(4), 1243-1263, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, several consumer goods are sold with an energy label which provides energy information about consumption, efficiency, noise, and performance. These labels are regulated by local energy policy and governments. Because of this, customers are becoming increasingly aware about the energy efficiency and consumption of products such as household appliances. In Europe, several household appliances are involved in the European Energy Labelling Directive. Therefore, the manufacturers are paying attention to Ecodesign tools and methods to support the development of eco-innovation and sustainable products. In this context, the paper proposes a design methodology to support the development of efficient cooker hoods using an approach based on a constraints satisfaction problem model. The scope of the proposed research is to reduce the time-to-market of household appliances considering the energy efficiency optimization from the early design phases to the embodiment design. A Case Based Reasoning is also implemented to define a pre-configured model of product before the CSP optimization. The CSP model has been developed as an analytical system, which can predict the energy label achieved by a final prototype of a cooker hood. The interaction of such tools can fill the gap between traditional design methods and eco-innovation approaches, in order to support the designer in the decision-making activity. The test case shows a cooker hoods optimization based on a CSP tool, developed using a programming framework based on Gecode platform.

Keywords: Case-based reasoning | Constraints satisfaction problem | Design optimization | Ecodesign | Energy label | Virtual prototyping

[129] Prist M., Pallotta E., Cicconi P., Monteriu A., Germani M., Longhi S., Induction Mold Heating: Modelling and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for Temperature Control, Proceedings - 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe, EEEIC/I and CPS Europe 2018, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Mold heating is an important key factor for the mold cycle which affects the quality of the molded product. The involved molding processes regards polymers foaming, plastics injection, or resin-curing with composites. While the manufacturing cycle of plastics injection molding requires a heating/cooling system, other processes do not require the cooling phase. Polymers foaming and resin-curing require specific values of temperature to provide full chemical reactions and a good product quality on the surface. Induction heating systems are suitable for such applications; however, many industrial cases require customized solutions to support the molding cycle of different parts. A temperature control is always mandatory to reduce the energy cost and increase the heating efficiency. This paper studies a molds temperature control applied in the polyurethane foaming of footwear soles. The proposed induction heating system and its control have been studied using the Hardware-In-the-Loop simulations. Due to a high mold thermal inertia, which increases the mold temperature even if the control system turns off the thermal power, tailored controllers have been analyzed to achieve the desired temperature set-point. The thermal model of the foaming mold and the induction heating system have been modelled and developed in the MATLAB/Simulink® framework. An ATMEGA processor was used to implement and test a discrete PID controller while Simulink induction-heating system model was running, creating an Hardware-In-The-loop platform.

Keywords: Footwear Industry | Hardware-In-the-Loop | Induction Heating | Mold Heating | Polyurethane Foaming | Temperature Control

[130] Favi C., Di Giuseppe E., D'Orazio M., Rossi M., Germani M., Building retrofit measures and design: A probabilistic approach for LCA, Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(10), (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Green building design and architecture have become widespread tenets in the development of sustainable buildings. In this context, the use of sustainable materials and the awareness of resource/energy consumption are strategic aspects to consider for the improvement of building performances. This paper presents a new and structured approach to address uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to support the decision-making process in building renovation. This "probabilistic" approach to LCA allows for the obtaining of results expressed as ranges of environmental impacts and for alternative solutions, offering an idea of the meaning of input parameters' uncertainties and their influence on the result. The approach includes (i) the assessment of inputs' uncertainties (represented by Probability Density Functions-PDF); (ii) the data sampling; and (iii) the uncertainty propagation (Monte Carlo method). Variance decomposition techniques have been used to sample inputs' PDFs and assess their impact on the LCA result distribution (sensitivity analysis). The methodology application is illustrated through a case study where three building retrofit measures were assessed. Results provide an insight about the uncertainties of LCA indicators in terms of climate change and nonrenewable energy. The input parameters related to the use phase are confirmed as the most influential in building LCA.

Keywords: Building retrofit | Inputs' uncertainties | Monte Carlo | Probabilistic LCA | Sensitivity analysis

[131] Brunzini A., Gracco A., Mazzoli A., Mandolini M., Manieri S., Germani M., Preliminary simulation model toward the study of the effects caused by different mandibular advancement devices in OSAS treatment, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 21(13), 693-702, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper aims to evaluate the effects caused by a Mandibular Advancement Device (MAD) for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) treatment. This study is based on Finite Element Method (FEM) for evaluating the load distribution on temporomandibular joint, especially on the mandibular condyle and disc, and on periodontal ligaments. The stress values on condyle and periodontal ligaments lead authors to consider MAD a safe procedure even for a long period. The obtained results also show the relationship between MAD material and load distribution at the periodontal ligaments. The paper is a step toward future analyses for studying and comparing the effects of MAD features, such as material, shape and dimensions, in order to allow the clinician prescribing the most fitting device.

Keywords: Finite element method | mandibular advancement device | obstruction sleep apnea syndrome | periodontal ligament | temporomandibular joint

[132] Castorani V., Cicconi P., Mandolini M., Vita A., Germani M., A method for the cost optimization of industrial electrical routings, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 15(5), 747-756, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The cost reduction is one of the most spread strategy adopted by companies for guaranteeing profits in a competitive market. This paper presents an approach for the cost optimization of industrial electrical routings. The proposed optimization process consists of two levels: the arrangement of the cables within the cable trays and the 3D routing of the cable trays for connecting the modules of a product. The arrangement of the power and signal cables and the selection of the cable trays are carried out considering specific configuration rules. A genetic algorithm, coupled with the Hightower's algorithm, is used to solve the routing optimization problem. The proposed cost functions consider the raw materials and manufacturing/assembly operations. The optimization process has been used for optimizing a portion of the electric cable harness of a 43 MWe power plant with a size of 44 × 20 meters, and a total of 40,60 kilometers of cables. The optimization process let to a cost saving of about 15% compared to the design carried out with the traditional approach. Abbreviations:CTs: cable trays; CUi: hourly rate for the installation phase [€/hour]; CUrmtk: hourly rate for the k-th cost center used for transforming a semi-finished component [€/hour]; Cut: hourly rate for the test phase [€/hour]; CUtray: unitary cost of a cable tray [€]; DOE: design of experiment; GA: genetic algorithm [€]; Ic: installation cost [€]; If: installation factor [-]; PAc: cost for the preliminary analysis [€]; PAcp: percentage used for calculating the cost of the preliminary analysis [%]; RMc: cost of the raw material and relative transformation operations [€]; RMcci: cost of the i-th commercial component [€]; RMoc: percentage of the overhead costs related to the management of the raw material [%]; RMsc_scrapsj: cost of the scraps for the j-th semi-finished component [€]; RMscj: cost of the j-th semi-finished component [€]; RMtc: cost for transforming semi-finished components [€]; Tcl: commercial length of a straight cable tray [meter]; Tii,j: standard installation time for the i-th or j-th component [hour]; Tl: linear distance between two points of the wiring system that need to be connected [meter]; Trmtk: time for the k-th operation for transforming a semi-finished component [hour]; Ttk: standard test time for the k-th skid of the electrical system [hour].

Keywords: cable routing | Cost optimization | electric cable harness | oil & gas

[133] Marconi M., Germani M., Favi C., Raffaeli R., CAD feature recognition as a means to prevent ergonomics issues during manual assembly tasks, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 15(5), 734-746, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Feature-based modeling and feature recognition algorithm are state of the art technologies, mainly used to favor the integration and exchange of data between design and manufacturing phases. This paper aims to investigate the possibility to extend the use of the feature recognition as a means for the prevention of ergonomics issues during the manual assembly phase, such as Work-related Musculo-Skeletal Disorders (WMSDs). Starting from the features analysis of a 3D product model, the proposed five steps method allows preventively identifying potential ergonomics issues. The main novelty of this study is related to the correlation between design tools, product virtual representations (e.g. 3D models), assembly and ergonomics aspects. Results obtained with two case studies, a cooker hood and a tool-holder carousel, confirm the usefulness of the proposed method in helping designers to prevent potential ergonomics issues for operators involved in the assembly phase.

Keywords: Ergonomics | Feature recognition | Manual assembly | Virtual product model | Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders

[134] Prist M., Pallotta E., Cicconi P., Venturini P., Monteriu A., Germani M., Longhi S., Energy Saving in Industrial Wireless Power Recharge System: Simulation of a PI-Sliding Mode Control for a Non-Inverting Buck-Boost Converter, 2018 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power Transfer, Wow 2018, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: In this work, a PI-Sliding mode controller is developed in feedback loop from a non-inverting buck boost converter, in order to control the recharge of a Li-Ion battery of a Laser Guided Vehicle (LGV), which is the last stage of an industrial wireless recharge power station. In detail, the industrial case study regards the wireless recharge of a LGV employed to transport molds used for footwear soles production. The proposed solution has been modelled and developed in the MATLAB/Simulink® framework, and the performances of this controller are compared with the classical PID industrial controller. The obtained results depend only from the developed recharge system and can be applied in other industrial cases (e.g., car battery recharge). In particular, the numerical simulations show that the proposed solution has an important impact on the energy consumptions.

Keywords: Buck-boost | Energy Saving | Industrial Automation | LGV | PID | Sliding Mode | Wireless power charging

[135] Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Manieri S., Using design information to create a data framework and tool for life cycle analysis of complex maritime vessels, Journal of Cleaner Production, 192, 887-905, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Maritime vessels are complex products with long service lives and high costs of construction, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing. The definition of a consistent and repeatable life cycle model among vessel types is still an open question, and the development of such a model can be helpful for the implementation of decision-making strategies and design choices. The present paper aims to introduce a life cycle model and a data framework in the early phases of shipbuilding design, supporting the decision-making process of material selection, manufacturing and assembly processes, maintenance and service, use and end-of-life. The model provides a common structure for life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA), including an approach to retrieve and collect all data necessary for the analysis starting from the available project documentation and design models. Three luxury yachts with different features were analysed using the proposed model, and a software tool that embeds the developed data framework was developed. The results provided by the tool are in line with the same analyses carried out with dedicated LCA and LCCA tools (maximum deviation of 6.3% for climate change indicators). Other important advantages are (i) the time saved for the inventory phase, (ii) compliance with existing life cycle standards (e.g., ISO 14040), and (iii) the possibility to make comparisons and a benchmarking analysis.

Keywords: Data framework | Design | LCA | LCCA | Life cycle model | Maritime vessel

[136] Cavanini L., Cicconi P., Freddi A., Germani M., Longhi S., Monteriu A., Pallotta E., Prist M., A Preliminary Study of a Cyber Physical System for Industry 4.0: Modelling and Co-Simulation of an AGV for Smart Factories, 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018 - Proceedings, 169-174, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: In this research, a localization system for a particular Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV), namely a Laser Guided Vehicle (LGV), which takes advantage of RSSI data, is described. The vehicle, its sensors and the wireless sensor network are virtualized, in order to provide a software replica of that available in a real factory. A Co-Simulator, composed by two simulation environments, has been implemented: from one hand, Robot Operating System (ROS), the RVIZ and GAZEBO for modeling and simulating the virtual system, and from the other hand, COOJA for reproducing the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) behavior and RSSI signals. The virtualized LGV in ROS, together with its virtual sensors set, is integrated with the WSN in COOJA, so that localization can be performed by sensor fusion of odometric and RSSI data according to a Kalman Filter approach. The Co-simulator can be used to deploy path-Tracking policies and test them before actual implementation in a Cyber Physical System (CPS) scenario.

Keywords: Automated Guided Vehicle | Cyber-Physical System | Industry 4.0 | Robot Operating System | Wireless Sensor Network

[137] Gullà F., Ceccacci S., Menghi R., Germani M., How touch glove and expertise influence the basic touch gestures performances for people with Systemic Sclerosis, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 281-286, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The technology has become a common part of our daily lives, and the integration of touchscreen technology into devices is quickly becoming equally common. In recent years, much research has been conducted on how people interact with handheld devices and on different types and uses of touchscreen technology, but there are few studies regarding people with severe problems of dexterity. For this reason, the present study aims to understand the effect of expertize with touchscreen on the performance of basic touch-gestures (i.e., tapping, dragging, pinching and spreading) in the case of people with Systemic Sclerosis. The performances of a total of twelve patients with SSc, six with and six without previous experience with touchscreen technology, were compared in the study. Recommendations based on the results of this study are proposed to improve the accessibility of touch-screen interfaces for these patients.

Keywords: Accessibility | Hand dysfunction | Human computer interaction | Scleroderma | Systemic sclerosis | Touch gestures | Touchscreen interface | Usability

[138] Favi C., Germani M., Landi D., Mengarelli M., Rossi M., Comparative life cycle assessment of cooking appliances in Italian kitchens, Journal of Cleaner Production, 186, 430-449, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper aims to analyse and compare the environmental performances of the most widely used cooking appliances (the induction hob vs. the gas hob) considering a typical Italian scenario in terms of food, family and social habits. Cooking appliances are subject to energy labelling, and they represent the most impacting system inside households. This study was performed in accordance with the international standard, ISO 14040/14044, by using an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (aLCA). The functional unit is defined as the “preparation of a complete homemade meal (lunch) for 20 years consumed by a four-member family in Italy”. This study shows the dominance, in terms of environmental impact, of the induction hob with respect to the gas hob for most of the selected midpoint indicators. In particular, the induction hob accounts for more than 60% of the climate change and ozone depletion impact categories and more than 70% of the metal depletion category. The same trend is also noticed in the end-point categories (human health, ecosystem qualities and resources) and for the Cumulative Energy Demand indicator. Based on the experimental evidence of this work, the use phase is the most important due to the different energy carriers (natural gas vs. electrical energy). This finding is the result of the nature of the energy carrier (the electricity grid mix) in the Italian scenario, which is mainly based on non-renewable sources. In addition, concerning the production phase of the two appliances, the induction hob shows a relevant dominance in terms of the human toxicity and metal depletion impact categories due to the use of rare metals and coppers in the cooktop part manufacturing. The outcomes obtained from this study may be used by household manufacturers to improve the performance and design solutions of their appliances as well as by end users in their selection of cooking technologies.

Keywords: Cooking appliances | Energy consumption | Environmental impact assessment | Food cooking | Life cycle assessment

[139] Landi D., Gigli S., Germani M., Marconi M., Investigating the feasibility of a reuse scenario for textile fibres recovered from end-of-life tyres, Waste Management, 75, 187-204, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The management of end-of-life tyres (ELTs) is regulated by several national and international legislations aiming to promote the recovery of materials and energy from this waste. The three main materials used in tyres are considered: rubber (main product), which is currently reused in other closed-loop applications; steel, which is used for the production of virgin materials; and textile fibres (approximately 10% by weight of ELTs), which are mainly incinerated for energy recovery (open-loop scenario). This study aims to propose and validate a new closed-loop scenario for textile fibres based on material reuse for bituminous conglomerates. The final objective is to verify the technical, environmental, financial, and economic feasibility of the proposed treatment process and reuse scenario. After characterization of the textile material, which is required to determine the technological feasibility, a specific process has been developed to clean, compact, and prepare the fibres for subsequent reuse. A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out to quantify the environmental benefits of reusing the fibres. Finally, a cost benefit analysis based on the LCA results was conducted to establish the long-term financial and economic sustainability. From a technological point of view, the tyre textile fibres could be a promising substitute to the reinforcement cellulose commonly used in asphalts as long as the fibres are properly prepared (compaction and pellet production) for application in the standard bituminous conglomerate production process. From an environmental point of view, relevant benefits in terms of global warming potential and acidification potential reduction were observed in comparison with the standard incineration for energy recovery (respectively −86% and −45%). Moreover, the proposed scenario can be considered as financially viable in the medium to long term (cumulative generated cash flow is positive after the 5th year) and economically sustainable (expected net present value of more than €3,000,000 and economic rate of return of approximately 30%). Finally, the sensitivity and risk analyses show that no specific issues are foreseen for the future implementation in real industrial applications.

Keywords: Circular economy | Cost–benefit analysis | End-of-life tyres | Feasibility evaluation | Reuse scenario

[140] Prist M., Pallotta E., Cicconi P., Russo A.C., Monteriu A., Germani M., Longhi S., An automatic temperature control for induction cooktops to reduce energy consumption, 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2018, 2018-January, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Induction cooktops are very used as an efficient alternative to traditional cooking systems such as gas hobs. Even if the energy efficiency of induction cooktops is twice as much as the traditional gas burners, the differences in terms of energy price can limit the diffusion and marketing of induction cooktops. Recent eco-normative are regulating the energy consumption of this kind of household appliances sold in different countries. This paper proposes an automatic temperature control to reduce the energy consumption for induction cooktops. The water boiling test was used as case study to simulate and validate the proposed approach.

Keywords: Hardware-In-The-Loop | Induction heating | PID control

[141] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Implementation of a software platform to support an eco-design methodology within a manufacturing firm, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 11(2), 79-96, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper aims to explore the implementation of an eco-design methodology and the related software platform (G.EN.ESI–Green ENgineering dESIgn) within technical departments of a manufacturing firm. The G.EN.ESI eco-design methodology is based on the life cycle thinking concept and the software platform is conceived as a set of inter-operable software tools able to efficiently exchange data among them and with the traditional design systems (i.e. CAD, PDM and PLM). A multinational company, designing and producing household appliances, adopted the proposed methodology and related software platform for redesigning two cooker hood models with the aim to improve their environmental performances. Design and engineering departments evaluated the methodology and platform impact on the product development process, as well as the platform inter-operability with traditional design tools. The results indicate that methodology and software platform satisfy the requirements of the enterprise in terms of: (i) degree of expertise and training requirement on this subject, (ii) low impact in a consolidated design process and, (ii) good level of inter-operability among heterogeneous tools. However, the testing results highlight the necessity of a further platform optimisations in terms of software integration (single workbench made by integrated software tools with the same graphical user interface).

Keywords: BoM: Bill of Material | CAD: Computer-Aided Design | CAE: Computer-Assisted Engineering | CAS: Computer-Aided Software | CBR: Case Base Reasoning | CREER: Cluster Research, Excellence in Ecodesign & Recycling | DB: Database | DfD: Design for Disassembly | DfEE: Design for Energy Efficiency | Eco-design methodology | eco-design software platform | EDIMS: EcoDesign Integration Method for SMEs | EoL: End of Life | EPD: Environmental Product Declaration | FMEA: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis | G.EN.ESI: Green ENgineering dESIgn | GUI: Graphic User Interface | interoperability evaluation | LCA: Life Cycle Assessment | LCC: Life Cycle Costing | LCT: Life Cycle Thinking | LE: Large Enterprises | LED: Light Emission Diode | PDM: Product Data Management | PDP: Product development Process | PLM: Product Life cycle Management | PMMA: Poly Methyl Methacrylate | product environmental sustainability | R&D: Research and Development | REACH: Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals | RoHS: Restriction of Hazardous Substances | SME: Small and Medium Enterprises | WEEE: Waste od Electric and Electronic Equipment | XML: Extensible Markup Language

[142] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Development of complex products and production strategies using a multi-objective conceptual design approach, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 95(1-4), 1281-1291, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Conceptual design is a fundamental phase for developing optimal product configurations. During conceptual design, the degree of freedom in engineering choices can propose optimal solutions in terms of assembly, manufacturing, cost and material selection. Nevertheless, in current industrial practices, each aspect is analysed independently and a guided decision-making approach based on multi-objective criteria is missing. Multi-objective analysis is a way of combining each production aspect with the aim of choosing the best design option. The goal of this research work is to define a multi-objective design approach for the determination of optimal and feasible design options during the conceptual design phase. The approach is based on the concept of functional basis, module heuristics for defining product modules and the theory of multi-criteria decision-making for mathematical assessment of the best design option. The novelty of this approach lies in making the design process, currently based on company know-how and experience, systematic. A complex product (i.e. tool-holder carousel of a computer numerical control machine tool) is the case study used to assess the economic sustainability of different design options and to validate the proposed design workflow in a real manufacturing context. Different product modules have been re-designed and prototyped for comparing the assemblability, manufacturability and cost of the design solutions.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design for manufacturing assembly | Design to cost | Multi-criteria decision making | Multi-objective design

[143] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Time-based disassembly method: how to assess the best disassembly sequence and time of target components in complex products, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 95(1-4), 409-430, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Circular economy (CE) is a new business model that is pressing manufacturing companies to think about closed loop scenarios for materials and products. Design for End-of-Life (DfEoL) and Design for Disassembly (DfD) are key enabling methods for the effective application of this model. The paper presents a time-based method for the calculation of disassembly sequences, adopting basic theories and techniques in this topic and integrating new concepts for the assessment of the disassembly time. The method consists of five steps and starts from the documentations (e.g., CAD model) generally available early in the product development process. The first three steps encompass the product analysis by including (i) the definition of target components from the general assembly, (ii) the analyses of the virtual model, and (iii) the assessment of the so-called level matrix, which is based on the concept of disassembly levels and liaisons characterization among components. The last two steps allow for the assessment of the time-based disassembly sequence by including (iv) the analysis of feasible sequences and (v) the generation of the best disassembly sequence for target components. The method mainly overcomes two issues highlighted in the literature regarding the reliability of the disassemblability analysis using a time-based approach and the quality of results accounting for the real condition of the product at the time of disassembly. The calculation of the effective disassembly time is grounded on a specific repository developed to gather knowledge about the disassembly tasks and related disassembly time. This is the main contribution and novelty of the proposed approach. By using the proposed method, different target components of a washing machine are analysed with the aim of demonstrating the robustness of the method and its consistency in the estimation of disassembly time. A maximum deviation of 10% between the estimated and measured disassembly times is noticed.

Keywords: De-manufacturing | Design for disassembly | Disassembly sequence planning | Disassembly time calculation | Level matrix | Target disassembly

[144] Gullà F., Papetti A., Menghi R., Germani M., A method to make an existing system adaptive, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10901 LNCS, 91-101, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The Adaptive systems are becoming essential into our daily life, thanks to the fast improvement of computing technology and the deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Despite many efforts have been made to improve adaptive systems design methods they remain very heterogeneous and mostly limited to each domain of application. Moreover, the most of existing adaptive applications propose specific approaches for the development of new systems, without considering the opportunity to convert existing smart systems into adaptive systems. To overcome this limitation, this paper introduces an approach able to support the designers in adapting an already existing system. To this purpose, a new design method, consisting of the three following steps, has been developed: (1) context analysis; (2) adaptive module design; and (3) system re-design. The described approach is applied, as an example, to a Wi-Fi system for the control and management of household appliances developed by a large Italian company.

Keywords: Adaptive interface | Adaptive system | IoT | Methodology | Smart environment | Universal design

[145] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., Should costing: A holistic approach from the product design to procurement, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 7, 619-630, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most important driver for the development of competitive products is the cost. Despite most of the companies are focusing at the procurement stage (strategic sourcing) to reduce the cost of a product, around 80% of the final cost is determined at the design stage. Several software tools are currently available for Design to Cost. On the other side, “should cost” software tools allow to support the procurement phase. However, scienitific and industrial communities are missing an holistic “should costing” framework (method and tool) that accompany the product development process from design until procurement. To overcome this limitation, the paper presents a holistic “should costing” approach that integrates “should cost” and Design to Cost methodologies, covering design, engineering and procurement stages. Since dedicated software tools for “should costing” are required for the right implementation of this methodology, the paper describes stakeholders’ requirements for a benchmarking of such tools. The proposed “should costing” frameworjk has been adopted by a couple of companies (product manufacturers), describing their background, deployment process and achieved results. The manuscript ends with a list of the most important benefits of this approach.

Keywords: Design to Cost | Procurement | Should Costing | Suppliers selection

[146] Cicconi P., Nardelli M., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A design methodology for a csp-based optimization approach, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 7, 837-846, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Design optimization is a common practice in industry. Different mathematical algorithms have been developing to support the optimization in engineering design. The integration between optimization methods and simulations is an interesting issue in engineering design. A typical optimization workflow can include simulation steps; however, the Virtual Prototyping analysis is more time-consuming than analytical calculations. The study of Constraints Satisfaction Problems is a mathematical topic which can be applied for solving engineering issues in design. The strength of this approach is the velocity on searching the satisfied solutions. This paper proposes a design methodology which considers the use of CSP models and calculation tools to optimize the sizing of columns and beams in the design of a steel structure. The calculation tools regard analytical models and numerical analysis. While the analytical approach regards the computing of cost and weight, the numerical analysis is used to verify and check the engineering performance in terms of deformation and stress state. A customized application, based on MiniZinc platform, has been developed and proposed to solve the CSP model for a test case steel structure. The CSP problem has been limited to the calculation of analytical constraints such as cost and weight. Finally, the resultant set of solutions has been evaluated using numerical solution to complete the optimization analysis.

Keywords: Constraints Satisfaction Problems (CSP) | MiniZinc | Optimization | Steel Structures | Virtual Prototyping

[147] Papetti A., Gregori F., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Iot to enable social sustainability in manufacturing systems, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 7, 53-62, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most actual and consistent driver for industry is sustainability. This topic opens at different problems according to the three sustainability pillars: environment, economic, and social. Regarding the last one, there is a lack for methodologies and tools. Moreover, industries are crossing today a crucial transition in terms of technologies. The so called fourth industrial revolution is ongoing. This is a second challenge for industries that needs to be competitive reducing their time to market integrating new technologies on their production sites. From these perspectives, this work is aimed at highlighting the role of the humans under the Industry 4.0 paradigm. A new transdisciplinary engineering method to favour the sustainable manufacturing is provided. It allows designing a connected environment (IoT framework) aimed at measuring and promoting social sustainability on production sites. The work also remarks the relationship between social sustainability and productivity. Indeed, optimizing the human works permits to improve the quality of the working conditions while improving efficiency of the production system. The case study was performed at an Italian sole producer. The goal of the analysis was to improve and innovate the finishing area of the plant from a social point of view with the perspective of digital manufacturing. An IoT framework has been installed, without affecting the productivity, and the work of 2 operators has been compared in order to identify common problems and define a synergy strategy.

Keywords: Digital manufacturing | Human factors | Industry 4.0 | Social sustainability | Sustainable manufacturing

[148] Scafà M., Marconi M., Germani M., A critical review of industrial symbiosis models, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 7, 1184-1193, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The growing attention on sustainable development themes, in line with an increasing awareness of the exhaustibility of natural resources, has made the traditional linear economic model obsolete. Therefore, the concept of "Circular Economy" was developed to favour products and materials recovery and regeneration. To this end Industrial Symbiosis represents a promising approach to foster the transformation towards this type of economy, based on resource efficiency, sustainable manufacturing, materials, energy, water and/or by-products exchange and sharing between different companies. In this context, the aim of this paper is to present a classification and a critical discussion about existing industrial symbiosis models. According to the presented literature review, industrial symbiosis can be realized thorough the implementation of three different models: (i) industrial symbiosis districts that develop from a bottom-up approach and are based on resources sharing and materials exchanging, (ii) eco-industrial parks that develop from a top down approach and are determined by eco-sustainable infrastructures and systems, and (iii) networks for industrial symbiosis that evolve through cognitive/relational tools and are based on resources supply and demand intersection. The final objective of this study is to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of each model, to explore the applicability in real contexts, and to identify potential economic and environmental benefits (e.g. reduction of polluting emissions and landfilled wastes, economic savings due to reuse of scraps, energy sharing). The study concludes by identifying research gaps, reflecting on possible application of industrial symbiosis and proposing suggestions for future work.

Keywords: Collaborative platform | Eco-industrial parks | Industrial symbiosis | Industrial symbiosis districts | Resource efficiency

[149] Castorani V., Bondi S., Cicconi P., Marronaro M.G., Germani M., Coppolaro S., A framework to support the optimization of modularized oil&gas structures, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2B-2018, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Modularization is a current issue in the context of plant design. A modular system aims to reduce lead time and cost in design phases. An oil & gas plant consists of many Engineered-To-Order solutions to be submitted and approved during the negotiation phase. In this context, design tools and methods are necessary to support the design life cycle from the conceptual study to the detailed project. The paper proposes an approach to optimize the design of modularized oil & gas plants with a focus on the related steel structures. A test case shows the configuration workflow applied to a modular steel structure of about 400 tons. The modularized layout has been optimized using genetic algorithms. A Knowledge Base has been described to support the configuration phase related to the conceptual design. Design rules and metrics have been formalized from the analysis of past solutions.

[150] Landi D., Postacchini L., Cicconi P., Ciarapica F.E., Germani M., Study and design of sustainable packaging for household hoods, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: In industrialized countries, packaging waste is one of the major issues to deal with, representing around 35% of the total municipal solid waste yearly generated. Therefore, an analysis and an environmental assessment of packaging systems are necessary. This paper aims at analyzing and comparing the environmental performances of two different packaging for domestic hoods. It shows how, through a packaging redesign, it is possible to obtain a reduction of the environmental impacts. This study has been performed in accordance with the international standards ISO 14040/14044, by using attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from Cradle to Gate. The functional unit has been defined as the packaging of a single household hood. Primary data have been provided by a household hood manufacturer, while secondary data have been obtained from the Ecoinvent database. LCA software SimaPro 8.5 has been used to carry out the life cycle assessment, and ReCiPe method has been chosen for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) stage. The results have shown the new packaging model being able to cut down the environmental impacts of approximately 30%. These outcomes may be used by household manufacturers to improve performances and design solutions of their different packaging.

[151] Palmieri G., Marconi M., Corinaldi D., Germani M., Callegari M., Automated disassembly of electronic components: Feasibility and technical implementation, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper deals with the feasibility of a flexible robotic cell for the disassembly of electronic components. First, the need for an automated process for the end of life management of electronic boards is motivated: the reuse of electronic components represents a potential cost saving opportunity for a class of electronic board producers, other than an effective means to improve the waste management efficiency and the sustainability of the electronics sector. Then, starting from a state of the art survey, a technical implementation of the cell is proposed. Finally, some preliminary tests of the disassembly equipment, aimed at setting the most relevant process parameters, are described.

[152] Nardelli M., Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Supporting design tasks through constraint satisfaction tools, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 1, 393-404, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, different commercial tools are available to support engineers during optimization tasks in engineering design; however, many researches have been still studying tools and methods to improve the design process and overcome some limits related to configuration and design optimization. This paper proposes a methodological approach to highlight how a CSP analysis can support the first phase of an optimization analysis, to reduce the design space of solutions to be investigated and subsequently optimized. A test case shows a CSP study applied to steel structures for oil & gas applications.

Keywords: Constraint modelling | Design optimisation | Engineering design | Steel structures

[153] Brunzini A., Mandolini M., Germani M., Nester C.J., Williams A.E., A knowledge-based and multi-user platform for prescribing custom-made insoles, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 6, 2597-2608, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a knowledge-based method and relative multi-user web platform to prescribe Custom Made Insoles (CMI) involving the various stakeholders (patients/customers, practitioners, manufacturers and controllers) in an integrated approach that covers the entire process. The CMI prescription and design are carried out by using configuration rules, which combine foot parameters with insoles features. The platform also offers functionalities to collect and monitor the patients feedbacks, to control the clinician work and to obtain an electronic insole order used by manufactures.

Keywords: Co-design | Custom-made insole | Design knowledge | Healthcare design | Knowledge-based process

[154] Scafà M., Carbonari S., Papetti A., Rossi M., Germani M., A new method for Product Service System: The case of urban waste management, Procedia CIRP, 73, 67-72, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The growing attention on environmental and social sustainability issues is pushing companies to move towards new business models. In this context, PSS (Product Service System) seems to be one of the most suitable model to foster the transition to sustainable economic models. The PSS is composed of a mix of tangible products and intangible services. The method proposed in this paper supports the PSS design. The objective of this work is to integrate careful assessment of economic, environmental and social sustainability supporting the transition towards new business models and strategic company decision-making. The method is then validated through a case study on the management of urban waste.

Keywords: Environmental Sustainability | Product-Service System | PSS method | Social Sustainability

[155] Menghi R., Gullà F., Germani M., Assessment of a smart kitchen to help people with Alzheimer’s disease, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10898 LNCS, 304-309, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The ageing population is leading to a significant impact on current society and it is introducing new challenges to find innovative solutions to help older adults to improve their quality of life, stay healthier, and live independently. In this context, the present paper provides a usability assessment of a Smart Kitchen developed to support people with the early-stage dementia in cooking activities. The smart system is managed through an adaptable user interface, which provides information on the meal preparation and allows to configure and manage all household appliances in a simple and intuitive way. Although this preliminary evaluation only included a small number of participants, the results showed that the system could be useful to help and guide people to remain independent in their own home environment for daily kitchen activities.

Keywords: Adaptive interface | Alzheimer’s Disease | Smart home | Usability evaluation

[156] Menghi R., Papetti A., Carbonari S., Germani M., Designing a product service platform for older people: From needs to requirements, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10898 LNCS, 23-34, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Helping older people to remain in their homes and to be more autonomous and less isolated, escaping from the potential related depression, is a global challenge. To support people ‘age in place’, the paper proposes a specific data collection to establish the possible requirements of a novel Product Service Platform for wellbeing and health of older people. The study of a community of older people over 75 who live in their homes has allowed acquiring the knowledge of their main needs and characteristics. Two focus groups with experts dealing with the ageing population were then set up to define: (a) how to design an IT artifact that meets end-users needs and (b) the services that a Product Service Platform should provide.

