[Elenco soci]


Frizziero Leonardo

Professore Associato


Università degli Studi di Bologna
leonardo.frizziero@unibo.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 56962757100



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Francia D., Bove D., Santi G.M., Ferretti P., Donnici G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Virtual Design for Repair: The Case of a Gearmotor, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 135-147, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: ‘Repair’ in the design process of products can prolong the life cycle of parts: this is substantiated by a few examples that put this ideology into practice. Among many other products, home printers could be a good example, with huge numbers of printers ending up in landfill after a relatively short life; often due to blocked print heads that are either impossible or too expensive to replace. The act of fixing things can both prolong the life of an artifact, and create new values through the process of engagement for its users. However, the prohibitive cost of repair makes it inaccessible or unfavorable this practice for many. In this paper a preliminary approach to Design for Repair is proposed, in order to virtually test an industrial case study and to show a comparison between a product, that was intended to disposal after a failure of some components, and the same product re-designed, by taking into account how to repair parts in easy and effective way. Redesign of parts in some cases can be very effective and the virtual test can be easily reproposed in practice, for industrial products. Advantages in the repair of parts is evident in terms of sustainability and circular economy pursuit. This paper suggests a sequenced method to approach the Design for Repair and provide the virtual model of a re-designed solution that could replace the previous one in order to make the repair of components easy and effective. The economic analysis on the effective convenience of repair faced to the disposal of a product was not developed within this context.

Keywords: Circular economy | Design for Disassembly | Design for Repair | Gearmotor | Sustainability

[2] Frizziero L., Galletti L., Magnani L., Meazza E.G., Freddi M., Blitz Vision: Development of a New Full-Electric Sports Sedan Using QFD, SDE and Virtual Prototyping, Inventions, 7(2), (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In this paper, industrial design structure (IDeS) is applied for the development of two new full-electric sports sedan car proposals that go by the names Blitz Vision AS and Retro. With a deep analysis of the trends dominating the automotive industry, a series of product requirements was identified using quality function deployment (QFD). The results of such analysis led to the definition of the technical specifications of the product via benchmarking (BM) and top-flop analysis (TFA). The product architecture was then defined by making use of a modular platform chassis capable of housing a variety of vehicle bodyworks. The structured methodology of stylistic design engineering (SDE) was used. This can be divided in six phases: (1) stylistic trends analysis; (2) sketches; (3) 2D CAD drawings; (4) 3D CAD models; (5) virtual prototyping; (6) solid stylistic model. The chassis of the CAD model was verified structurally by means of FEM analysis, whereas the drag coefficients of the two vehicle proposals were compared with one of the main competitor’s vehicles via CFD simulations. The resulting car models are both aesthetically appealing and can be further developed, leading eventually to the production stage. This proves the effectiveness of IDeS and SDE in car design.

Keywords: additive manufacturing | augmented reality | car design | design engineering | industrial design | quality function deployment (QFD) | stylistic design engineering (SDE) | vehicle virtual design | virtual product development

[3] Frizziero L., Freddi M., Bucchi G., Coltelli L., Leon-Cardenas C., Electric Bike Product Conception and Styling According to Design Trends, Designs, 6(3), (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The following case study portrays the several steps required to conceive a product from scratch. The first step involves an in-depth analysis of today’s electric bicycle market in order to obtain data and information relating to the levels of innovation and comfort required by customers. Then, we evaluate the implementation of a useful method to understand the level of innovation that the product must have to be competitive on the market. The second part studies the architecture of the product, considering the different components already sold on the market which will become part of the project. The third part concerns a comparison between different stylistic trends that the vehicle may have (in order to outline the best one). The fourth part concerns the CAD realization of the virtual model complete with all its parts, including a structural verification study of the frame. The last part studies the presentation of the product to the customer, exploring different effective ways to communicate what the strengths of the new product will be (also allowing them to customize it before its realization). The plan for the realization of the new product, starting from the concept to arrive at the final presentation to the customer, follows the methods proposed by applying a series of steps to develop a generic new product in an efficient, sensible, and methodical manner. Therefore, we will refer to quality function deployment (QFD), benchmarking (BM), design for X, until reaching the final prototyping and testing phases.

Keywords: architecture | benchmarking | concept | design for X | electric bicycle | innovation | market | QFD | rendering | SDE

[4] Frizziero L., Leon-Cardenas C., Colasurdo G., Vicaretti A., Liverani A., IDeS (Industrial Design Structure) Method Applied to the Automotive Design Framework: Two Sports Cars with Shared Platform, Inventions, 7(2), (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The present study was set to validate two different suburban-type sportscar bodies with shared common underpinnings. The chosen method to develop this project was the Industrial Design Structure (IDeS), which characterizes the ability to use the different innovative techniques known within the industrial field, across the whole organization. This method is embodied by following a series of structured analysis tools, such as QFD (Quality Function Deployment), Benchmarking (BM), Top-Flop analysis (TFA), Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE), Prototyping, Testing, Budgeting and Planning. This project aims to study the present-day car market and to foresee deployment in the near future. This attempt was confirmed by delivering the complete styling and technical feasibility characteristics of two different sports cars, obtained by the IDeS methodology. This approach of embodying design together with phases of product development would provide a better engineered, target-oriented product, that uses state-of-the-art style and CAD environments to reduce product development time and, hence, overall Time to Market (TTM).

Keywords: benchmarking (BM) | industrial design structure (IDeS) | quality function deployment (QFD) | sportscar | stylistic design engineering (SDE) | suburban mobility | Top-Flop analysis (TFA)

[5] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Santi G.M., Leon-Cardenas C., Ferretti P., Pascucci G., Liverani A., Disassembly sequence planning validated thru augmented reality for a speed reducer, Cogent Engineering, 9(1), (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The lifecycle of a product is getting shorter in today’s market realities. Latest developments in the industry are heading towards achieving products that are easy to recycle, by developing further technological advances in raw materials ought to include input from End of Life (EOL) products so a reduction of natural harm could be achieved, hence reducing the overall production environmental footprint. Therefore, the approach taken as a design for environment, a key request nowadays in order to develop products that would ease the reverse manufacturing process leading to a more efficient element recycling for later use as spare parts or remanufacturing. The methodology proposed compares three probable disassembly sequences following a comparison of literature-found procedures between genetic algorithms and as a “state space search” problem, followed by a hybrid approach developed by the authors. Time and evaluation of these procedures reached to the best performing sequence. A subsequent augmented reality disassembly simulation was performed with the top-scored operation sequence with which the user is better able to familiarize himself with the assembly than a traditional paper manual, therefore enlightening the feasibility of the top performing sequence in the real world.

Keywords: closed loop | Disassembly | genetic algorithms | metaheuristic method | optimization | particle swarm optimizer

[6] Santi G.M., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Francia D., Neri M., Liverani A., A New Sedan Concept Car in Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) Enhanced with Augmented Reality, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 82-90, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Many industrial technologies are developed to optimize products and bring innovation. In particular, the automotive sector is renewing itself according to the rules of green energy and consumption. This huge change requires a reinterpretation of the models on the market updating them to the present and the future needs of automotive industry. In this paper the best compromise between innovation and tradition is found for the Ford brand that has not yet presented electric cars in the sedan segment. Following the SDE method enriched with Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Benchmarking (BM) and Top Flop Analysis (TPA), it is possible to carry out an innovative project. All these technologies must, however, be ordered according to a specific product allowing the best result for the design process. It is therefore necessary identifying the most common stylistic trends in order to draw the external styling of the vehicle using virtual prototyping techniques. To achieve an innovative result, Augmented Reality (AR) is considered to complete the method substituting the static and expensive procedure of making maquettes.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Augmented reality | Benchmarking | Car design | Design engineering | QFD | Stylistic design engineering (SDE)

[7] Frizziero L., Trisolino G., Santi G.M., Alessandri G., Agazzani S., Liverani A., Menozzi G.C., Di Gennaro G.L., Farella G.M.G., Abbruzzese A., Spinnato P., Berti L., Benedetti M.G., Computer-Aided Surgical Simulation through Digital Dynamic 3D Skeletal Segments for Correcting Torsional Deformities of the Lower Limbs in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 12(15), (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Torsional deformities of the lower limb are common in children with cerebral palsy (CP)-determining gait problems. The mechanisms underlying transverse plane gait deviations arise from a combination of dynamic and static factors. The dynamic elements may be due to spasticity, contractures and muscle imbalances, while the static ones may result from excessive femoral anteversion, which decreases the efficiency of the hip abductors by reducing the muscular lever arms. A therapeutic approach has been identified in multi-level functional surgery for the lower limb. Treating the malalignments of the lower limb with femoral or tibial derotation provides optimal results, especially when supported by adequate biomechanical planning. This planning requires an integrated static-dynamic approach of morphological and functional evaluation, based on radiological measurements, physical examination and gait analysis. Instrumented gait analysis has been confirmed as essential in the evaluation and surgical decision making process for children affected by CP with transverse plane deformities. Computational simulations based on musculoskeletal models that integrate patient-specific CT morphological data into gait analysis can be used for the implementation of a surgical simulation system in pre-operative planning to test the possible effects of the different surgical treatment options on the torsional defects of the lower limbs. Recently, a computer-aided simulation process has been implemented in the preoperative planning of complex osteotomies for limb deformities in children. Three-dimensional (3D) digital models were generated from Computed Tomography (CT) scans, using free open-source software. The aim of this study is to integrate the patient-specific CT musculoskeletal model with morphological data and gait analysis data, with the personalized calculation of kinematic and kinetic parameters, which allow us to generate an “avatar” of the patient for a more in-depth evaluation of the gait abnormalities. The computational simulation platform proposed provides a realistic movable musculoskeletal model in a virtual environment, with the possibility of planning and monitoring the effects of virtual three-dimensional surgical corrections.