Keywords: Elderly | Healthcare | Product service platform | Smart environments | Survey

[157] Gregori F., Papetti A., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Improving a production site from a social point of view: An IoT infrastructure to monitor workers condition, Procedia CIRP, 72, 886-891, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: In the context of Industry 4.0, this paper focuses on integration of workers in the digitalized factory. It proposes a method to design an IoT infrastructure and acquire human-related data from a production site in order to improve workers wellbeing and overall productivity. The method permits to identify bottlenecks and criticalities from a social point of view, focusing on the human performance, and define corrective actions at different levels (operations, plant layout or shift management). A case study was developed in collaboration with an Italian sole producer to validate the method and the related data acquisition system.

Keywords: Industry 4.0 | IoT | social sustainability

[158] Landi D., Marconi M., Meo I., Germani M., Reuse scenarios of tires textile fibers: An environmental evaluation, Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 329-336, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: End of Life Tires (ELT) constitute a major portion of End of life Vehicles (ELV). The treatment process of ELTs is primarily aimed at recovering steel and rubber, which jointly represent the main portion of the ELT material and are currently applied in different sectors. During the treatment of ELTs, other sub-products are generated in significant quantities (about 10-15% in weight), as textile fibers that currently are landfilled or used for energy recovery. The aim of this study is a comparative evaluation of the environmental impacts related to three different end of life scenarios for the textile fibers. In addition to landfilling and incineration, this study considers the possibility to reuse textile fibers as reinforcement in bituminous conglomerates. Results obtained through the Life Cycle Assessment study confirms that the reuse scenario leads to a relevant reduction of impacts in terms of Global Warming Potential. However, by considering other environmental metrics the reuse scenario is not always the less impactful one.

Keywords: End of life tires | environmental impact | fiber material | second life application

[159] Marconi M., Gregori F., Germani M., Papetti A., Favi C., An approach to favor industrial symbiosis: The case of waste electrical and electronic equipment, Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 502-509, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Waste management, in particular waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), currently represents an important issue for the modern society. A transition toward circular economy and industrial symbiosis models is needed to mitigate the environmental problem and recover value from end of life (EoL) materials/products. This study aims to define an approach and a platform, dedicated to the WEEE sector, to favor the creation of industrial symbiosis opportunities. Through this structured approach, demand of virgin materials and components, and supply of EoL products are linked to find potential collaborations. In this way, EoL components/materials could be reused in different applications, thus closed-loop lifecycles can be created through industrial symbiosis. A case study focused on the reuse of plastics from electrical cables is shown to demonstrate that in the WEEE sector the implementation of industrial symbiosis models can lead to win-win scenarios for all the involved stakeholders.

Keywords: closed-loop scenarios | End of life platform | industrial symbiosis approach

[160] Menghi R., Ceccacci S., Papetti A., Marconi M., Germani M., A method to estimate the total VOC emission of furniture products, Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 486-493, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: In the last decade, the environmental sustainability has become an important issue that drives more and more the consumer decisions. Consequently, industrial companies are called to meet the growing demand for more sustainable products. Especially in the furniture sector, customers pay serious attention to the emissions that negatively affect human health and so they request products with low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. This represents a big challenge because it requires the strictly control of each component provided by all the supply chain actors through expensive laboratory tests. For this aim, the present paper proposes a method to estimate the total VOCs emissions of furniture products starting from the characteristics of all semi-finished products (e.g., geometric features, product composition, process information and functionality) and through the definition of an appropriate impact scale based on historical data. It allows making the supply chain (SC) more sustainable, limiting costly chamber tests.

Keywords: Furniture products | Indoor air quality | Product declaration | Sustainable Manufacturing | VOC emissions

[161] Russo A.C., Rossi M., Landi D., Germani M., Favi C., Virtual Eco-design: How to Use Virtual Prototyping to Develop Energy-labelling Compliant Products, Procedia CIRP, 69, 668-673, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper defines a framework called virtual eco-design aiming to support designers and engineers in the development of sustainable energy-related products. Virtual prototyping is used to perform energy consumption tests according with ecodesign and energy label regulations. The goal is to build a knowledge-based repository in which virtual tests are stored and classified to create eco-knowledge. Induction hob has been analysed to verify the applicability of the approach and the integration in a traditional product development process. Results highlight how the proposed methodology increases company eco-knowledge providing a tangible support in the definition of energy-label compliant products.

Keywords: eco-design | eco-knowledge | energy labelling | energy-related products | virtual prototyping

[162] Russo A.C., Rossi M., Germani M., Favi C., Energy Label Directive: Current Limitations and Guidelines for the Improvement, Procedia CIRP, 69, 674-679, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Energy label is an important strategy to save energy in the household appliances sector. There are many publications related to standards and labels but little information about their potentialities and limits. Although successful standards and labels have been launched in many Countries, their implementation does not have a unique structure, the same energy policy framework and citizens awareness. This study aims to perform an analysis of principal aspects related to Energy Label framework to understand its main potentialities and limitations. Possible strategies to overcome these limits and suggestions to increase its effectiveness are also proposed.

Keywords: eco-design | Energy label | household appliances | standards

[163] Favi C., Germani M., Campi F., Mandolini M., Manieri S., Marconi M., Vita A., Life Cycle Model and Metrics in Shipbuilding: How to Use them in the Preliminary Design Phases, Procedia CIRP, 69, 523-528, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Maritime vessels are complex products with long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing. The paper aims to introduce a specific life cycle model and related metrics in shipbuilding design, supporting decision-making processes of material selection, manufacturing/assembly practices, maintenance, use, etc. The model provides a common structure for life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) including the way to retrieve and to collect necessary data for the analysis starting from the available project documentation and design models. Different design configurations (materials, welding methods, etc.) for hull and hatches of a luxury yacht have been analysed using the proposed model.

Keywords: design | LCA | LCCA | maritime vessels | shipbuilding

[164] Marconi M., Landi D., Meo I., Germani M., Reuse of Tires Textile Fibers in Plastic Compounds: Is this Scenario Environmentally Sustainable?, Procedia CIRP, 69, 944-949, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Even if specific directives have been issued to regulate the management of End of Life Tires (ELT), several materials are still not properly recovered. This is the case of textile fibers obtained from the treatment of ELTs. This study aims to investigate and quantify the environmental impacts related to the reuse of tires textile fibers as second-life material for the preparation of plastic compounds. The Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been used to compare the baseline scenarios (landfilling and incineration) with the reuse scenarios. Results obtained confirms that reuse scenarios are generally more environmental sustainable than the currently implemented strategies.

Keywords: End of life tires | Life Cycle Assessment | Material reuse | Textile fiber

[165] Castorani V., Rossi M., Germani M., Mandolini M., Vita A., Life Cycle Assessment of Home Smart Objects: Kitchen Hood Cases, Procedia CIRP, 69, 499-504, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Promoting a more sustainable and energy-saving economy is one of the main goal of the European Community. In this context, home appliance manufacturers are researching and developing more efficient and sustainable products. Home automation and smart objects, by implementing specific energy management strategies, can significantly reduce energy waste. This paper aims to investigate the benefits offered, in terms of environmental impacts, by a smart system for kitchen air treatment. The system is composed by two inter-connected smart devices: a kitchen hood and an additional aspiration system able to assure a constant indoor comfort minimizing energy consumption and heat losses. Three different configurations were analyzed and compared: conventional extractor kitchen hood, smart extractor kitchen hood, and smart filtrating kitchen hood with smart additional aspiration system. Results show that in comparison with a traditional hood, products equipped with smart devices present lower environmental impact, due to the optimization of their energy consumptions.

Keywords: air quality assessment | household appliance | kitchen hood | life cycle assessment | smart objects

[166] Prist M., Pallotta E., Monteriu A., Longhi S., Cicconi P., Russo A.C., Germani M., Modelling and hardware-in-The-loop simulation for energy management in induction cooktops, IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin, ICCE-Berlin, 2017-September, 250-251, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Induction cooktops are very efficient systems, but, their energy consumption should be reduced using a temperature controller for optimizing the electrical power. Such controllers are already widely spread in several applications (air conditioning, ovens, etc.). Induction cooktops work with discrete levels of power, and, therefore, the user can select and modify the requested power level during the cooking. This paper presents the Hardware-In-The-Loop simulation to develop an active temperature controller, which optimizes the energy management of the water boiling using an induction cooktop. A thermal and induction model has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink® framework, while a discrete PID controller has been implemented inside a physical ATMEGA processor and tested within the Hardware-In-The-Loop platform.

Keywords: Hardware-In-The-Loop | Induction Heating | Temperature Controller | Water Boiling

[167] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., Russo A.C., A support approach for the conceptual design of energy-efficient cooker hoods, Applied Energy, 206, 222-239, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: In Europe, kitchen hoods currently come with an energy label showing their energy efficiency class and other information regarding the energy consumption and noise level, as established by the European Energy Labelling Directive. Because of recent regulations, designs of cooker hoods must consider new issues, such as the evaluation of the energy efficiency, analysis of the energy consumption, and product lifecycle impact. Therefore, the development of eco-driven products requires Ecodesign tools to support eco-innovation and related sustainability improvements. The scope of the proposed research is to define a method and an agile and affordable platform tool that can support designers in the early estimation of product energy performance, including the calculation of energy efficiency indexes. The approach also considers the use of genetic algorithm methods to optimize the product configuration in terms of energy efficiency. The research context concerns large and small productions of kitchen hoods. The paper describes the methodological approach within the developed tool. The results show a good correlation between real efficiency values and calculated ones. A validation activity has been described, and a test case shows how to apply the proposed approach for the design of a new efficient product with an A-class Energy Efficiency Index.

Keywords: Ecodesign | Energy label | Knowledge-based engineering | Optimization | Product configuration | Virtual prototyping

[168] Peruzzini M., Raffaeli R., Malatesta M., Germani M., Toward a function-based IT platform for variants redesign of household appliances, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing: AIEDAM, 31(4), 512-534, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Modular product design is an efficient strategy to let manufacturing companies meet the customers' requirements by offering a wide variety and customization of products and significantly saving time and cost during engineering and production (Fei et al., 2011). Despite numerous approaches for function modeling and modular product design (Srinivasan et al., 2012; Eckert, 2013; Vermaas, 2013) that have been developed in the last decades, carrying out an efficient product variants' design process is still an open issue for many manufacturing companies. The proposed approaches offer numerous ways to model information about product functionality, but each approach is useful and particularly well suited for different applications and domains (Summers et al., 2013). The present research compares the existing approaches for product variants design and defines a function-based model to support product design and redesign according to a modular framework, merging qualitative technical issues with business-oriented evaluation. Such a framework has been used to develop a multiuser IT platform, composed of a knowledge-based engine and four different tools to support designers and engineers in product variants creation, management, and configuration, from product functional modeling to cost estimation and life cycle assessment. The proposed model has been tested on industrial cases in the context of household appliances. Experimental results demonstrates that, after a preliminary context analysis and a proper knowledge base creation, such a model supports a more conscious decision-making and promote collaboration within an interdisciplinary design team. Finally, the case study shows the necessity, but in the meanwhile the insufficiency, of a functional decomposition as the only representation viewpoint.

Keywords: Computer-Aided Design | Design Methods | Function Modeling | Product Family and Platform | Product Modeling

[169] Cicconi P., Russo A.C., Germani M., Prist M., Pallotta E., Monteriu A., Cyber-physical system integration for industry 4.0: Modelling and simulation of an induction heating process for aluminium-steel molds in footwear soles manufacturing, RTSI 2017 - IEEE 3rd International Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry, Conference Proceedings, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, the Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), have become a new trend to increase and to enrich the interactions between physical and virtual systems with the goal to create a truly connected world in which smart objects interact and exchange data with each other. The CPS is the core of the new industrial revolution called 'Industry 4.0', which promotes the computerization of manufacturing to make decentralized decisions. Within the modular structured smart factories, Cyber-Physical Systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world, simulate parts of process and implement sophisticated control policies in order to take optimized decisions. This research proposes the modelling and simulation of an induction heating process for aluminium-steel mold, which is used in the production of footwear soles. The modelling supports the simulation of a CPS model related to the use of a multi-use LGV (Laser Guided Vehicle) which transports aluminum-steel molds from a mechanized warehouse to the final rotary production line, used for the soles foaming. In detail, a thermal model and an induction heating electronic circuit model have been studied to describe the whole mold heating system and they have been simulated using Simulink/MATLAB. In addition, two types of controllers, an induction preheating control technique based on a Model Predictive Controller (MPC), and another one based on PID, have been developed in order to analyse the different behaviour of the system.

Keywords: Automated Laser Guided Vehicles | Cyber Physical System | Footwear Industry | Industry 4.0 | Injection Molding | Model Predictive Controller | Preheating Molds

[170] Peruzzini M., Gregori F., Luzi A., Mengarelli M., Germani M., A social life cycle assessment methodology for smart manufacturing: The case of study of a kitchen sink, Journal of Industrial Information Integration, 7, 24-32, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: A growing interest towards smart manufacturing is focused on sustainable development at both industrial and policy level. In particular, an effective sustainable development incorporates three fundamental pillars: environment, cost and society. While environment and cost have been already faced by numerous studies so far, society is still the less considered in manufacturing. Social sustainability comprises specific relapses on humans that are quantifiable through social assessment methods. This research work proposes a new Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) methodology, based on the United Nations Environment Programme and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) framework, to support enterprise modelling and knowledge management to assess company sustainability by solving current issues and uncertainties regarding the evaluation of social impacts in the context of smart manufacturing. The analysis is settled into a LIFE +2012 European Project, named LIFE GREEN SINKS. The project concerns the introduction of innovative materials for a new generation of kitchen sinks. The S-LCA methodology proposed embeds a detailed inventory method tailored on real data, collected directly from the field of application thanks to customised surveys that allow modelling the enterprise and integrating data available from the manufacturing process. This method is designed as a supporting tool for enterprise modelling and strategic company decision-making. Specifically, it intends to help companies in understanding and, consequently reducing, social impacts of all processes related to a certain product from a life cycle perspective, to achieve an effective “smart” manufacturing for a sustainable development.

[171] Mandolini M., Brunzini A., Germani M., A collaborative web-based platform for the prescription of Custom-Made Insoles, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 33, 360-373, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Many foot pathologies are prevented or treated with Custom Made Insoles (CMIs). Although a strong computerization has characterized the shoe development process during the last decade, the CMI sector still lacks a software platform integrating the design and diagnosis tools used by the stakeholders of this area. Moreover, the prescription of CMIs is only based on the experience of skilled podiatrists rather than on a common and shared knowledge (e.g. guidelines, best practices, rules, etc.). This paper presents a multi-users and knowledge-based platform, called Smart Prescription Platform (SPP), covering the whole CMI development phases, from foot diagnosis to the production, involving clinicians, patients, manufacturers and controllers. The web-based platform is fully integrated with the technologies available in the orthopaedic sector, which are 3D/4D scanners, baropodometric platforms, footwear virtual catalogues, plantar pressure simulators, Augmented Reality devices and 3D CAD systems. The use of standard file formats (e.g.stl,.bmp,.xml) allows an electronic dataflow among the tools. The main module of the platform, called Prescription System (PS), is used for prescribing custom-made insoles for patients with different health conditions, satisfying the needs of all actors and optimizing the data exchange. PS is a knowledge-based prescription system integrating the best practices related to the prescription of CMIs. The PS output is a XML file representing the electronic order, used to exchange data with the other tools of the SPP. The proposed platform has been tested with a twofold aim: to validate the usability of the Prescription System and the inter-operability of the platform tools. The positive results gathered during the validation, led the experts to start using the web platform for their daily work.

Keywords: Collaborative platform | Custom Made Insole | Insole prescription | Knowledge-based platform | Web-based platform

[172] Mengarelli M., Neugebauer S., Finkbeiner M., Germani M., Buttol P., Reale F., End-of-life modelling in life cycle assessment—material or product-centred perspective?, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 22(8), 1288-1301, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Purpose: End-of-life (EoL) modelling in life cycle assessment has already been broadly discussed within several studies. However, no consensus has been achieved on how to model recycling in LCA, even though several approaches have been developed. Within this paper, results arising from the application of two new EoL formulas, the product environmental footprint (PEF) and the multi-recycling-approach (MRA) ones, are compared and discussed. Both formulas consider multiple EoL scenarios such as recycling, incineration and landfill. Methods: The PEF formula has been developed within the PEF programme whose intent is to define a harmonized methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of products. The formula is based on a 50:50 allocation approach, as burdens and benefits associated with recycling are accounted for a 50% rate. The MRA formula has been developed to change focus from products to materials. Recycling cycles and material losses over time are considered with reference to material pools. Allocation between systems is no longer needed, as the actual number of potential life cycles for a certain material is included in the calculation. Both the approaches have been tested within two case studies. Results and discussion: Methodological differences could thereof be determined, as well as applicability concerns, due to the type of data required for each formula. As far as the environmental performance is concerned, impacts delivered by MRA are lower than those delivered by PEF for aluminium, while the opposite happens for plastic and rubber due to the higher share of energy recovery accounted in PEF formula. Stainless steel impacts are almost the same. Conclusions and recommendations: The application of the two formulas provides some inputs for the EoL dilemma in LCA. The use of a wider perspective, better reflecting material properties all over the material life cycle, is of substantial importance to properly represent recycling situations. In MRA, such properties are treated and less data are required compared to the PEF formula. On the contrary, the PEF model better accommodates the modelling of products whose materials, at end of life, can undertake the route of recycling or recovery (or landfill), depending on country-specific EoL management practices. However, its application requires more data.

Keywords: Allocation | End-of-life modelling | LCA | Material pool | MRA | PEF | Recycling | System expansion

[173] Castorani V., Vita A., Mandolini M., Germani M., A CAD-based method for multi-objectives optimization of mechanical products, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 14(5), 563-571, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents an approach for the product multi-objective optimization by associating the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the Design of Experiments (DoE) technique with the CAD/CAE/DfC integration. The goal of this study is to empirically identify the relationships existing between the design features and the product response (stress, strain, cost, etc.). This approach integrates three different levels of analysis: optimization problem definition, virtual prototyping and design optimization. The optimization problem definition concerns in choosing the design variables, setting constrains that have to be observed and goals that have to be achieved. The virtual analysis allows defining the principal parameterization of a geometric model and simulating the performance of each configuration, at a specific working condition, while evaluating the manufacturing cost and time. The proposed approach investigates the effect of the defined parameters and noise factor on the experimental results. In particular, the applied method is based on virtual experiments according to the necessity to reduce time and costs in the early design phase. The loop of design-analysis-redesign during the optimization process is done automatically, without any interaction with the designer, by using a dedicated software tool. A test case is presented to show the characteristics of the methodology and to demonstrate its feasibility. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly expedites the optimization process and reduces the computing cost compared to traditional approaches.

Keywords: CAD parameterization | Design for cost | multi-objective optimization

[174] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Germani M., An approach to support model based definition by PMI annotations, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 14(4), 526-534, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: PMI annotations are widely used to support the Model Based Design within modern companies. In particular, the introduction of digital annotations marks the transition from the 2D drawings to the 3D representation in many manufacturing and design companies. However, today the implementation of the PMI technology presents some limits, such as the lack of functions to generate structure templates to be applied to similar CAD models. The proposed approach aims to overcome the limits of traditional tools which are not able to add a PMI annotation’s structure from one model to another one. The paper describes a method to reuse digital PMI annotations in a new model during the design phase, where the annotations are inherited from similar CAD documents. The proposed approach is based on two levels of geometric analysis: the searching of similar template models from an XML database, and the identification of the related geometric entities, which are used as associated objects for the definition of 3D annotations. The test case is focused on the automatic generation of PMI annotations for exhaust duct items used in oil & gas applications. The proposed tool has been developed within a software program called Duct Designer, which is used for the CAD automation of duct items. Particularly, the test case enhances the retrieval and reuse of sizing schemes from previous 3D models in order to obtain an automatic rebuilding of the geometric annotations.

Keywords: Digital annotations | Model-based definition (MBD) | Oil & gas | Product manufacturing information (PMI)

[175] Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Germani M., Traceability as a means to investigate supply chain sustainability: The real case of a leather shoe supply chain, International Journal of Production Research, 55(22), 6638-6652, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, the growing attention to environmental challenges has shown that these issues are becoming of more and more interest to both research and industry. Companies are expected to ensure their products are fully traceable and more sustainable, which requires the involvement of all of the actors in the production network. According to this aim, this study proposes a structured approach that uses the traditional traceability concept as a means to identify the main information needed to assess environmental impacts along the whole supply chain (SC). The proposed approach is composed of four main steps: (i) SC modelling to identify all stakeholders and their inter-relations, (ii) data sharing to collect all relevant data, (iii) data elaboration to calculate performance at different levels of detail and (iv) result interpretation to optimise the SC. The distributed implementation of the approach at different SC steps represents a useful means to practically realise a sustainable SC management. A case study involving a leather shoe SC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in identifying criticalities, supporting the selection of the most appropriate suppliers and correctly setting a management strategy towards the optimisation of internal and external traceability and environmental sustainability performances.

Keywords: Collaborative network | Environmental sustainability | Sustainable supply chain | Sustainable supply chain management | Traceability

[176] Favi C., Germani M., Luzi A., Mandolini M., Marconi M., A design for EoL approach and metrics to favour closed-loop scenarios for products, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 10(3), 136-146, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Recently, environmentally conscious design and extended producer responsibility have become key aspects for companies that need to develop products that are sustainable along their whole life cycle. Design for End of Life (EoL) is a strategy that aims to reduce landfill waste through the implementation of closed-loop product life cycles. It is important to consider disassembly and EoL scenario management as early as the design phase. For these reasons, this paper presents an approach to help designers in the evaluation and subsequent improvement in product EoL performance. The method is based on four innovative EoL indices that compare different EoL scenarios for each product component. In this way, the designer can modify the product structure or the liaisons to maximise the reuse and remanufacture of components as well as material recycling. The presented case studies confirm the validity of the approach in helping designers during the redesign phase of goods and products to reduce the quantity of materials and industrial wastes sent to landfill.

Keywords: closed-loop scenarios | Design for EoL | EoL indices | EoL management

[177] Brunzini A., Mandolini M., Manieri S., Germani M., Mazzoli A., Pagnoni M., Iannetti G., Modugno A., Orbital wall reconstruction by selective laser sintered mould, Proceedings of the 13th IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, BioMed 2017, 260-264, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Diagnosis and treatment of orbital wall fractures are based on both physical examination and computed tomography scan of the orbital cavity. The present paper reports on the secondary reconstruction of the skeletal orbit following untreated orbital floor fracture in a patient wearing an ocular prosthesis because of an orbital trauma. A computer-assisted approach, based on anatomical modelling and custom-made mould fabrication via selective laser sintering, is proposed for manufacturing a preformed orbital implant. Such a procedure offers precise and predictable results for orbital reconstructions. This protocol proved an effective reduction of operating time, patient morbidity and a fast and low-cost preoperative planning procedure. Such an approach can be used for immediate and in-office manufacturing of custom implants in trauma and reconstructive patients.

Keywords: computer aided surgery | ocular prosthesis | Orbital wall reconstruction | surgical tools

[178] Orso V., Gullà F., Menghi R., Ceccacci S., Cavalieri L., Germani M., Gamberini L., A digital cookbook for elderly people: Investigating interface concepts, Proceedings of the International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2017 - Part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2017, 159-166, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: During old age, perceptual and cognitive abilities naturally decline, resulting in an increased difficulty at performing complex activities, e.g., cooking. A digital cookbook, complying with design recommendations, was designed to assist older adults in meals preparation. In particular, three versions were compared in a between-subjects experiment: one based on text, one based on text and images and one integrating text and videos. The study reports on a preliminary evaluation aiming at (a) testing the feasibility of the digital cookbook as a means for assisting older users and (b) which feature was more effective. All versions were well-received. Results from behavioral observations suggest that the image-based version was more beneficial as compared to its video-based counterpart. No differences emerged between the image-based and the text-based versions. In general, the digital cookbook proved to be an effective tool. However, the inclusion of complex multimedia materials, e.g., video tutorials, can be detrimental for healthy older users.

Keywords: Ageing in place | Older adults | Touch screen interface

[179] Favi C., Germani M., Gregori F., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Rossi M., Environmental sustainability awareness in product design practices: A survey of Italian companies, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the attitude and the awareness of environmental sustainability issues within diverse Italian industrial companies. A survey has involved a balanced sample of companies operating in different industrial sectors. Considering the survey's results it can be concluded that: (i) environmental sustainability is an opportunity and a current market requirement, (ii) environmental sustainability is not formalized, since specific methods and tools are not used in technical departments, and (iii) environmental decisions are mainly made by specific key figures (i.e. energy/environmental manager). This analysis can be considered as a useful starting point for the framework formalization of eco-design approaches and tools able to bring eco-design principles into the work of technical departments with the aim to foster the future development of green and sustainable products and services.

[180] Favi C., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Gregori F., Manieri S., Vita A., A life cycle model to assess costs and environmental impacts of different maritime vessel typologies, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing. Making a consistent lifecycle model among the different vessel typologies, repeatable with the same level of detail and comparable for the implementation of decision-making strategies, remains an open question. This paper aims to define a suitable lifecycle model in the context of maritime vessels to cope with the current limitations of ad-hoc and fragmented methods. The model considers the main aspects involved in the vessel lifecycle such as building materials, manufacturing and assembly, maintenance/service, operational activities, use, etc. The model provides a common structure for the lifecycle assessment (LCA) and lifecycle cost analysis (LCCA) including the way to retrieve and to collect the data necessary for the analysis starting from the available project documentation and the design models. The method is flexible and it is able to cover a large variety of maritime vessel typologies. As example, a luxury yacht has been analysed using the developed method, demonstrating the applicability of the proposed model in one of the most critical vessel typology.

[181] Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., Favi C., Lifecycle tools as a support for the eco-design innovation of domestic appliances, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The goal of sustainable development through the product innovation is a global challenge that Academia and Industries are addressing. The regulatory pressure and the growing demand of eco-friendly products by consumers are two of its main drivers, especially in the household appliances sector. For this aim, manufactures need to change the design approach in order to extend the boundaries of the benchmark analysis of possible innovations: (i) multi-objective criteria should be taken into account such as the environmental issues, costs, technical performances, etc., and (ii) a life cycle thinking has to be adopted to consider long terms benefits or impacts. However, the literature highlights the lack of structured methods able to support the R&D activity according to these perspectives. For this aim, the present paper provides a systematic approach, which exploits lifecycle and innovation tools to effectively support designers in the development of sustainable solutions in a long term perspective. The proposed approach has been applied in real case study to increase the energy efficiency of a domestic refrigerator. In particular, the insulation module has been redesigned by comparing several alternatives in terms of environmental performances and costs over the product lifespan to effectively evaluate the consistency of the developed eco-innovations.

[182] Cicconi P., Castorani V., Germani M., Mandolini M., Vita A., A multi-objective and multi-level design optimization method for oil & gas ducts, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2B-2017, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper proposes a methodological approach to support the multi-objective (i.e. cost and structural performance) optimization of complex systems, typical of the oil & gas sector. The complexity is managed through a double-level of optimization. The first one, based on simplified product models (1-D and 0-D), considers an analytical approach for the structural behavior and a parametric one for the cost estimation. The second level considers the use of a 3-D FEM solver for structural simulations, and an analytical tool for the cost estimation. As case study, the paper proposes the design optimization of an oil & gas chimney for gas turbines. The workflow analyzed during the case study describes the use of a multi-objective and multilevel approach to optimize cost, weigh, and structural behavior of oil & gas ducts.

[183] Cicconi P., Costanza Russo A., Prist M., Ferracuti F., Germani M., Monteriù A., A parametric optimization approach of an induction heating system for energy consumption reduction, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2B-2017, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, electromagnetic high-frequency induction is very used for different non-contact heating applications such as the molding process. Every molding process requires the preheating and the thermal maintenance of the molds, to enhance the filling phase and the quality of the final products. In this context, an induction heating system, mostly, is a customized equipment. The design and definition of an induction equipment depends on the target application. This technology is highly efficient and performant, however it provides a high-energy consumption. Therefore, optimization strategies are very suitable to reduce energy cost and consumption. The proposed paper aims to define a method to optimize the induction heating of a mold in terms of time, consumption, and achieved temperature. The proposed optimization method involves genetic algorithms to define the design parameters related to geometry and controller. A test case describes the design of an induction heating system for a polyurethane molding process, which is the soles foaming. This case study deals with the multiobjective optimization of parameters such as the geometrical dimensions, the inductor sizing, and the controller setting. The multi-objective optimization aims to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the wall temperature of the mold.

[184] Favi C., Meo I., Di Giuseppe E., Iannaccone M., D'Orazio M., Germani M., Towards a probabilistic approach in LCA of building retrofit measures, Energy Procedia, 134, 394-403, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper proposes an approach of sensitivity analysis for LCA of building retrofit measures aiming to establish the impact of input data uncertainties on the output variance. The approach includes the quantification of data input uncertainties in terms of their Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs), their sampling and the uncertainty propagation through Monte Carlo (MC) methods. A sensitivity analysis through Variance based decomposition (Sobol' method) techniques are used to point out the key parameters uncertainties that mostly affect the LCA results distributions. The paper presents a building case-study where the MC-based uncertainty and sensitivity analysis method is applied considering different design options (XPS and Cork internal insulation measures) and different scenarios for the assessment of the building energy need (use phase). Results obtained highlight that the differences on the Climate change environmental impact between the two design options is quite limited (about 12%) and this is mainly due to the use phase which is the more relevant input parameter on the overall result. Concerning the Sensitivity Analysis, when the building energy need is considered as a "deterministic" input in the LCA assessment, the unitary impacts of the design options materials uncertainties are the most influential parameters. On the other hands, when the building energy need is represented by a PDF, the quantity of energy carrier consumed and its unitary environmental impact are the most influential parameters on the output variance. .

Keywords: Internal insulation | MonteCarlo simulation | Probabilistic LCA | Sensitivity analysis

[185] Menghi R., Ceccacci S., Gullà F., Cavalieri L., Germani M., Bevilacqua R., How older people who have never used touchscreen technology interact with a tablet, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10513 LNCS, 117-131, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Touchscreen technologies have become increasingly common in personal devices, so it seems necessary to improve their accessibility and usability for the older people. In the past years, a lot of studies have been conducted to improve touch interfaces, however, most them do not consider older people with very low attitude with ICTs. Moreover, the majority of studies date back 2014, so they lack to consider the most innovative technologies available today. The present study involves a sample of older people without previous experience with ICTs with the aim of analyzing how basic features of a touchscreen interface affect their performances with typical touch-gestures. A total of 22 participants have been involved. Results partially confirm the existent literature and partially reveal new interesting findings that can be useful to improve the touch screen accessibility for older people.

Keywords: Accessibility | Human computer interaction | Older people | Touch gestures | Touchscreen interface | Usability

[186] Savoretti A., Mandolini M., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Analysis of the Requirements of an Early Life-cycle Cost Estimation Tool: An Industrial Survey, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1675-1683, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Cost estimation is a critical issue for many companies concerning both offers generation and company strategic evaluations. In this paper, a framework for early cost estimation has been proposed to some firms for an assessment of its main features. The aim of the industrial survey is to promote a discussion on the needs and the expectations regarding cost estimation in order to obtain feedbacks to be addresses in the implementation of a software tool. Gather data has led to a ranking of the main characteristics the tool should have.

Keywords: CAD | Design to Cost | Early cost estimation | Knowledge-based engineering | PLM | Product configuration

[187] Mandolini M., Marilungo E., Germani M., A TCO Model for Supporting the Configuration of Industrial Plants, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1940-1949, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: In the current industrial context, where processes are extremely flexible to meet the changes of the market demand, the traditional strategies for managing the design and investment of industrial assets are too restrictive. Indeed, such strategies just consider the procurement price of an asset rather than its lifecycle cost. In this framework, the paper proposes a Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) model that can be adopted in B2B context for establishing the best asset configuration and procurement strategy by considering its CAPEX and OPEX. Such a TCO model has been implemented into an Enterprise Application Software for supporting the TCO evaluation. The presented model and software tool have been applied within an Italian food company for supporting the assets investment management.

Keywords: Asset management | Industrial plant configuration | Lifecycle approach | Suppliers selection | Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

[188] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Analytical Cost Estimation Model in High Pressure Die Casting, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 526-535, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The present paper aims at the definition of an analytical model for the cost estimation of the High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) process. The model is based on two main pillars: (i) knowledge formalization and (ii) cost estimation algorithms. The novelty of this approach is the link between the analytical model (algorithms) and the geometrical features of the product under development. The relationship between geometrical features and cost items gives an accurate result in terms of cost breakdown, supporting designers for the application of Design-to-Cost rules in HPDC sector.