Keywords: avatar | cerebral palsy | computed tomography | derotation | gait analysis | musculoskeletal modeling | torsional deformities | virtual surgical planning

[8] Frizziero L., Santi G.M., Leon-Cardenas C., Ferretti P., Sali M., Gianese F., Crescentini N., Donnici G., Liverani A., Trisolino G., Zarantonello P., Stallone S., Di Gennaro G.L., Heat sterilization effects on polymeric, FDM-optimized orthopedic cutting guide for surgical procedures, Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 12(4), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Improvements in software for image analysis have enabled advances in both medical and engineering industries, including the use of medical analysis tools to recreate internal parts of the human body accurately. A research analysis found that FDM-sourced elements have shown viability for a customized and reliable approach in the orthopedics field. Three-dimensional printing has allowed enhanced accuracy of preoperative planning, leading to reduced surgery times, fewer unnecessary tissue perforations, and fewer healing complications. Furthermore, using custom tools chosen for each procedure has shown the best results. Bone correction-related surgeries require customized cutting guides for a greater outcome. This study aims to assess the biopolymer-based tools for surgical operations and their ability to sustain a regular heat-sterilization cycle without compromising the geometry and fit characteristics for a proper procedure. To achieve this, a DICOM and FDM methodology is proposed for fast prototyping of the cutting guide by means of 3D engineering. A sterilization test was performed on HTPLA, PLA, and nylon polymers. As a result, the unique characteristics within the regular autoclave sterilization process allowed regular supplied PLA to show there were no significant deformations, whilst annealed HTPLA proved this material’s capability of sustaining repeated heat cycles due to its crystallization properties. Both of these proved that the sterilization procedures do not compromise the reliability of the part, nor the safety of the procedure. Therefore, prototypes made with a similar process as this proposal could be safely used in actual surgery practices, while nylon performed poorly because of its hygroscopic properties.

Keywords: 3D engineering | Cutting guide | FDM | HTPLA | Nylon FDM | Preoperative planning | Sterilization

[9] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Donnici G., Conti E., Dello Preite B., Lamanna U., Leon-Cardenas C., Garulli M., GD (Generative design) applied to a plastics recovery drone (PRD) using IDeS (industrial design structure), Inventions, 6(4), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The evolution of innovative and systematic design methodologies over time has widened the design concept involvement from the product development phase, which also includes the production and start-up phases. Literature findings have presented to accomplish a Generative Design (GD) approach through the application of an innovative method called Industrial Structure Design (IDeS), a systematic design method able to discover the customer’s needs and the fundamental technical solutions to obtain a good innovative product, involving the whole organization for this achievement. Nevertheless, there is a social demand for solutions to the dramatic and growing problem of marine pollution from plastic materials, encouraging the designers to conceive a new innovative drone for waste collection at sea. Therefore, this study aims to merge all the most advanced design technologies with IDeS in an integrated way, by generating a structure that can also be adopted to plan the organization of a production company. The approach is validated with the design of the Recovery Plastic Drone (RPD) obtained with the IDeS methodology, combining Design and Product development phases, leading to a better and innovative solution for the market.

Keywords: Design Sea | Generative Design (GD) | Industrial design structure (IDeS) | Plastics Recovery Drone (PRD) | Quality function deployment (QFD) | Stylistic design engineering (SDE)

[10] Ferretti P., Santi G.M., Leon-Cardenas C., Freddi M., Donnici G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Molds with advanced materials for carbon fiber manufacturing with 3d printing technology, Polymers, 13(21), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printing is the most widespread technology in additive manufacturing worldwide that thanks to its low costs, finished component applications, and the production process of other parts. The need for lighter and higher-performance components has led to an increased usage of polymeric matrix composites in many fields ranging from automotive to aerospace. The molds used to manufacture these components are made with different technologies, depending on the number of pieces to be made. Usually, they are fiberglass molds with a thin layer of gelcoat to lower the surface roughness and obtain a smooth final surface of the component. Alternatively, they are made from metal, thus making a single carbon fiber prototype very expensive due to the mold build. Making the mold using FDM technology can be a smart solution to reduce costs, but due to the layer deposition process, the roughness is quite high. The surface can be improved by reducing the layer height, but it is still not possible to reach the same degree of surface finish of metallic or gelcoat molds without the use of fillers. Thermoplastic polymers, also used in the FDM process, are generally soluble in specific solvents. This aspect can be exploited to perform chemical smoothing of the external surface of a component. The combination of FDM and chemical smoothing can be a solution to produce low-cost molds with a very good surface finish.

Keywords: Carbon fiber mold | Chemical smoothing | FDM | PVB | Vapor smoothing

[11] Ferretti P., Santi G.M., Leon-Cardenas C., Fusari E., Donnici G., Frizziero L., Representative volume element (Rve) analysis for mechanical characterization of fused deposition modeled components, Polymers, 13(20), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Additive manufacturing processes have evolved considerably in the past years, growing into a wide range of products through the use of different materials depending on its application sectors. Nevertheless, the fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique has proven to be an eco-nomically feasible process turning additive manufacture technologies from consumer production into a mainstream manufacturing technique. Current advances in the finite element method (FEM) and the computer-aided engineering (CAE) technology are unable to study three-dimensional (3D) printed models, since the final result is highly dependent on processing and environment parame-ters. Because of that, an in-depth understanding of the printed geometrical mesostructure is needed to extend FEM applications. This study aims to generate a homogeneous structural element that accurately represents the behavior of FDM-processed materials, by means of a representative volume element (RVE). The homogenization summarizes the main mechanical characteristics of the actual 3D printed structure, opening new analysis and optimization procedures. Moreover, the linear RVE results can be used to further analyze the in-deep behavior of the FDM unit cell. Therefore, industries could perform a feasible engineering analysis of the final printed elements, allowing the FDM technology to become a mainstream, low-cost manufacturing process in the near future.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | FDM | FEM | Linear analysis | Microstructure behavior | RVE

[12] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Donnici G., Papaleo P., Leon-Cardenas C., Smart cane developed with dfss, qfd and sde for the visually impaired, Inventions, 6(3), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This study shows an application of the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Methodology in the field of medical engineering. This research aims to demonstrate the application of a systematic design approach in the development of the “Ocane”, an innovative concept of smart cane for visually impaired patients which was thought of in answer to the end user’s needs, deploying an easy to transport, locate, and adjust element with ultrasonic sensors and tactile feedback. DFSS is an analytical design methodology meant to organize project workflow in a sequence of specific steps. Other standardized design procedures such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) have been used to support DFSS in terms of targeting customer requirements and focusing on aesthetics for ergonomics analysis, respectively. First, the QFD process is introduced and applied to gather the final customer needs, completing the analysis with benchmarking and similar-thought products on the market. Afterwards, a description of the DFSS methodology and application to the case study was deployed. Thereafter, the SDE procedure is exposed by identifying the “Ocane” concept and development, and moving towards the completion of an inventive product with a creative design and careful attention to visually impaired clients’ requirements.

Keywords: Assistive technology | Blind people | Design | DFSS | QFD | SDE | Visually impaired | Walking cane

[13] Frizziero L., Santi G.M., Donnici G., Leon-Cardenas C., Ferretti P., Liverani A., Neri M., An innovative ford sedan with enhanced stylistic design engineering (SDE) via augmented reality and additive manufacturing, Designs, 5(3), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The design of an E segment, executive, midsize sedan car was chosen to fill a gap in the market of the Ford brand and to achieve the goal of innovation looking towards the future. Ford has not owned an E-segment flagship sports sedan for years, since the historic 1960s Falcon. Starting from the latter assumption and considering that the major car manufacturers are currently investing heavily in E-segment cars, it is important to design a new model, which has been called the Eagle. This model proposed here is to fill the gap between Ford and other companies that are already producing sport cars for the electric sector and to complete Ford’s proposal. The presented methodology is based on SDE, on which many design tools are implemented, such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Benchmarking (BM), and Top Flop Analysis (TPA). A market analysis follows in order to identify the major competitors and their key characteristics considering style and technology. The results are used to design an innovative car. Based on the most developed stylistic trends, the vehicle is first sketched and then drawn in the 2D and 3D environments for prototyping. This result leads to the possibility of 3D printing the actual model as a maquette using the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology and testing it in different configurations in Augmented Reality (AR). These two final applications unveil the possibilities of Industry 4.0 as enrichment for SDE and in general rapid prototyping.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Augmented reality | Benchmarking | Car design | Design engineering | QFD | Stylistic design engineering (SDE)

[14] Ferretti P., Leon-Cardenas C., Santi G.M., Sali M., Ciotti E., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Relationship between fdm 3d printing parameters study: Parameter optimization for lower defects, Polymers, 13(13), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Technology evolution and wide research attention on 3D printing efficiency and processes have given the prompt need to reach an understanding about each technique’s prowess to deliver superior quality levels whilst showing an economical and process viability to become mainstream. Studies in the field have struggled to predict the singularities that arise during most Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) practices; therefore, diverse individual description of the parameters have been performed, but a relationship study between them has not yet assessed. The proposed study lays the main defects caused by a selection of printing parameters which might vary layer slicing, then influencing the defect rate. Subsequently, the chosen technique for optimization is presented, with evidence of its application viability that suggests that a quality advance would be gathered with such. The results would help in making the FDM process become a reliable process that could also be used for industry manufacturing besides prototyping purposes.