Keywords: analytical cost model | cost estimation | High Pressure Die Casting | knowledge formalization

[189] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., A 4M Approach for a Comprehensive Analysis and Improvement of Manual Assembly Lines, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1510-1518, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for Assembly (DfA) is a well-known technique that supports in the reduction of manufacturing costs. Traditional DfA methods are generally focused on the product design lacking of a holistic view. The proposed 4 M approach takes into account all the most important aspects involved in the manual assembly: Method, Machine, Man and Material. The final goal is to provide a means for the concurrent improvement of the product design, the workstation ergonomics, and the assembly tasks. Results obtained with the electric spindle motor case study confirmed the usefulness of the approach in optimizing the manual assembly.

Keywords: 4M approach | Design for assembly | Machine | Man | Material | Method

[190] Meo I., Papetti A., Gregori F., Germani M., Optimization of Energy Efficiency of a Production Site: A Method to Support Data Acquisition for Effective Action Plans, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 760-767, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays the efficient use of energy has acquired a significant importance in the industrial sector. Moreover, stringent regulations on environmental impact lead companies to tread a path towards energy efficiency in short terms to avoid penalties. The goal of this work is to propose a structured method to perform fast and simplified energy assessments. The latter starts from a proper classification of process data, passing through an effective mapping in order to identify criticalities that have to be solved by innovative action plans. Method will be tested on a real case study.

Keywords: data management | energy efficiency | process innovation | sustainable manufacturing

[191] Marconi M., Germani M., An end of life oriented framework to support the transition toward circular economy, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 5(DS87-5), 199-208, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Circular economy is recognized as the most effective economic model to face issues related to waste management and resource scarcity. This requires to efficiently manage the End of Life (EoL) phase, which represents the joining link to close the product lifecycle. The objective of this paper is the definition of a framework to monitor product EoL during the most affecting phases. It is founded on the concept that it is better to prevent issues, by designing optimized products and creating favourable operative conditions, other than solve problems related to EoL. The EoL-oriented framework integrates three innovative resources: (i) a Design for Disassembly Tool to identify product criticalities, (ii) a Disassembly Knowledge Database to support the redesign phase and (iii) a Collaborative EoL platform for the sharing of relevant data and materials. The final aim is to provide companies with a set of integrated methodologies and tools able to support the decision-making process at different levels (from conception to EoL management), in order to design product with improved performances in terms of disassemblability, maintainability, de-manufacturing and EoL.

Keywords: Circular economy | Design for X (DfX) | Product lifecycle management (PLM) | Sustainability

[192] Mandolini M., Cicconi P., Castorani V., Vita A., Germani M., A design to cost method for electric cable harness, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 5(DS87-5), 365-374, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The Design to Cost method is a well-known methodology for developing cost-competitive products. In the context where the Industry 4.0 initiative is pushing the research on innovative systems for data exchange and analysis, the electric aspect of a product is becoming more and more important. The scientific and industrial literature contains several methods and tools for the cost estimation of electric cable harness, but they essentially calculate the cost by simply considering the Bill of Material and computing the cost of the raw material. The installation cost is not considered. The paper presents a Design to Cost method for electric cable harness, based on the analytic cost analysis of the raw material and routing process. The inputs of such a method are the electric Bill of Material and the 3D path of the cable harness. The cost consists of three items: purchasing, installation and cutting. The method, once implemented within a prototype software tool, has been applied for the cost optimization of the electric cable harness of an on-shore module for power generation. The average accuracy, measured comparing the results with experimental data, was 10.5%.

Keywords: Design costing | Design to X | Electric cable harness | Industrial design

[193] Mandolini M., Brunzini A., Manieri S., Germani M., Foot plantar pressure offloading: How to select the right material for a custom made insole, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 1(DS87-1), 469-478, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The custom-made insole is largely recognized as the most important orthotics for decreasing the foot plantar pressure, using additions or cutouts, which modify the geometry of the insole. This paper proposes a procedure for supporting the clinicians in prescribing innovative custom made insoles for offloading the plantar pressure by using specific combinations of materials for the foot peak-pressure areas, without modifying the geometry of the insole. The process starts with the acquisition of the plantar pressure map of the customer and ends with the definition of the customised insole. The aim of the procedure is choosing the best combination of materials for each foot anatomical area for reducing the plantar pressure peaks below a maximum admissible pressure value decided by the physician. The positions and dimensions of the inserts are defined through analyzing the customer plantar pressure while the inserts materials are defined using FEM simulations of the insole-foot interaction. The case study showed a plantar pressure reduction congruent with the FEM simulations results. This procedure is applicable both for subtractive and additive manufacture techniques.

Keywords: Biomedical design | Custom made insole | Design process | Pressure offloading | Simulation

[194] Gregori F., Papetti A., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Digital Manufacturing Systems: A Framework to Improve Social Sustainability of a Production Site, Procedia CIRP, 63, 436-442, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The topic of digital manufacturing is increasingly emerging in industry. One of the main scope of data digitalization is achieving more efficient factories. Different techniques and tools under the Industry 4.0 paradigm were already discussed in literature. These are aimed mostly at boosting company efficiency in terms of costs and environmental footprint. However, from a sustainability point of view, the social theme must be equally considered. While energy flows or costs can be already monitored in a production plant, this is not valid for data related to human effort. Monitoring systems aimed at supervising factory social sustainability were not already discussed in literature. The aim of this paper is to propose a method to acquire social related data in a production plant. The method is supported by a smart architecture within the concept of IoT factory. Such architecture permits to monitor the parameters that could influence social sustainability in a production site. After a discussion on production plants facilities and features, the parameters that need to be considered to guarantee socially sustainable manufacturing processes are identified. A set of sensors controls these data taken from different sources, including operator vital signs. Operations as well as humans are monitored. Data acquired by sensors are collected by a central server. A decision maker can interpret the data and improve the production system from a social point of view, implementing corrective actions. Data can be exploited not only for social assessments but even for other analyses on the production system. Guaranteeing social sustainability could boost the factory productivity. A case study is included in the paper: smart sensors are implemented in a production line to understand the operations efficiency in terms of social sustainability.

Keywords: digital manufacturing | smart sensors | social sustainability

[195] Gullà F., Cavalieri L., Ceccacci S., Papetti A., Germani M., The user-product ontology: A new approach to define an ontological model to manage product searching based on user needs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10273 LNCS, 333-346, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Search engines play an important role in determining the success of e-commerce. Despite many efforts have been made to improve searching methods (SM) they remain mostly limited to semantic elaboration of keywords. This implies that the SM are not capable of supporting the research of products that best satisfy customers, according to their characteristics and background. To overcome this limitation, this paper introduces an approach able to define a new ontological model that formalizes the knowledge necessary to implement a search engine capable to guide the customer to search the desired product or service according to his/her characteristics and needs. To this purpose, three essential aspects have been considered: a User Ontology (UO), a Product Ontology (PO) and rules (or properties) to link the user and product ontologies. The described approach is applied, as an example, to the products class known as Smart Objects that are part of the Internet of Things (IoT) market.

Keywords: Internet of things | Ontologies connection | Product ontology | User ontology | User-centred design

[196] Orso V., Nascimben G., Gullà F., Menghi R., Ceccacci S., Cavalieri L., Germani M., Spagnolli A., Gamberini L., Introducing wearables in the kitchen: An assessment of user acceptance in younger and older adults, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10279 LNCS, 579-592, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Wearable computers allow users to record and access information at any time. The adoption and use of such devices is largely dependent on the users’ acceptance of the technology. Previous studies investigated technology acceptance of wearables without having end-users directly trying the technology. The present paper aims at assessing the user acceptance of a wearable device to support cooking related activities, together with aspects of usability and experience of use. To this end, we developed a kitchen apron with embedded commands for navigating through the contents of a digital cookbook and asked a group of younger (N = 15, mean age 23.9 SD = 2.5) and older users (N = 15, mean age 30.3 SD = 7.6) to deploy it while preparing a recipe. Respondents’ opinions were collected using questionnaires after they had accomplished the cooking task required. Overall, the kitchen apron was well received by both younger and older adults. Findings suggest that the perceived usefulness of the device and the compatibility of it with users’ common activities accounted for the intention to adopt and use a wearable device in the kitchen.

Keywords: Technology acceptance | Wearable computers

[197] Marilungo E., Papetti A., Germani M., Peruzzini M., From PSS to CPS Design: A Real Industrial Use Case Toward Industry 4.0, Procedia CIRP, 64, 357-362, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: During the last 10 years, manufacturing companies have faced new challenges for improving their value proposition and being more efficient and effective on the market, satisfying the customer needs. According to this trend, several technologies have been developed and applied in different sectors and with different aims, in order to support such the companies in their reconfiguration. For example, the recent advances in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) could give also to manufacturing industries the competences required to develop novel sustainable products embedded with a dedicated infrastructure able to provide more service functionalities to customer. In this context, the application of Internet of Things (IoT) have allowed developing the so named Product Service Systems (PSSs). Moreover, the cross-fertilization between such the technologies with the development of other ones have fostered the application of these novel ICT technologies inside the manufacturing companies also at process level. This approach has encouraged the study and development of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs). The present paper deals with a real industrial use case, where the application of ICT technologies and specifically the adoption of IoT at a plant of plastic extrusion pipes have allowed optimizing the production process in terms of energy efficiency.

Keywords: CPS | Cyber Physical System design | ICT | Industry 4.0 | IoT

[198] Landi D., Capitanelli A., Germani M., Ecodesign and Energy Labelling: The Role of Virtual Prototyping, Procedia CIRP, 61, 87-92, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: With increased acknowledgment of global climate change and warming, governments, consumers, and firms are responding collectively to create today's low-carbon economy. The eco-design of products is a crucial factor in the Community strategy on Integrated Product Policy. As a preventive approach, designed to optimize the environmental performance of products, while maintaining their functional qualities, it provides genuine new opportunities for manufacturers, consumers and society as a whole. This article presents an approach to support the designers during the energy labeling phases of products. The study starts with an analysis of the Eco-design regulations and proposes the virtualization of such tests. A case study on the application of the proposed method is described. The study results show that, the use of numerical simulations not only for product design but also during the testing and labeling phase, allowing a significant reduction in time to market and provides the company competition and economic, energy, and time savings.

Keywords: Design for enviroment | Design optimization | Eco-design | Energy labelling | Energy-related products | Virtual Prototyping

[199] Marconi M., Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Mengarelli M., A Collaborative End of Life platform to Favour the Reuse of Electronic Components, Procedia CIRP, 61, 166-171, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Electronics plays an essential role in many products and this leads to a larger production of e-wastes, currently recovered through impactful recycling processes. This paper proposes a web-based platform to implement reuse scenarios for electronic components. The objective is to create a structured portal where all the stakeholders can collaborate to extend the components lifespan and implement new circular business models. The final goal is to "close the gap" between the beginning and the end of life. The case study (industrial application) shows relevant benefits for the involved electronics manufacturer both in terms of environmental impact and economic savings.

Keywords: Collaborative platform | Decsion support system | Electronics reuse | EoL mangement

[200] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., A Software Tool for the Analysis and Management of Resource Consumptions and Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing Plants, Procedia CIRP, 61, 341-346, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper presents a lifecycle approach and the related software tool for the analysis and management of resource consumptions and environmental impacts of manufacturing plants. The approach, based on the industrial metabolism model, takes into account all the production and assembly aspects. The tool is able to assess the optimum working conditions for the minimization of resource consumptions (e.g. electricity) or environmental emissions (e.g. CO2). It provides a tangible support to guide decision-making strategies to move manufacturing towards sustainability. A manufacturing plant has been analysed for the model validation and the management of production scenarios, optimizing environmental and energy loads.

Keywords: Environmnetal impacts optimization | Plant lifecycle management | Resource consumption optimization | Software tool | Sustainable production

[201] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Russo A.C., A design methodology to predict the product energy efficiency through a configuration tool, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 1097-1106, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: During recent years the European Ecodesign Directive has introduced big changes in the design methodology of several energy-using products including consumer goods such as ovens, washing machines and kitchen hoods. Additionally, the introduction of the Energy Labelling Directive pushes manufacturers to implement new energy-saving features in many energy-related products sold in Europe. As a consequence, several companies have been encouraging the improvement of their energy using products paying attention to the related selling cost. Eco-driven products require eco-design tools to support the eco-innovation and the related sustainability improvement. The main scope of the proposed re-search is the reduction of the time-to-market for the energy-using products such as kitchen hoods. In this context, the paper aims to provide an approach to support a pre-evaluation of the energy labeling related to kitchen hoods. A prototypical software tool has been developed in order to simulate the energy performance of new kitchen hood configurations in term of energy efficiency. The approach also considers the introduction of virtual experiments in order to calculate the performance of virtual modules. This tool makes the product-engineer more aware in the decision-making about the energy-saving. As a test case, different product configurations have been compared analyzing the energy labelling and the overall energy performance.

Keywords: Ecodesign | Energy efficiency labeling | KBE | Kitchen hoods | Virtual prototyping

[202] Raffaeli R., Savoretti A., Germani M., Design knowledge formalization to shorten the time to generate offers for engineer to order products, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 1107-1114, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Cost Estimation for offer generation in ETO companies is a critical and time-consuming activity that involves technical expertise and a knowledge base. This paper provides an approach to acquire and formalize the design and manufacturing knowledge of a company. The method has been described as a sequence of steps, which moves from the data acquisition of the past projects to the definition of a cost function based on dimensioning parameters. This approach has been experimented on a family of cranes for plants in collaboration with an industrial partner.

Keywords: Cost estimation | DSM | Engineer To Order | Functional requirements | Knowledge formalization

[203] Gullà F., Ceccacci S., Menghi R., Cavalieri L., Germani M., Adaptive interface for smart home: A new design approach, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 426, 107-115, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: In an inclusive and accessible smart environments context the implementation of the “design for all” method presents several critical issues. In fact, the universal design represents a difficult challenge for the designer because it depends on the complexity of human intentions in a particular time and place. For this reason, we propose a new approach that aims to support the design of inclusive environments by improving the user-environment interaction.

Keywords: Adaptable user interfaces | Universal design

[204] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Multi-objective conceptual design: An approach to make cost-efficient the design for manufacturing and assembly in the development of complex products, Advances on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Manufacturing, 63-71, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Conceptual design is a central phase for the generation of the best product configurations. The design freedom suggests optimal solutions in terms of assembly, manufacturing, cost and material selection but a guided decision making approach based on multi-objective criteria is missing. The goal of this approach is to define a framework and a detailed approach for the definition of feasible design options and for the selection of the best one considering the combination of several production constrains and attributes. The approach is grounded on the concept of functional basis and the module heuristics used for the definition of product modules and the theory of Multi Criteria Decision Making approach (MCDM) for a mathematical assessment of the best design option. A complex product (tool-holder carousel of a machine tool) is used as a case study to validate the approach. Product modules have been re-designed and prototyped to efficiently assess the gain in terms of assembly time, manufacturability and costs.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design for manufacturing and assembly | Design to cost | Making | Multi criteria decision | Multi-objective design

[205] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Multi-objective conceptual design: An approach to make cost-efficient the design for manufacturing and assembly in the development of complex products, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 63-70, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Conceptual design is a central phase for the generation of the best product configurations. The design freedom suggests optimal solutions in terms of assembly, manufacturing, cost and material selection but a guided decision making approach based on multi-objective criteria is missing. The goal of this approach is to define a framework and a detailed approach for the definition of feasible design options and for the selection of the best one considering the combination of several production constrains and attributes. The approach is grounded on the concept of functional basis and the module heuristics used for the definition of product modules and the theory of Multi Criteria Decision Making approach (MCDM) for a mathematical assessment of the best design option. A complex product (tool-holder carousel of a machine tool) is used as a case study to validate the approach. Product modules have been re-designed and prototyped to efficiently assess the gain in terms of assembly time, manufacturability and costs.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design for manufacturing and assembly | Design to cost | Multi criteria decision making | Multi-objective design

[206] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., Thermal analysis and simulation of a Li-ion battery pack for a lightweight commercial EV, Applied Energy, 192, 159-177, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The scope of the present research is the reduction of cost and time related to the design, prototyping and testing of a Li-ion battery pack, which is used in commercial full electric vehicles using tools for rapid product configuration and simulation. This objective is particularly important for small companies that produce many different batteries in small lots. To develop the product design support system, a preliminary study was necessary. A 3D model was analyzed to simulate real thermal behavior, reproducing a real electric load using a standard ECE-15 cycle. Experimental tests have been conducted on the vehicle and battery to validate the model. An analytical thermal model was developed to evaluate the heat generated by electrochemical reactions inside a Li-ion cell. The outcome of this analytical model was used as the boundary condition in the CFD simulation of the battery model to evaluate the cooling behavior. The rules and results deduced from these studies have allowed the implementation of an easy-to-use knowledge-based configuration tool that supports the designer in the definition of the layout of the battery pack to save time and evaluate costs. As a test case, the battery for an urban freight vehicle was designed using the proposed approach. The achieved results show good performance and robustness of the simplified approach in terms of temperature distribution evaluation and design process efficiency.

Keywords: Battery configuration | Battery cooling | Electric vehicle | Li-ion batteries | Virtual prototyping

[207] Rossi M., Germani M., Zamagni A., Review of ecodesign methods and tools. Barriers and strategies for an effective implementation in industrial companies, Journal of Cleaner Production, 129, 361-373, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The purpose of this study is to perform a new literature review of the principal ecodesign methods and tools published in the literature over the last twenty years with the objective of understanding the main obstacles that limit their actual and effective implementation in industrial companies. The main research studies on ecodesign issues are presented and classified in a structured framework on the basis of the scope perspective. Then, an exploration of the main barriers, according to the literature, that prevent the implementation of ecodesign approaches in industrial companies, is presented and compared with possible strategies that allow these barriers to be overcome.

Keywords: Ecodesign methods | Ecodesign tools | Implementation barriers | Implementation strategies

[208] Raffaeli R., Cicconi P., Germani M., Automation of drafting execution by schemes definitions and feature recognition, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 13(4), 459-470, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Despite of the widespread of annotated 3D virtual models, it is still important to produce engineering drawings for a correct communication among the people of the design and manufacturing chain. Automatic drafting through meta drawing definitions, called Drafting Schemes, is proposed in this paper to save time when drawing becomes a repetitive task. The approach produces drafts with a predetermined content in terms of views arrangement and dimensioning strategy, and guarantees robust results to the variations of the input geometry. In fact, the geometrical entities referenced by the generated dimensions are retrieved through dedicated search algorithms based on recognition of geometric features of the input model. The approach has been implemented and tested on a family of gear motors showing feasibility and good results in terms of drafting time savings.

Keywords: Design Automation | Drafting | Feature Recognition | Knowledge Based Systems

[209] Gullà F., Ceccacci S., Menghi R., Germani M., An adaptive smart system to foster disabled and elderly people in kitchen-related task, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 29-June-2016, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The present paper proposes a new adaptive smart kitchen environment able to support different users with several typologies of impairment (i.e., visual, motor, cognitive) in performing cooking activities. This system is managed through an adaptive user interface, which guides the user in food preparation according to users' capabilities and needs and permits household appliances controlling. Results of a preliminary usability evaluation has shown that the proposed solution is accessible and highly usable for users with some limitations such elderly with mild to moderate dementia and adult people with moderate retinopathy and rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: Adaptive User Interface | Design for all | Human Computer Interaction | Smart Environment

[210] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Papetti A., Iualè M., Design of sustainable smart homes for elderly, International Journal of Design Sciences and Technology, 22(1), 7-30, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Designing sustainable systems is challenging since economic, environmental and social factors must be considered. It is particularly hard when heavy interaction with humans take place. The smart home is an example: it is finalized to increase the comfort of dwellings and optimize the devices’ behaviour as well as the consumed resources in relation to the users’ habits. Elderly represent a special category of users characterized by specific needs: therefore, the design of a smart home is particularly critical since elderly require support in their everyday activities, control of their own lifestyle monitoring, and consciousness about the devices’ behaviours. As a consequence, smart home are usually complicated, expensive and not suitable for elderly. This paper defines a methodology to design sustainable smart home systems for elderly. An intelligent network monitoring the users’ wellbeing and assuring a controlled use of objects and resources is defined and verified on a case study.

Keywords: Assistive technologies | Distributed information management | Smart home | Smart objects | Sustainability

[211] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., A virtual modelling of a hybrid road tractor for freight delivery, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 12, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The market of the hybrid electric vehicles has been increasing for several years. Different commercial EV and PHEV solutions are available for passenger cars and light vehicles for freight deliveries. However, the market of heavy trucks still regards traditional ICE vehicles powered by diesel oil fuel. The recent interest for electric solutions have been pushing the development of the hybrid solutions, but only micro-hybrid systems are considered feasible for heavy truck applications. The proposed research aims to define a methodological approach with a virtual model in order to simulate the behavior of a hybrid heavy truck. The scope of this research is the feasibility analysis of a retrofit hybrid heavy truck. A real driving cycle has been used in order to obtain reliable results in terms of cost, energy consumption and gas emission. The layout of the hybrid system has been proposed as well as the sizing of battery and electric motor. A commercial tool has been used for the vehicle modelling and simulation. As a test case, an 18-ton truck has been analyzed with a 10-liter diesel engine. Firstly, the simulation of the diesel truck has been reproduced considering the real driving cycle data. Secondly, the simulation activity has been focused on the evaluation of the hybrid system behavior by investigating different battery sizes with the same boundary conditions related to the real driving cycle.

[212] Landi D., Cicconi P., Germani M., Russo A.C., A methodological approach to support the design of induction hobs, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 11, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays in many industrial applications, i.e. electrical household appliances, it is necessary to have a robust and safe control for some variables involved in the analysis of the performances of different products. In addition, the recent ecodesign directives require products increasingly eco-friendly and eco-efficient, preserving high-performance but a low power consumption. For these reasons, the physical prototypes of products require many expensive and complex tests in term of time, resources and qualified personnel involved. To overcome these limitations, the proposed approach is focused on the use of virtual prototyping tools, which support and reduce the expensive physical experiments. The main objective of this paper is the development, implementation and testing of an innovative methodology, which could be an improvement for the sustainable design of induction hobs. Induction heating applied to the domestic cooking has significantly evolved since the first cooking hobs appeared. Different issues such as maximum power available for heating a pot, dimensional compactness of the hobs, or inverter electronics efficiency have achieved a great development. The proposed methodology provides the development of a multi-physic model which is able to estimate the efficiency of the induction hobs starting from the design data of the project. In particular, the multi-physic model is composed by an electromagnetic simulation and a thermal simulation. The electromagnetic simulation, starting from electrical values such as voltage, current and frequency, is able to simulate the eddy current induced in the bottom of the pot, and resistance leads to the Joulean heating of the material. The thermal simulation is able to measure the energy consumption during the operational phase and the temperature reached by the materials. Therefore, the thermal power obtained by the Joulean heating is, at the same time, the output of the electromagnetic simulation and the input of the thermal one. The proposed model can be applied to design product and simulate the performance considering different operating conditions such as different types of cookers, different coils and different materials. Through the use of virtual prototyping tools is possible to control the heat flux on the whole system (stove, pot, water), and to evaluate the energy efficiency during the operational phase. The proposed tool makes the productengineer more aware about decision-making strategies in order to achieve an energy saving, calculated over the whole life cycle.

[213] Cavalieri L., Capitanelli A., Ceccacci S., Gullà F., Germani M., Papetti A., A new smart strategy for web searching of commercial products, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2016, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Search engine efficiency is an essential prerequisite to ensure a satisfactory on-line purchasing experience. Despite powerful tools available today, search engine is limited to a semantic elaboration of keywords and they do not allow users finding product categories that do not belong to their knowledge sphere. In this context, in order to make an effective search engine it is necessary to provide tools able to understand what the user is looking for and suggest the products that best satisfy their needs, regardless of users' background. To this aim, this paper proposes an innovative smart search strategy, based on artificial intelligence technologies. In order to highlight the system potential, the smart object market case study has been considered. The SOs market is grown so quickly to disorient the average user and it offer a wide variety of products apparently similar, but that are characterized by different features that the average user fails to perceive.

Keywords: Adaptive systems | Internet of Things | Product evaluation | Search dngine

[214] Cavalieri L., Mengoni M., Germani M., A gesture-based application for aspiring orchestra conductors, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2016, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: A product is chosen by users not only for the features it offers but also for the perceived experience of use. This statement widely recognized in literature highlight that key issues for the success of interactive products are the practical, experiential, affective, meaningful and valuable aspects of interaction. In the last years, gesture-based interfaces have been introduced to make the experience of interaction more emotional, intuitive and natural. For this reason, the design and development of products integrated gesture-based interfaces represent a challenging issue. In this context, a User-Centered Design (UCD) method to implement novel interaction paradigms into traditional consumer products is proposed. Its application in a real case study addresses the development and prototyping of a system exploiting gesture-based interaction to train aspiring conductors of orchestra. If a young musician wants to play a guitar, it is usually no great problem to find one, but if a musician wants to learn the ins and outs of being a conductor, the problem shifts to search for an electronic device managed by hands as used by conductors. The developed system provides three main functionalities: tempo control, velocity control and instruments activation. It represents both a use case to validate the proposed UCD method and an innovative solution in the context of aspiring conductor's training.

[215] Gregori F., Luzi A., Papetti A., Germani M., Camorani F., An innovative tool to monitor and represent energy value stream of a production system, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, the energy factor is growing in importance because it really affects the production costs of factories. Not least, energy regulation and rules are stricter as time goes by. Tools for energy monitoring are needed. The objective of this work is to propose a tool aimed to assess the energy value flowing in a production system, according to the Energy Value Stream Mapping method (EVSM). The final goal is to increase the sustainability of the processes through identification of energy wastes, aiming at eliminating them. The tool is a lean graphic instrument; it permits to represent explicitly the energy flows along the process with respect to the concept of value creation. The tool permits to clearly identify and quantify different types of energy flows concerning different carriers, even in a complex production plant where multiple energy carriers act at the same time. Finally, it will be shown the testing of the tool in a household appliances production system.

[216] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Disassembly knowledge classification and potential application: A preliminary analysis on a washing machine, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Circular economy is largely recognized as the univocal economic model that guarantees a long-term sustainability, decoupling the economic growth and the finite resources consumption. As a prerequisite, it requires to realize product closed-loop lifecycles. However, the management of the EoL phase during the design process is a complex task, due to the fact that it is the most far away phase, in terms of time, from the moment of the product conception. For this reason, usually, manufacturers and EoL stakeholders do not actively collaborate in optimizing the product lifecycle performances. This paper wants to overcome this lack proposing a method to formalize, collect and classify the EoL knowledge. The main outcome is a structured database containing positive and negative knowledge about best practices and disassembly problems faced during dismantling activities. The knowledge classification rules are based both on product characteristics (e.g. product families, target components, assembly methods, etc.) and on other more general aspects (e.g. motivations of the disassembly, handling difficulties, etc.). Through the sharing of this knowledge, the gap between design departments and EoL stakeholders can be reduced with the aim to improve EoL performances and the overall resource efficiency. This work is focused on an out-of-service washing machine case study. The product has been manually disassembled by expert operators, observing and rating the significant problems. Their interpretation has allowed to create a set of specific design guidelines, organized according to the defined rules. The classified knowledge has been used by non-expert designers (undergraduate students) as a tool to guide the redesign activities. Different design solutions (e.g. homogenization of screws, reduction of component number, etc.) have been implemented to configure a new washing machine version, improved from the disassemblability point of view. The obtained results have confirmed the usefulness of the disassembly knowledge sharing in supporting Design for EoL activities and, furthermore, in non-skilled operators training. In conclusion, this research work contributes to the state of the art linking stakeholders involved in the Beginning of Life (BoL) with stakeholders responsible of the EoL management. Furthermore, the proposed work leads to relevant improvements in product lifecycle performances. The proposed knowledge database represents the needed resource to effectively extend the producer responsibility and to close the current gap between manufacturers and dismantlers.

[217] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Mengarelli M., A method to assess the environmental profile of in-house machining processes, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: A growing interest toward sustainability actions at every level is characterizing the industrial sector. Following the environmental trend, further developments and improvements regarding the sustainability assessment of manufacturing processes is needed. With a particular focus on machining processes, the optimization of working parameters can represent a valid step forward in sustainable manufacturing. This paper aims to provide companies with the needed tool to independently asses the environmental performance of their customized machining operations. The purpose of the presented work is then to demonstrate that energy consumption calculated with empirical mathematical models available in literature, gives the greatest contribution to the environmental impact for a selection of machining processes by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Such objective lead to a clear need of specific models for the calculation of environmental impact of machining processes instead of available LCA datasets. Available mathematical models are adopted to provide a realistic energy consumption profile by using processing time variables. Such values are calculated through 3D models whose are used to recognize the needed manufacturing operations together with relative processing times. In order to validate the previous assumption, a couple of machining processes have been selected as reference and analyzed by setting up a detailed Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) model. Results shown that among the different inputs and outputs, the energy consumption carries the highest impact. Over 90% of the total impact for the chosen impact categories (Global Warming Potential and Eco-Costs) is attributable to the energy consumption meaning that, for the sake of simplification, the environmental profile of such operations is overlapped by its energy consumption.

[218] Rossi M., Germani M., Marconi M., A decision support tool to foster sustainability in industrial context, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: In the last few years, the environmental problem has become a very serious issue and the research world has answered to this growing interest with the development of a high number of ecodesign methods and tools. However their use in real contexts is still quite low, due to their complexity, time consuming and need for specific knowledge. From this reason, it comes the need for tools that support designers in the implementation of ecodesign strategies. This paper presents the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology and tool, which represents the knowledge and the best practices for manufacturing products. It supports designers in the re-design process of products, by allowing them to gradually acquire knowledge and to solve problems in a rapid and simplified way, through the collection and sharing of ecodesign knowledge in a structured Database. The tool has been tested into two industrial companies to verify its potentialities, evaluate its usability and identify its limits.

[219] Mengarelli M., Marconi M., Germani M., A Lifecycle-enhanced Global Manufacturing Platform for Enterprises, Procedia CIRP, 52, 192-197, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: A growing interest toward the adoption of a lifecycle perspective in product design is characterizing current industrial trends. The cooperation of global manufacturing actors is fundamental to retrieve information from each lifecycle stage. From this background, a lifecycle based platform is proposed to efficiently set up feasible design configurations by including global manufacturing information. Starting from a set of input parameters, the idea is to collect lifecycle information in a customized XML structure in order to draw up the environmental profile. Such platform can also be adopted as an organized "knowledge repository" enhancing information sharing among the global manufacturing network.

Keywords: Eco-design | Global manufacturing | Life cycle approach | SMEs

[220] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., A Multi-objective Design Approach to Include Material, Manufacturing and Assembly Costs in the Early Design Phase, Procedia CIRP, 52, 251-256, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Conceptual design is a crucial activity in the product development process. The design freedom must consider a trade-off analysis among several aspects such as assembly, manufacturing, and costs. The goal of this approach is to define a multi-objective design approach for the determination of feasible design options. The approach is grounded on the concept of functional basis for the analysis of product modules and the theory of Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approach for the assessment of the best design option. A complex product (tool-holder carousel of a machine tool) is used as a case study to validate the approach.

Keywords: complex products | Conceptual design | design for assembly | multi-objective design

[221] Castorani V., Landi D., Germani M., Determination of the Optimal Configuration of Energy Recovery Ventilator through Virtual Prototyping and DoE Techniques, Procedia CIRP, 50, 52-57, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: This study presents an approach based on Design of Experiment (DoE) technique for the optimization of an energy recovery ventilator (ERV). This system is one of the efficient ways to enhance the thermo-hygrometric comfort without increase excessively the thermal load in domestic kitchen. However, there is a major concern, which energy recovery cannot trade off ERV's fan power consumption. The goal of this study is to obtain the information about the relation between factors and response in an empirical way. This approach integrates three different levels of analysis: the virtual prototyping, Design of Experiment (DoE) and rapid prototyping. The virtual analysis allows to define the principal parameterization of a simplified model and to simulate the performance of each configuration at working condition. The proposed approach investigates the effect of the defined parameters and noise factor on the experimental results. In particular, the applied method for DoE analysis is based on virtual experiments in according to the necessity to reduce time and costs during the early design phase. The optimum parameters configuration, which is defined by the previous step, is useful to define the geometry and the working condition of a reliable virtual model. The final level is the realization of a 3D ERV with a rapid prototyping printer. The obtained component is now evaluable at the test bench to investigate the air flow rate and the electric power consumption.