Keywords: Defects | Optimization | Optimized FDM | Printing parameters | Void occurrence

[15] Frizziero L., Santi G.M., Leon-Cardenas C., Donnici G., Liverani A., Papaleo P., Napolitano F., Pagliari C., Di Gennaro G.L., Stallone S., Stilli S., Trisolino G., Zarantonello P., In-house, fast fdm prototyping of a custom cutting guide for a lower-risk pediatric femoral osteotomy, Bioengineering, 8(6), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Three-dimensional printed custom cutting guides (CCGs) are becoming more and more investigated in medical literature, as a patient-specific approach is often desired and very much needed in today’s surgical practice. Three-dimensional printing applications and computer-aided surgical simulations (CASS) allow for meticulous preoperatory planning and substantial reductions of operating time and risk of human error. However, several limitations seem to slow the large-scale adoption of 3D printed CCGs. CAD designing and 3D printing skills are inevitably needed to develop workflow and address the study; therefore, hospitals are pushed to include third-party collaboration, from highly specialized medical centers to industrial engineering companies, thus increasing the time and cost of labor. The aim of this study was to move towards the feasibility of an in-house, low-cost CCG 3D printing methodology for pediatric orthopedic (PO) surgery. The prototype of a femoral cutting guide was developed for its application at the IOR—Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute of Bologna. The element was printed with an entry-level 3D printer with a high-temperature PLA fiber, whose thermomechanical properties can withstand common steam heat sterilization without bending or losing the original geometry. This methodology allowed for extensive preoperatory planning that would likewise reduce the overall surgery time, whilst reducing the risks related to the intervention.

Keywords: 3D printing | CAD surgery simulation | CASS | CT scan | Cutting guide | Orthopedic reproduction model

[16] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Donnici G., Giuliano I., Picciariello M.G., Tucci M.L., Reimer D., Ali A., Application of ides (Industrial design structure) to sustainable mobility: Case study of an innovative bicycle, Inventions, 6(2), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The present study aims to validate a new research method called IDeS (industrial design structure) through the design of an electric bicycle for everyday city life. IDeS is the latest evolution of a combination of innovative and advanced systematic approaches that are used to set a new industrial project. The IDeS methodology is sequentially composed of quality function deployment (QFD), benchmarking (BM), top-flop analysis (TFA), stylistic design engineering (SDE), design for X, prototyping and testing, budgeting, and planning. The present work illustrates how to integrate the abovementioned design methods and achieve a convincing result. In going through the IDeS method step by step, we compare the different solutions on the market in order to understand which are the best performing products and to understand what is missing on the market. This method allowed us to design a bicycle that is as close as possible to the “ideal bike”, obtained with the top/flop analysis.

Keywords: Benchmarking (BM) | Industrial design structure (IDeS) | Quality function deployment (QFD) | Stylistic design engineering (SDE) | Sustainable design | Sustainable mobility | Top-flop analysis (TFA)

[17] Frizziero L., Pagliari C., Donnici G., Liverani A., Santi G.M., Papaleo P., Napolitano F., Leon-Cardenas C., Trisolino G., Zarantonello P., Di Gennaro G.L., Stilli S., Stallone S., Effectiveness assessment of CAD simulation in complex orthopedic surgery practices, Symmetry, 13(5), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This experimental study defines the usage of a computer-aided surgical simulation process that is effective, safe, user-friendly, and low-cost, that achieves a detailed and realistic representation of the anatomical region of interest. The chosen tools for this purpose are state-of-the-art Computer Aided Design (CAD) software for mechanical design, and are the fundamental application dedicated to parametric modeling. These tools support different work environments, each one is for a specific type of modeling, and they allow the simulation of surgery. The result will be a faithful representation of the anatomical part both before and after the surgical procedure, screening all the intermediate phases. The doctor will assess different lines of action according to the results, then he will communicate them to the engineer who, consequently, will correct the antisymmetric issue and regenerate the model. Exact measurements of the mutual positions of the various components, skeletal and synthetic, can be achieved; all the osteosynthesis tools, necessary for the surgeon, can be included in the project according to different types of fracture to perfectly match the morphology of the bone to be treated. The method has been tested on seven clinical cases of different complexity and nature and the results of the simulations have been found to be of great effectiveness in the phase of diagnosis and of preoperative planning for the doctors and surgeons; therefore, allowing a lower risk medical operation with a better outcome. This work delivers experimental results in line with theoretical research findings in detail; moreover, full experimental and/or methodical details are provided, so that outcomes could be obtained.

Keywords: 3D processing | CAD-aided | Customized surgery | Pediatric orthopedics | Preoperative planning | Surgical simulation

[18] Frizziero L., Santi G.M., Leon-Cardenas C., Donnici G., Liverani A., Napolitano F., Papaleo P., Pagliari C., Antonioli D., Stallone S., Di Gennaro G.L., Trisolino G., Zarantonello P., An innovative and cost-advantage cad solution for cubitus varus surgical planning in children, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(9), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The study of CAD (computer aided design) modeling, design and manufacturing techniques has undergone a rapid growth over the past decades. In medicine, this development mainly concerned the dental and maxillofacial sectors. Significant progress has also been made in orthopedics with pre-operative CAD simulations, printing of bone models and production of patient-specific instruments. However, the traditional procedure that formulates the surgical plan based exclusively on two-dimensional images and interventions performed without the aid of specific instruments for the patient and is currently the most used surgical technique. The production of custom-made tools for the patient, in fact, is often expensive and its use is limited to a few hospitals. The purpose of this study is to show an innovative and cost-effective procedure aimed at prototyping a custom-made surgical guide for address the cubitus varus deformity on a pediatric patient. The cutting guides were obtained through an additive manufacturing process that starts from the 3D digital model of the patient’s bone and allows to design specific models using Creo Parametric. The result is a tool that adheres perfectly to the patient’s bone and guides the surgeon during the osteotomy procedure. The low cost of the methodology described makes it worth noticing by any health institution.

Keywords: 3D Printing | CAD Modeling | Cutting guides | Pediatric orthope-dics | Preoperative simulation | Surgery and diagnostics

[19] Ritucci A.L., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Maintainability approach: Hydraulic pump with external gears explored with design for disassembly and augmented reality, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(2), 1-23, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The work carried out has the purpose of improving and optimizing various industrial technical operations, such as preventive maintenance, taken here as an example of application, using the Design for Disassembly (DfD) technique. Therefore, through four metaheuristic methods that have been chosen among the most widespread in the field (described below) to make a comparison between them, the optimal disassembly sequence is sought, if it exists, in terms of time and then costs in order to extract a target component without damaging the other mechanical parts of the assembly. The hypothesis that has been tested throughout this case study is “a responsible application of DfD, not only from the design process of a product but also during the disassembly procedure, can bring substantial benefits to the company”. Interaction with a hypothetical operator in charge of the work to be performed is implemented with the use of augmented reality. In fact, through an application programmed for an Android device (in this case, a mobile phone, hence a handheld device), the operator can be instructed step-by-step on the disassembly sequence in dynamics as an animation. Finally, two virtual buttons were added in augmented reality with which the operator can start and pause/resume the animation at any time to facilitate the understanding of the different steps established by the sequence.

Keywords: Augmented reality | CAD | DFD | Industrial maintenance | Optimization

[20] Leon-Cardenas C., Ferretti P., Sali M., Santi G.M., Gianese F., Crescentini N., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Trisolino G., Zarantonello P., Stallone S., Di Gennaro G.L., FDM-sourced Shinbone Cutting Guide in Polylactic acid-based Polymers: Heat Sterilization Effects on Part Quality, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 764-772, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Software for image analysis endorsed further developments in the medical area that would accept state of the art reengineering processes to reproduce actual internal organs and structures of the human body. Previous research on FDM produced elements in the medicine field shown important discoveries on orthopedics. Preoperative planning shown to be suitable for additive manufacturing solutions that could help to improve the efficiency on procedures lowering potential risks after surgery. Accurate and well thought planning is necessary to choose the best way for the practice and deliver the best results. Tooling customization has shown to help into achieving this result. Bone-related surgeries require customized cutting guides for better accuracy. The following work aims to deliver the opportunity to use variations of Polylactic acid (PLA) based cutting guides in actual surgery practices by means of sustaining a regular heat-sterilization procedure without compromising its tailor-made characteristics. This would be possible by means of a proved, reliable procedure for obtaining the prototype from traditional CT scan images. As a result, HTPLA material composition and crystallization properties allowed to sustain a sterilization procedure in a way that does not compromise the reliability of the part, nor the safety of the procedure, so prototypes made with a similar process as the proposed one, can be used in actual surgery practices with safety.

Keywords: 3D Engineering | Cutting Guide | FDM | HTPLA | Sterilization

[21] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Santi G.M., Papaleo P., Napolitano F., Pagliari C., Trisolino G., Di Gennaro G.L., Zarantonello P., CAD-Aided Preoperative Simulation in Pediatric Orthopedics: The Case Study of Ollier's Disease, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1528-1539, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This work shows a preoperative simulation procedure with Computer Aided Design (CAD) 3D software for a patient suffering from Ollier's disease. This pathology is very rare and occurs in extremely different ways depending on the case. Consequently, it is difficult to establish a correct surgical strategy that can be applied in a similar way to all patients. Computer Aided Surgical Simulation (CASS) process uses advanced modeling technologies to reproduce bony anatomy and simulate the surgery. The starting point is represented by the 3D digital model of the bone obtained from tomographic images. Through CAD modeling software such as Creo Parametric and following surgeons directives, engineers can provide doctors with orthopedic simulation and expectation of achievable surgical outcome. If virtual surgical prediction doesn’t meet doctors requirements, model is regenerated and it is possible to seek for a better solution. CASS process allow for extensive surgical planning, enhancing accuracy in theatre and enriching the amount of medical information that is needed to perform complex orthopedic procedures. In conclusion, the possibility to recognize in advance the overall orthopedic situation and outcoming expectancy represent an extraordinary upgrade of current surgical state of the art, leading to minimally invasive surgeries and patient-specific solutions.

Keywords: 3D modeling | CAD | CASS | Parametric software | Preoperative planning

[22] Cantarelli S., Francia D., Liverani A., Frizziero L., Design for Additive Manufacturing of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1018-1027, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper aims to provide the study of a design strategy for 3D printing production process, given its recent development, as well as that of high-performance materials. In particular, we focus on the blade of a wind generator by evaluating new construction methods deriving from new design approaches. The strategies used for the present study are described as follows: firstly, it was necessary to proceed to redesign the blade, by CAD software in order to menage a 3D model for the study and to initialize the whole project; then, the FEM analysis to validate the study. Finally, the AM (Additive Manufacturing) theorization and simulation for both a scaled blade and a full-sized one. The motivation behind this paper draws on the predominance and the constant evolution of the 3D printing in recent years, as well as the continuous research on both development and improvement of costs and performance of composite materials used.

Keywords: Composite Materials | Design for Additive Manufacturing | Finite Element Analysis | Wind-turbine

[23] Ferretti P., Leon-Cardenas C., Ciotti E., Santi G.M., Donnici G., Frizziero L., FDM 3D Printing Parameters Optimization: The Key Role of Line Width, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 921-929, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Additive manufacturing technologies have evolved rapidly and steadily over the last decade and they become widely used not only in large, high-level companies, but also in medium-sized industries for both the production of prototypes, mockups, and the production of finished components. Stratasys' patented fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology, or more generally Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), is by far the most cost-effective additive manufacturing (AM) technology especially if compared to powder technologies such as selective laser melting. It offers an extremely wide range of materials from nowadays mainstream, low-cost polylactic acid to the more advanced carbon fiber PEEK. The use of this technology is usually finalized on the production of prototypes and few case studies of end-use components can be found in the literature. This is due to the difficulties in predicting the final behavior of the resulting component and the presence of defects that can cause unpredictable premature failures in the component. This study focuses on describing how it is possible to reduce the defects present in the component with a careful choice of printing parameters and in particular focus on the effect of the parameter called “line width” and its correlation with the geometry of the printable part. The results would help to make FFF a more reliable process that could be used for obtaining a reliable, industrial production as well as prototype manufacture.

Keywords: FDM defects | Line width | Optimized FFF | Printing parameters

[24] Santi G.M., Liverani A., Donnici G., Croati E., Frizziero L., Disassembly sequence for hydraulic pump using disassembly geometry contacting graph in augmented reality environment, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1399-1408, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a study based on Design for Disassembly (DfD) applied to a hydraulic pump through the Disassembly Geometry Contacting Graph (DGCG) methodology. DfD is today very important to reduce the disposal or maintenance costs foreseeable already in the planning phase. One of the key points in reducing costs is reducing time for disassemble each component. Because of that, the disassembly time was considered respect to other fundamental and optimizable characteristics such as: Disassembly costs, operations to be performed, quantity of material, etc. All the operations have been evaluated using the time measurement units (TMUs). The objective of the paper is to minimize the disassembly times required for an operator to separate each single component from the other. The study of accessibility, positioning, strength, and basic time led to a comparison between different disassembly methods in order to produce the optimal sequence. In the end, the validation of the sequence was carried out in an Augmented Reality (AR) environment in order to predict the manual disassembly understanding the possible issues without the need of building the components. Using AR, it was possible to look at the assembly during the design phase in a 1:1 scale and evaluate the chosen sequence.

Keywords: CAD | Disassembly | Sequence | TMU | Virtual Reality

[25] Baldrati F., Chaks L., Dallacasa E., Frizziero L., QFD and SDE applied to the design of a new non-electric folding bike, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1433-1444, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Sustainable transportation is an ideal system which simultaneously reduces the environmental impact caused by the mobilisation of people and maximises the efficiency of movements. Nowadays, bicycles represent an optimal solution in terms of sustainability and could make a significant difference for the environment, leading towards a brighter future. The Institute for Transportation & Development Policy (Itdp, 2015) states that CO2 emissions could be reduced by 11% before 2050, and without changing the frequency of usual urban movements, if only the number of cyclists increased by a considerable amount. In the last few years, foldable bicycles in particular, have substantially contributed to the rise and prevalence of bicycles as a major method of daily transport. As a result of their manageable size and convenient ability to fold into just a small occupying space, as well as the ease of transport, foldable bicycles have become a crucial link in the chain of innovative and sustainable transport. After conducting a detailed environmental assessment along with a through market analysis, and by strictly following the principles of Quality Function Deployment and Stylistic Design Engineering we designed Mabroum. Mabroum is a new foldable bicycle which is ideal for moving around the city, safe and comfortable.

Keywords: Folding bike | Human-centered | Product design | Sustainable mobility

[26] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Santi G.M., Bolzani D., Golinelli L., Marchi F., Design for six sigma (DFSS) and industrial design structure (IDeS) for a new urban sustainable mobility, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1268-1281, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: In the last decade citizens mobility is changing towards a more environment-friendly, more flexible and more shared way of moving around the city. The objective, now, is to decrease the levels of pollution. Notwithstanding people mobility is based on rapidity, sustainability is becoming always more important. In order to follow the new needs of future customers, the present work is presenting a new approach to design in order to obtain an innovative product with the aforementioned characteristics. The new approach is to combine two innovative methodology to design: The first one is Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) and it is useful to structure the project into five main phases (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Validate), systematically; the second one is Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) and it is dedicated to the aesthetic development of a new product following an engineering structure of all the phases of the work. DFSS and SDE will be applied in the present paper in order to give an answer to the arising problem of the new mobility of the future, providing for a new innovative urban means, matching the different characteristics of an hoverboard and of a kick-scooter. The output of the study, described along the paper, is the adaptability of the abovementioned methodologies and the proposal of a new product concept for the scopes illustrated.

Keywords: BENCHMARKING | DFSS | IDeS | QFD | SDE

[27] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Santi G.M., Bugli E., Contini G., Harsan D., Stylistic design engineering (SDE) to conceptualize a new Seven-Seater car, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1253-1267, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The present paper is about a family car project that starts from a study of the characteristics of the type of car taken into consideration and from an analysis of the environment carried out through an historical research on the models on the market from the 30s to the mid-90s, and their classification. The market analysis was carried out by answering six questions from the QFD and by developing the tables of relative importance and interrelation through which the most important and the most independent requirements to be attributed to the innovative family project were obtained. The competitor analysis was made through a research on the models currently on the market, the development of the benchmarking, and the what/how matrix from which the final requirements and project objectives were determined. The brand was selected, the budget was drawn up over a 12-month period and the car’s product architecture was defined. The SDE was carried out through an aesthetic analysis of the existing models, the sketches for each type of style and the selection of the final sketches. The development of the product, instead, consisted in the prototyping of a 1:18 scale model of the car through 3D printing.

Keywords: 3D Printing | CAD | QFD | Rendering | SDE

[28] Ferretti P., Leon-Cardenas C., Sali M., Santi G.M., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Application of TPU-sourced 3d printed FDM organs for improving the realism in surgical planning and training, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 6658-6669, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Since 3D printing was developed, it became the most promising technique to speed up prototyping in a wide variety of areas across the industry. Rapid prototyping allows the medical industry to customize the surgery procedures, thus predicting its result. Biomedical applications made by medical grade elastic thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); a non-traditional plastic material which allows to obtain additional benefits in rapid 3D prototyping because of its flexibility and anti-bacteriological capabilities. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of TPU polymer, FDM objects sourced from CT scanned 3D surfaces for helping surgeons in preoperative planning and training for increasing environment perception, that is, geometry and feeling of the tissues, whilst performing standard procedures that require complex techniques and equipment. A research was performed to assess the physical and qualitative characteristics of TPU 3D developed objects, by developing a proper SWOT analysis against PLA, a widely used, and cost-effective option in FDM industry. Therefore, giving a proposition opposite to other known modern medical planning techniques and bringing out the benefits of the application of TPU-sourced, FDM parts on professional medical training. As a result, PLA is a reliable, wide-available process whilst TPU’s flexible capabilities improves realism in 3D printed parts. Surgical planning and training with rapid prototyping, would improve accurate medical prototyping for customized-procedures, by reducing surgery times, unnecessary tissue perforations and fewer healing complications; providing experience that other FDM materials like PLA cannot be reached.