Keywords: Design of Experiments | Energy Recovery Ventilator | Rapid Prototyping | Virtual Prototyping

[222] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Design for Manufacturing and Assembly vs. Design to Cost: Toward a Multi-objective Approach for Decision-making Strategies during Conceptual Design of Complex Products, Procedia CIRP, 50, 275-280, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Design-for-Assembly (DfA) and Conceptual DfA criteria are used in the generation of cost-effective assembly sequences for complex products. The design freedom suggests optimal solutions in the assembly time minimization problem regardless costs and issues about materials and manufacturing processes selection. The goal of this approach is to investigate how the application of the conceptual DfA affects the material and manufacturing costs (Design-to-Cost). A complex product (tool-holder carousel of a CNC machine) is used as a case study. The outcome is an approach to support designers and engineers in the re-design process for the product development and cost reduction.

Keywords: Conceptual Design for Assembly | Design to Cost | Manufacturability | tool-holder carousel

[223] Papetti A., Capitanelli A., Cavalieri L., Ceccacci S., Gullà F., Germani M., Consumers vs Internet of Things: A Systematic Evaluation Process to Drive Users in the Smart World, Procedia CIRP, 50, 541-546, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Smart Objects (SOs) market offers a wide variety of products apparently similar but characterized by different features that the average users fail to perceive. Consequently, their purchasing is often based on price and brand affection. In this context, users need a tool able to guide them in choosing the most suitable object to satisfy their expectations. To this purpose, this paper proposes a new systematic method to assess SOs in a comprehensive way: it allows to objectively assess and compare products and provides evaluation results tailored on users' needs. A first validation is carried out on three different SO typologies.

Keywords: Internet of Things | Smart objects | Systematic evaluation process | Usability

[224] Gullà F., Cavalieri L., Ceccacci S., Germani M., A BBN-based Method to Manage Adaptive Behavior of a Smart User Interface, Procedia CIRP, 50, 535-540, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The present study proposes a new method to manage adaptation behaviour of adaptive system according to the output information provide by a user model based on Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). Such method has been applied in the development of smart interfaces for cooking and kitchen management, such as meal preparation and interaction with the major kitchen appliances, pandering the user's skills, expertise and disabilities. Nevertheless, this method is flexible and suitable enough to be used in other application contexts. The validity of the decision making algorithm has been tested through simulation of real user case scenarios.

Keywords: Adaptive Interface | Bayesian Network | Decision making algorithm | Smart Home

[225] Papetti A., Marilungo E., Gregori F., Germani M., Driving Process Innovation: A Structured Method for Improving Efficiency in SMEs, Procedia CIRP, 50, 448-453, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper proposes a method to drive process innovation toward the increase in efficiency of a production plant. The work defines a structured method, supported by a classification tool, to correctly organize whole plant information with a mayor focus on energy consumptions. The method was tested in a medium enterprise with the target to increase the efficiency of the entire production plant. The method is the basis for a web application tool. A correct data management permits to plan the best practices to improve processes and systems involved in terms of environmental and economic impacts, meaning a process sustainable innovation.

Keywords: data management | energy efficiency | energy measurement | lean manufacturing | process innovation

[226] Cicconi P., Germani M., Bondi S., Zuliani A., Cagnacci E., A Design Methodology to Support the Optimization of Steel Structures, Procedia CIRP, 50, 58-64, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Steel constructions are widely used in several applications such as structures for buildings, stores, factories, and power plants. The scope of the research is to study a methodology to reduce the weight and the cost related to big frame steel structures during the early design phase, which is the phase where most of the project layout is defined. The main aim of this paper is the development of a platform-tool to support the automatic optimization of a steel structure using virtual prototyping tools and genetic algorithms. The focus is on the design of heavy steel structures for oil & gas power plants. This work describes in detail the design methodology and estimates the weight saving related to the re-design process of a test case structure. The design cases considered in the paper are those relevant to the operating.

Keywords: Design methodology | genetic algorithms | oil & gas | optimization | simulations | steel structures

[227] Mengoni M., Mandolini M., Matteucci M., Germani M., A Scalable "design for Costing" Platform: A Practical Case in Ball Valves Industry, Procedia CIRP, 50, 311-317, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Market competitiveness forces companies to explore novel methods and tools to make the overall product development (PD) agile and flexible and to reduce time to market. Accurate and fast cost estimation during design represents one of the most promising strategic actions to achieve these goals. In this context, a knowledge-based system that analyses the 3D CAD model of the product and automatically determines the manufacturing operations is developed. It consists of a scalable platform implementing "Design for Costing" paradigm. It is actually able to recognize geometric and non-geometric features from the 3D model and its attributes and calculate the final cost as the sum of raw materials, production cycles and setting operations thanks to the application of a set of knowledge-based rules mapping manufacturing processes and modeling features. While previous research works deepened the main technological issues of system development, this paper presents a practical case in ball valves industry to illustrate a structured methodology based on systematic engineering approach to apply the platform at the different stages of the product lifecycle and to verify the reliability of the implemented rules and the efficiency of the achieved process. The obtained results are compared to the traditional PD process to calculate product costs in order to highlight the main benefits.

Keywords: Cost Estimation | Design for Costing | Knowedge-based Rules | Modularity

[228] Landi D., Vitali S., Germani M., Environmental Analysis of Different End of Life Scenarios of Tires Textile Fibers, Procedia CIRP, 48, 508-513, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: End-of-Life Tires (ELT) are one of the main source of waste in End of Life Vehicles (ELVs). Textile fibers represent about 10% in weight of the ELT and every year, in Europe, about 320,000 tons of dirty fibrous material must be disposed as special waste. Studies show that the fibrous material can be used in second life applications, reducing the environmental impacts of tires disposal, but none of these researches quantitatively evaluate the achievable benefits. This study presents a comparative evaluation of the environmental impacts of the tires considering different scenarios for the end of life of the textile fibers material.

Keywords: End of life tires | environmental impact | second application

[229] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Includes Knowledge of Dismantling Centers in the Early Design Phase: A Knowledge-based Design for Disassembly Approach, Procedia CIRP, 48, 401-406, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, a large number of goods (e.g. appliances and electronic products) must be treated in dismantling centers after the conclusion of their lifecycle. Selective disassembly is necessary to accomplish environmental directives and to increase their sustainability. Dismantling centers developed internal non-standardized procedures to remove dangerous components and to minimize disassembly costs. The proposed approach aims to create a collection of the disassembly knowledge coming from dismantling centers as a repository for design actions oriented to End-of-Life. The final goal is to define a knowledge-based Design for Disassembly approach to support companies in designing products with improved disassemblability and maintainability.

Keywords: Design for disassembly | Disassembly Knowledge | Dismantling center

[230] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., PLANTLCA: A Lifecycle Approach to Map and Characterize Resource Consumptions and Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing Plants, Procedia CIRP, 48, 146-151, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper presents a lifecycle approach applied to the whole factory plant to characterize primary resource consumptions and environmental impacts for the different processes. The method is based on specific environmental models, defined for each process of a manufacturing plant. The goal is to provide a tangible support to guide decision-making strategies in order to move manufacturing towards sustainability. A case study of a washing machine factory plant has been analyzed to highlight the critical working areas in terms of environmental and energy loads and to support the identification of the corrective actions to increase the overall sustainability.

Keywords: Industrial metabolism | Life Cycle Assessment | Plant lifecycle

[231] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Design of a service-oriented architecture for AAL, International Journal of Agile Systems and Management, 9(2), 154-178, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Intelligent systems and ambient-assisted living (AAL) technologies actually represent an important research area, mainly due to the rapidly aging society, the increasing cost of healthcare and the growing importance that individuals place on living independently. The general goal is to create intelligence systems able to support people with specific demands to live longer in their preferred environment thanks to intelligent, sensitive and responsive devices. The research describes the design and development of a service-oriented system architecture where different smart objects are combined to offer assistive functionalities to elderly people. The design is driven by a user-centred approach and human-oriented principles. A prototypal system has been realised in the context of an Italian research project promoted by National Institute on Health and Science of Aging (INRCA). The result is an interoperable and flexible platform that allows creating user-centred services for independent living.

Keywords: AAL | ambient-assisted intelligence | ambient-assisted living | service-oriented architecture | smart home | smart object

[232] Cavalieri L., Mengoni M., Ceccacci S., Germani M., A methodology to introduce gesture-based interaction into existing consumer product, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 9732, 25-36, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The continuous progress of interaction technologies reveals that we are witnessing a revolution that is leading to a redefinition of the concept of “user interface” and to the development of new ways to interact with the electronic devices of all sizes and capabilities. Current trends in research related to the Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) show a considerable interest toward gesture, motion-based and full-body based interactions. In this context, a User-Centered Design (UCD) methodology to implement these novel interaction paradigms into consumer products is proposed with the aim to improve its usability, intuitiveness and experience. A case study is used to validate the methodology and measure the achieved improvements in user performance.

Keywords: Design methods | Gesture interaction | User interfaces | User-Centered design

[233] Ceccacci S., Cavalieri L., Gullà F., Menghi R., Germani M., A universal design method for adaptive smart home environment, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 9738, 359-369, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays to design a product able to adapt to end-users with different needs and abilities it is necessary to manage a multitude of information coming from the analysis of different context of use. This means that we have to handle parallel and interdependent UCD multiple process. This research aims to define a methodology, which may apply this philosophy into design practice. In particular, it aims to provide tools to summarize the information needed to analyze user characteristics and needs, allows the designer to extrapolate the user’s needs and support the selection of prototype technologies suitable to the user categories.

Keywords: Universal design | User centered design

[234] Marilungo E., Coscia E., Quaglia A., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Open Innovation for Ideating and Designing New Product Service Systems, Procedia CIRP, 47, 305-310, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: For modern manufacturing companies, the combination of physical products and intangible services (called Product-Service Systems or PSS) has been proved by time to be useful to enhance the product features by adding value throughout new functionalities, and bringing competitive advantages in a specific target market. Through PSS, companies create new business opportunities, extend the market share, differentiate the product portfolio, and improve sustainability. The PSS approach shifts the company attention from producing physical products to offering integrated systems. However, ideating and designing a PSS is a complex and multifaceted process, which requires multiple competences and cross-functions cooperation within the manufacturing company. In fact, the design phase requires to simultaneous dal with the characteristics of the physical product and of the intangible services, the last ones being by their nature fuzzy and difficult to define. Furthermore, the two entities have to be synergistically delivered and strategically managed thanks to the adoption of a PSS lifecycle management methodology and tools, in particular for the creation of a proper PSS infrastructure to delivery and maintain all the components from the design to the end of life phases. Several methodologies to design PSS can be found in literature. Most of them focus on technical development stages, while some of them face also the innovation aspects and sustainability. However, traditional product-centered approaches are not able to fully support the processes that manufacturing companies have to put in place for creating PSSs. This paper presents a new approach, based on the combination of the Open innovation method with IT solutions supporting information sharing and intra-team cooperation, in that any manufacturing company could adopt to manage the design process of a PSS. In particular, the methodology and the tools are focused on the early stages of the PSS design process, as Ideation and Concept definition that have been developed within the European FP7 project FLEXINET.

Keywords: Open Innovation | Product Service Lyfecycle Management (PSLM) | Product Service System (PSS) | PSS Design

[235] Germani M., Luzi A., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Peruzzini M., Investigating the sustainability of a high-energy consuming industrial process to achieve total quality, International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 18(2-3), 301-324, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: In the last century, the quality factor is seen as the key to success of each industry. In industrial companies, total quality management (TQM) principles have been introduced to achieve specific innovations in product and process development, though the continuous improvement (CI). Simultaneously, industrial companies think sustainable manufacturing as a means to create innovation, respecting environmental, economic and social themes. In fact, when a product reach the maturity stage of its life cycle, the improvements are no longer on product itself, but on its production process, optimising energy and resources use, eliminating waste, adopting sustainable end-of-life (EoL) policies, and reducing costs. Indeed, industrial processes require large consumption of resources during the product manufacturing phase. In this context, the paper aims to create a link between sustainable manufacturing and TQM principles, defining a new methodology that uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to assess the impacts of industrial processes inside the existing 'plan, do, check, act' (PDCA) method.

Keywords: Continuing improvement | Energy efficiency | Process lca | Process monitoring | Quality management | Sustainability | Sustainable manufacturing

[236] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Mengarelli M., Mengoni M., Rossi M., An approach to foster eco-design in 'traditional' companies without eco-knowledge, International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 18(2-3), 150-167, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The adoption of an eco-design approach is a key challenge for the total quality environmental management (TQEM). Recently, several eco-design methodologies have been presented, but none can be easily integrated in the traditional design process of manufacturing companies. The research presented in this paper aims to define a methodology, called G.EN.ESI, to help designers (especially those ones without a specific know-how on eco-design), during the development of sustainable products. In order to aid designers in the assessment of the environmental and cost impacts of a product, also a set of software tools have been defined. Using such a platform, the designer is supported by a robust workbench to perform all the analyses required to evaluate the product eco-sustainability for each phase of the product lifecycle. This software platform is essential for companies which want to implement the G.EN.ESI methodology without upsetting their own consolidated modus operandi and the internal organisation.

Keywords: Eco-design | Eco-design methodology | Environmental assessment tools | Environmental strategy | Integrated platform | Supply chain management | Sustainable design | Total quality environmental management | TQEM

[237] Marilungo E., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Review of product-service system design methods, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 467, 271-279, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Many researchers have been recently approached the integration of products and services since its relevance in modern industrial scenarios. Despite several authors investigated such topics and defined methods to support companies in product-service ideation and design, they proposed methodologies tailored on specific issues: PSS assessment, requirements elicitation, functional modelling, etc. Anyway, neither of them has found an integration among almost of such methods. This paper presents a review of the current literature approaching PSS design and assessment along the last fifteen years. This due to there are different perspectives to frame PSS. According to this context, the paper gives an overview of PSS development in manufacturing industry, laying the groundwork for designers to develop an integrated tool able to incorporate some of the design methodologies and support manufacturing companies involved in the proposal of the PSS instead of traditional product.

Keywords: Business model | PSS (Product-Service System) | PSS assessment | PSS design | PSS sustainability

[238] Mandolini M., Vitali M.C., Macchione A., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A CAD tool to design bespoke insoles for severe orthopaedic treatments, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 12(6), 700-709, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Patients affected by serious foot pathologies often require special orthotics to stand and walk correctly. Skilled operators obtain such insoles on the basis of manual procedures and following the prescriptions of orthopaedic technicians. The process is handicraft and time consuming. The paper presents a virtual prototyping approach which is based on dedicated foot scanners, CAD-based design tool and milling machines to obtain the bespoke footwear orthotics. The major contribution is a geometric procedure to design complex insole shapes starting from the foot scan and highly customized shoe lasts which are required in case of important deformities. The approach has been tested on several patients thanks to the collaboration with a partner insole producer and some orthopaedic centers. Patients have generally reported positive feedbacks on the comfort and functionality of the insoles.

Keywords: Foot orthotics | Insole design | Orthopaedic custom-made insoles

[239] Gullà F., Ceccacci S., Germani M., Cavalieri L., Design adaptable and adaptive user interfaces: A method to manage the information, Biosystems and Biorobotics, 11, 47-58, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Designing a multi-user adaptive interface means designing for diversity in end-users and contexts of use, and implies making alternative design decisions, at various levels of the interaction project, inherently leading to diversity in the final design outcomes. Nowadays Adaptive User Interfaces (AUIs) is becoming one of the major objectives addressed by Human Computer Interaction research. The present study provides an overview about the methods currently applied to the definition and development of AUIs. In order to study and develop adaptive user interfaces with the purpose to guarantee socialization, safety and environmental sustainability in a domestic day-by-day living space, a new method of holistic and adaptive user interface is proposed to support the modeling of information related to the user and the context of the interaction. In order to generate the user profiles, subjects older than 40 years with different levels of technology affinity will be considered. These prototypes will be tested through different use cases in the context of smart home environments. The final goal is to produce smart objects and consumer goods able to automatically satisfy the different skills, abilities, needs and human preferences, in an environment where each solutions address different individuals.

[240] Peruzzini M., Iualè M., Germani M., An AAL adaptive user interface to support frail people in manufacturing, Biosystems and Biorobotics, 11, 145-157, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is one of the most strategic research fields of research due to the increasing aging of the world population and the developments of assistive technologies, which enable people with specific demands to live longer and better by providing specific care. It has been demonstrated that AAL technologies provide effective support to frail people and their application is increasing in home and medical contexts with positive effects on costs reduction. However, such models have been rarely applied outside the domestic context. This paper describes the application of AAL concepts to manufacturing in order to support frail people to properly handle machine tools and complex systems. It presents an industrial case study focusing on machine tool operators: under these circumstances frailty assumes a broad sense as people have to carry out highly specialized jobs and also mild deficiencies can represent a frailty (i.e. slight reduction in sight, hands that are not perfectly steady, slightly reduced mobility or human force). The case study in particular aims at designing an adaptive user interface based on AAL principles and user-centered approach to support frail operators to work better and more safely.

[241] Capitanelli A., Germani M., Landi D., Papetti A., A methodology to design a knowledge-based tool for residential buildings simulation, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 11-2015, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The actual growing world energy demand is generating strong attention to the energy efficiency and to the environmental sustainability. The residential sector is one of the most energy-intensive reaching about 25% of global energy consumption. Furthermore, it is difficult to understand the real energy use in residential buildings suggesting the development of methodologies and tools to monitor and assess their energy performances. Such an analysis requires defining all the actors, their interaction rules and the intelligent management of a large amount of data. In addition to this, the energy performances of the home environment are closely related to the specific case under investigation, in fact it imposes the analysis of the particular application scenario and the target users to extract parameters able to describe the building behavior. They are related to the technological characteristics of the systems, to the external environment (e.g. external temperature, solar irradiation, etc.) and to the user needs and habits. It introduces some complexities, because many of these data are difficult to find and to predict. Another cause of complexity was introduced by the information and communication technologies (ICT) that creates new relationship between home devices fostering the spread of smart systems. In this scenario, simulation tools have been developed to grasp the real energy performance of a building, but they require a high level of detail for the input data which are often difficult to find. Otherwise, other tools are built for much simplified simulations and typically addressed to inexperienced users neglecting the real complexities of the system. For this reason, the paper presents a new design approach that aims to develop knowledge-based tools with architecture able to simulate the real behavior of the building considering all the actors and their interaction rules, but at the same time containing the features that allow them to be used in fast simulations or by inexperienced users. One of the focuses is the development of an intelligent user interface that, when requested, is able to automate and simplify data entry process. It is particularly useful when the user does not know the necessary input data for the simulation, e.g. energy consumption profiles, detailed features of the building, etc. All the steps of the proposed approach are described in the paper. In the first section is highlighted how the key parameters have been found and how they are organized as creating a knowledge base, while in the second section is shown the operation of the smart user interface and of the simulation tool. The results demonstrate that the proposed knowledge-based approach generates real benefits by simplifying and speeding up the data entry. Furthermore, the study shows how the smart user interface allows performing complex simulations also to novice users.

[242] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Investigating the sustainability of product supply chains, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 1(DS 80-01), 181-190, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: According to the growing pressure on Sustainability issues from governances, manufacturing industries must pay their attention to optimize their processes. Anyway, it is necessary go behind this preliminary approach, extending the boundaries from the single company to the other actors that operate in the same supply chain. In this context, the paper proposes a methodology to increase the sustainability and to guarantee the traceability along the whole product supply chain. The methodology allows to model any supply chain, through the data collection from all the actors involved, and to measure the environmental sustainability, through the implementation of a distributed software system. The experimental case study, which involved a leather shoe supply chain, allowed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in the selection of suppliers and in the optimization of the supply chain, taking into account the environmental aspects together with the other constraints such as design, costs and quality.

Keywords: Design for X (DfX) | Supply chain modelling | Sustainability | Traceability

[243] Marinelli P., Mandolini M., Germani M., A knowledge-based design process for custom made insoles, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 1(DS 80-01), 371-380, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The Custom Made Insoles (CMI) context is characterized by a lot of software tools mainly used by skilled technicians of manufacturing companies. It is missing a tool to support the prescription of a CMI, mainly oriented to the podiatrists, but that could be used, at the same time, by customers, for self-monitoring activities, and by controllers to monitor the work of podiatrists. The paper aims to illustrate an innovative design process to prescribe a CMI, by using a knowledge-based web application: The prescription is based on configuration rules and templates, that provides to the clinicians a set of insole geometries and materials (knowledge-based approach). The proposed web platform Insole Designer is fully integrated with the most common monitoring devices (3D scanners and baropodometric platforms), 3D modelling software, and interactive shoes catalogues. The main output is the order (XML file) of the customised insole, used by an insole manufacturing company to produce the CMI. The validation is an ongoing activity, even if preliminary results are available. Italian podiatrists have been involved to evaluate each software module giving a score in a 3-point scale.

Keywords: Biomedical design | Custom Made Insole | Design process | Insole Design

[244] Malatesta M., Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Supporting the configuration of new product variants by reusing the implicit knowledge of past solutions, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 10(DS 80-10), 199-208, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The market globalization pushes for ever new products in order to reach new niches. In the household appliances field, the marketing specialists daily configure new combinations of numerous functional and product requirements seeking new product definitions. Each novel combination requires an assessment of technical and economic feasibility by the design departments. This paper proposes a method for a preliminary validation of new configurations at the marketing stage. Indeed a tentative Bill of Materials (BOM) and a cost of the product are obtained. A knowledge base is derived by eliciting the requirement compatibilities from existing products. The approach is matrix based and it analyzes recurrent dependencies between requirements and components variants to determine which parts are most likely to appear in the BOM. Then, the knowledge base is integrated with rules that are input by experienced designers through a simple syntax. The approach has been tested moving from the requirements of some instances of a family of cookers, and comparing the results obtained from the application of the method with the actual product BOM.

Keywords: Bill of materials | Configuration | Design requirements | Knowledge management

[245] Germani M., Duca D.D., Luzi A., Camorani F., Energy value stream mapping, development and application of a tool to reduce energy inefficiencies of the production processes, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Over the last years, the industrial energy consumption has become a critical issue and several energy management systems have been developed. At the same time, the lean philosophy has been used to evaluate the critical points of the production processes. One of the main tools used by lean champions is the Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to identify "bottlenecks" and also to provide graphically areas of interest for improvement within the shop floor. Current VSM models do not include information about energy as a fundamental content. To overcome this lack, the present work is focused on the development of a new extended VSM tool able to map the energy consumption. Energy value Stream mapping (EVSM) is a tool to evaluate issues related to the energy consumption. Through it, the energy manager can pursue the minimum energy consumption. The proposed tool has been applied and tested in a real case study.

[246] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Rossi M., Usability demonstration of the g.en.esi eco-design platform: The cooker hood case study, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Due to the increasing pressure of legislations and market, the environmental sustainability is becoming a key competitive factor for companies. In specific markets, as the Northern Europe one, customers are very careful on the quality and sustainability of products, thus companies has to design and manufacture green goods. In this context, there is a strong need of effective design tools and platform which allows to configure products applying the life cycle paradigm and with the "environment on mind". Currently in the market there are only few examples of products designed taking into account the ecodesign concepts. In particular, for mechatronic or energy using products only the use phase is usually considered and all the re-design strategies aim to reduce the energy consumption. This is essentially due to the fact that there is a lack of tools and design platforms, which are easy to use and well integrated with the traditional design tools and with the design processes of companies. This paper wants to demonstrate the usefulness of a set of interoperable eco-design tools, the G.EN.ESI platform, in supporting the re-design of a mechatronic product. The proposed case study, realized in collaboration with an Italian leading company in the sector of household appliances, focuses on the improvement of a domestic cooker hood with the final objective to obtain a more sustainable product. The in-depth experimentation, for the duration of more than 3 months, involved different stakeholders within the company (designers, environmental expert, etc.), with the aim to validate the G.EN.ESI platform tools in different phases of the re-design process. The case study showed that the use of the platform has supported the company in the identification of the environmental hot-spots and during the product re-design phase, considering the whole life cycle. The re-engineered cooker hood exhibits relevant improvements in the most important environmental and economic indicators (environmental impact, energy efficiency, disassemblability, recyclability, etc.). Also a detailed analysis of the platform usability has been performed in order to measure if the tools completely fulfil the expectations of the final users. Finally, the level of integration within the company processes has been evaluated with a dedicated questionnaire. The results of these last analyses showed that the G.EN.ESI platform is appropriate to support a company to improve the sustainability of their products without the needs to heavily alter the traditional design process.

[247] Peruzzini M., Marilungo E., Germani M., Technical-business design methodology for PSS, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 2, 513-522, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Concurrent Design (CD) is a systematic approach to integrated product design that emphasizes the response to customer expectations and the combination of creativity and engineering. Such a concept represents also the basis of Product-Service System (PSS), which represents a valid way for companies to add value to their products, create new value propositions, and easily improve their solution portfolio. Indeed, the fulfilling of the customer needs is fundamental for creating succebful industrial PSSs (IPSSs), which aim at combining products and services into a marketable solution. However, the integration of technical and busineb aspects is crucial to succeed. In this context, this paper proposes an integrated methodology for PSS addrebing both technical and busineb aspects; it adopts a QFD-based approach to structure PSS information along the different proceb stages, considering four main domains: customer, functional, abets and network. It allows technical feasibility to be carried out and busineb framework to be defined at the same time to have a robust design concept and a reliable busineb model from the early design stages. The method is based on the direct involvement of the customer voice according to the CD paradigm. The proposed method also allows to define earlier the network of stakeholders and to dynamically reconfigure the network itself along the proceb, promoting the creation of the lean enterprise.

Keywords: Busineb model (BM) | Industrial case study | Product-Service System (PSS) | PSS design | Quality Functional Deployment (QFD)

[248] Peruzzini M., Germani M., A service-oriented architecture for ambient-assisted living, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 2, 523-532, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Ambient-Abisted Living (AAL) is currently an important research and development area, mainly due to the rapidly aging society, the increasing cost of health care, and the growing importance that individuals place on living independently. The general goal of AAL solutions is to apply ambient-Abisted intelligence to enable people with specific demands (e.g. handicapped or elderly) to live in their preferred environment longer by tools (i.e. smart objects, mobile and wearable sensors, intelligent devices) being sensitive and responsive to the presence of people and their actions. The research describes the design and development of a novel service-oriented system architecture where different smart objects and sensors are combined to offer ambient-Abisted living intelligence to older people. The design stage is driven by a user-centred approach to define an interoperable architecture and human-oriented principles to create usable products and well-Accepted services. Such architecture has been realized in the context of an Italian research project funded by the Marche Region and promoted by INRCA (National Institute on Health and Science of Aging) in the framework of smart home for active ageing and ambient abisted living. The result is an interoperable and flexible platform that allows creating user-centred services for independent living.

Keywords: Ambient-Abisted Intelligence | Ambient-Abisted Living | Service-Oriented architecture | Smart Home | Smart Object

[249] Germani M., Gregori F., Luzi A., Mengarelli M., Assessing social sustainability of products: An improved S-LCA method, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 467, 529-540, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: To preserve proper growth of the planet, industries have to increase sustainability of produced good according to the compliance and governance regulations for NPD (new product development). Sustainability concerns economical, environmental and social aspects; among these issues, the last theme is the less argued in literature and this paper focuses on the social life cycle assessment of products. One of the crucial aspects of S-LCA, is the definition of impact categories and involved stakeholders. This work, proposes a new S-LCA methodology, according to UNEP/SETAC framework. After the clarification of stakeholders, categories and general notions already known on S-LCA, a test case is shown where the new approach is implemented. In this use case, stakeholders from an Italian product line are analysed, then categories of attribution of social impacts are outlined. The paper offers a step-by-step procedure useful to verify the S-LCA theories currently available on a practical industrial case, defining also weaknesses that might be addressed in future studies.

Keywords: S-LCA | Social life cycle assessment | Sustainability

[250] Gullà F., Cavalieri L., Ceccacci S., Germani M., Bevilacqua R., Method to design adaptable and adaptive user interfaces, Communications in Computer and Information Science, 528, 19-24, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: In order to study and develop adaptive user interfaces with the purpose to guarantee socialization, safety and environmental sustainability in a domestic day-by-day living space, a new method of holistic and adaptive user interface is proposed to support the modelling of information related to the user and the context of the interaction to generate the user profiles, subjects older than 40 years with different levels of technology affinity have been considered. The new adaptive user interfaces prototypes will be tested through different use cases in the context of smart home environments.

Keywords: Adaptive interfaces | Design for AAL | User interfaces | User-centered design

[251] Peruzzini M., Marilungo E., Germani M., Structured requirements elicitation for product-service system, International Journal of Agile Systems and Management, 8(3-4), 189-218, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: For modern manufacturing companies the concept of product-service (PS) is representing a novel way to create new business opportunities, improve sustainability, support continuous innovation, and increase the product value. In this context, high-quality requirements elicitation is crucial for successful PS ideation and the following design. However, traditional product-centred approaches are not able to fully support manufacturing companies moving from product to services. This paper proposes a new methodology to support ideation and preliminary design of sustainable product-service systems (PSSs) within industrial chains. The method is based on quality functional deployment (QFD) approach and allows defining a set of robust requirements for creating new PSSs in respect with the specific customer needs and the sustainability principles of the industrial network. The research demonstrates the method validity on three case studies involving different industrial chains distributed all over Europe (i.e., white goods, machine tools, and textile industry). The case studies demonstrate how the method allows an easy definition of three distinctive PSS concepts starting for the specific market needs, and the robust requirements elicitation concerning both functional and ecosystem aspects.

Keywords: Product-service systems | PSSs | QFD | Quality functional deployment | Requirements elicitation | Service engineering

[252] Mengoni M., Iualè M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., An adaptable AR user interface to face the challenge of ageing workers in manufacturing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 9194, 311-323, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: In the last years introducing measures to face age discrimination and increasing work safety in production environments have become crucial goals. The present research proposes an innovative user interface exploiting Augmented Reality techniques to support frail people, mainly elderly, in everyday work on complex automated machines. It adapts its functionalities according to the user skill, tasks, age, and cognitive and physical abilities thanks to a set of knowledge-based configuration rules. A case study is described to illustrate the methodology to manage the complexity of configuration rules and the resulting developed platform.

Keywords: Accessibility | Adaptation | Augmented reality | Human-computer interaction | User-centred design

[253] Luzi A., Marilungo E., Germani M., Development of a methodology to analyze energy and resources consumption along the product Value Chain, Procedia CIRP, 33, 145-150, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Over the last years the sustainability issue has grown exponentially and it has involved several engineering areas, starting with the product sustainability, then to the factory sustainability, up to reach the entire Value Chain sustainability. Due to the continuous increasing of complex relations among factories, suppliers, and customers, a new method for investigating the entire Value Chain, considering its key partners, their requirements in terms of materials usage and energy consumption, and how these requirements influence the Value Chain sustainability is presented. This model will aim companies to define the criticalities inside the Value Chain relations and to develop possible improved scenarios.

Keywords: Energy and resources efficient use | Sustainable manufacturing | Sustainable value chain

[254] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., A system to increase the sustainability and traceability of supply chains, Procedia CIRP, 29, 227-232, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper proposes a system to increase the environmental sustainability and to guarantee the traceability along the whole product supply chain. A methodology to efficiently model complex supply chains, share data between all the actors and measure the environmental sustainability, has been developed and implemented in a distributed software system. The experimental case study, realized in collaboration with a manufacturer of leather products, allowed demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach in the selection of suppliers and in the optimization of the whole supply chain, taking into account the environmental aspects together with the other constraints such as design, costs and quality.

Keywords: Life cycle assessment | Supply chain sustainability | Traceability

[255] Germani M., Landi D., Rossi M., Efficiency and environmental analysis of a system for renewable electricity generation and electrochemical storage of residential buildings, Procedia CIRP, 29, 839-844, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: This study presents an approach for the evaluation of the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of a new modular and integrated system of renewable electricity generation and intelligent electrochemical storage systems, that allows auto-production and self-consumption of electricity in residential buildings. Homes with installed these renewable energy production systems are compared from an environmental and economic point of view, to the traditional ones, that draw electricity energy directly from the grid. In this context different scenarios are considered together with different configurations of power production and storage capacity, in order to compare different use cases. To this end, the environmental impact along all the life cycle of these systems is examined with the help of the SimaPro software simulation tool and quantitatively assessed.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Environmental impact | Self-consumpion

[256] Marilungo E., Peruzzini M., Germani M., An integrated method to support PSS design within the Virtual Enterprise, Procedia CIRP, 30, 54-59, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays Product-Service System (PSS) is a widespread trend consisting of adding services to the physical product in order to increase their market share, add value to their products, and create a new value proposition. Anyway, its application is still far from real industrial scenarios mainly due to difficulties in choosing the right partners, lack of collaboration among the partners, poor integration among the companies' system platforms, and lack of knowledge about the available technologies. In such context, this paper presents an integrated methodology to support the PSS design process into a Virtual Enterprise (VE). It involves different stages, from idea management to global network definition. Furthermore, the business model items can be defined in parallel along the design process and benefit the design itself by supporting decisionmaking, according to a concurrent engineering approach. In order to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach, it has been applied to a real industrial use case represented by a Virtual Enterprise working in the field of household appliances. In particular, the method supported the PSS design by the definition of the PSS requirements and functions, as well as the selection of the global network partners. The as-is and to-be processes are described and compared. The use case represents a valid example of how a product-oriented manufacturing company can open its strategic vision creating a PSS Virtual Enterprise in a structured way.