Keywords: 3D Printing | 3D Scanner | QFD | Surgical Training | TPU

[29] Francia D., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Donnici G., Dalledonne N., Augmented reality enabling disassembly sequence planning, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1876-1886, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, the importance of the concept of “Urban Mining” is growing even more, which consists in searching for raw materials inside objects that have reached the end of their life, instead of “inside nature”. It can be commonly found especially in mechanical and electronic equipment valuable materials, which can be extracted and reused as secondary raw materials. The importance of Design for Disassembly (DfD), that is the central topic of this paper, is increasing because of it brings great advantages in terms of disassembly times of components that have reached the end of life. According to the Disassembly Sequence Planning (DSP), this paper presents an application of several methods derived from literature to a two-way valve, to find optimal disassembly sequences. Different sequences have been compared in terms of disassembly time consuming, by the conversion of operations into disassembly time using accredited methods found in literature. Finally, an application in Augmented Reality is proposed to simulate a practical evaluation of what has been theorised so far.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | CAD modelling | Design for Disassembly | Sequence Planning

[30] Pagliari C., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Santi G.M., Papaleo P., Napolitano F., Leon-Cardenas C., Trisolino G., Zarantonello P., Di Gennaro G.L., Maredi E., Stilli S., Stallone S., Cad-aided preoperative simulation in complex orthopaedic surgery, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1463-1472, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This work aims to present the application of mechanical modeling software in three dimensions in the medical field, analyzing the procedures used by the engineer to support the orthopedic surgeon in preoperative planning. The first step of the procedure involves CT examinations in patients selected for surgery: DICOM images are managed in post-processing to obtain multiplanar reconstructions of the bone lesion to be treated. The files are then optimized, made shareable and imported into CREO's work platform; this is part of a family of CAD software products for mechanical design, developed by PTC, and is the fundamental application dedicated to parametric modeling. The result will be a faithful representation of the anatomical part both before and after surgical procedure, screening all the intermediate phases. The doctor will assess different lines of action according to the results, than he will communicate them to the engineer who, consequently, will correct and regenerate the model. The method finds its power in the dialogue between engineer and doctor: In complex cases closer collaboration is needed while, for the evaluation of less demanding injuries, the exam could be assigned as a remote project which, once completed, is returned to the medical facility of competence.

Keywords: 3D modeling | Computer aided | Parametric software | Preoperative planning | Surgical simulation

[31] Papaleo P., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Santi G.M., Napolitano F., Pagliari C., Leon-Cardenas C., Trisolino G., Maredi E., Stilli S., Di Gennaro G.L., Zarantonello P., Stallone S., CAD aided pre-operative planning and prototyping of HTPLA orthopaedic femoral cutting guide, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1445-1453, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printing technology has widespread in a variety of scientific fields, since rapid prototyping and low-cost investments well meet flexibility of application. Mechanical engineering is taking an essential role in Orthopaedics and Traumatology. As a patient-specific approach and minimally invasive surgeries are progressively needed in today’s medical routines, highly-customized 3D printed devices and surgical instruments represent a milestone in medical equipment. Virtual preoperatory planning and computer aided surgical simulations (CASS) enhance 3D visualization of human anatomy, giving doctors full understanding of traumas and deformities. Custom cutting guides (CCGs) represent the cutting edge of patient-dedicated surgical routines, allowing for a sensible reduction of operative time and risk of human error. While maxillofacial surgery (MFS) has already adopted customized 3D printed tools, pediatric orthopaedics (PO) and general long bones surgery strive to put these devices into common practice. Limitations to a large-scale implementation rely on collaboration with the industrial world, as engineering and designing skills are inevitably demanded. Here displayed is the prototype for a femoral cutting guide designed for a pediatric application of the IOR - Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute of Bologna. The device was printed in a High-Temperature PLA, supporting common steam heat sterilization and maintaining designed geometry.

Keywords: 3D printing | CAD surgery simulation | CT scan | Cutting guide | Orthopaedic reproduction model

[32] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Santi G.M., Belsito A., Polito C., Sdruccioli M., Stylistic design engineering (SDE) to conceptualize a futuristic sports car, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1282-1297, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The present work is a case study about the application of the methodology named Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE), that is an approach to develop car design projects in the industrial world. For attending this goal, it was chosen the S-segment car products, category that identifies the sport car as today’s Lotus. The inspiration for the project started from the top model in the past years of the car manufacturer Audi, or the Audi Quattro (1980-1991). This model represented all the time the most advanced technology in the automotive world of the house, and the most important thing was the all-wheel drive, therefore with four-wheel drive. In the following pages will be illustrated the summary of the path that led to the final product following the “instructions” of SDE method.

Keywords: 3D Printing | QFD | SDE | Sportcar

[33] Napolitano F., Frizziero L., Santi G.M., Donnici G., Liverani A., Papaleo P., Pagliari C., Leon-Cardenas C., Trisolino G., Maredi E., Stilli S., Antonioli D., Zarantonello P., Stallone S., CAD aided pre-operative planning and prototyping of Cubitus Varus cutting guide, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1454-1462, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This work is the outcome of a partnership between the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Bologna and the Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute of Bologna. The aim of this collaboration is using medical engineering tools during orthopedic surgeries. This article focuses on the design and construction of a custom-made surgical guide for cubitus varus. The guides are special aids that allow surgeons to perform operations smoothly, to achieve the planned result and to reduce the risk of inaccuracy. They are obtained with an additive manufacturing process that starts from a 3D digital model of the patient's bone obtained from CT scans and allow designing patient-specific templates using specific software as the Creo Parametric CAD. For the proper functioning of the guide the internal shape must correspond to the external profile of the patient's bone. In this way, the tool obtained fits exactly to the bone and it is possible to direct the cutting during surgery in a very specific direction as identified in the preoperative planning phase.

Keywords: 3D Printing | Cutting guides | Pediatric Orthopedics | Surgery and Diagnostics

[34] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Sonnati E., Cerullo A., Ghirlandi E., Donnici G., Futuristic transportation system developed with QFD, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1410-1431, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a project proposal about the design of an innovative and futuristic transport system that aims to replace highways and major roads with a fast, safe and ecological new arrangement. The aim was to conceive an innovative new infrastructure of transport that fits into a future city scenery. In the current historical period we are invested by fast, frenetic and unstoppable evolution that leads to the continuous replacement of products and technologies that in a few years went from being innovative to become obsolete and outdated. Moreover, this process has inevitably affected the whole world of transport: It has assisted and is still witnessing the replacement of diesel and petrol engines with hybrid and electric ones. These evolution and change have led us into the research and understanding of increasingly innovative technologies such as the ones with zero impact motors or magnetic levitation, which in the near future will probably become a valid alternative, or even the new pioneers of transport around the world. At the beginning, the methodology used for the present case study was adopted to analyze how people used to move in the current period (i.e. 2019-20); then, it was taken into consideration the problems linked to the main means of transport diffused, with clean and green technologies; later, it was carried out a market analysis for each category, with related Benchmarking, in order to find the most significant technical characteristics of each one. According to the emerged results, a concept of an innovative transport system was developed, in order to guarantee the safety and privacy of passengers in addition to other performance items, as high speed or integration with other means. The intention was to create a transport network that could connect many cities with direct and easily practicable routes that could replace highways.

Keywords: Ecological | Future city | Future transport | High Speed | Magnetic Levitation | Safe

[35] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Santi G.M., Benni G., Stylistic design engineering (SDE) to realize a new concept of classic car, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1642-1659, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: In the present work the Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE), a structured engineering methodology developed to carry out car design projects, is applied to the creation of a new reliable and robust utility vehicle, also suitable for traveling in the countryside. In particular, the design project aimed at the possibility of launching a new Citroen 2CV that would maintain the lightness and reduced fuel consumption of the previous model but that would combine these characteristics with greater eco-sustainability, thanks to electric drive, and greater comfort for passengers. SDE consists of the following steps: (1) sketches; (2) 2D CAD drawings; (3) 3D CAD models; (4) 3D printed models (also referred to as styling models); (5) Optimization of maquettes through technical objectives. This project deals with the exterior restyling of the Citroen 2CV and was carried out using different technologies and design methodologies that will be further explained in detail, such as the Pininfarina method, the QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and the 6 Sigma method. The work was organized in different phases and in all these phases the quality methodologies mentioned above were used. At first the Citroen style was studied, a fundamental step to better understand the characteristics of the brand and also the main characteristics carried out over the years of the product's life. Subsequently, the freehand sketching phase was carried out, inspired by the considerations made in the previous study phase. This phase continued until a satisfactory form was found by analyzing and discarding the various proposals of the various types of style. Once the definitive proposal was chosen, the definitive three-dimensional shape was obtained and on it it was possible to evaluate proportions and dimensions, also thanks to the rendering software.

Keywords: Benchmarking Analysis | Car Design | Quality Function Deployment (QFD) | Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) | Top Flop Analysis

[36] Santi G.M., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Tinuper M., Donnici G., Innovative disassembly sequence applied to a virtual mechanical reducer, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 5398-5411, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The life of industrial products is getting shorter due to the rapid evolution of technologies. Because of that, the creation of models that are interested in last part of the product’s life are becoming extremely relevant. In recent years, many investments have been made in the recycling of raw materials and the reuse of End-Of-Life (EOL) products in order to reduce the waste of resources. Strategies of Design for Environment (DfE) have been searched and, for this reason, the Design for Disassembly (DfD) has become a fundamental phase in the product life cycle with the subsequent creation of design techniques aimed precisely at disassembly. Using this methodology, the designer can study and plan the optimal sequence which should be based on countless factors and criteria because there is not a straightforward path or a single combination of operations to follow. This paper describes and compares multiple disassembly methods based on minimum disassembly time with reference to a worm gear reducer. In particular, the component was made entirely on CAD (SolidWorks) and the sequences were pplied in a virtual environment. In this way, it was possible to evaluate different algorithms and obtain the optimal disassembly sequence that minimize the overall disassembly time.

Keywords: CAD | Disassembly | Sequence | TMU | Virtual Reality

[37] Zippo G., Ruggiero P., Tedesco I., Frizziero L., Design for six sigma (DFSS) applied to an innovative electric scooter, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1432, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The term electric mobility comprises several means of electrified or semi-electric transport for short or medium range displacements. The essential idea is to satisfy the expanding demand for short urban travel, which features public transportation, taxis, and car-sharing solutions. Micro-electric mobility is often an ideal solution for moving quickly and efficiently, even if an area is closed and unreachable due to traffic. The only conflicting viewpoint associated with micro-electric mobility is creating an efficient infrastructure and the challenges faced with consumers' behavior since customers are forced to analyze their best daily option for transportation. Since the future suggest that transportation around cities will no longer be the same, micro-mobility could be the turning point for a society that frequently seems willing to embrace more alternative environmentally friendly solutions for the environment while being incentivized by the idea of ownership. LOOP is creating an innovative electric scooter, different from the market's standard ones, both in design and in its functionality. A light and handy product that brings citizens closer to micro-mobility. A sustainable solution that allows you to avoid traffic and reduce consumption.

Keywords: Design Engineering | Electric Scooter | Industrial Design | Sustainable Mobility

[38] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Innovation design driven by QFD and TRIZ to develop new urban transportation means, Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 19(3), 300-316, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Beginning from an analysis of all the top types of execution of the hoverboard, a contemporary vehicle for city transportation, inventive concepts were generated to design it. Quality-oriented methodology, just like Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for example, contributed the desires to start from, while through an innovation-oriented methodology, just like Teorija Rešenija Izobretatel'skich Zadač (TRIZ) method, proposals and notions for innovative settings were reached. In practice, while the QFD methodology has a powerfully conceptual appeal, and it is the basis of our analysis, the TRIZ method gives a more innovative thrust and deals the aspects that are strongly constructive and concrete. The matrix of contradictions has been used within the Hill model, and through it, it has been possible to rework the innovative problems, suggested by the analysis of the QFD, in terms of technical contradictions. The main purpose of the following work is to demonstrate how the two methodologies mentioned above, namely the QFD methodology and the TRIZ methodology, can be integrated within a path of development of innovative products, supporting one for the other.

Keywords: contradictions | innovative solution | QFD | TRIZ | urban transportation systems

[39] Marruganti M., Frizziero L., Maintainability of a gearbox using design for disassembly and augmented reality, Machines, 8(4), 1-34, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Environmental impact and recycling have been increasingly frequent topics in recent years. At the same time, the life cycle of products has increasingly become shorter, as the escalating competitive market requires new products in smaller pieces. From this perspective, the recovery of parts and products that are produced in this market system for subsequent reuse when they reach the end of their life cycle is essential. For these reasons, it has become critical that companies re-evaluate their product design with a view to the possible recovery of the parts that comprise their products and to create new products for the market. The following discussion was based on the study of design for disassembly (DfD), which is the analysis of industrial products aimed at optimizing disassembly in terms of time and costs. The application of the DfD to a case study of a gearbox has, among its main objectives, the search for the best disassembly sequence in terms of time and money. During the course of the study, augmented reality (AR) was used. Through the use of the Unity software and Vuforia package, it was possible to bring the gearbox back to AR and then simulate the disassembly sequence in AR.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Computer-aided design | Design for disassembly | Disassembly evaluation chart | Disassembly sequence planning | Gearbox | SolidWorks

[40] Freddi M., Frizziero L., Design for disassembly and augmented reality applied to a tailstock, Actuators, 9(4), 1-14, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The work here described aims to offer a starting point for improving and making a generic maintenance process more efficient, first of all thanks to the use of a cutting-edge technology such as augmented reality, as a key tool that makes it possible and immediate to communicate to operators which are the fundamental stages of the maintenance process to be followed in the working area. Furthermore, thanks to the use of two methods applied in the context of the Design for Disassembly (later described), we also propose to search for all the possible sequences to get to the removal of a target component to be adjusted—in particular the optimal one (if it exists, in terms of time and costs) to be subsequently applied in an augmented reality “self-disassembly” model that can be viewed and followed by the operator, in a way that is still very little used today.

Keywords: Augmented reality | CAD | DFD | Industrial maintenance | Optimization

[41] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Buscaroli G., Raimondo L., Saponaro E., Venditti G., A new car concept developed with stylistic design engineering (SDE), Inventions, 5(3), 1-22, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: In this work, a structured design method, the Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE), is applied for the construction of a new minivan car, in particular a new city car, which we will call FIAT 600 Omega. The SDE, or Stylistic Design Engineering, is a structured engineering method for carrying out automotive design projects. The SDE method consists of six different phases: (1) Analysis of stylistic trends; (2) Sketches; (3) 2D Computer Aided Design (CAD) drawings; (4) 3D CAD models; (5) Rendering; (6) Solid stylistic model (also called style maquette). This project deals with the external redesign of the Fiat 600 multiple, a small minivan which was very successful in the 1950s and 1960s. SDE is a methodology consisting of various technologies and design methodologies that will be further explained in detail, such as the Pininfarina method, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method, Benchmarking (BM), and Top Flop Analysis (TPA). The work was organized according to the different phases. Initially, the Fiat style was studied, in particular the style of the FIAT 600 MULTI PURPOUSE VEHICLE (MPV). This step is essential to better understand the characteristics of the brand and also the main characteristics carried out over the decades. Then we moved on to the freehand sketching phase, based on what we learned in the previous phase of the study. When a satisfactory shape was found for the new car, by analyzing and discarding the different proposals of the various types of style, we proceeded to the evaluation of the proportions and dimensions through two-dimensional drawings and finally we obtained the three-dimensional shape of the new car thanks to 3D CAD software and rendering software. Many advantages in the industrial world SDE takes together with its development. In fact, until the early 2000s, car design and styling was considered quite a craft activity, not a technical or scientific one, mostly based on the great capability of famous car designers and masters, just like Giugiaro, Zagato, Bertone, Pininfarina, Stephenson, Bangle, etc. Then, thanks to the industrial activity of Eng. Lorenzo Ramacciotti, former CEO of Pininfarina Spa and Mechanical Engineer, and also thanks to the academic studies developed at ALMA MATER STUDIORUM University of Bologna, SDE became the object of attention, because it is able to systematize the car design process and reduce costs. With SDE, a good design research or an industrial product development team can complete a car design project, also without the presence of a mentor. Car Design Process finally becomes with SDE a scientific method; Car Design becomes with SDE an industrial method. Industrial needs are nice products made in a short time; SDE is structured to attend these issues. Industrial challenges follow innovation, in shape and functionality; SDE is able to recognize innovation. Industrial benefits can be reached with SDE, ensuring beautiful aesthetic projects are realized systematically and with low costs.

Keywords: Benchmarking | Car design | Citycar | Design engineering | QFD | Stylistic design engineering (SDE) | Topflop analysis

[42] Frizziero L., Santi G.M., Liverani A., Napolitano F., Papaleo P., Maredi E., Di Gennaro G.L., Zarantonello P., Stallone S., Stilli S., Trisolino G., Computer-aided surgical simulation for correcting complex limb deformities in children, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 10(15), (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This work aims to present an in-house low-cost computer-aided simulation (CASS) process that was recently implemented in the preoperative planning of complex osteotomies for limb deformities in children. Five patients admitted to the Unit of Paediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology from April 2018 to December 2019, for correcting congenital or post-traumatic limb deformities were included in the study. Three-dimensional (3D) digital models were generated from Computed Tomography (CT) scans, using free open-source software, and the surgery was planned and simulated starting from the 3D digital model. 3D printed sterilizable models were fabricated using a low-cost 3D printer, and animations of the operation were generated with the aim to accurately explain the operation to parents. All procedures were successfully planned using our CASS method and the 3D printed models were used during the operation, improving the understanding of the severely abnormal bony anatomy. The surgery was precisely reproduced according to CASS and the deformities were successfully corrected in four cases, while in one case, the intraoperative intentional undersizing of the bone osteotomy produced an incomplete correction of a congenital forearm deformity. Our study describes the application of a safe, effective, user-friendly, and low-cost CASS process in paediatric orthopaedics (PO) surgery. We are convinced that our study will stimulate the widespread adoption of this technological innovation in routine clinical practice for the treatment of rare congenital and post-traumatic limb deformities during childhood.