Keywords: Design tools for PSS | Product-Service System (PSS) | PSS design process | Virtual Enterprise (VE)

[257] Cavalieri L., Mengoni M., Germani M., Study and implementation of a multimodal system to support virtual prototyping, MESA 2014 - 10th IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications, Conference Proceedings, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Multimodal sensory stimulation is one of the most important challenges in human-computer interaction. When we want to play a virtual system it is important that the reproduced signals to stimulate the different sensory channels are synchronized with each other. This paper presents the study and implementation of a multimodal stimulation system. The proposed system is a step forwards a previous developed tactile platform (called Ipertouch 1.0). Main novelties regard the introduction of audio and visual feedbacks and signals synchronization. For acoustic stimulation, an auralization algorithm is applied on records of rubbing finger on a given class of material. For visual stimulation, a 3D rendering software is developed. Tests are performed to evaluate the degree of synchronism among the three different sensory channels.

Keywords: acoustic and visual feedback | haptic | multimodal system | synchronism

[258] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Designing a user-centred ICT platform for active aging, MESA 2014 - 10th IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications, Conference Proceedings, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies can be successfully applied to create assistive systems able to support frail and elderly people and promote active aging. Indeed, objects are ready and matured enough to be applied at low cost and can exchange information each other by proper communication protocols available on the market. However, there are still some open issues limiting the diffusion of such technologies and their effective introduction in people everyday life. Limitations mainly refer to three aspects: low system usability, poor acceptance by users, and lack of personalization and flexibility. The first two issues directly derive from the technology-oriented approach adopted in designing such systems, which does not consider the users' needs. The third issue is mainly due to the adoption of standard protocols that allow communication only among a set of compliant devices. The present research proposes a new model to design an AAL system to support active aging by adopting a user-centred approach to define an interoperable architecture integrating different types of Smart Object. The result is a high usable and flexible platform that allows creating user-friendly products as well as services and realizing also high-level functions by integrating data from completely different contexts. The research case study specifically addresses elderly people needs living alone or affected by chronic disease, which require a continuous control and feedback.

Keywords: Active aging | Delphi methodology | Requirements Elicitation | Smart Objects | User-Centred Design (UCD)

[259] Peruzzini M., Iualé M., Germani M., A VP-based application to improve usability of an upper-limb rehabilitation orthosis, MESA 2014 - 10th IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications, Conference Proceedings, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays Virtual Prototyping (VP) of robots dynamics is an effective tool to simulate the system behavior and improve the quality of rehabilitation activities. Using a VP software environment, the patients can be visually guided in their actions and the physiotherapist can control the system parameters easily to investigate the patients' performances in real time. In this paper VP concept is introducted to support the use of an upper-limb orthosis and to improve therapeutic efficacy in rehabilitation. The system adopted is a human-worn rehabilitation exoskeleton enhanced with a VP-based application to make therapeutic exercises more accessible while reducing the effort in using the system and managing the therapy. The VP application in particular merges computational musculoskeletal analysis with simplified controls, 3D viewing and real time simulation of the patients' movements. The application has been designed to specifically address the needs of patients and therapists and improve the satisfaction in use of the global system as well as the therpy results. The system validation is based on an ad-hoc evaluation protocol and is carried out by directly involving final users furing rehabilitation sessions. Experimental results demonstrated how VP prototyping effectively support the system use from both patients and physiotherapists: on one hand patients are nove motivated and they learn extract movements faster; on the other hand physiotherapists are supportedin diagnosis and data elaboration, and finally the rehabilitation therapy efficiency is improved.

[260] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Analytical thermal model for characterizing a Li-ion battery cell, 2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: In a scenario of small and customized production of electric vehicle, it is important to set methods and tools to evaluate the Li-Ion cells heat source in EV battery. The main problem of the new lithium batteries is represented by the need to keep the battery packs at uniform and constant temperatures and avoid peaks of temperatures which cause degradation of performance and safety problem. The main issue concerns the characterization of a thermal model to calculate the heat generated by electrochemical reactions in a single battery cell. In order to achieve this objective, electrical tests have been conducted to obtain the parameters such as voltage curves, open circuit voltage, and capacity for different type of Li-Ion cells and different rate of current in charge and discharge. During experiments, the use of an IR camera allows to acquire real temperature data under working conditions. These tests concern one cell per time, analyzed in natural convection condition at constant external temperature. The heat generation is evaluated solving the analytical thermal formula which depends on the current rate. The approach has been validated comparing the calculated temperature values with experimental data. The proposed methodology allows to determine the heat generated and temperature for different working condition.

Keywords: heat exchange | lithium battery | modeling

[261] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Modeling and thermal simulation of a PHEV battery module with cylindrical LFP cells, 2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Generally a part of electric vehicle diffusion is still based on marketing of cars and vans suitable for specific use like work vehicles. A flexible design methodology is required to support rapid prototyping and product customization in the market of tailored EV/PHEV. The research focuses the cooling simulation for a PHEV Li-Ion battery. The thermal analysis is based on the physical parameters of the single cell and on the experimental data. The proposed methodology concerns firstly an analytical approach which evaluates the average heat generated by a single cell during working condition. Then the proposed virtual prototyping analysis has been divided into two levels: the thermal simulation of one cell, and the CFD analysis of a battery module. This workflow has been applied to support the design of a battery pack for a prototypal ecological hybrid vehicle. That test case vehicle is a small van, used for the curbside collection, which has in parallel an internal combustion engine and an electric motor supplied by a LFP battery with small cylindrical cells. The analysis concerns one of the four module which constitutes the whole battery pack. The virtual model has been parameterized and the behavior of air cooling system has been evaluated through virtual tools.

Keywords: cooling | lithium battery | modeling | PHEV | simulation

[262] Papetti A., Germani M., Mandolini M., Product innovations and eco-sustainability: An approach to evaluate the relationships, Key Engineering Materials, 572(1), 74-77, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: The academic and industrial literature presents a lot of innovations to improve the energy efficiency of the home appliances around the world. However, few methodologies are able to combine innovations and eco-sustainability, during the design phase of green products. In this context, the paper defines an approach to analyse the relationships between different types of innovation and the relative environmental impacts, during the product lifecycle. The analysis has been performed by defining innovations categories and comparing the product Life Cycle Assessment before and after their implementation. This approach represents the preliminary phase of the innovation process, required to support the product manager. The approach has been experimented within a household appliances company, highlighting that there are innovations able to reduce the energy and water consumption respectively of 25% and 30%.©(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Keywords: Household appliances | Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) | Product innovation

[263] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Mengarelli M., Virtual prototyping approach to evaluate the thermal management of Li-Ion batteries, 2014 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2014, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, electric vehicles fill a relevant car market share. The Li-Ion batteries currently represent the best solution in term of environmental impact and performance. Thermal management for Li-Ion batteries is a very interesting topic, since high temperatures accelerate degradation rate of a cell and compromise its safety level. The battery thermal modeling can be quite challenging. The proposed approach describes a methodology to simulate different thermal management algorithms in order to obtain an uniform temperature distribution in a Li-Ion battery pack. A test case has been developed where the application of an thermal algorithm has been analyzed through CFD simulations.

Keywords: CFD | Hybrid electric vehicle | Li-ion battery | Simulation | Thermal management | Virtual prototyping

[264] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Rossi M., Investigating the sustainability of production lines: A method for impacts evaluation, Proceedings of the Summer School Francesco Turco, 09-12-September-2014, 360-366, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Recently, the environmental problem has become a key issue for the modern society, due to the increase of pollution and global warming. Manufacturing industry is recognized as one of the main responsible of this situation, since it uses a large amount of energy and emits a relevant part of the total carbon dioxide. The only possible way to face this problem is the implementation of sustainable manufacturing approaches, in order to measure and reduce the global environmental impact of companies. In this context, the present paper focuses on a method for the pre-emptive evaluation of the environmental and economic sustainability of manufacturing lines/plants, considering the whole life cycle from line manufacturing and initial set-up, to the end of life (i.e. reuse/dismantling). A special attention has been paid in the use phase, since this one represents the most critical stage, as for all the energy using equipment. Its accurate modelling, considering each energy typology (electrical, thermal, etc.) with the relative detailed use scenarios (multiple working points for each equipment), is an essential prerequisite to estimate the global sustainability with an acceptable accuracy. The concurrent LCA and LCC analyses, realized on the basis of the production line life cycle model, considering the different cost items and environmental impacts, permits a company to estimate the overall sustainability of an existing or new line, understanding the most important criticalities, and evaluating possible alternatives through comparative analyses. A case study has been conducted thanks to the collaboration of a manufacturer of plastic extruded pipes. It demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed approach in the identification of the most critical line equipment/functional groups and in the evaluation of different scenarios for the line replacement, both from an environmental and economic point of view.

Keywords: Energy consumption | Environmental and economic sustainability | Sustainable manufacturing

[265] Luzi A., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Germani M., Development of a methodology based on industrial environment simulation to optimise the heating energy consumption, Proceedings of the Summer School Francesco Turco, 09-12-September-2014, 302-307, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Over the last years, industrial companies have started to use simulation software to evaluate their energy performance. Today, the main researchers are focusing on the process energy consumption, but there is a lack in the indirect energy optimization such as ventilation and heating and a lack in the use of the simulation results as a practical feedback for energy manager. The focus of this paper is the study and the development of an approach based on the industrial environment simulation to optimize the thermal energy consumption related to the heating industrial building. To validate the proposed approach a test in a real industrial case is conducted.

Keywords: Indirect energy | Simulation | Thermal energy | Virtual industrial model

[266] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Morbidoni A., Rossi M., ECO-design platform within an extended enterprise: How to implement it?, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, the environmental issue has become increasingly important and has taken a leading role in the product design process. The product sustainability pass through the use of specific software tools supporting the design phase. Their integration, to build up a platform, is a key aspect toward the implementation of an effective eco-design approach. Even if the approaches presented in literature to create an eco-design platform aim to integrate environmental aspects during the design process, a proper tools integration is not existing. To overcome these limitations, the paper presents an ecodesign platform in which tools for the improvement of the product environmental characteristics are contained. The tools of the platform are used to calculate the environmental impact of a product for each product life cycle phase: manufacturing, transportation, use and End of Life. The platform is completed by a tool containing the eco-design guidelines, also specific for the industrial sector of the company, used to suggest the designers how to improve the product eco-sustainability. The end users of the platform consist of designers from the design office but also from every department relevant for the project, mainly R&D, production, purchasing department, and quality. In particular, the following roles have been considered as users: designer, product manager, environmental manager and buyer. Designers and company experts use the same workspace, made of different tools. They can detail all the product life cycle phases, quantify the product performances, modify its.

[267] Carloni Vitali M., Germani M., Mandolini M., Raffaeli R., A new business model for the orthopaedic and customized footwear sector, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 2014-January, 771-782, (2014).
[268] Peruzzini M., Capitanelli A., Papetti A., Germani M., Designing and simulating smart home environments and related services, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 2014-January, 1145-1156, (2014).
[269] Peruzzini M., Marilungo E., Germani M., Sustainable product-service design in manufacturing industry, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 2014-January, 955-964, (2014).
[270] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., An integrated approach and it platform to optimise electric motor engineering and design, International Journal of Information Technology and Management, 13(2-3), 134-153, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Electric motors are one of the most common electrical components. The design phase is the most important stage in which 'green' customised solutions can be ideated, evaluated and optimised. Different aspects have to be concurrently addressed to achieve a high quality product in a short time to market. The present paper describes an innovative approach and software platform to configure and simulate customised electric motors. A key feature of the platform is a knowledge-based system that aims to standardise the design process. The platform integrates different software tools to support the development and verification of several design aspects, such as energy efficiency, manufacturing costs and environmental impacts. It also provides a collaborative area to support collaboration along the whole supply chain. Different case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of the platform application in supporting designers in the creation of innovative products. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Keywords: Collaborative design | Cost estimation | Eco-design | Electric motors | Energy efficiency | Integrated approach | IT platform | Knowledge-based system | LCA | Life cycle assessment | Optimisation

[271] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Design for sustainability of product-service systems, International Journal of Agile Systems and Management, 7(3-4), 206-219, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Recently, numerous manufacturing companies are moving from product to services to create new business opportunities and to increase the product value. At the same time, sustainability is a crucial aspect for industry. In this context, the research challenge is defining a structured methodology to support the design for sustainability of product-service systems (PSS). While product sustainability has been investigated during the last decades and can be assessed by several tools, sustainability of PSS is almost unexplored. This paper defines an integrated lifecycle and proposes a methodology to identify a set of sustainability indicators to compare different use scenarios and find out the best ones. It adopts a holistic approach to assess sustainability on the basis of the three main impacts: environmental, economical and social. The methodology is illustrated by means of an industrial case study proposing a new model called 'Hot water as a service' evolving traditional water heaters.

Keywords: Design for sustainability | EE | Extended enterprise | Product-service lifecycle | Product-service systems | PSS | Service engineering

[272] Peruzzini M., Marilungo E., Germani M., Functional and ecosystem requirements to design sustainable product-service, Moving Integrated Product Development to Service Clouds in the Global Economy - Proceedings of the 21st ISPE Inc. International Conference on Concurrent Engineering, CE 2014, 768-777, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Product-Service (P-S) represents an innovative way to create highly sustainable solutions for both large and small enterprises. However, very few works propose structured approaches for P-S ideation and design in manufacturing industry. This paper presents a novel methodology to support ideation and preliminary design of sustainable P-S solutions within industrial chains involving Large Enterprises (LEs) as well as Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). It is based on a matrix-based approach and allows defining the P-S functional and ecosystem requirements according to the customer needs and sustainability principles. The research purpose is twofold: to effectively support industrial chains in P-S requirements elicitation, and to verify the benefits of P-S integration from the design stages in developing sustainable solutions. The research study involved an Italian company with its supply chains of SMEs, distributed in Europe, and aims at developing a new P-S idea in the white goods sector by exploiting Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).

Keywords: Design for sustainability | Product-service systems (PSS) | QFD-based method | Requirements elicitation | Service innovation

[273] Landi D., Cicconi P., Germani M., A methodological approach for supporting the thermal design of Li-ion battery for customized electric vehicles, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 11, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: An important issue in the mechanical industry is the reduction of the time to market, in order to meet quickly the customer needs. This goal is very important for SMEs that produce small lots of customized products. In the context of greenhouse gas emissions reduction, vehicles powered by electric motors seem to be the most suitable alternative to the traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. The market of customized electric vehicles is a niche market suitable for SMEs. Nowadays, the energy storage system of an electric vehicle powertrain consists of several Li-ion cells arranged in a container called battery pack. Particularly, the battery unit is considered as the most critical component in electric vehicle, because it impacts on performance and life cycle cost. Currently, the design of a battery pack mostly depends on the related market size. A longer design time is expected in the case of a large scale production. While a small customized production requires more agility and velocity in the design process. The proposed research focuses on a design methodology to support the designer in the evaluation of the battery thermal behavior. This work has been applied in the context of a customized small production. As test case, an urban electric light commercial vehicle has been analyzed. The designed battery layout has been evaluated and simulated using virtual prototyping tools. A cooling configuration has been analyzed and then prototyped in a physical vehicle. The virtual thermal behavior of a Li-ion battery has been validated at the test bench. The real operational conditions have been analyzed reproducing several ECE-15 driving cycles and many acceleration runs at different load values. Thermocouples have measured the temperature values during the physical experiments, in order to validate the analytical thermal profile evaluated with the proposed design approach.

[274] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., A modular optimization method based on a multi-DOE approach proposed for a centrifugal impeller, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 11, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, design processes need of agile and flexible tools and methods to meet market needs and Ecodesign directive in the industry of household appliances. Virtual prototyping techniques are widespread in design processes and practices, in order to reduce the project development lead-time and the cost related to any real physical prototyping. The aim of this paper is the study of a generic modular approach to support the optimization process of simple mechanical parts using virtual prototyping tools and a multi-DOE solving analysis based on virtual experiments. The target is to increase flexibility in design phases. The research context regards the optimization of a blower for cooker hood applications, in order to improve the fluid dynamic efficacy indicator in accordance with EU Ecodesign directive regarding ventilation fans. The increasing of fluid dynamic efficiency is a way to reduce electrical energy consumption during blower operation. Particularly, this paper focuses on the design optimization of an impeller for kitchen hood. The research-work takes into account the optimization of the blade profile. Inlet and outlet fluid-blade angles have been analyzed and discussed. The methodology proposes the study of a set of geometrical parameters through an analysis based on DOE scheduling with virtual experiments. The proposed test case provides a study of two different fan wheel models for the same hood application. Three geometrical parameters have been considered. The DOE objective function fits the maximization of the fluid dynamic efficiency indicator, in order to reduce energy consumptions. A multi-DOE approach has been used to evaluate the best configuration set. Several CFD simulations have been conducted and the resultant impeller configuration has been also validated through physical tests.

[275] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Marilungo E., Product-service lifecycle management in manufacturing: An industrial case study, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 442, 445-454, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Product-Service is a recent concept based on a novel product understanding consisting of integrated product and service shares. It represents a new trend for industries to innovate their artefacts and create fresh business opportunities. However, moving from product to services requires the identification of the needed assets to create the new solution and the integration of both productrelated and service-related activities into a unique product-service lifecycle. In practice, such an evolution can be defined theoretically but it is hard to implement since supporting tools are strongly product-centred yet. As a consequence, product-service is still a fascinating idea especially in manufacturing sector. This paper tells about a success story of product-service management in manufacturing industry; it describes how a household appliances’ manufacturer shifted from traditional product lifecycle towards product-service lifecycle to manage the new service. The study starts from analysis of the AS-IS processes and mapping of the ecosystem tangible and intangible assets, and describes how the company was supported into the definition of an integrated product-service lifecycle.

Keywords: Collaboration | PLM improvement concept | Product Lifecycle Management | PSS (Product-Service System) | Virtual Enterprise

[276] Bevilacqua M., Ciarapica F.E., Germani M., Mazzuto G., Paciarotti C., Relation of project managers’ personality and project performance: An approach based on value stream mapping, Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 7(4), 857-890, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Purpose: This work investigates the influence of project managers’ personality on the success of a project in a Multinational Corporation. The methodology proposed for analyzing the project managers’ personality is based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

Keywords: Myers-Briggs type indicator | New product development (NPD) | Project managers’ personality | Project performance | Value stream mapping

[277] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Rossi M., An approach to analytically evaluate the product disassemblability during the design process, Procedia CIRP, 21, 336-341, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: In order to favor the implementation of closed-loop scenarios at the product End of Life (EoL), it is essential to consider the disassembly phase during the design process. In this context, the paper presents a design for disassembly approach to quantitatively estimate the product disassemblability. The methodology is based on a knowledge database about liaisons, which have been classified and characterized with different properties, in order to take into account the liaison specificity and real conditions in the moment of the disassembly. Starting from the product structure and liaisons between components, the methodology allows to analytically calculate the disassembly time and cost of components/sub-assemblies. The case study (combination oven) demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach in identifying the product criticalities which is necessary to consider during the redesign phase in order to improve the product disassemblability performances.

Keywords: Corrective factors | Design for disassembly | Disassembly time and cost

[278] Capitanelli A., Papetti A., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A smart home information management model for device interoperability Simulation, Procedia CIRP, 21, 64-69, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Numerous smart home systems have been created in the recent years, but they still lack of high interoperability and research has been focused on single smart technologies instead of the system interoperability as a whole. Furthermore, available systems are usually strongly technology-oriented and they neglect the user's satisfaction and the benefits' analysis. In addition to this, modern systems impose the intelligent management of a huger amount of data, which needs to be properly coordinated to achieve higher performances and offer new energy-control services. This paper defines an information management model to improve device interoperability in smart homes. It allows selecting and classifying the devices, visualizing their data model, aggregating the necessary data according to the desired service functions, and finally defining a set of rules to coordinate device operations according to user preferences and external events. A case study focused on washing machines is presented to demonstrate the methodology implementation; it allows designing and developing an energy-control service for the selected device and optimizing its functions according to the users' needs and preferences as well as the constraints of the use scenario. Finally, the benefits achieved with such a new service are evaluated in terms of energy consumption, costs reduction and user satisfaction in a simulated home environment that represents practical scenarios of use.

Keywords: Customized and personalized product development | Intelligent design | Smart product engineering

[279] Peruzzini M., Marilungo E., Germani M., A QFD-based methodology to support Product-Service design in manufacturing industry, 2014 International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation: Engineering Responsible Innovation in Products and Services, ICE 2014, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Recently manufacturing enterprises are challenged by the transition from product-centered solutions to the new concept of Product-Service System (PSS). However, designing a new PSS implies the definition of new specifications and the integration of the necessary assets to create a coherent system. This paper presents a QFD-based methodology to support manufacturing companies moving from products to services by focusing on product-service design. It starts from the analysis of the target market and customer needs, and correlates them with the functionalities and with the assets offered by the company ecosystem. The method is validated on a real case study where a white goods producer wants to innovate its business by service-based solution. Assets are virtualized and selected with the final scope to design a highly sustainable PSS. The case study considers the design of a predictive maintenance service for dryers, which includes the product enhanced with advanced HW and SW components, a remote service for product monitoring and data elaboration, and a web / mobile application for customer interaction and service provisioning. © 2014 IEEE.

Keywords: Ecosystem assets analysis | Industrial case study | Product-Service design | Product-Service System (PSS) | Sustainability

[280] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Mengarelli M., Life cycle cost from consumer side: A comparison between traditional and ecological vehicles, ENERGYCON 2014 - IEEE International Energy Conference, 1440-1445, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: The present work investigates the economic feasibility of ecological vehicles. The comparison has been developed between traditional vehicles, gasoline and diesel fueled, and green vehicles powered by electric, hybrid or natural gas motors. Nowadays, the vehicle life cycle cost is an important decision criterion used by consumer to buy a car, due to fuel price increasing. Life cycle cost includes purchase cost, operation cost, but also social cost lead to environmental impact regarding production, use and end-of-life phases. The proposed research focuses life cycle cost from consumer side in order to evaluate the economic feasibility, using ecological solutions for transportation in EU. Different use scenarios are proposed, considering different vehicle sizes and mileages, without considering taxes and any governance incentives. © 2014 IEEE.

Keywords: ecological vehicles | EV | HEV | life cycle cost | natural gas vehicles

[281] Cavalieri L., Germani M., Mengoni M., Multi-modal interaction system to tactile perception, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8525 LNCS(PART 1), 25-34, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Haptic simulation of materials is one of the most important challenges in human-computer interaction. A fundamental step to achieve it regards the definition of how human beings can encode the information acquired by different sensorial channels' stimulation. In this context, this paper presents the study, implementation and evaluation of a multi-modal cutaneous feedback device (CFD) for the simulation of material textures. In addition to tactile stimulation, two further sensory components (e.g. eyesight and hearing) are integrated to support the user to better recognize and discriminate different classes of materials and then, overcome previous identified drawbacks. An experimental protocol is tuned to assess the relevance of each stimulated channel in material texture recognition. Tests are carried out with real and virtual materials. Result comparison is used to validate the proposed approach and verify the realism of simulation. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

Keywords: Elettrocutaneous feedback | haptic | multi-modal stimulation

[282] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., A method for the estimation of the economic and ecological sustainability of production lines, Procedia CIRP, 15, 147-152, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a method to evaluate the environmental and economical sustainability of a manufacturing line/plant along its whole life cycle. The concurrent analysis of LCA and LCC allows the process engineers to estimate the production sustainability during the design of a new production line. The method considers costs and environmental impacts of the initial deployment (i.e. initial investment and set-up), use (i.e. workload or maintenance required by each machine) and end of life (i.e. retirement) of the analyzed system. The approach has been tested in a company that manufactures extruded pipes with the aim to evaluate the relative benefits. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Energy consumption | Environmental and economical sustainability | Sustainable manufacturing

[283] Papetti A., Iualé M., Ceccacci S., Bevilacqua R., Germani M., Mengoni M., Smart objects: An evaluation of the present state based on user needs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8530 LNCS, 359-368, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: In the last years, some attempts have been made to explore the use of smart objects, with the purpose of monitoring well-being and supporting people's independent living. However an inventory of characteristics of smart products currently available on the market is still lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such products in order to: (1) understand if their features really match users' needs, answering to the definition of assistive technology and, consequently, (2) understand if an environment embedded with SOs can be considered as assistive too, taking into consideration the attributes given by the definition of the SOs, of being embedded in familiar objects and immerse in the users' surround. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Keywords: Home Environment | Inclusive Design | Internet of Things | Universal Design

[284] Raffaeli R., Mandolini M., Germani M., Identification of Weld Beads in Assemblies of B-Rep Models, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 11(3), 263-274, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Current CAD systems have dedicated functionalities to model weld beads, but it is often cumbersome to use these systems. This study presents a method to analyze the geometry of assemblies of B-Rep models to automatically identify possible welds among the parts using prediction rules. Adjacent faces are detected, and Boolean operators on planar loops are used to identify bead paths. Beads are then split in homogeneous portions based on the topology of the connected parts. The main goals of this study are to increase the speed of the welding definition process and to benefit applications such as the cost estimation of steelwork products. Cost estimates are based on the shape, the length and the dimension of each weld bead. Some industrial examples are presented to show the benefits in terms of time savings and accuracy to the estimation process. © 2013 © 2013 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: feature recognition | virtual prototyping of welds | weld beads identification

[285] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Papetti A., Capitanelli A., Smart home information management system for energy-efficient networks, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 408, 393-401, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Energy efficiency of smart home systems imposes the intelligent management of a huge quantity of data and the collaboration between multiple stakeholders. Indeed, thanks to recent developments in ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) and IoT (Internet of Things), it is possible to achieve higher performances and offer new energy-control services. However, data must be not only retrieved but also translated into significant information and related to interoperable tasks. This paper focuses on smart home energy control and defines a methodology to improve smart home information management in order to create an extended energy-efficient network comprehending the distributed manufacturing enterprise as well as the energy utility and the consumers. The case study focuses on a sub-set of interoperable smart devices and shows how to apply the proposed information management model to make an extended virtual enterprise provide energy-control services. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013.

Keywords: Energy-control services | Energy-efficient networks | Internet of Things (IoT) | Interoperable smart home systems (SHS) | Virtual Enterprise (VE)

[286] Papetti A., Peruzzini M., Capitanelli A., Germani M., A methodology for interoperability and information management in smart home environments, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 6 DS75-06, 149-158, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: The environmental impact reduction and the growing world energy demand have generated a strong interest to smart home all over the world. Indeed, thanks to the recent developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Internet of Things (IoT), it is possible to create smart home system by making several objects installed at home cooperate each other and offering new services to end users. However, smart home system design is not a trivial task: the increasing embedded intelligence of smart devices is generating a huge quantity of data, which needs to be properly structured and managed, and the related services must be designed and personalized according to the specific users' needs. This paper defines a methodology to support smart home system design and improve smart home information management by selection, aggregation and classification of relevant data, and their correlation to smart home services. The methodology implementation shows how it can support the design of services able to bring benefits to the subjects involved. It also represents the first step towards the creation of a standard by data management and device interoperability for smart home systems' design.

Keywords: Device interoperability | Information management | Product-service systems | Service design | Smart home system design

[287] Malatesta M., Raffaeli R., Mengoni M., Germani M., Supporting the modification process of products through a change management tool, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 1 DS75-01, 21-30, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Updating products requires design activities, virtual and physical prototyping of new solutions, test and validation steps. If problems are detected at any of these stages, they cause iterations, waste of time and resources. A change propagation method is initially described as a way to facilitate the introduction of product changes. The approach relies on a multilevel product representation, the modelling of the component dependencies, algorithms to compute the propagation of some desired changes. Outputs are represented by the list of the affected components and indices indicating the impact on the product requirements. The method has been applied in the whole redesign process of a standard product like the fridge. Modifications must be usually released under time constraints. In this context, the outputs of the proposed method are an useful support to reduce iterations and resources waste. The experimentation has been based on case studies assigned to two groups of designers working with and without the tool. It has resulted that designers become more aware of the implications of the engineering changes, they are allowed of better decisions and the whole process becomes shorter.

Keywords: Change management | Design methods

[288] Rossi M., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., Morbidoni A., Eco-design guidelines and eco-knowledge integration in product development process, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 5 DS75-05, 161-170, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: The product eco-sustainability is recognized as a key factor for competitive products and recently lots of international directives (guidelines) have been issued. This paper aims to define a new methodology integrated in the product development process that, through the application of the most common eco-design guidelines and design past experiences, supports designers in the development of eco-sustainable products. Eco-design guidelines retrieved from the literature are subdivided according to a well-organized structure in "high level of abstraction" and "high level of detail" ones. In addition, Eco-knowledge is defined as all the choices and their related environmental performances, designers made during the design process of a product. The implementation of the proposed methodology in the product development process of an Italian cooker hood producer, allows to analyze the benefits achievable in terms of product eco-sustainability improvement. This analysis highlights that the proposed approach supports the implementation of eco-design principles, also in those companies without a specific background in eco-design.

Keywords: CBR | Decision making | Eco design | Eco-design guidelines | Sustainability

[289] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Marilungo E., Design for sustainability of product-service systems in the extended enterprise, 20th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering, CE 2013 - Proceedings, 314-323, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: A recent trend in modern manufacturing companies is moving from products to services. Indeed, services allow creating new business opportunities and increasing the value perceived by the customers. At the same time, sustainability is a crucial aspect for industry, which pays more and more attention to realize efficient and sustainable solutions. The research challenge is defining a structured methodology to understand how to design for sustainability considering Product Service Systems (PSS) and evaluating the effect of shifting from products to services. While product sustainability can be assessed by several tools, sustainability of PSS is almost unexplored. Furthermore, PSS requires creating an extended value creation network. This paper defines an integrated product-service lifecycle and proposes a methodology to identify a set of KPIs for both PSS and products and to compare different use scenarios. It adopts a holistic approach to assess sustainability on the basis of the three main impacts: environmental, economical and social. The methodology is illustrated by means of an industrial case study focusing on water heaters; it analyses an innovative PSS 'Hot water as a Service' supported by an extended network, and compares it with the traditional scenario based on product selling supported by a vertical supply-chain. The final aim is to evaluate the service benefits and to support company decision-making. © 2013 The Authors and IOS Press.

Keywords: Design for Sustainability | Extended Enterprise (EE) | Product-Service Lifecycle | Product-Service Systems (PSS) | Service Engineering

[290] Germani M., Mandolini M., Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., Platform to support dynamic collaborative design processes in virtual enterprises, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 26(11), 1003-1020, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Collaborative product design favours the identification of innovative solutions as well as enriching the experience of those who participate. Nevertheless, the design and supply chain integration in product development processes is not a trivial task. The main difficulties are related to the different levels of individual expertise amongst team members and to the different organisation of the companies involved. The complex scenario of the extended enterprise triggers research toward the development of efficient methods and tools to support the design teamwork. The present article illustrates an innovative co-design platform which implements an approach to support dynamic collaborative design processes. Starting from the definition of a new design process model integrating different collaborative dimensions, the proposed approach is based on the formalisation of the distributed knowledge in terms of interaction rules and representational models. In particular, the process variability is managed through a new dynamic workflow system able to handle unpredictable events occurring when multiple partners collaborate. Case Based Reasoning algorithms (CBR) are used to manage unexpected events. They support the identification of existing rules in order to reconfigure the workflow. Experimentation is carried out in order to identify the main advantages of the system and also critical issues. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Keywords: collaborative processes | concurrent engineering | dynamic environments | virtual enterprises

[291] Germani M., Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., Electro-tactile device for material texture simulation, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 68(9-12), 2185-2203, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper deals with the simulation of material texture by means of electro-tactile stimuli, which directly derive from real material properties. The research presents a novel tactile display by its hardware and software system architecture and the elaboration procedure to generate the stimulating signals, and validates the adopted simulation strategy by experimental testing. The tactile system elaborates data from scans of real material samples and generates electrical stimuli to reproduce roughness and texture coarseness sensations. It also adds a coherent sound feedback to improve the realism of the simulation. The research defines also an experimental protocol based on the theory of Psychophysics to carry out system calibration and tests with users. The scope is to validate the proposed tactile system as a new tool for material simulation, which can be adopted for material virtual prototyping in several fields (product design, textile and clothing, gaming and entertainment, virtual museum, rehabilitation, etc.). Experimentations have been carried out to measure the users' response to our different material classes (wood, paper, rubber and textile fabric). Experimental results concern how good the adopted simulation approach is and the analysis of the human tactile perception simulated by the system. Main findings relate to the system performance and the users' response in terms of signal recognition and material class discrimination. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.