Keywords: 3D modeling | Computer aided | Osteotomy | Paediatric orthopaedics | Preoperative planning | Surgery | Surgical simulation

[43] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Disassembly sequence planning (DSP) applied to a gear box: Comparison between two literature studies, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 10(13), (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This work aims to analyze the characteristics and importance that design techniques for disassembly assume in the modern design phase of a mechanism. To this end, the study begins by considering a three-dimensional model of a gear motor, taken from the components of which the overall drawings are arranged and from the relief of those not available. Once the mechanism has been digitally reconstructed, the activity focuses on the study of the optimal disassembly sequence by comparing different methodologies, according to two evaluation criteria-minimizing the time taken and minimizing the number of tool changes necessary to complete the sequence. The main results of the work are (1) defining a standard methodology to improve disassembly sequence planning, (2) finding the best disassembly sequence for the specific component among the literature and eventually new methods, and (3) offering to the industrial world a way to optimize maintenance operations in mechanical products. Referring to the limitation of the present works, it can be affirmed that the results are limited to the literature explored and to the case study examined.

Keywords: CAD | Disassembly sequence planning | Globoid gear motor

[44] Decesari C., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Design for six sigma applied to the design of an innovative food processor, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays technology is extensively used as aid for cooking activities and humans are relying on it for a wide range of tasks in their everyday life, making the cooking activity more effective, less time consuming and even accessible to less skilled people. The present work is a case study on the application of the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology that here is exploited for the realization of the so-called “food processor”. This device requires only electricity, it is able to cook, mix, chop up and steam, allowing the user to obtain tasty and well-controlled dishes through simplified procedures. The method used looks at what is already available on the market enabling to design an innovative product while fulfilling customer requirements. QFD analysis and Benchmarking analysis were used as a support for the method. The result of the research is the design of an innovative food processor, where the design procedure has been guided by DFSS methodology and has been implemented through Creo Parametric software.

Keywords: Benchmarking Analysis | Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) | Food Processor | Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

[45] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Cacaci L., Costantini N., Pedrielli G., Ides (Industrial design structure) and stylistic design engineering (sde) applied to the mobility of the future, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Sustainable mobility means a series of services and means of transport designed to reduce traffic, improve air quality and cut energy consumption; it is essential to integrate the various transport systems and encourage the spread of electric vehicles. The European Commission proposes new targets for average CO2 emissions to accelerate the transition to low-emission vehicles. The goal is to reduce emissions by 40% by 2030, in line with the Paris agreements. It is not only a question of replacing private means of transport, but also of encouraging the development of new business models and more efficient use of public and freight transport. The present paper works on six main points: • New standards that help manufacturers to innovate and offer low-emission vehicles on the market • Solutions for sustainable mobility in public systems • Investments for the diffusion of infrastructures for alternative fuels • Revision of the combined transport directive which promotes the use of different means for freight transport • Development of long distance bus connections across Europe • Development of better and better batteries The diffusion of micro-mobility systems requires a general change of context. The city must keep up with technology and become smart, the regulations and all sharing phenomena must be adequate. In 2020, 80 billion objects connected to the world through 1200 satellites are estimated: urban mobility will be greatly influenced and will become a connecting element between the environment and those who live in it. The micro-mobility market in Europe could reach 150 billion dollars by 2030. As the possibilities for use increase, the number of startups for mobility sharing also increases. It is estimated that at the end of 2018 there were 5.2 million subscribers to at least one of the sharing services active in the area, one million more than the previous year. In particular, this project aims to propose an innovative, sustainable and ecological means of transport suitable for everyone and which can be a valid alternative for getting around the city.

Keywords: Benchmarking Analysis | Industrial Design Structure (IDeS); Car Design | Quality Function Deployment (QFD) | Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE); future mobility

[46] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Coniglio R., Rella A.D., Montuschi M., Donnici G., Innovative methods like ides and sde to design a future family car, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a design proposal of a future family car. The target audience of this application are families with children, so that different customer needs must be satisfied, like as good performances, reliability, spaciousness, eco-sustainability, safety and regulations for infants. The reference segment of the family car is the C / E of the Stan-dards ISO 3833: 1977. The first methodology used in this paper is the QFD, to determine the fundamental characteristics of our proposal. Then, with a Benchmarking analysis, we highlighted the most advantageous – top – and most disadvantageous – flop – solutions in terms of our product. The brand that emerged as the most suitable to meet the most influential characteristics from a customer perspective is Volkswagen. Subsequently, we proceeded using the tool of the SDE. Some features of different stylistic trends have been analyzed and merged to present our 7-seats, 4-wheel drive and 2-volume family car proposal, named “T-Golf”.

Keywords: Benchmarking Analysis | Car Design | Quality Function Deployment (QFD) | Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE)

[47] Calanca D., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Donnici G., Design study of an innovative system for remote control of home devices using dfss (Design for six sigma), Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The work presented is a case study about the application of the methodology named Design For Six Sigma, which involves the concepts of Benchmarking and QFD analysis, applied to different devices/appliances, without having the target of the creation of a specific final product, but trying to outline a prototype of an innovative domotic house, where every device is connected to the main network and can communicate with the others. Four categories of products were analyzed: robot vacuum cleaner, smart refrigerators, domotic ovens and robot lawnmowers. Today these devices are very smart and technologically advanced but cannot co-operate for the realization of a connected system; which could happen thanks to the increasing use of Google Home and Amazon Alexa devices. In the following pages will be illustrated all the process described above comprehensive of the house project realized on SolidEdge and rendered on KeyShot.

Keywords: Benchmarking | Design For Six Sigma | Domotics | House of quality | QFD

[48] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Aiello S., Marinelli L., Salzano A., Stylistic design engineering (Sde) framed inside ides (industrial design structure) to conceive a new future citycar, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Given the general subject “Automotive Design” as starting point of the research, it was decided to focus the present paper on a particular segment of cars: the A segment, which is usually known as City Car. Before even starting to research about the City Car world, it was scheduled the work phases in a general way and after that, organizing time week by week to be sure it wouldn’t be run out of time before the complete ending. A Road Map was used as a graphic method to better visualize the path to follow during the project, in order to stay focused and always know and be ready for the next step. Two major moments were identified: a project set up, followed by the project development. The Project Set Up includes some preliminary analysis, to better understand the environment in which it is operating, only then it was be able to start focusing on the concept for our new car. Once defined the entire concept, and all the requests that should be to satisfied, the budget was outlined, instrument needed to cover the costs of design and production of the entire car. The Project Set Up comes to an end after the last phase of styling, which include a series of propositions concerning the aesthetic of the shell. Next, the developing of the project was taken on. This phase includes the 3D modelling via software, followed by the optimization of the model concerning the aerodynamic and the overall form. Once all the details concerning the 3d model were defined, it was time to proceed on prototyping the entire car via additive manufactory.

Keywords: Benchmarking Analysis | Industrial Design Structure (IDeS); Car Design | Quality Function Deployment (QFD) | Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE)

[49] Napolitano F., Frizziero L., Santi G.M., Donnici G., Liverani A., Papaleo P., Giuseppetti V., Description of the cad-am process for 3d bone printing: The case study of a flat foot, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This work is focused on the study of 3D prints applied in the orthopedic-pediatric field. The focus is therefore on all the processes that lead to obtaining 3D bone printing starting from the three-dimensional digital CAD model. Specifically, the case study concerns patients with flat foot pathology from tarsal synostosis. The final result of the printing process is a three-dimensional bone model reflecting the original anatomical structure. This is a useful tool for surgeons who can carry out a preventive analytical evaluation of the relative intervention methods. 3D printing can be useful both in the preoperative planning phase and during the operation. Depending on the case, it may be more convenient to use one material than another. For this reason, another goal set by this work concerns the study of materials used for 3D printing of bones.

Keywords: 3D Printing | Diagnostics | Pediatric Orthopedics | Surgery

[50] Frizziero L., Haoyang Y., Liverani A., Donnici G., Design for six sigma (Dfss) applied to an innovative high-speed train bogie, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: High-Speed Trains are defined as the “transport of the future” thanks to three main characteristics: safety, capability and sustainability. It is an environment friendly solution because it relies on electric energy, which can be fully produced from renewable sources, and it pollutes less compared to other transport systems. In fact, in comparison with automobiles and airplanes, High-Speed Trains generate 9 and 6 times less carbon dioxide respectively; and in terms of consumption per kilometer, it consumes respectively 6 and 4 times less. The first ever High-Speed Train was born in Japan and it began service in 1964 under the name of “Shinkansen”. The Japanese railway system has proved throughout history the efficiency and safety of this solution, becoming a model for the development of high-speed networks in other countries. Train designs vary depending on existing railways, geography and market requests. Bogies were born as simple supports for the coaches, provided with wheels and brakes, but with technological innovations, modern models contain electric engines, sensors and security devices. In this work, a new bogie was proposed following the rules of Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), which holds the main advantages of the models provided on the current market by the competitors.