Keywords: Haptics | Material simulation | Material texture | Tactile system

[292] Raffaeli R., Mengoni M., Germani M., Mandorli F., Off-line view planning for the inspection of mechanical parts, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 7(1), 1-12, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: 3D optical scanning systems are used more and more for quality control purposes. The effective utilization of such systems needs an efficient virtual planning of the product acquisition viewpoints. Literature shows how 3D CAD product models can be used as reference in order to manage the verification process and as a basis for the computation of the optimal viewpoints. However, in the mechanical field, a variety of inspection tasks is experienced by engineers involved in the quality control process: GD&T verification, production phases control such as sheet metal cutting, evaluation of aesthetic appearance of parts, global shape deformation measurement and specific point deviations assessment. This leads to the necessity of flexible view planning approaches which adapt to the specificity of the required inspection task. The present work targets the development of a comprehensive view planning approach in which several algorithmic options are triggered by the product features to be inspected. Algorithms have been implemented in a prototypal software system which has been experimented as an off-line application to provide inputs to a multi-axis degree of freedom robot arm mounting an optical 3D scanner. Two test cases from die casting and automotive fields are presented. They show the computation of acquisition poses in a suitable sequence and efficiency in the obtained results. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: 3D scanning | GD&T | Inspection | Quality control | View planning

[293] Raffaeli R., Mengoni M., Germani M., Improving the link between computer-assisted design and configuration tools for the design of mechanical products, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing: AIEDAM, 27(1), 51-64, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: The competitive market forces companies to offer tailored products to meet specific customer needs. To avoid wasting time, design efforts generally address the configuration of existing solutions, without producing substantial design modifications. Configuration tools are used to achieve customized products starting from a common platform. Many approaches have been successfully proposed in literature to configure products. However, in the mechanical field they need further investigation in order to be efficiently linked to computer-aided design technologies. Research is focused on tools and methods to automatically produce geometrical models and improve the flexibility of the continuous product updating process. In this context, this paper aims to combine product configuration approaches with design automation techniques in order to support design activities of products to fulfill specific requirements. The approach is based on entities called configurable virtual prototypes. Three different domains are managed and connected via configurable virtual prototypes: product specifications, geometrical data, and product knowledge. In particular, geometry recognition rules are used to identify the parameterization of parts and the assembly mating constraints. The approach is exemplified through an industrial case study where a tool has been developed on the basis of the described method. Advantages of the system are shown in terms of achieved product configuration efficiency. Copyright © 2013.Cambridge University Press.

Keywords: Geometrical Knowledge | Keywords Design Automation | Modularity | Product Configuration

[294] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Mengarelli M., Mengoni M., Rossi M., Promoting eco-design: A software platform for sustainable product design, Proceedings of the Summer School Francesco Turco, 11-13-September-2013, 303-308, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Purpose During past years several eco-design methodologies have been previously defined but none can be easily integrated in the traditional design process of manufacturing companies. This paper wants to overcome this lack and aims to define a methodology, called G.EN.ESI, to help also those designers without a specific know-how on eco-design, during the development of sustainable products. Design/methodology/approach The proposed methodology is composed by six main steps defined to link the eco-design activities with the traditional design activities, to the aim of defining a TO-BE design process. Also new tools have been defined in order to help designers in the assessment of the environmental and cost impacts of a product. These tools have been integrated in an univocal software package, called G.EN.ESI platform. The platform is composed by four tools for the definition of the life cycle model of the product (one for each product life cycle phase), two tools for the assessment of the environmental and cost impacts and a tool to guide the decision-making process. Furthermore, a web module to retrieve the necessary data from the supply chain subjects has been defined. Finally, the link with the CAD and PLM systems is proposed to increase the usability of the platform. Originality/value Using such a platform, the designer is supported by a robust workbench to perform all the analyses required to evaluate the product eco-sustainability for each phase of the product lifecycle. Hence, this software package is essential for companies to implement all the methodology steps without the need to heavily alter the consolidated modus operandi and the internal organization.

Keywords: Eco-design methodology | G.EN.ESI platform | Sustainable design

[295] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Modeling and thermal simulation of a PHEV battery module with cylindrical LFP cells, World Electric Vehicle Journal, 6(1), 175-185, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Generally a part of electric vehicle diffusion is still based on marketing of cars and vans suitable for specific use like work vehicles. A flexible design methodology is required to support rapid prototyping and product customization in the market of tailored EV/PHEV. The research focuses the cooling simulation for a PHEV Li-Ion battery. The thermal analysis is based on the physical parameters of the single cell and on the experimental data. The proposed methodology concerns firstly an analytical approach which evaluates the average heat generated by a single cell during working condition. Then the proposed virtual prototyping analysis has been divided into two levels: the thermal simulation of one cell, and the CFD analysis of a battery module. This workflow has been applied to support the design of a battery pack for a prototypal ecological hybrid vehicle. That test case vehicle is a small van, used for the curbside collection, which has in parallel an internal combustion engine and an electric motor supplied by a LFP battery with small cylindrical cells. The analysis concerns one of the four module which constitutes the whole battery pack. The virtual model has been parameterized and the behavior of air cooling system has been evaluated through virtual tools.

Keywords: Cooling | Lithium battery | Modeling | PHEV | Simulation

[296] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Morbidoni A., Rossi M., A case-based reasoning approach to support the application of the eco-design guidelines, Re-Engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability - Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 81-86, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: The product eco-sustainability is recognized as a key factor for competitive products and recently, lots of international directives (guidelines) have been issued. However, in literature does not exist research on the practical application of the guidelines during the design phase. The paper aims to define a new approach to support the product design, applying the most common eco-design guidelines integrated with the designers past experiences. This approach consists in a Case- Based Reasoning tool containing a repository of eco-design guidelines and knowledge relative to the past designers experience. The approach has been tested during the re-design process of a cooker hood.

Keywords: CBR | Eco-design guidelines | Eco-sustainability

[297] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Marilungo E., A sustainability lifecycle assessment of products and services for the extended enterprise evolution, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 409, 100-109, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Recently numerous companies are moving from products to services to create new business opportunities and increase the value perceived by the customers thanks to an extended value creation network. The research challenge is to support traditional manufacturing enterprises evaluating the shift from products to services as far as sustainability is concerned. While product sustainability can be assessed by several tools, the impacts of PSS (Product-Service Systems) are almost unexplored. This paper adopts a holistic approach to assess sustainability by estimating three main impacts: environmental, economical and social. The methodology is illustrated by means of an industrial case study focusing on washing machines; it analyses the traditional scenario based on tangible product selling with a vertical supply-chain, and an innovative PSS scenario proposing washing as a service within an extended network. Data comparison highlights the achievable benefits of PSS on sustainability.

Keywords: Extended Enterprise | Lifecycle Design | PSS (Product- Service System) | Sustainability

[298] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Dufrene M., Zwolinski P., A methodology and a software platform to implement an eco-design strategy in a manufacturing company, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: During past years several eco-design methodologies have been previously defined but none can be easily integrated in the traditional design process of manufacturing companies. This paper wants to overcome this lack and aims to define a methodology, called G.EN.ESI, to help also those designers without a specific know-how on eco-design, during the development of sustainable products. The methodology has been also contextualized in the traditional product design process, re-engineering this one with new input/output data, actors and specific tools, to demonstrate the applicability in real contexts. The re-engineered process is supported by a new set of integrated software tools, called G.EN.ESI platform. It is made of four tools for the definition of the product life cycle model, two tools for the evaluation of the environmental impact and Life Cycle Cost and a tool to guide the decision-making process during the re-design phase of a product. Furthermore, a web module to retrieve the necessary data from the supply chain subjects has been defined. Finally, the link with the CAD and PLM systems is proposed to increase the usability. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

[299] Gentile M., Lualè M., Mengoni M., Germani M., Design of a system for upper-limb rehabilitation based on an electromechanical orthosis and semg wireless sensors, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, upper-limb injury or impairment represent a widespread problem, related to sport accidents or traumas, surgery operations, stroke and so on. The typical approach to the rehabilitation is one or more physiotherapy sessions, to restore muscular mass and strength. Despite this, over the years, several works proposed innovative solutions, including electromechanical orthoses, which work in relation to the muscular activity, measured by techniques such as superficial electromyography (sEMG). Yet, these systems are still far from commercialization because of their cost, complexity and difficulties in using. A currently unmet need regards the ability of the therapist to control and manage data through a remote interface, by exploiting some of the latest technological resources on the market (smartphones, tablets). The present works aims at designing an upper-limb rehabilitation system, based on an orthosis, sEMG wireless sensors and a dedicated software architecture to overcome these limitations. This will lead to an important change of perspective in physiotherapy procedures since data collection and correlation will produce innovative medical protocols, addressed to people affected by several types of injury or impairment. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

Keywords: Orthoses | SEMG sensors | Upper-limb rehabilitation

[300] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Marilungo E., Product-service sustainability assessment in Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 408, 13-21, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: New directions in modern industry are creating distributed virtual enterprises and pushing companies towards service-enhanced products. Both trends converge when a Virtual Manufacturing Enterprise (VME) is created to provide product-service solutions. At the same time, sustainability is a crucial aspect for industrial networks. This paper proposes a methodology to assess the sustainability of Product-Service Systems (PSS) in a VME by modelling an integrated lifecycle, defining impact categories and KPIs, and evaluating all the partners' contributions. The method allows easily comparing PSS design alternatives to each other or with traditional products. The industrial case study is represented by a "washing as a service" solution proposed by a worldwide VME. Sustainability assessment is useful to highlight the service benefits as well as the critical phases, and to support VME decision-making. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013.

Keywords: Product-Service Systems (PSS) | Service-enhanced products | Sustainability | Sustainable manufacturing networks | Virtual Manufacturing Enterprise (VME)

[301] Raffaeli R., Malatesta M., Marilungo E., Germani M., An approach for managing engineering changes in product families, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 3 B, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Product development is characterized by continuous updating of existing solutions in order to cope with new market requirements. Families of product variants are used to satisfy the needs of new potential customers and penetrate new market niches. New requirements impact on the structure of a product to be changed and also on the other instances of the family which share common parts. Several change management approaches have been proposed in the literature but they are limited to analysis of a single product instance. This paper proposes a dependency-based change propagation approach which is able to cope with engineering changes extended to product families. The proposed tool is based on a multilevel representation of the product structure, where functions, modules and physical parts are defined and interrelated. This system allows evaluating the consequences of engineering changes introduced in the family structure and computing indices of the impact on several design for X contexts. The tool was tested within the R&D department of a large sized company producing household appliances. Gather data are presented and analyzed to identify potentialities and shortcomings of the approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

Keywords: Change management | Product families | Product redesign

[302] Germani M., Dufrene M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Zwolinski P., Integrated software platform for green engineering design and product sustainability, Re-Engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability - Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 87-92, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, industrial products, particularly household appliances, are strongly related to environmental issues. Due to high levels of uncertainty regarding design embodiments at the early design phase, new methods and tools are essential to provide designers a basis to determine the degree of sustainability of a given product. The paper aims to integrate ecodesign activities within the traditional flow of the product design process through the development of an integrated software platform which supports the decision-making task for product sustainability in the early phase of product design.

Keywords: Design for environment | Eco-design | Product development process

[303] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Favi C., Service innovation in household appliances: An industrial case study, Advanced Concurrent Engineering, 583-594, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Service-oriented management is becoming increasingly popular to create new business infrastructures able to self-organize tangible and intangible manufacturing assets in a distributed and interoperable way. The final scope is to manage not simply the Product but also Services along the value chain. This paper presents an interesting case study about a great modern challenge: The implementation of such a service-oriented approach and the shift from PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) to SLM (Service Lifecycle Management). It describes business requirements elicitation towards the creation of an SLM-based ecosystem in collaboration with an Italian company leader in household appliances. The case study focuses on washing machines, analyses the traditional product use and a new service-oriented scenario and defines a list of requirements to be implemented for the creation of the future SLM-based ecosystem. © Springer-Verlag London 2013.

Keywords: Ecosystem collaboration | SLM (Service Lifecycle Management) | SSME (service science management and engineering) | Virtual factories

[304] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Mengarelli M., Cooling simulation of an EV battery pack to support a retrofit project from lead-acid to li-ion cells, 2013 9th IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, IEEE VPPC 2013, 94-99, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: A niche of the electric vehicle market is the electric retrofit of existing vehicles. These updates replace internal combustion engines with high efficiency electric motors and high capacity Li-ion batteries. This market is dominated by mostly small and medium size enterprises that provide tailored solutions to customers. These companies seek to reduce their costs and lead times by using virtual prototyping tools and methods in the main design processes. In this context, our work defines a design methodology to support designers in the definition of cooling systems. As a test case, we analyzed the electric retrofit of a small electric car with a lead-acid battery that was updated to Li-ion technology. We focused on a simulation of the cooling of the battery using a thermal analysis based on the physical parameters of the cell and test bench results. The issue is the evaluation of the heat generated by the electrochemical reactions of lithium ion battery cells. A representative battery module was simulated following the methodological approach. The virtual prototyping analysis was divided into two levels: the thermal simulation of a single cell, and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a battery module composed of LiFePO4 prismatic cells. The geometric and fluid dynamic parameters were investigated with a CFD solver to study the cooling performance. A cooling system configuration was proposed and analyzed using the virtual prototyping tools. © 2013 IEEE.

Keywords: FEV | Lithium-ion battery | Modeling | Simulation

[305] Bernabéu J.A., Germani M., Mandolini M., Mengoni M., Nester C., Preece S., Raffaeli R., CAD tools for designing shoe lasts for people with diabetes, CAD Computer Aided Design, 45(6), 977-990, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: In the context of a research program aiming at defining a framework to acquire patient data and support the whole shoe design and manufacturing process, this paper presents new CAD tools to design and validate lasts for shoes designed specifically for people with diabetes. Shoe last customising systems have already been proposed in the literature. However, tools for designing shoes for people with diabetes do not currently have the capacity to modify the last in order to reduce the risk of foot ulceration, whilst at the same time preserving the style of the shoe. The main contributions of the work are given by a method to identify the required design features to guarantee the footwear preventive function, the determination of a systematic protocol for orienting and measuring the virtual models of the feet and the lasts, and the definition of geometrical operators to modify the last shape according to its original aesthetic and the required footwear parameters. Such variables are computed by a knowledge based system on the basis of the patient's pathology. The paper presents the implementation of two CAD tools and describes the procedures and the geometrical algorithms to handle the last geometry. Finally a case study is reported to show the advantages provided by the proposed approach in terms of achieved quality of the design process and expected footwear performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Diabetic foot | Foot-last fitting | Last design | Last measurement

[306] Raffaeli R., Mengoni M., Germani M., Context dependent automatic view planning: The inspection of mechanical components, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 10(1), 111-127, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Literature shows how 3D CAD product models can be used as reference in order to manage the verification process by 3D optical scanning systems and the computation of the optimal viewpoints. However, in the mechanical field, a variety of inspection tasks is experienced by engineers involved in the quality control process: GD&T verification, production phases control such as sheet metal cutting, evaluation of aesthetic appearance of parts, global shape deformation measurement and specific point deviations assessment. This leads to the necessity of flexible view planning approaches which adapt to the specificity of the required inspection task. The present work targets the development of a comprehensive view planning approach in which several algorithmic options are triggered by the product features to be inspected. Algorithms have been implemented in a prototypal software system which has been experimented as an off-line application to provide inputs to a multiaxis Degree of Freedom (DoF) robot arm mounting an optical 3D scanner. Two test cases from die casting and automotive fields are presented. They show the computation of acquisition poses in a suitable sequence and efficiency in the obtained results. © 2013 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: 3D scanning | GD&T | Inspection | Quality control | View planning

[307] Cicconi P., Landi D., Morbidoni A., Germani M., Feasibility analysis of second life applications for Li-Ion cells used in electric powertrain using environmental indicators, 2012 IEEE International Energy Conference and Exhibition, ENERGYCON 2012, 985-990, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: The recently increase of the EV/PHEV market is in part due to the technological progress of battery systems. The energy storage and charging are the critical aspects of an electric vehicle; Li-Ion batteries allow an increase in storage performance and efficiencies despite the needs of a high number of cells. The single Li-Ion cell is constituted by metals, graphite, various salts and electrolytes which result difficult to dispose of or recycle. Therefore the expected environmental sustainability of any EV is limited by the final impact of battery production and disposal. The proposed research studies the Second Life applications suitable for the Li-Ion battery cells used for electric powertrains in order to promote a Sustainable Transportation and avoid the environmental impact that disposal of these batteries would have. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis has been adopted to estimate the gain in terms of environmental impact provided by reusing disposed Li-Ion cells for a Second Life application. An automotive battery pack with LiFePO4 cells has been chosen as a test case, then the life-cycle due to vehicle loads has been predicted by accelerated tests and the residual cell capacity has been experimentally evaluated. A possible Second Life scenario has been studied for the automotive Li-Ion batteries: reusing the disposed cell in a smart grid system after vehicle use to provide the grid energy stabilization and storage. This strategy has been evaluated with an LCA tool taking into account materials (anode, cathode, separator, et.), as well as flows and processes (production, assembly, disassembly) both for production and reuse phases. The research results show a positive effect of the Second Life solution on the environmental impact of the Li-Ion cells; moreover, the collected data will be useful for the Second Life strategies and scheduling during the early design phase. © 2012 IEEE.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles | Li-Ion Battery | Life Cycle Assessment | Second Life Applications

[308] Raffaeli R., Malatesta M., Mandolini M., Germani M., Automatic geometric recognition of weld beads for supporting virtual prototyping and cost estimation of welding, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 3(PARTS A, B, AND C), 149-158, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Welding is widely used in industry for products made of joined sheet metal parts and beams. The virtual prototyping process of welds in standard CAD systems relies on functionalities to manually add weld beads to the assembly models. Weld beads can be in the form of symbolic annotations or 3D solid representations. The size of products in terms of number of parts and required weld beads makes this process cumbersome and time consuming. This paper presents a method to analyze CAD models of product assemblies in order to automatically identify possible welds among the parts using geometric recognition rules. Adjacent faces are detected and Boolean operators on planar loops are used to identify bead paths. Beads are then split in homogeneous portions based on the topology of the connected parts. The geometrical analysis of the connected parts also allows a bead to be characterized in terms of thickness, type, length and accessibility. Finally, the user is provided with functionalities to edit manufacturing properties or exclude unwanted welds. The approach is applied at the design stage to rapidly come to the definition of the welds. If integrated with a CAD tool, this can be used as input for an efficient detailing phase. Moreover, the paper presents an application for the cost estimation of the designed welded product. Weld beads are given a realization time, and hence a cost, based on their geometric size and employed welding technology. Some examples from the industry are presented to show benefits in terms of time savings and accuracy of the cost estimation process. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Weald beads recognition

[309] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Promoting and managing end-of-life closed-loop scenarios of products using a design for disassembly evaluation tool, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 3(PARTS A AND B), 1339-1348, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, environmentally conscious design has become a fundamental approach for industries which have to consider the variable environment during the design process. Waste management is one of the most important aspects to be handled, to reduce the disposal in landfills and to encourage the sustainable 3R approach: Reuse, Recycling and Remanufacturing. Product disassembly is an essential phase of the product lifecycle, necessary to evaluate the End-of-Life (EoL) strategies and to reduce environmental impact. In order to minimize the impact on production and costs it is very important to consider EoL scenarios during the embodiment design phase, when designer's decisions influence product structure. Design for Disassembly (DFD) is a powerful method to reduce disassembly time and costs. However, there are no useful tools which provide guidelines to improve the product disassemblability or promote specific EoL scenarios. For these reasons this paper describes an innovative Design for Disassembly approach and related tool to support designers in product disassemblability evaluation. The tool has the scope to manage EoL scenarios for industrial waste in the early design phases and to share metadata with the traditional design tools. Disassembly costs is one of the most important parameters during the evaluation of EoL scenarios. Six indices are presented to evaluate the economic and environmental feasibility of the EoL strategies. The calculation of the six indices permits alternative EoL scenarios to be compared and encourage the recyclability, reusability or re-manufacturability of a product. These evaluations can be used to foster a particular EoL scenario, as early on as in the design process. The preliminary analysis on mechatronic products underline the utility of the software tool and indices. Product re-design, realized using this approach, shows a relevant decrease in environmental impacts and disassembly costs. As a consequence, the new product has a relevant percentage of components with a closed-loop lifecycle. © 2012 by ASME.

[310] Favi C., Germani M., Mengoni M., Correlation law between functions and environmental impact for smart products, ASME 2012 11th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, ESDA 2012, 3, 813-822, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Smart products are becoming more present in everyday life. They are prevalent in different markets such as electronic devices, cars and household appliances. One important dimension of product smartness is "multi- functionality". When choosing a product, the consumer takes into account subjective and objective purchase drivers. Price, brand, aesthetics, environmental impact and functionalities represent an important set of these. In this context the work are interested in correlating two drivers: functions and eco-sustainability. Generally, this last characteristic should be maximized taking into consideration a correct balance with product functionalities. The aim of this work is to investigate this correlation. It can be measured by a suitable correspondence in order to determine a quantitative law. This relationship can be useful to the designers to determine the product features during the product design phase, but it can be also used by consumers to compare similar products. This paper reports the problem domain, approach for correlation law definition and, finally, the experimental analysis of product functions vs. environmental sustainability. Two case studies in the household appliances sector will exemplify the proposed analysis. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

Keywords: Environmental impact | Functions | Product design | Product evaluation

[311] Favi C., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A lifecycle design approach to analyze the eco-sustainability of industrial products and product-service systems, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, DS 70, 879-888, (2012).
[312] Germani M., Bernabeu J.A., Mandolini M., Mengoni M., Raffaeli R., A knowledge-based design process for diabetic shoe lasts, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, DS 70, 889-900, (2012).
[313] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Favi C., Shift from PLM to SLM: A method to support business requirements elicitation for service innovation, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 388 AICT, 111-123, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: PLM is a widely recognized approach to reduce time to market, increase process efficiency and control product lifecycle. However, service-oriented management is becoming increasingly popular to create new business infrastructures able to self-organize tangible and intangible manufacturing assets in a distributed and interoperable way [1]. The final scope is to manage not simply the Product but also Services along the value chain. The great modern challenge is the implementation of such a service-oriented approach and the shift from PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) to SLM (Service Lifecycle Management). This paper proposes a structured method to define a TO-BE service-oriented scenario and elicit business requirements towards the creation of an SLM-based ecosystem. A case study is developed in collaboration with an Italian company leader in household appliances. It focuses on washing machine, investigates AS-IS and TO-BE business scenarios by adopting Functional Analysis and Business Use Cases (BUC), and then defines the necessary business requirements to implement a service-based approach and create the future SLM ecosystem. © 2012 International Federation for Information Processing.

Keywords: Ecosystem Collaboration | SLM (Service Lifecycle Management) | SSME (Service Science, Management and Engineering) | Virtual Factories

[314] Ceccacci S., Germani M., Mengoni M., User centred approach for home environment designing, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Highly usable human-system interfaces can have a large benefit on the quality of life for the elderly and disabled. New emerging product design technologies, such as Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), give many opportunities to evaluate and improve system usability in the early design stages. In this way different design alternatives can be evaluated in terms of physical and cognitive performance. In this context the present paper describes a systematic approach for designing highly usable home environments and optimizing human-machine interaction. VR/AR technologies are adopted for user interface evaluation. The approach will be applied to the design of a new kitchen.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Home environment usability | Inclusive design | User interfaces | Virtual Reality

[315] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., Innovative software platform for eco-design of efficient electric motors, Journal of Cleaner Production, 37, 125-134, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Electric motors are one of the most common electrical components used both in industrial and household applications. In order to reduce world energy consumption and environmental impact, electric motors need to be improved in terms of efficiency and eco-sustainability. For this reason it is necessary to improve environmental consciousness, favouring the application of eco-design guidelines in the design phase, which is the most important stage where "green" solutions can be rapidly ideated, evaluated and optimized. Different aspects have to be concurrently considered in order to achieve a high quality product in a short time to market. In this context, the present paper describes an innovative web-based software platform to configure and simulate customized energy efficient electric motors. The core of the platform is a knowledge-based system which aims to standardize the design process according to the rules which represent the company know-how and best practices. The platform integrates different software tools to support the development from conceptual design to detailed design, and from the configuration of design solutions up to environmental impact assessment and manufacturing cost evaluation. It also provides a collaborative area in order to improve the collaboration among remote users involved in the design process, thanks to the sharing of important design data and models. The presented practical case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the platform application. The achieved results demonstrate the improvement of the configured solutions in comparison with the traditional adopted motors. The new motors exhibit both a considerable increase in energy efficiency and at the same time relevant improvement in product sustainability combined with acceptable production costs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Collaborative design | Eco-design | Electric motors | Energy efficiency | Knowledge-based system

[316] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Mengoni M., Electro-tactile device for texture simulation, Proceedings of 2012 8th IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications, MESA 2012, 178-183, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: The research goal is material texture simulation by means of electro-tactile stimuli. This paper presents a novel tactile display, the procedure adopted to generate the stimulating signals, and the experimental testing. The tactile system elaborates data from scans of real material samples and generates electrical stimuli to reproduce roughness and texture coarseness sensations. It also adds a coherent sound feedback to improve the realism of the simulation. The research defines an experimental protocol to carry out system calibration and tests with users in order to validate the proposed tactile system as a new tool for material simulation. Experimentations have been carried out to measure the users' response to different material classes (wood, paper, rubber, textile fabric). Experimental results concern how good the adopted simulation approach is and the tactile stimuli simulated by the system are. Main findings relate to the system performance and the users' response in terms of signal recognition and material class discrimination. © 2012 IEEE.

Keywords: Advanced tactile display | Material simulation | Multimodal and multisensory interaction | Perception & Psychophysics

[317] Gentile M., Mengoni M., Babini M., Germani M., Design of a force feedback haptic device based on an anthropomorphic arm, Proceedings of 2012 8th IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications, MESA 2012, 172-177, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, Virtual Reality technologies have spread in numerous industrial and research contexts for their ability to provide the perception of virtual spaces and objects by an appropriate combination of sensory channels stimuli. Haptic feedback enhances the user's perceptual immersion during the interaction with virtual prototypes. Commercial haptic force feedback devices are affected by some functional limitations, such as the size of workspace and the type of contact they can provide. The present work aims at developing an innovative device starting from the customization of an anthropomorphic arm. This allows to increase the workspace, to provide a surface contact and to improve the whole ergonomics of the system. The system multi-layer architecture is designed to have a lower level of robot control and a higher level of highly usable graphic user interface, which displays both the virtual prototype and the manipulating virtual probe. © 2012 IEEE.

Keywords: Anthropomorphic arm | FFD | Virtual Prototyping

[318] Favi C., Germani M., A method to optimize assemblability of industrial product in early design phase: From product architecture to assembly sequence, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 6(3), 155-169, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: The development of modular products is diffused in modern production due to the achievable flexibility and to the required product personalization. Modular products can maximize the efficiency of productive processes if they are structured to be easily configurable during the assembly phase. In this context the present work proposes an approach to optimize the product's modular architecture aimed to improve manual assemblability. The goal of this method is to assess the product assembly sequence during the early design stage. In particular it improves the conceptual design for assembly approach by taking into account the role of different flows in the modular product structure and the types of interface between modules. A case study regarding the household appliance field is reported and it allows the method results to be shown and to highlight advantages and drawbacks. A relevant improvement in terms of the reduction of assembly time is obtained. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: Conceptual design for assembly | Interface connection | Product architecture

[319] Mengoni M., Germani M., Colaiocco B., Morichetti P., A tactile display for texture perception in virtual environments, Innovative Developments in Virtual and Physical Prototyping - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanced Research and Rapid Prototyping, 653-660, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper presents a novel tactile display to simulate material properties such as roughness and texturewhile exploringVirtual Prototypes surfaces inVirtual Reality environments.The final aim of the system is to immerse users into an involving and enhanced product experience stimulating emotional and affective reaction. The developed display adopts a selective stimulation technique to differently activate skin mechanoreceptors and hence to generate surface texture sensations. The stimulation is realized by both an electric component made of a pin matrix through which the current flows and by a mechanical one obtained by a shaker keeping the tactile pad vibrating. Main development stages are described and experimental results discussed. They show that almost 65% of users are able to discriminate different signals. When acoustic cues are added, this percentage increases. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

[320] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., LeanDfd: A design for disassembly approach to evaluate the feasibility of different End-of-Life scenarios for industrial products, Leveraging Technology for a Sustainable World - Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 215-220, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Product disassembly is an important phase of the product lifecycle. It occurs to minimize the maintenance time and evaluate the End-of-Life (EoL) strategies, for example component reuse/recycling. These scenarios should be considered during the design process when decisions influence product architecture/structure. In this context, the present work describes an approach to support the designer's evaluation of disassemblability by using the 3D CAD model structure and suitable key indices related to product features. A software system allows the product model to be analyzed and evaluates the disassemblability degree. An experimental case study facilitates the approach demonstration and highlights product performance.

Keywords: Design for disassembly | End-of-Life | Industrial products

[321] Ceccacci S., Germani M., Mengoni M., How to use virtual and augmented reality techniques to design highly usable human-machine interfaces, Designing Inclusive Systems: Designing Inclusion for Real-World Applications, 65-74, (2012).
[322] Peruzzini M., Mengoni M., Germani M., Virtual tactile simulation: A novel display and the effects on users' texture perception, ASME/ISCIE 2012 International Symposium on Flexible Automation, ISFA 2012, 671-678, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a novel study on the simulation of material texture by means of electro-tactile stimuli and details the effects on the users' ability to recognize and discriminate different material classes. The research exploits a novel tactile display to simulate material texture and validates the adopted simulation strategy by experimental testing. The tactile system elaborates data from real material samples and combines electrical stimuli and mechanical vibration to reproduce both roughness and texture coarseness sensations. Then, an experimental protocol based on the theory of Psychophysics is defined to carry out system calibration and tests with users. The research aims at validating the proposed simulation strategy and checking the user response on virtual tactile stimuli. Experimentations were carried out to reproduce virtual material texture and measure the users' ability to distinguish different virtual materials and to recognize the material class. Experimental results provide interesting details about tactile perception mechanisms and validate the adopted approach for tactile signals' recognition and material class discrimination. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

[323] Germani M., Mandolini M., Mengoni M., Nester C., Raffaeli R., Tools for design and validation of shoe lasts for diabetic patients, Footwear Science, 4(3), 221-241, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Background: It is common practice to prescribe customised footwear to people with diabetes to reduce the risk of foot ulceration. Although shoe customising systems have been proposed, effective tools for designing shoe lasts for diabetic patients are lacking. The shape of the lasts must meet certain biomechanical objectives, while maintaining the style of the shoe.Method: The main contributions of this work are as follows: the creation of an artificial-neural-network-based framework to correlate foot measurements and medical data to required footwear features; the definition of repeatable geometrical procedures to measure foot and last scans; and the definition of geometrical operators to modify the last shape according to its original aesthetic and specific footwear parameters. These parameters are computed by a knowledge-based system on the basis of the patient's pathology and best practices of experienced technicians.Results: Dedicated software systems integrated in a common platform are implemented to support the last design process. Test case studies and a survey show the advantages provided by the proposed approach in terms of achieved quality and shoe developing time (72% time savings).Conclusions: A design framework with dedicated tools is proposed for the customisation of shoe lasts for diabetic patients. Further research should be focused on tools to design the insole, outsole and other shoe components. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Keywords: diabetic foot | foot-last fitting | last design | last measurement

[324] Germani M., Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., An approach to assessing virtual environments for synchronous and remote collaborative design, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 26(4), 793-813, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper considers applying novel Virtual Environments (VEs) in collaborative product design, focusing on reviewing activities. Companies are usually anchored to commercial ICT tools, which are mature and reliable. However, two main problems emerge: the difficulty in selecting the most suitable tools for specific purposes and the complexity in evaluating the impact that using technology has on design collaboration. The present work aims to face both aspects by proposing a structured benchmarking method based on expert judgements and defining a set of benchmarking weights based on experimental tests. The method considers both human-human interaction and teamwork-related aspects. A subsequent evaluation protocol considering both process efficiency and human-human interaction allows a closed-loop verification process. Pilot projects evaluate different technologies, and the benchmarking weights are verified and adjusted for more reliable system assessment. This paper focuses on synchronous and remote design review activities: three different tools have been compared according to expert judgements. The two best performing tools have been implemented as pilot projects within real industrial chains. Design collaboration has been assessed by considering both process performance and human-human interaction quality, as well as benchmarking results validated by indicating some corrective actions. The final benchmarking weights can thus be further adopted for an agile system benchmark in synchronous and remote design. The main findings suggest defining both an innovative process to verify the expert benchmark reliability and a trusty benchmarking method to evaluate tools for synchronous and remote design without experimental testing. Furthermore, the proposed method has a general validity and can be properly set for different collaborative dimensions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Benchmarking method | Collaborative design | Design review | Metrics | Virtual environments

[325] Germani M., Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., A QFD-based method to support SMEs in benchmarking co-design tools, Computers in Industry, 63(1), 12-29, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Efficient collaborative product design is crucial for extended enterprises willing to develop complex products pursuing a short time to market. However, successful collaborative product design depends on the ability to effectively manage and share engineering knowledge and data throughout the entire product development process. Co-design software platforms aim to facilitate cooperation in distributed teams. In the context of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) the advanced co-design software implementation to support the supply chain is not a trivial task. SMEs have peculiar characteristics such as flexibility, ICT skills and financial resources, which are difficult to be integrated within a structured design network. This paper presents a method to define and evaluate a co-design platform dedicated to SMEs in the mechanical product field. System architecture is defined by applying suitable metrics based on collaborative process characteristics in order to assess functionality performance of the available tools. Benchmarking is based on different levels of collaboration recognized in the typical product development process in SMEs. Correlation between process metrics, software functionalities and specific collaboration requirements is managed by adopting Quality Function Deployment (QFD) techniques. A practical case study allows the robustness of the proposed method to be verified and the main advantages and future developments to be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Collaborative product design | Metrics | Quality Function Deployment | Small and Medium Enterprises

[326] Mengoni M., Morichetti P., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A tactile simulation approach to enhance virtual prototypes interaction, ASME 2011 World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality, WINVR 2011, 57-66, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: Materials simulation in virtual prototyping is one of the most challenging issues as not completely fulfilled by current devices. It allows Virtual Reality-based interfaces to provide multisensory interaction and to enhance product experience by mainly stimulating user emotional response. In this context the paper presents a new tactile simulation approach based on material surface properties elaboration and processing to stimulate roughness and texture coarseness perception. The developed approach leads to the development of a tactile display and a software tool to manage the configuration of selective stimulating signals. The main problem the research aims at overcoming, regards with the nature of signals adopted by most electrotactile displays and the way to stimulate skin mechanoreceptors. The paper focuses on the description of the adopted approach and of the implemented software tool in order to control the tactile display. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

Keywords: HumanComputer Interaction | Material simulation | Multisensory interaction | Selective stimulation | Tactile display

[327] Mengoni M., Morichetti P., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A method for roughness and texture simulation VIA tactile displays, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 3(PARTS A AND B), 535-544, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a tactile synthesis method to provide roughness and texture coarseness sensations using a selective stimulation approach implemented by a tactile display. Digitizing, elaborating and processing real material surfaces obtain signals. The selection of their frequency range is based on the reactive frequencies of SAI and FAI types receptors. An electro-tactile display provided with a mechanical vibration to stimulate FAII units located at the deeper skin layers has been developed. A SW tool allows to manage selective signals modulation and configuration according to the displayed material. The research aims at overcoming a crucial problem concerning the signals adopted by most electro-tactile displays to stimulate skin mechanoreceptors. The paper focuses on the description of the adopted method and of the implemented software tool to control the tactile display. Preliminary experimentations were carried out to measure the system's latency, accuracy and reliability. Experimental sessions show a promising system response: minimal latency (30ms), good reliability (>98%) and acceptable accuracy (>70%). © 2011 by ASME.

[328] Peruzzini M., Mengoni M., Germani M., AN exploratory study to fill the GAP between co-design tools and industrial applications, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2(PARTS A AND B), 1599-1608, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper deals with the application of remote collaborative environments in product design, in particular for design review activities. In this context, companies actually face some troubles: limited knowledge about available tools, difficulty in coming to know and using innovative systems, and complexity in evaluating the impact of the technology on design collaboration. The present research suggests a novel collaborative environment (the CoReD platform) that merges system simplicity, project-oriented approach and customizable functions. It defines a metric-based protocol considering both performances and cognitive aspects to assess collaboration quality and then monitors design review sessions within three industrial Consortia. Research contributions are to answer two main questions: how to arrange a low-cost co-design environment and how to effectively evaluate the human-system interaction and collaborative performance in industrial use. Experimental results highlight that the CoReD platform is able to efficiently improve collaborative processes by affecting both product-process performance and human-based collaboration, mainly thanks to: system architecture simplicity, low cost, high customizable functionalities and ease of use for remote design. However, results demonstrate also that significant advantages can be achieved only if industrial partners have a good level of technical expertise and high motivation to collaborate each other. © 2011 by ASME.

Keywords: Co-design | CVE (Collaborative Virtual Environment) | Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) | Industrial applications | Multidisciplinary teamwork

[329] Raffaeli R., Mengoni M., Germani M., An early-stage tool to evaluate the product redesign impact, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 5(PARTS A AND B), 183-195, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: In order to face the rapid changing market requirements, companies need methods and tools in order to implement flexibility over the whole product development process, from ideation to manufacturing. The proposed approach targets the development of a method to support decision making in product redesign activities. Design alternatives and product modifications can be rapidly evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and time. The approach is based on a product structure multilevel representation, where functions, modules, assemblies and components are strictly interrelated. The representation allows criteria and rules in order to efficiently connect the elements within the same level and among levels. Such connections will contain the values to estimate the impact of analyzed product changes. In this way the structure will serve as evaluation tool in the early redesign phases. In order to manage and interact with the structure a software tool has been developed, called Modulor. This system allows modeling the product representation and rapidly evaluating the consequences in terms of change propagation. The tool was tested within the R&D department of a large sized company producing household appliances. Pilot studies have revealed shorter redesign cycles thanks to a broader understanding of implications while deciding among several implementation solutions. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

Keywords: Change management | Decision making | Product redesign

[330] Germani M., Mandolini M., Cicconi P., Manufacturing cost estimation during early phases of machine design, ICED 11 - 18th International Conference on Engineering Design - Impacting Society Through Engineering Design, 5, 198-209, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: Machine design process requires the effective and rapid assessment of different design solutions. Beyond functions and technical performance other parameters as safety, manufacturability, assemblability etc. have to be taken into account. Manufacturing cost is one of the main factors in order to choose the most suitable solution, so accurate estimation in the early design phases is fundamental. Design to cost implies to manage a vast amount of manufacturing knowledge that has to be linked to the design parameters. Feature based 3D CAD models contain data useful for cost estimation but, despite the numerous researches on features recognition and extraction, no cost estimation software system yet assures reliable results. In such context, this paper presents an approach for rapid manufacturing cost estimation where design features are automatically linked to manufacturing operations. The approach has been implemented into a knowledge-based system and tested on practical case studies in order to validate the performance. Copyright © 2002-2012 The Design Society. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Design to cost | Feature-based costing | Knowledge-based system | Manufacturing features

[331] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., Tirabassi A., EROD: New collaborative design platform for developing energy efficient electric motors, 2011 IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference, IEMDC 2011, 59-64, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years International and Communitarian directives have focused their attention on the problem of energy consumption. In this context electric motors play a key role and designers must improve products considering this direction. This paper presents an innovative platform, called EROD (Energy Reduction Oriented Design), which consists of multiple software modules with different functionalities to support the whole design process of electric motors. The goal of EROD platform is to achieve energy efficient and sustainable electric motors and related devices. The platform facilitates knowledge and data sharing among design team members, it arranges the workflow activities and finally it promotes collaborative design sessions. All functionalities are implemented within the same web-based platform. This guarantees interoperability among different tools and leads up to significant reduction of development time due to the elimination of errors and iterations. The platform was tested to design five innovative electric motors for industrial and household applications. Results show that the new developed motors improve current solutions in terms of energy efficiency and environmental impact during use. © 2011 IEEE.

Keywords: collaborative design | efficiency | electric motors | environmental impact | optimization

[332] Davia M., Germani M., Mandolini M., Maura M., Montiel E., Raffaeli R., Shoes customization design tools for the "diabetic foot", Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 8(5), 693-711, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: Diabetes is one of the main causes that generate foot health related diseases. It impacts on a large percentage of world population and is expected to grow in next 20 years. Good footwear is fundamental for influencing foot health status in particular when foot can be subjected to many serious problems as in case of diabetic patients. This research work faces this problem by defining an approach and related computeraided echnologies in order to properly design customized shoes for people suffering from diabetes. Design rules have been fixed by formalizing knowledge that expert podiatrists use to prevent foot diseases. Studied and implemented technologiesinterest the whole footwear design process: foot scanning, foot dynamic pressure measurement, design of last, insole and outsole. This paper is focused on the description of design software system structure and related tools, and, then, it reports preliminary experimental results on 20 case studies. © 2011 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: Cad modeling | Diabetes | Footwear customization

[333] Raffaeli R., Germani M., Advanced computer aided technologies for design automation in footwear industry, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 5(3), 137-149, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: In the footwear industry there is growing methodological research linking advanced computer-based technologies to the traditional manufacturing process. This paper deals with the automation of shoe design phases and describes a computer aided design system that brings together theories and tools from geometric modeling, image processing, and reverse engineering. At first, the paper reviews the current technologies used for creating new shoe models. Then the paper presents an approach based on shoe 3D virtual modeling in order to overcome the traditional time-consuming manual operations. The approach is concretized into dedicated tools able to automatically perform design of the last shape model and flattening of the shoe styling curves represented in the virtual prototype. The modeling tool uses 3D geometric rules derived from the analysis of strategies adopted by skilled manual operators, while the styling curves recognition and flattening are based on specific image processing algorithms and geometrical deformation rules. Experimental results show a good compromise between quality results and modeling time. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: Design automation | Footwear industry | Reverse engineering | Time compression technologies

[334] Mengoni M., Germani M., Peruzzini M., Benchmarking of virtual reality performance in mechanics education, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 5(2), 103-117, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper explores the potentialities of virtual reality (VR) to improve the learning process of mechanical product design. It is focused on the definition of a proper experimental VR-based set-up whose performance matches mechanical design learning purposes, such as assemblability and tolerances prescription. The method consists of two main activities: VR technologies benchmarking based on sensory feedback and evaluation of how VR tools impact on learning curves. In order to quantify the performance of the technology, an experimental protocol is defined and an testing plan is set. Evaluation parameters are divided into performance and usability metrics to distinguish between the cognitive and technical aspects of the learning process. The experimental VR-based set up is tested on students in mechanical engineering through the application of the protocol. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: Experimental protocol | Learning curve | Mechanical product design | Mechanics education | Virtual reality

[335] Mengoni M., Colaiocco B., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Design of a tactile display to support materials perception in virtual environments, Proceedings - IEEE Virtual Reality, 227-228, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: Materials properties simulation by means of haptic devices is one of the most significant issues in the design of new humancomputer interfaces to support virtual prototypes interaction in numerous product design activities. Notwithstanding the several research attempts, a very natural perception of materials has not been achieved yet. We present a novel tactile display. It combines both mechanical and electrotactile approaches to simulate natural tactile sensations. In order to enhance experience acoustic and visual cues are integrated. A signal generation method allows correlating materials properties and simulating signals according to the characteristics of fingertip mechanoreceptors. The final scope is making users perceive the object's surface roughness, slickness and texture coarseness. Research results are the developed simulation method and the detailed design of the whole tactile display. The preliminary prototype is under construction. © 2011 IEEE.

Keywords: 3D interaction | Haptics | multimodal interaction

[336] Davia M., Germani M., Mandolini M., Mengoni M., Montiel E., Raffaeli R., Shoes Customization Design Tools for the “Diabetic Foot”, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 8(5), 693-711, (2011). Abstract
X

Abstract: Diabetes is one of the main causes that generate foot health related diseases. It impacts on a large percentage of world population and is expected to grow in next 20 years. Good footwear is fundamental for influencing foot health status in particular when foot can be subjected to many serious problems as in case of diabetic patients. This research work faces this problem by defining an approach and related computer-aided technologies in order to properly design customized shoes for people suffering from diabetes. Design rules have been fixed by formalizing knowledge that expert podiatrists use to prevent foot diseases. Studied and implemented technologies interest the whole footwear design process: foot scanning, foot dynamic pressure measurement, design of last, insole and outsole. This paper is focused on the description of design software system structure and related tools, and, then, it reports preliminary experimental results on 20 case studies. © 2011 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: CAD modeling | Diabetes | Footwear customization

[337] Mengoni M., Germani M., Peruzzini M., Mandolini M., Supporting virtual teamwork in Collaborative Product Development, International Journal of Product Development, 15(1-3), 90-114, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: The increasing product complexity and the continuous need of improving product quality and services force companies to join into distributed and extended networks. Collaborative product development triggers research toward the development of new methods and tools to manage virtual teamwork to reduce time to market. In this context, the paper proposes a novel approach and a supporting co-design platform to manage interrelations across organisations. Experimentations into four product design chains show improvements in communication, information sharing, knowledge distribution, time saving and easiness of team management. They demonstrate that collaborative product development can be usefully enhanced only if tools and procedures are designed for the specific needs of the virtual network. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Keywords: Co-design platform | Collaborative product development | CPD | Distributed knowledge management | Virtual teamwork

[338] Morbidoni A., Favi C., Germani M., CAD-integrated LCA tool: Comparison with dedicated LCA software and guidelines for the improvement, Glocalized Solutions for Sustainability in Manufacturing - Proceedings of the 18th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 569-574, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: CAD-integrated LCA tools are developed in order to support SLCA (Simplified Life Cycle Assessment) method and they could be used as eco-design tools in the design phase. Nevertheless they are still a long way from being accurate and properly usable. The present work aims at demonstrating this assumption in concrete terms by focusing the attention on the mechanical field. A comparison analysis between CAD-integrated LCA tools and dedicated LCA tools has been proposed in order to determine the main causes of error and to propose guidelines for improvement. An approach based on these guidelines is presented and preliminarily evaluated.

Keywords: CAD | Eco-design | Life Cycle Assessment

[339] Germani M., Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., How to address virtual teamwork in SMEs by an innovative Co-design platform, International Journal of Product Lifecycle Management, 5(1), 54-72, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: Collaborative product development is crucial for extended enterprises in order to promote innovation facing market competitiveness. Co-design software platforms aim at facilitating companies networking to achieve common design goals. A successful cooperation depends on tools' ability to effectively manage communication, data sharing in distributed teams and specific interaction requirements. In the context of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the integration of design and supply chains is not a trivial task. Their highly flexible organisation makes difficult to manage multidisciplinary teamwork and advanced co-design software implementation. This paper presents a structured method for defining an innovative co-design platform for SMEs. System architecture can be defined by applying suitable metrics based on collaborative process characteristics in order to assess functionalities performance of available tools. Benchmarking is based on different levels of collaboration recognised in typical SMEs product development process. Correlation between process metrics, software functionalities and specific collaboration needs is managed by adopting quality function deployment (QFD) techniques. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Keywords: Co-design platform | Collaborative product development | Computer supported cooperative work | CSCW | Virtual teamwork

[340] Raffaeli R., Mengoni M., Germani M., A software system for "Design for X" impact evaluations in redesign processes, Strojniski Vestnik/Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 56(11), 707-717, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Market always asks for new products in short time. It requires an introduction of new tools and methods for managing continuous product changes while evaluating their impact in terms of design efforts, manufacturing costs, time to market, etc in real time. The present research work aims at developing a design platform to support the creation, visualization and navigation of a multilevel product representation where functions, modules, assemblies and components are strictly interrelated. The introduction of "Design for X" principles as rules to relate all aspects contributing to product design, allows evaluating the impact of changes at three levels. The approach and the proposed platform have been applied in the field of refrigerators in order to support both designers and engineers in rapidly configuring the optimal design solution in respect of the company's requirements formalized by the implemented "Design for X" rules. © 2010 Journal of Mechanical Engineering.

Keywords: Change management | Design for X | Functional analysis and modularity | Impact of design changes

[341] Mengoni M., Germani M., Peruzzini M., Products experience: How can virtual prototyping improve usability testing?, Innovative Developments in Design and Manufacturing - Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, 505-514, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: During product development, usability tests allow the investigation of product performance in terms of effectiveness and user satisfaction. Virtual Reality (VR) systems provide new modes of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) that can support usability testing at the early design stages by adopting virtual prototypes to simulate product experience. The problem is that only posture and occlusion parameters can be easily measured while the emotional and affective dimension is difficult to be assessed. In this context, the present paper focuses on two objectives. Firstly, it aims at investigating which product attributes stimulate affective user response by defining a structured protocol to analyze how sample users experience product attributes determining affordance and synaesthesia qualities. Then, real and virtual environments are compared in order to address VR systems improvements. Consequently, the second goal is to define a new VR-based environment for usability testing by considering a proper set of existing technologies integrated with a proposed multi-sensorial system for materials texture and roughness perception. Protocol experimentations are carried out in household appliances. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group.

[342] Germani M., Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., A benchmarking method to investigate co-design virtual environments for enhancing industrial collaboration, ASME 2010 World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality, WINVR 2010, 87-99, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most significant challenge of Virtual Reality (VR) in industry is to support the interaction with product models while enhancing the collaborative product development (CPD) by improving team working in the extended enterprise. The process success highly depends on how information flows and which representational means and supporting environments are adopted. This paper explores the impact of VR applications on collaboration focusing on co-design requirements, participants behavior and exploited interaction modalities. A benchmarking method is defined to select the proper co-design virtual environment for specific forms of collaboration carried out in different time-space domains. It adopts protocol analysis techniques to objectify both practical and cognitive human factors and it applies Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) matrices to correlate collaboration requirements and tools functionalities. Experimental tests have been carried out on synchronous and remote co-design activities, where VR tools have been poorly exploited. Achieved results highlight main limitations and strengths of the analysed technologies, addressing future developments in collaborative virtual environments. © 2010 by ASME.

[343] Mengoni M., Colaiocco B., Germani M., Peruzzini M., Design of a novel human-computer interface to support HCD application, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 3(PARTS A AND B), 1401-1411, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: The importance of Human-Centered Design (HCD) drives research toward the development of new UIs (User Interfaces) in order to predict human interaction with products at the early design stages. Virtual Reality (VR) allows carrying out usability tests on virtual prototypes to investigate users' cognitive and affective response. Application problems regard with the reproduction of synaesthesia qualities in order to make the information processing similar to the one obtained by real sensory stimulation. While visualization technologies seem to be mature enough to overcome the above mentioned limitation, tactile devices are still far from properly simulating materials properties. In this context, the present work aims at structuring and applying a systematic approach to conceive, define and develop a novel VR-based technology, called IperTouch. The goal is to stimulate the skin mechanoreceptors to generate a meaningful tactile sensation about materials softness, friction and roughness. The system can be also integrated with imaging and sound technologies to create a multi-sensorial product experience. The preliminary architecture results from the analysis of human tactile perception and the benchmark of available simulation devices and techniques. This paper contributes to discuss current issues of existing VR-based technologies in supporting HCD applications and to address technical developments toward the creation of a reliable system for texture perception. Keywords: Human-Centered Design (HCD), Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), virtual touch, material simulation, product experience. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

[344] Raffaeli R., Cicconi P., Mengoni M., Germani M., Modular product configuration: An automatic tool for eliciting design knowledge from parametric cad models, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1(PARTS A AND B), 207-218, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: The offer of tailored products is a key factor to satisfy specific customer needs in the current competitive market. Modular products can easily support customization in a short time. Design process, in this case, can be regarded as a configuration task where solution is achieved through the combination of modules in overall product architecture. In this scenario efficient configuration design tools are evermore important. Although many tools have been already proposed in literature, they need further investigation to be applicable in real industrial practice, because of the high efforts required to implement system and the lack of flexibility in products updating. This work describes an approach to overcome drawbacks and to introduce a product independent configuration system which can be useful in designing recurrent product modules. To manage configuration from the designer perspective, the approach is based on Configurable Virtual Prototypes (CVP). In particular, the definition of geometrical models is analyzed providing a tool for eliciting and reusing knowledge introduced by parametric template CAD models. Semantic rules are used to recognize parts parameterization and assembly mating constraints. The approach is exemplified through a case study. © 2010 by ASME.

Keywords: Design automation | Modularity | Product configuration

[345] Mengoni M., Germani M., Peruzzini M., Mandolini M., A novel knowledge-based approach to support virtual teamwork in collaborative design, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering, TMCE 2010, 1, 461-474, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Collaborative design can provide creative design solutions and improve product quality as well as enrich the participants' knowledge. Nevertheless, design and supply chains integration in traditional product development processes is not a trivial task. The complex scenario of the extended enterprise triggers research toward the development of new methods and tools for managing virtual teamwork. The present research illustrates a novel approach to support multidisciplinary workgroups. It is based is based on the formalization of the distributed knowledge in terms of interaction rules and representational models. The result of the approach implementation is the definition of an innovative co-design platform supporting virtual teamwork during collaborative design activities. © Organizing Committee of TMCE 2010 Symposium.

Keywords: Co-design platform | Distributed knowledge management | Interaction patterns | Virtual teamwork

[346] Raffaeli R., Mengoni M., Germani M., Change management, modularity and design for X: A design supporting tool based on an integrated approach, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering, TMCE 2010, 1, 407-420, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Flexibility has become imperative to face the increasing market demands. Its implementation across the whole product development process is not a trivial task. It requires the introduction of new tools and methods for managing continuous product changes while evaluating in real time their impact in terms of design efforts, manufacturing costs, time to market, etc. The present research work aims at developing a design platform to support the creation, visualization and navigation of a multilevel product representation where functions, modules, assemblies and components are strictly interrelated. The introduction of "Design for X" principles as rules to relate all aspects contributing to product design, allows the evaluation of changes impact at the three levels. The approach and the proposed platform have been applied in the field of refrigerators in order to support both designers and engineers to rapidly configure the optimal design solution in respect with the company requirements formalized by the implemented Design for X rules. © Organizing Committee of TMCE 2010 Symposium.

Keywords: Assessing impact of design changes | Change management tool | Design for X | Supporting functional analysis and modularity

[347] Germani M., Raffaeli R., Mazzoli A., A method for performance evaluation of RE/RP systems in dentistry, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 16(5), 345-355, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate a method for comparing the scanning and reproducing accuracy of highly shaped objects like plaster casts used in dentistry. Design/methodology/approach - Theoretical considerations on errors introduced by the scanning systems and subsequent point clouds data elaboration have led to a method to estimate the accuracy of the whole process. Suitable indices have been chosen and computed at each stage. As a final result, the overall chain, scanning and reproducing systems can be assessed. In order to validate the proposed method casts have been scanned by means of commercial systems and then reproduced by using different rapid prototyping technologies, materials and parameters. Error indices have been computed and reported. Findings - Since it is not possible to define reliable and meaningful reference models for non-standard shapes, an absolute accuracy value for the scanning process cannot be stated. Anyway the proposed method, thanks to relative performance indices, allows the comparison of different acquisition systems and the evaluation of the most performing manufacturing chain. Practical implications - The study provides a method to assess the relative performance between commercial systems both in scanning and reproducing stage. Originality/value - In literature, some studies on the accuracy of scanning devices have been found but they are based on standard geometrical features. In this paper, the problem of complex shapes in absence of reference model is addressed instead. Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1355-2546].

Keywords: Accuracy | Dentistry | Rapid prototypes | Structural analysis

[348] Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Virtual vs physical: An experimental study to improve shape perception, Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference 2009, DETC2009, 2(PART B), 1495-1506, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Product designers, in order to create value, need to enrich their understanding of users products experience and the whole set of activities involved in it. Human-Centered Design (HCD) regards with the development of design principles to support product features definition answering to physical, psychological, social and cultural needs of human beings. Usability tests generally allow the investigation of product performance in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and users satisfaction in order to reduce the gap between the perceived and the designed product quality. Main problems concern with the assessment of emotional usability, the identification of product features stimulating affective response and their translation into design requirements. Usability tests are generally carried out only at the end of the design cycle once a final physical prototype has been realized. As a consequence design modifications increase time to market. Instead of traditional CAD-based systems (Computer Aided Design), Virtual Reality (VR) represents new Human-Computer Interfaces that can support the multimodal interaction with virtual prototypes to perform usability tests at the early design stages. The present paper explores the potentialities of VR to support usability testing mainly focusing on emotional aspects. A protocol study is defined to analyze how sample users perceive product attributes determining affordances and synaesthesia qualities. The protocol adopts qualitative and quantitative metrics to objectify users emotional response while interacting with products. It allows correlating product attributes, in terms of materials, shape and aesthetic features combination, with user behavior and product performance. It has been applied in the field of household appliances. Two different experimental set-ups, physical and virtual, have been used to validate the protocol and highlight the main VR technologies drawbacks. Copyright © 2009 by ASME.

Keywords: Human computer interaction (HCI) | Tactile virtuality | Usability | User emotional response | Virtual prototyping (VP)

[349] Raffaeli R., Mengoni M., Germani M., Mandorli F., An approach to support the implementation of product configuration tools, Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference 2009, DETC2009, 5(PART A), 559-570, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Companies applying mass customization paradigm regard the design process as a configuration task where the solution is achieved through the extraction of a new instance from a modular product structure. In this context product configuration management tools are evermore important. Although tools have been already proposed, they fail in real industrial contexts. Main causes are recognizable in high efforts in systems implementation and lack of flexibility in products updating. This research aims to develop an approach to overcome drawbacks and simplify the implementation and the use of product configuration systems also in redesign activities. The paper initially reviews existing systems in terms of design knowledge representation methods and product structure formalization techniques. Then, an approach based on Configuration Virtual Prototypes which store and manage different levels of knowledge, is presented. In particular, a framework is outlined in order to represent design data and its formalization in configuration tools. Three different domains are managed and connected via Configuration Virtual Prototypes: Product Specifications, Geometrical Data and Product Knowledge. Specifically, geometrical data aspects are analyzed in detail providing approaches for eliciting knowledge introduced by parametric template CAD models. The approach will be exemplified through a real application example where an original tool has been developed on the based of the described method. Benefits of the system will be shown and briefly discussed, in particular in terms of reachable flexibility in solutions. Copyright © by ASME.

Keywords: Design automation | Modularity | Product configuration

[350] Raffaeli R., Germani M., Knowledge-based approach to flexible part design, Journal of Engineering Design, 21(1), 7-29, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Virtual prototyping (VP) of complex machines requires the realistic representation of components to perform robust analyses and simulations. In many cases, machines are an assembly of rigid and flexible components. Although modern three-dimensional CAD systems can be considered powerful tools for modelling solids or surfaces representing rigid bodies, they are not adequate to model soft material components, especially a realistic visualisation of physical behaviour. This drawback motivated the present research work. In particular, this paper describes an approach and the related knowledge-based software system (FlexSim) developed to create virtual prototypes facilitating product development in cases of flexible parts like cables, pipes and wires. The resulting VP tool integrates the CAD technology and the dedicated structural simulation methods to automatically model and validate three-dimensional functional sub-groups having flexible parts. The system application is shown on metallic reinforced elastomer hoses used for hydraulic power transmissions. For this purpose, a finite-element approach has been implemented to find hose configurations for given boundary conditions determined by mounting positions. Pipe fittings are selected and automatically assembled and the optimal hose length and its ideal spatial disposition are calculated. Simulations of behaviour allow the rapid optimisation of a solution. The system has been tested on agricultural harvest machines and mining equipment, which widely employ hydraulic transmissions for moving groups of components. As a result, the number of physical prototypes, the lead-time due to the trial-and-error activities and the product development costs can be significantly reduced. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Keywords: Flexible parts design | Knowledge-based systems | Simulation | Virtual prototype

[351] Raffaeli R., Mandolini M., Germani M., Automation of flexible components virtual prototyping: methodology, tools and validation, Journal of Design Research, 8(3), 272-297, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: 3D CAD systems are powerful tools for modelling rigid bodies but they are not adequate in order to model flexible material components, especially if a realistic simulation of physical behaviour is required as in virtual prototyping. This paper describes the methodology used to develop a knowledge-based system in order to automatically create virtual prototypes of uniaxial flexible components like cables, pipes and wires. The method has been translated in an operative design software system for metallic-reinforced elastomer hoses. The resulting VP tool integrates the 3D CAD technology and suitable structural simulation methods. The robustness of software system has been verified and errors are assessed. A dedicated experimental set-up has been realised in order to compare the virtual results with the real component behaviour. The system has been applied in the design of multifunctional agricultural machines showing reduction of physical prototypes and the lead-time due. © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Keywords: fem simulation | flexible components design and modelling | knowledge-based design | virtual prototyping

[352] Germani M., Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., Method for evaluating VR-based tools for collaborative design, Advanced Concurrent Engineering, 405-417, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Virtual Reality systems can impact on quality of collaboration design processes. In the present work is defined a structured method to classify, qualify and select VR-based tools for supporting co-design activities by adopting a set of benchmarking metrics. Attention is focused on collaboration scopes and requirements, participants' behavior and exploited interaction modalities. The method has been applied to synchronous and remote collaboration that actually represents the most critical communication in industry. Three different types of collaborative VR tools have been investigated and compared. Experimental results highlight how the proposed method is able to identify the main collaboration requirements by selecting the most proper supporting technology and show also the contribution to collaboration success. © 2010 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Keywords: Benchmarking | Collaborative design | Virtual reality

[353] Cicconi P., Germani M., Mandolini M., How to support mechanical product cost estimation in the embodiment design phase, Advanced Concurrent Engineering, 419-430, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: An efficient mechanical product design process implies the evaluation of many alternatives in a short time and rapid product changes on the basis of emerging needs. Product cost is one of the main factors in order to choose the most promising solution. Hence its accurate estimation in the design phases is fundamental. The main problem is the vast amount of knowledge that has to be managed in order to make robust evaluations. Features based 3D CAD models implicitly contain part of needed information. But such information has to be elaborated by adopting suitable rules based on manufacturing knowledge. In this context, the paper presents an approach and the related knowledge-based system able to automatically make reliable cost estimation starting from the 3D CAD model. The approach is based on the manufacturing knowledge formalization, on the geometrical and non-geometrical feature automatic recognition and, finally, on the mapping between manufacturing operations and modelling features. In order to validate the system performance case studies are reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Feature recognition | Knowledge-based systems

[354] Mengoni M., Germani M., A methodology for sketch analysis to support maintaining the design intent in virtual prototyping, Journal of Design Research, 8(3), 189-213, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: In the context of aesthetic products, one of the most important research issues with regard to the definition of methods and tools is to preserve the initial design intent along the whole product development process. Starting from a novel definition of freeform aesthetic feature, the present research aims at outlining an innovative methodology for design intent recognition and formalisation in terms of styling curves and CAD modelling strategies. Their identification is based on the analysis of freehand sketches evolution during creative design. The final result consists in an innovative procedure for virtual prototyping that enables shape modifications coherently with the design intent. The main scientific contribution is the implementation of an approach to extract meaningful aesthetic and functional information from sketches and to translate them into an operational procedure for virtual prototyping by adopting semiotic-based rules and descriptive models of creative design. The achieved methodology has been applied to support both the reverse engineering of freeform shapes and the direct modelling of virtual mock-ups. © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Keywords: cognitive models of design | freehand sketches | reverse engineering | semiotics | virtual prototypes modelling

[355] Germani M., Mandolini M., Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., Collaborative design system for supporting dynamic virtual enterprises, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 336 AICT, 577-584, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Collaborative design provides creative design solutions and improves product quality as well as enriches participants' knowledge. Nevertheless, design and supply chain integration in product development processes is not a trivial task. The complex scenario of the dynamic extended enterprise triggers research toward the development of an innovative co-design platform to support multidisciplinary workgroups. Starting from the definition of a new design process model, the proposed approach is based on the formalization of the distributed knowledge in terms of interaction rules and representational models. © 2010 IFIP.

Keywords: agile organizations | collaborative design | virtual teamwork

[356] Germani M., Mandorli F., Mengoni M., Raffaeli R., CAD-based environment to bridge the gap between product design and tolerance control, Precision Engineering, 34(1), 7-15, (2010). Abstract
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Abstract: Mechanical product quality is strongly influenced by the respect of Geometrical Tolerances (GT). On the other hand, competitiveness forces companies to improve their productivity making the tolerance verification process faster and faster and more flexible. Component control by 3D full field optical digitizing systems and specific CAD-based (Computer Aided Design) inspection software tools are important steps forward for the achievement of the above-mentioned goals. However, the adoption of these solutions in industry is minimal. This may be due both to technological factors, i.e. poor systems usability, and organizing factors, i.e. clear separation between design department and quality control department. In this context, our research aims at developing a new easy to use CAD-based tool for simulating, driving and optimizing the GT inspection process. Once a component has been digitized, the developed software system automatically realizes the tolerances virtual control. Hence, the designer can prescribe tolerances, pilot the measurement system and verify the component conformity. The implemented tool is based on Full of Information (FoI) CAD models, which contain tolerance data, linked to a knowledge database, where measurement strategies and verification rules are stored. A computation engine calculates the measurement paths and performs the tolerances verification. The prototypal system has been tested on different real cases. Experimental results showed high performances in terms of timesaving and robustness. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: 3D shape measurement | Augmented CAD models | Quality control automation | Reverse engineering

[357] Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., The impact of virtual environments on human collaboration in product design, DS 58-9: Proceedings of ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, 9, 57-68, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: Virtual Reality (VR) has quickly evolved over the last years in terms of technological and applicative dimensions, Human-Computer Interaction is particularly meaningful in the design activities involving multidisciplinary teamwork, collaborating to achieve a common task. It influences users behaviors, representational and communication modalities. A successful Collaborative Virtual Environment has to naturally support cognitive design actions while reducing time and costs. In this context, our research goal is to evaluate performances of different human-scale virtual environments in design situations involving multiple specialists with different knowledge and expertise. We proposed a protocol to highlight the main interaction styles in collaborative environments in order to assess how VR systems affect multidisciplinary cooperation. Experimental test cases are used to compare performances of virtual and physical prototypes in design reviews activities.

Keywords: Collaborative design | CVE | Multimodal interaction | Virtual Reality

[358] Germani M., Mengoni M., Peruzzini M., Metrics-based approach for VR technology evaluation in styling product design, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 5(PARTS A AND B), 1325-1339, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, the interest of small and medium sized enterprises towards Virtual Reality (VR) systems is strongly increased thanks both to the improvement of VR tools effectiveness and to the cost reduction of technologies implementation. Due to the growing number of installed systems, many SMEs (Small Manufacturing Enterprises) companies require robust methods for evaluating technology performance. In this context, the present paper presents a metrics-based approach in order to analyze the VR system performance. It is specifically dedicated to the design review process during styling product design. The evaluation parameters are related to the effective communication and preservation of design intent. Metrics are classified in two main classes. The first one is related to the product, the process and the characteristics of VR technology. The second one is related to the design intent meanings preservation along the design process. Two experimental case studies are reported in order to test the approach in different operative fields. Copyright © 2009 by ASME.

Keywords: Design intent | Human computer interaction | Metrics | Virtual reality

[359] Germani M., Graziosi S., Mengoni M., Raffaeli R., Approach for managing lean product design, DS 58-1: Proceedings of ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, 1, 73-84, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: Flexibility is the main keyword in order to face the rapid changing market requirements. Companies need methods and tools in order to implement flexibility over the whole product development process, from ideation to manufacturing. The proposed approach goes towards the concretization of the lean product design concept. It can be achieved if design alternatives and product modifications can be rapidly evaluated in terms of feasibility. resources. cost and time. The approach is based on a multilevel representation of the product structure. where functions. modules. assemblies and components are strictly interrelated. The complex representation requires suitable software tools in order to model and visualize the entire structure and support the easy user navigation. On the other hand it is necessary to define rules and operators to interact with the structure in order to make product changes and evaluate the possible impact. Finally. this system has to be integrated within the product development flow for exchanging data and information with CAD, PLM and ERP tools. In this paper the general approach is defined and the preliminary software solution is described.

Keywords: Change management | Change propagation | Lean design | Modularity

[360] Germani M., Mengoni M., Raffaeli R., Automation of 3D view acquisition for geometric tolerances verification, 2009 IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops, ICCV Workshops 2009, 1710-1717, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: Geometrical tolerances control of mechanical components requires methods and tools in order to improve the efficiency of process in terms of time. Dedicated software systems in order to plan and simulate the control and hardware tools in order to rapidly acquire the needed 3D information can support the process improvement. In this context it is important to use the 3D CAD (Computer Aided Design) model, as base to plan and pilot the whole process. The aim of present work is to describe an automatic geometrical tolerances measurement system usable during the design stage. It is based on three main tools: a CAD-based modular software tool, in order to plan, simulate, and pilot the whole verification process, a 3D optical digitizer, as shape acquisition system, and a multi-axis Degree of Freedom (DoF) robot arm in order to move the digitizer. This paper is focused on the developed algorithms to optimize the 3D views acquisition planning. Surface Normal Method and Visibility Map concepts have been reworked for range scanner positions determination and the optimal path is computed by a graph of alignable simulated scans. Experimental test cases are reported in order to show the system performance. ©2009 IEEE.

[361] Peruzzini M., Mengoni M., Germani M., Evaluating the impact of virtual reality on mechanical design education, Proceedings of the ASME/AFM World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality 2009, WINVR2009, 107-115, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: The promise of Virtual Reality in design environments is to facilitate the interaction with digital models and to enhance the results of design activity. Design education is one of the most recent and interesting applications. Thanks to technological advances in human-computer interfaces, Virtual Reality represents a new way to stimulate design students and to develop innovative teaching methods. The paper explores the impact of Virtual Reality technologies on design learning, with particular attention to mechanical product design. It is focused on the analysis of cognitive and technical aspects of learning processes and the definition of a proper evaluation protocol. The protocol is based on the classification of the most meaningful activities in mechanical engineering teaching and the identification of a set of metrics that enable to objectively evaluate the learning process. Assessing how VR supports design education, an experimental study is proposed. It is based on the comparison of three different approaches performed by two-dimensional drawings, by 3D CAD models and, finally, by virtual reality technologies. Copyright © 2009 by ASME.

[362] Graziosi S., Germani M., Sustainable production in the age of mass customization: An example in the footwear industry, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings, 8, 887-895, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: It is well known that the global market is driving companies towards new productive paradigms oriented to product customization, agility and environmental sustainability. Companies have to face the problem of providing as much product variety as possible in order to rapidly satisfy a wide number of specific market segments. Even if the emerging automated agile production environments could enable them to manage product variety, in many productive fields, large waste streams, due to the practical difficulty of adapting the traditional production lines to product changes, are still present. At the same time a growing public concern for the environment, is forcing companies to investigate alternative uses for waste material. In this paper we present a practical example from the footwear industry in order to show how companies can successfully apply the concept of sustainable production taking into account the mass customization requirements but contemporarily reducing the material waste. The approach is focused on the combination in the same plant of two different production lines: one is dedicated to the primary production while the other uses the waste material to realize the secondary production. Copyright © 2008 by ASME.

[363] Mazzoli A., Germani M., Raffaeli R., Direct fabrication through electron beam melting technology of custom cranial implants designed in a PHANToM-based haptic environment, Materials and Design, 30(8), 3186-3192, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: Repairing critical human skull injuries requires the production and use of customized cranial implants and involves the integration of computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD and CAM). The main causes for large cranial defects are trauma, cranial tumors, infected craniotomy bone flaps and external neurosurgical decompression. The success of reconstructive cranial surgery depends upon: the preoperative evaluation of the defect, the design and manufacturing of the implant, and the skill of the operating surgeon. Cranial implant design is usually carried out manually using CAD although this process is very time-consuming and the quality of the end product depends wholly upon the skill of the operator. This paper presents an alternative automated method for the design of custom-made cranial plates in a PHANToM®-based haptic environment, and their direct fabrication in biocompatible metal using electron beam melting (EBM) technology. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Custom cranial implant | Electron beam melting (EBM) | Haptic environment | PHANToM-based tools

[364] Mengoni M., Germani M., Reverse Engineering and restyling of aesthetic products based on sketches interpretation, Research in Engineering Design, 20(2), 79-96, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: In the conceptual design stage, outcomes of industrial designers work are generally represented by set of sketches where curves, notes, shadows, and colors implicitly represent creative ideas. Signs and annotations are used to synthesize and concretize the design intent that, finally, will be transformed into the styling product visual appearance. The loss of the original design intent may be due to the complexity of the design process, and the involvement of different actors. Our aim is to provide a method and relative tools in order to interpret signs on sketches for eliciting the design intent. The analysis result is a set of aesthetic features that can be used for driving CAD modeling, in the case both of Reverse Engineering applications and of product modeling for restyling purposes. Sketches analysis is based on a semiotic interpretation driven by the formalization of the cognitive models used in the conceptual design phase. The approach showed promising results on different styling products test cases. © 2008 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Keywords: 2D sketches | Cognitive models | Reverse Engineering | Semiotic analysis | Styling products

[365] Mengoni M., Germani M., Mandorli F., A structured agile design approach to support customisation in wellness product development, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 22(1), 42-54, (2009). Abstract
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Abstract: The global market is evermore volatile and turbulent; it requires rapid responses to the emerging customers needs, also to unpredictable ones. Companies are forced towards a continuous research and innovation in terms of flexible technologies and processes in order to provide a high level of market adaptability. In this context, agile approaches, intended as a set of strategies to face the market variability, have to be investigated. They have to interest all processes related to the product development phase. This paper is focused on how to implement an efficient agile strategy in product design. The proposed approach is based on product modularity and on the integration of computer-aided design (CAD)-based tools to support feasibility analysis on virtual prototypes. It allows the concurrent management of possible changes in both product and process platforms by adopting virtual prototypes for performing simulations. The implemented platforms and the connected virtual prototype are structured according to modularity principles. The virtual prototype is defined as a collection of geometrical, functional, structural, manufacturing, environmental information, contained in the modules of the product and process platforms. An industrial example, belonging to the wellness production field (such as bathtubs and shower stalls), is described to validate the agile approach. It has been applied to solve a particularly meaningful problem: how to improve the bathtubs production process by reducing manufacturing and assembly costs while improving product customisability, eco-sustainability and quality. Once analysed, the context and the design constraints, in terms of cost, of environmental performance and, mainly, of aesthetic product features customisation, a new manufacturing process has been introduced based on the injection moulding technology instead of traditional thermoforming sheets.

Keywords: Aesthetic product development | Agile design | Customisation | Injection moulding

[366] Mengoni M., Germani M., Mechanical design learning environments based on virtual reality technologies, DS 46: Proceedings of E and PDE 2008, the 10th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, (2008). Abstract
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Abstract: This study explores the potentialities of Virtual Reality for improving the learning process of mechanical design principles. It is focused on the definition of a proper experimental VR-based set-up whose performances match functional design, assembly design and geometrical tolerances prescription learning purposes. Benchmarking of VR technologies is based on the analysis of perception and on the usability and presence provided by the assessed systems. An experimental plan is defined and evaluation metrics are set.

Keywords: Experience-based learning environment | Mechanical design | Virtual reality

[367] Campana F., Germani M., Datum identification for tolerances control on dense clouds of points, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 5(1-4), 209-219, (2008). Abstract
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Abstract: Optical Reverse Engineering systems are evermore used to check dimensional and shape conformity of manufactured components; their main advantage is the short acquisition time. Dedicated CAD software tools allow comparing the acquired data (clouds of points) with the 3D CAD model. Generally, they support the automatic global shape measurement; from the designer viewpoint this is not sufficient. The desired functional behavior of component is respected only when specific geometrical tolerances are verified. Our aim is the definition of methods to automate this last control process using Full of Information (FoI) CAD models. We define them as 3D model containing tolerance attributes and methods to check them. They allow comparing the toleranced features with the corresponding parts of point clouds. The present paper describes the approach and the developed method for datum identification usable for orientation and localization geometrical tolerances control. © 2008 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: Geometrical tolerances | Quality control | Reverse engineering

[368] Gracco A., Mazzoli A., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Evaluation of 3D technologies in dentistry., Progress in orthodontics, 9(1), 26-37, (2008). Abstract
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Abstract: Quality of service, in terms of improvement in patient satisfaction, is an increasingly important objective in all medical fields, and is especially imperative in orthodontics due to the high numbers of patients treated. Information technology can provide a meaningful contribution to bettering treatment processes, and we maintain that systems such as CAD, CAM and CAE, although initially conceived for industrial purposes, should be evaluated, studied and customized with a view to use in medicine. The present study aims to evaluate Reverse Engineering (RE) and Rapid Prototyping (RP) in order to define an ideal chain of advanced technological solutions to support the critical processes of orthodontic activity.

[369] Mengoni M., Germani M., Bordegoni M., Virtual reality systems: A method to evaluate the applicability based on the design context, 2007 Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, DETC2007, 6 PART B, 1377-1387, (2008). Abstract
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Abstract: Virtual Reality (VR) technologies provide novel modes of human computer interaction that can be used to support industrial design processes. The integration can be successful if supported by a method to qualify, select and design the VR technologies according to the company's requirements in order to improve collaboration in extended enterprises and timesaving. The aim of the present work is the definition of a method to translate the company's expectations into heuristic values that allow the benchmarking of VR systems. The method has been tested on a real test case. Copyright © 2007 by ASME.

Keywords: Benchmarking criteria | Design review | Virtual reality

[370] Mengoni M., Germani M., Interacting with virtual prototypes coherently with design intent, Design Computing and Cognition '08 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, 677-696, (2008). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper argues that the design intent can be preserved along the product design cycle only if the whole process is supported by proper methods and advanced digital technologies to model virtual prototypes managing the styling product coherence. In this context, the most critical phase is the transformation from the design concept represented by sketches and physical prototypes and the engineered CAD models necessary for testing and manufacturing. We aim at facilitating the design intent preservation identifying the better digital technology usable to convert designers' conceptual models in digital ones. The proposed classification is based on the analysis of creative strategies adopted by the designer and on their correlation with the modeling features in the computational systems. This goal requires the definition of design intent transmitters that we define freeform aesthetic features, and the determination of a benchmarking method to map computational systems with the creative strategies. Experimental work through protocol studies has been performed to validate the mapping method. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

[371] Mengoni M., Germani M., Aesthetic feature as a tool to preserve the design intent, Proceedings of ICED 2007, the 16th International Conference on Engineering Design, DS 42, (2007). Abstract
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Abstract: In the consumer goods field, the market offers to the customer a wide variety of possible alternatives to satisfy a specific need. Customers, generally, compare products evaluating the functionality and the congruency between price and intrinsic value, but the visual appearance plays a fundamental role in the final decision. During the creative phase, the industrial designer conceives the object in order to represent his/her own viewpoint on the design problem considering the context and the constraints given by the company image. The result of the work of the industrial designer is a set of sketches where curves, notes, shadows, and colours implicitly represent the creative ideas. These signs condense and concretise the design intent that, finally, will be transformed into product visual appearance. During the product development process, various actors are involved and communication problems deriving from the different individual training and experience can emerge. The main consequence is the loss of the original design intent. This is particularly evident in two different design situations: when the designer realizes a physical prototype and Reverse Engineering (RE) is applied to obtain its digital representation for the following product development phases, and when a product is subjected to Re-Styling (RS) in order to satisfy new emerging requirements. Our research is focused on the definition of a well-structured methodology for free form surface reconstruction based on the recognition of the aesthetic features. Such features and their use in surface modelling can enable users to coherently and easily modify the model in the next design stages preserving the design intent. In this paper the CAD modelling operators are defined and their experimentation is applied on several industrial test cases related to reverse engineering and restyling.

Keywords: Aesthetic feature | Communication and collaboration | Design intent | Modelling strategy

[372] Raffaeli R., Germani M., Graziosi S., Mandorli F., Development of a multilayer change propagation tool for modular products, Proceedings of ICED 2007, the 16th International Conference on Engineering Design, DS 42, (2007). Abstract
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Abstract: In this work we focus our research on the product design related aspects; currently we deal with modularity, product architecture and change propagation issues along the design process. In order to apply abstract concepts to design practise different approaches and tools have been proposed; anyway presently concrete software solutions and applications examples are still lacking. Companies modify their products for a number of reasons and rarely start from new ideas when designing. Due to the lack of suitable tools and methodologies designers are not aware of modifications impacts and propagations when trying to change or update a product. In this paper we present our research efforts in developing a methodology and the related software tool to support change management during the product redesign. It is conceived as guiding tool based on a product multilevel representation: from functional contents to implementation design; currently the designer can obtain a complete presentation of the product parts characteristics and their relations. In this way the resulting graphical model becomes a company tacit knowledge repository about the product. Operational functionalities are provided to support the designer during his activities. This work has been carried out and tested on the redesign process of a washing machine in collaboration with an Italian company, leader in house working appliances.

Keywords: Change propagation | Modular structure | Product architecture

[373] Mazzoli A., Germani M., Raffaeli R., Solid freeform fabrication of custom cranial implants designed in a phantom-based haptic environment, Proceedings of the 16th IASTED International Conference on Applied Simulation and Modelling, ASM 2007, 318-322, (2007). Abstract
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Abstract: Repairing severe human skull injuries requires customized cranial implants. Trauma, cranial tumors, infected craniotomy bone flaps and neurosurgical external decompression are the main causes for large cranial defects. The success of the reconstructive cranial surgery depends on diverse aspects regarding the preoperative evaluation of the defect, the design and manufacturing of the implant and the execution of the operation. Currently, the design of membranes is mainly a manual work, even with the use of CAD facilities, and results in a time-consuming and user-dependent skull reconstruction. This paper presents an automated design methodology for custom-made cranioplasty plates in a PHANToM®-based haptic environment and the possibility to manufacture the same using Solid Freeform Fabrication technologies.

Keywords: Custom-made cranial plates | Haptic environment | PHANToM®-based tools | Solid freeform fabrication

[374] Mengoni M., Germani M., Mandorli F., Reverse engineering of aesthetic products: Use of hand-made sketches for the design intent formalization, Journal of Engineering Design, 18(5), 413-435, (2007). Abstract
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Abstract: In the context of styling products development, it is well known that sketches are the most immediate and used means for the 'external representation' of the industrial designers' intentions; the designer, however, also needs physical full-scale models, in order to evaluate the aesthetic solution. Reverse engineering techniques support the transformation of the physical mock-ups in digital ones, in order to perform the engineering developments. The observation of the design phases highlights the need to study new methodologies and computer-based tools, in order to simplify the reverse engineering process and to improve the quality of the final result. The conversion from real to virtual can be time consuming and strongly critical, in terms of product aesthetic and functional contents preservation. The process can be affected by several misunderstandings in the communication of the design values from the designer to the product engineers. In this paper, we propose a method for the formalization and recognition of the aesthetic properties within the different modes of design representation. The proposed method is based on the examination of the design principles used by the designer during the creative process (aesthetic intentions) and on techniques for the representation of creative ideas. In particular, we analyse the free-hand sketches and drawings to retrieve both the implicit (lines/curves) and explicit information (textual notes). Such information is used to develop a set of rules to support the identification of the styling lines on the points cloud data. The method has been experimented using a commercial computer-aided design system to manage the heterogeneous data (points cloud data, sketches and notes). The preliminary validation process shows good results in terms of time-saving. This is mainly due to two factors: the remarkable simplification of the surface reconstruction phase and the continuous monitoring of the aesthetic coherence.

Keywords: Character lines | Cognitive perspective | Design intent | Hand-made sketches | Reverse engineering

[375] Mazzoli A., Germani M., Moriconi G., Application of Optical Digitizing Techniques to Evaluate the Shape Accuracy of Anatomical Models Derived From Computed Tomography Data, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 65(7), 1410-1418, (2007).
[376] Recchioni M., Mandorli F., Germani M., Faraldi P., Polverini D., Life-cycle assessment simplification for modular products, Advances in Life Cycle Engineering for Sustainable Manufacturing Businesses - Proceedings of the 14th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 53-58, (2007). Abstract
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Abstract: As experience in EcoDesign increases, academic and industry thinking is moving towards the more advanced stages of EcoDesign; moving away from product improvement and product redesign into the more holistic approaches of Alternative Function Fulfilment (AFF) and system innovation. This paper investigates how modularity concept, applied to product design, allow much degrees of freedom for the designer, more possibility to reduce environmental impact related to product life-cycle and increase the interaction between LCA and the earlier stages of the (Eco)design process. A method, based on the product modularity concept, to increase LCA usability for the designers is proposed in this paper.

Keywords: Alternative Function Fulfilment | Ecodesign | LCA | Modularity

[377] Germani M., Mengoni M., Raffaeli R., Multi-level representation for supporting the conceptual design phase of modular products, The Future of Product Development - Proceedings of the 17th CIRP Design Conference, 209-224, (2007). Abstract
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Abstract: Designing a new product, in most cases, means a modification of an existing one. Both adopting known solutions in different products, that inserting new technological processes into a consolidated context, the most design effort must be dedicated to the early evaluation of the impact of needed engineering changes to achieve the final result, in terms of cost, quality and time. Such activity is particularly strategic in the modular product development. The aim of our research work is to develop a method and the related tools that enable designers to easily represent the product platform, to structure the relations between modules defined at different levels of detail and, hence, to simulate, analyze and evaluate the modifications impact during the new product variant definition phase. A multi-level product structure able to represent the product informative content at different levels of detail is presented.

Keywords: Change propagation | Conceptual design | Modularity

[378] Germani M., Mandorli F., How to automate the geometrical tolerances inspection: A reverse engineering approach, Models for Computer Aided Tolerancing in Design and Manufacturing - Selected Conference Papers from the 9th CIRP International Seminar on Computer-Aided Tolerancing, CAT 2005, 147-156, (2007). Abstract
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Abstract: Identifying theories and methods to link geometrical tolerances specification and inspection processes is a widely spread research topic. The growing use of virtual product models which not only represent the geometry information, but also collect attributes, notes, parameters, rules and procedures, can facilitate the digital simulation of many real processes. In the present work we are interested in using such technologies for the purpose of simulating the inspection process of manufactured products. In particular, we propose an approach for virtual inspection of geometrical tolerances based on a feature-based 3D CAD model coupled with a 3D points cloud data model. The 3D CAD model stores the tolerances specifications defined by the designer as well as the specification of the inspection methods. The points cloud model is a complete representation of the manufactured product and it is defined by the digital acquisition of the real product. The acquisition phase is performed with non-contact techniques to ensure high performances in terms of speed. The information stored in the CAD model is used to select and drive the different inspection procedures to be performed on the acquired data. © 2007 Springer.

Keywords: Automated inspection | Feature-based model | Geometrical tolerances | Reverse engineering

[379] Raffaeli R., Alfaro D., Germani M., Mandorli F., Montiel E., Innovative design automation technologies for corrective shoes development, 9th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2006, 315-322, (2006). Abstract
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Abstract: The paradigm of Mass Customisation (MC) is today fundamental for the European fashion industry. Footwear industry is still labour intensive and companies need solution to reduce costs and remain competitive in the global market. In particular, specialized companies that produce customized medical shoes prescribed for people with feet malformations deal with small batches or unique pairs. This work presents some approaches and low-cost solutions related to foot measurement and CAD data elaboration for facilitating the diffusion of "made-to-measure" products. An integrated process made of hardware devices and customized software is explored and described aiming to increase production efficiency and reduce costs.

Keywords: 3D design tools | 3D foot measurement | Mass customization | Personalised shoes

[380] Germani M., Mengoni M., Raffaeli R., Design structure matrix used as knowledge capture method for product configuration, 9th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2006, 253-262, (2006). Abstract
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Abstract: The present work focuses on the study of a method to acquire and formalise the design knowledge in a way usable for implementing a knowledge-based software system to support the NPC. The approach is based on the representation of corporate knowledge within a structured framework where market requirements, product specifications and functional aspects are interrelated. A hierarchical multi-level DSM structure allows representing such knowledge in a rationale manner. This paper presents the methodology to formalize the product knowledge, the used structure to define the specifications for implementing the knowledge-based product configuration system and, finally, a practical example to illustrate our proposed framework.

Keywords: Change management | Decisional process automation | Design structure matrix (DSM) | Product configuration

[381] Mengoni M., Germani M., Onori R., Pavani F., A methodology for VR systems benchmarking in the industrial design process, 9th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2006, 291-300, (2006). Abstract
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Abstract: The majority of Virtual Reality applications developed today are either specific product oriented, not flexible enough to be implemented in every industrial design process to achieve complex real world tasks. In this context the adoption of VR systems, designed and customized on the need of the specific company, can be accepted only if it is possible to quantify the achievable benefits in terms of time, quality and cost. Our research focuses on how these benefits can be objectively measured. A benchmarking program and related metrics to explore advantages and disadvantages connected with the new design technology have been studied. Our main goal is to measure the performance of the VR-based design review processes by meaningful test cases.

Keywords: Design review | Industrial design | Virtual reality

[382] Germani M., Mandorli F., Agile product design for the development of molded components, International Journal of Agile Manufacturing, 9(1), 19-27, (2006). Abstract
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Abstract: Injection molding is a diffuse technology used to manufacture a large number of products. The molded component production chain involves many specialized "actors" employed in different companies, generally small and medium-sized enterprises. The coordination of the distributed product development team and the "vertical" and "horizontal" collaboration have to be supported by suitable methods and tools in order to minimize process iterations due to misunderstandings and errors. This paper describes the preliminary study of a methodology to implement the inter-company collaboration in the mold design context. The methodology will be based on a set of procedures, rules and tools that support the management of all mold design processes. © 2006 ISAM.

Keywords: Agile design | Collaborative design | Feature sharing

[383] Marco R., Mandorli F., Germani M., LCA as eco-design tool to support the development of injection moulded products, Proceedings of the 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, LCE 2006, 645-650, (2006). Abstract
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Abstract: The use of recycled materials reduces the need for primary materials and it also minimizes the amount of waste in the production process. Therefore, by using recycled materials, the total material flow necessary for the production of a product can be reduced. Moreover, the total consumption of resources for the production of recycled material is, usually, remarkably inferior that in the production of the same amount of primary material. The purpose of this study is to validate this concept in the injection-moulding field using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA quantifies and evaluates the environmental impacts of a product from the extraction of raw materials, through manufacture and use, to final disposal. Today, most people involved in the industrial engineering community (consultants, manufacturers, researchers and institutional actors) assert that Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the most successful tool to assess environmental considerations in the product design process. The main goal of this research work is to support the design decision-making process and quantify the resources saving of the use of a post consumer material instead of a primary one in the development process of the injection moulded products. The material object of this study is the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). In particular the test case is about the life cycle assessment of a PET clotheshorse, developed in collaboration with a SME Italian company. Traditionally the clotheshorses are made of Polypropylene (PP) or other metallic material, the purpose of this is to compare the traditional solution with the use of recycled PET for the clotheshorse production. The result of this study validates the assumption that the use of recycled material is a more environmental friendly practise and the use of the LCA methodology permitted to quantifies this environmental advantage.

Keywords: Eco-design | Injection moulding | LCA | Recycled PET

[384] Germani M., Raffaeli R., Bonaventura L., Mandorli F., Development of a collaborative product development tool for plants design, Proceedings ICED 05, the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, DS 35, (2005).
[385] Germani M., Mandorli F., Mengoni M., Multi-level product model to support the LCA use in the early design phase, Proceedings ICED 05, the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, DS 35, (2005).
[386] Mandorli F., Germani M., Otto H.E., Integrated product policy and distributed supplier structures: SME and sound LCA data in conflict, Proceedings - Fourth International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, Eco Design 2005, 2005, 430-437, (2005). Abstract
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Abstract: The sustainable development of our societies is one of the priorities of the European Commission. Through its new Integrated Product Policy (IPP), the European Commission is developing a series of measures that influence the supply and demand of environmentally sound products. Some IPP tools are based on product and process self-declarations, while others require the performance of a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA). Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) data availability is the fundamental premise in order to be able to perform an LCA. In this paper we report the work we have done to investigate the diffusion of required LCA data along the supplier chain with the aim of identifying strategies to increase the awareness of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in respect to LCA, to suggest methodologies to facilitate the collection of sound LCI data and to test available low-cost software tools to support LCA, with particular reference to the production phase. © 2005 IEEE.

Keywords: Environmental product declaration | Life-cycle assessment data | Small and medium enterprise

[387] Raffaeli R., Germani M., Mandorli F., Innovative technologies to support positioning of corrective appliances in orthodontic treatments, Proceedings of the 14th IASTED International Conference on Applied Simulation and Modelling, 48-53, (2005). Abstract
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Abstract: Time Compression Technologies (TCT) are strongly widening their application fields, particularly in not traditional sectors, such as archaeology, jewellery, architecture and so on. The biomedical domain, especially orthodontics, is one of the most interesting. The design and positioning processes of corrective dental appliances consist of phases which can strongly benefit from Reverse Engineering (RE) and Rapid Prototyping (RP) techniques in terms of quality and time reduction. In these last years new systems have been developed to support the operator work but, unfortunately these technologies are still not largely used in orthodontic laboratories. In this context, the present paper, facing the problem of critical activities identification in corrective treatments orthodontic practice, proposes a low cost and easy to use technical solution in order to support orthodontists for a rapid and accurate positioning of vestibular and lingual brackets. In particular a new CAD (Computer Aided Design) software system to support the dental appliances design process has been implemented.

Keywords: CAD | Computer Aided Dental Appliances Positioning | Lingual Orthodontic Treatment | Time Compression Technologies

[388] Mazzoli A., Germani M., Moriconi G., Influence of different manufacturing techniques and materials on the accuracy of anatomical SFF models derived from CT data, Proceedings of the 3rd IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering 2005, 64-69, (2005). Abstract
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Abstract: Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are gold standards for cross-sectional images of the human body. Furthermore, several images reformatting softwares have been developed in order to assist pre-operating diagnosis and treatment planning. These softwares offer the possibility to interface scanning equipments with Solid Free-form Fabrication (SFF) systems, to build a custom made replica of the anatomical site. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Sterolitography (SLA) manufacturing techniques are two kinds of SFF processes that produce physical models through a selective solidification of a variety of fine powders and liquids. SLS and SLA technologies are getting a great amount of attention, particularly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. When applying 3-D medical models to clinical cases, model accuracy is a major concern. We investigate the influence of different SFF manufacturing techniques and materials on the shape accuracy of anatomical models, derived from CT acquisition of a dry mandible, using full-field measurement system such as fringe projection techniques. The application of such a method, allows for objective decisions regarding the precise location of bony anatomical landmarks.

Keywords: 3-D Digitizing Techniques | Selective Laser Sintering | Solid Free-form Fabrication | Stereolitography

[389] Germani M., Mandorli F., Self-configuring components approach to product variant development, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing: AIEDAM, 18(1), 41-54, (2004). Abstract
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Abstract: The use of modularity in the design of a new product or the adoption of a product platform, as the base to define new solutions within a product family, offers the company a chance to meet diverse customer needs at low cost because of economies of scale in all phases of the product's life cycle. At present, the concept of modularity in product design is becoming widely used in many industries such as automobiles and consumer electronics. However, if modularity and mass customization have attracted the interest of industries and researchers, the greatest efforts have been focused on the theoretical aspect whereas the related design support technologies have been only partially implemented. In this context, our intent is to develop highly reusable models, which are able to reconfigure themselves on the basis of new functional requirements. The proposed approach is based on the definition of what we call self-configuring components and multiple-level functions. To describe the approach, a practical example related to the design of modules for woodworking machines is reported.

Keywords: Feature-based Model | Functional Analysis | Product Configuration

[390] Corbo P., Germani M., Mandorli F., Aesthetic and functional analysis for product model validation in reverse engineering applications, CAD Computer Aided Design, 36(1), 65-74, (2004). Abstract
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Abstract: Reverse engineering techniques are broadly used in the development process of products with meaningful aesthetic properties. Many stylists prefer to evaluate the product shape on the basis of a full-scale hand made physical mock-up. Such model has then to be converted into a 3D CAD model, to begin the product engineering and production processes. A critical aspect of the RE process is that the physical mock-up, made by the stylist, usually does not take into account the engineering production constraints. The surface reconstruction activity must then be followed by a modelling phase, where the engineering designer modifies the reconstructed model shape in order to make it suitable for production. At the end of this process, no matter how accurate and precise the surface reconstruction phase has been, the product model will be different from the original mock-up, and then it needs to be submitted to the stylist for the validation of its shape. For the stylist, getting used to working with physical models, the shape validation on a virtual model is not a trivial task. The objective of this research is to develop a software tool to support the identification of aesthetic and functional regions of the product model shape, that have been modified with respect to the original mock-up. The proposed approach is based on the decomposition of a 3D surface analysis problem into a simpler 2D curves analysis problem. This approach simulates the traditional method used by stylists to evaluate the quality of shapes. The implementation of the developed algorithms has been performed using a commercial software package (I-deas FreeForm by EDS/Unigraphics) and it has been successfully applied on real test cases. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Physical mock-up | Product engineering | Style | Virtual mock-up

[391] Germani M., Otto H.E., Mandorli F., Product families: A cost estimation tool to support "the configuration of solution" phase, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, DS 31, (2003). Abstract
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Abstract: The definition of methodologies to support the development of product families is a challenging problem which has received much attention, as can be seen in the literature referenced. In this context, the configuration of solution phase is a basic task. When a company studies a new product variant it is important to evaluate, early in the process, different alternatives. The product cost can be among one of the most meaningful criteria used to determine an optimal solution. Therefore, it is advantageous to be able to estimate the cost in the design phase, where the larger part of it is committed. This work shows how a cost estimation method can be used effectively within a framework, to manage the configuration of a product variant. In more detail we describe a low-cost prototypal software system which allows the configuration of the solution and the determination of production costs related. Additionally a practical example is shown, which documents results of collaborative efforts with an industrial partner, who is a manufacturer of woodworking machines for the wood panels polishing (calibrating/sanding). To optimise results while at same time complying to the company's needs, the cost estimation tool implemented has been used in the machining operations domain.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Feature-based cad model | Modularity | Product configuration