Keywords: Design Engineering | Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) | High-Speed Train | Train Design

[51] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Santi G., Neri M., Papaleo P., Napolitano F., Description of the cad-am process for 3d bone printing: The case study of a femur, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The present work shows how 3D models extracted from a computerised tomography (CT) scan can be processed to be 3D printed into 1:1 orthopedic scale models, which find unquestionable utility in pre-operative surgical planning. Relying on the CAT-CAD methodology, which produces a 3D surface called “mesh” from diagnostic images of body parts, the CAD-AM process elaborates a volumetric bone model which a cost-efficient FDM printer can work with. The suitable materials for these applications are PLA polymers, due to their thermo-mechanical properties, affordability and ecological sustainability; these anatomic 3D printed models allows surgeons to accurately see bones injuries and trauma, resulting in a minimisation of risk and a much more flowing doctor-patient communication. Furthermore these 3D printed objects can be manufactured with specific density in order to simulate bone tissues, resulting in a useful tool through which experienced surgeons can pass on their knowledge to medical students at a very reasonable cost, overcoming the glaring limitations of two-dimensional images provided by CT scans. Here represented is a 3D printed 1:1 scale model of a femur donated to the Bone Bank of IOR-Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute in Bologna.

Keywords: CT scan | FDM printer | Orthopaedic Reproduction Model | PLA polymer

[52] Francia D., Seminerio D., Caligiana G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Donnici G., Virtual Design for Assembly Improving the Product Design of a Two-Way Relief Valve, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 304-314, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for Assembly is a strategy of design aimed at minimising product cost through design and process improvements. It led to a revolution in the manufacturing industry, resulting in reduced product costs, improved quality, shorter time to market, lower inventory, fewer suppliers and many other improvements. DFA is the method of design of the product for ease of assembly and in this context this paper presents an application of the strategy to a virtual case study represented by a two-way relief valve modelled by CAD. The aim of this paper was to test some DFA methods proposed by the literature and search for an efficient assembly of the virtual two-way relief valve reproduced by CAD, then verifying its assembly effectiveness. Some evaluation methods proposed by literature about the optimisation of design efficiency have been applied to the case study and this led to reconsider the design of some parts of the product. A final new design for the valve is proposed and the evaluation methods applied have been tested again on the new solution, in order to validate the results. A comparison between the original valve and the new version proposed by the authors has been made, in order both to check the feasibility of the new valve and in order to check the evaluation methods proposed.

Keywords: CAD | DfA | Optimization

[53] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Alessandri G., Menozzi G.C., Varotti E., Developing innovative crutch using IDeS (industrial design structure) methodology, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 9(23), (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The present study wants to bring to light a new type of crutch designed for a chronic patient with perennial limited mobility, who must use this support every time a move is needed. The main purpose of the project consists in recommending a correct use of the crutch through technology, limiting the damage normally caused by a bad use of crutches and giving a support both for the patient and for the doctor. All of the features of the crutches were defined through relationship matrices and a benchmarking, which helped us for defining the requirements; other important features were defined, taking a look to the technological progresses applied to new, patented crutches. The result is a sensorized crutch, functional and oriented to meet the user's needs in order to prevent an incorrect use of the support avoiding the growth of other pains.

Keywords: Analysis | Benchmarking | Crutch | Industrial Design Structure (IDeS) | Matrix of relative dependence | Matrix of relative importance | Medical prosthesis mobility | Patient | Project | Sensors | Tool

[54] Frizziero L., Santi G.M., Liverani A., Giuseppetti V., Trisolino G., Maredi E., Stilli S., Paediatric orthopaedic surgery with 3D printing: Improvements and cost reduction, Symmetry, 11(10), (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a a novel alghorithm of diagnosis and treatment of rigid flatfoot due to tarsal coalition. It introduces a workflow based on 3D printed models, that ensures more efficiency, not only by reducing costs and time, but also by improving procedures in the preoperative clinical phase. Since this paper concerns the development of a new methodology that integrates both engineering and medical fields, it highlights symmetry. An economic comparison is made between the traditional method and the innovative one; the results demonstrate a reduction in costs with the latter. The current, traditional method faces critical issues in diagnosing the pathologies of a limb (such as the foot) and taking decisions for further treatment of the same limb. The proposed alternative methodology thus uses new technologies that are part of the traditional workflow, only replacing the most obsolete ones. In fact, it is increasingly becoming necessary to introduce new technologies in orthopedics, as in other areas of medicine, to offer improved healthcare services for patients. Similar clinical treatments can be performed using the aforementioned technologies, offering greater effectiveness, more simplicity of approach, shorter times, and lower costs. An important technology that fits into this proposed methodology is 3D printing.

Keywords: 3D printing | Diagnostics | Orthopaedics | Paediatry | Surgery

[55] Francia D., Ponti S., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Virtual mechanical product disassembly sequences based on disassembly order graphs and time measurement units, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 9(17), (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Recently, the approach that defines the total life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end of life (EoL) in the early design phases is becoming even more promising. Literature evidences many advantages in terms of the saving of costs and time and in the fluent organization of the whole design process. Design for disassembly (DfD) offers the possibility of reducing the time and cost of disassembling a product and accounts for the reusing of parts and of the dismantling of parts, joints, and materials. The sequence of disassembly is the ordered way to extract parts from an assembly and is a focal item in DfD because it can deeply influence times and operations. In this paper, some disassembly sequences are evaluated, and among them, two methods for defining an optimal sequence are provided and tested on a case study of a mechanical assembly. A further sequence of disassembly is provided by the authors based on experience and personal knowledge. All three are analyzed by the disassembly order graph (DOG) approach and compared. The operations evaluated have been converted in time using time measurement units (TMUs). As result, the best sequence has been highlighted in order to define a structured and efficient disassembly.

Keywords: CAD | Disassembly | DOG | Sequence | TMU | Tools

[56] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., A preliminary evaluation to support DFD of handcrafted products, International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, 9(3), 1033-1050, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Both economical and environmental aspects significantly influence the design process since the early phases of preliminary design. The total Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)and the End Of Life (EOL)of products have to be defined in the early design phase too. For industrial products that are not addressed to automatic manufacturing processes, the LCA and the EOL are an hard issue. However, the EOL of products, meant as recycling or reusing of parts, can be evaluated by means of the disassembly easiness of joints assembling the product, even when the production process is subject to an important contribute of workmanship. To facilitate this approach, a useful method is proposed in this paper to evaluate the disassembly of products, also of handcrafted products, in order to optimize the design process in the early preliminary phase. The method quantitatively evaluates an index, referred as the Disassembly Index, that describes the attitude of a product to be disassembled in order to recover its components (or its partial subassemblies). A case study is proposed to evaluate the disassembly attitude of structural subassemblies of a sailboat. The comparison to a standard product is proposed in order to test the sensitiveness of the Disassembly Index to automatic manufactured products. As conclusion, good performances to support the EOL evaluation of non conventional products have been demonstrated and a huge sensitiveness of the Disassembly Index to destructive and non destructive procedures is evidenced in the paper.

Keywords: Design for disassembly | Handcrafted product | Non-destructive disassembly & reusing of parts

[57] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Donnici G., Chinaglia L., Design for disassembly (DfD) and augmented reality (AR): Case study applied to a gearbox, Machines, 7(2), 7-29, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Today's market drives companies to change, adapt, and compete. Many consumers are increasingly looking at price, without sacrificing quality. In order to be attractive to the customer, companies must be able to offer the required quality at the lowest possible price. The life cycle of many products has been shortened compared to the past because now technologies are evolving faster. For these reasons, it is important that companies reevaluate all the operations that are carried out within them, to optimize them and eventually adopt new technologies if they offer interesting opportunities. In this discussion, we first study the design for disassembly, a technique that can bring several advantages during the life cycle of a component, offering the possibility of reducing time and cost of disassembling a product, and better reuse of the different materials of which it is composed. Subsequently, augmented reality is discussed, and how this technology is exploited in the world, especially in the industrial sector. During the work, we discuss a case study, with the gearbox being the object of analysis. This allows us to apply the theoretical concepts illustrated in a concrete way, allowing for a better understanding of the topics.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Computer aided design (CAD) | Design for disassembly | Gearbox

[58] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Donnici G., Osti F., Neri M., Maredi E., Trisolino G., Stilli S., New methodology for diagnosis of orthopedic diseases through additive manufacturing models, Symmetry, 11(4), (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Our purpose is to develop the preoperative diagnosis stage for orthopedic surgical treatments using additive manufacturing technology. Our methods involve fast implementations of an additive manufactured bone model, converted from CAT data, through appropriate software use. Then, additive manufacturing of the formed surfaces through special 3D-printers. With the structural model redesigned and printed in three dimensions, the surgeon is able to look at the printed bone and he can handle it because the model perfectly reproduces the real one upon which he will operate. We found that additive manufacturing models can precisely characterize the anatomical structures of fractures or lesions. The studied practice helps the surgeon to provide a complete preoperative valuation and a correct surgery, with minimized duration and risks. This structural model is also an effective device for communication between doctor and patient.

Keywords: 3D-printing | Additive manufacturing-modeling | CAT scan | Diagnosis | Orthopedics | Surgery

[59] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Francia D., Caligiana G., Gaddoni A., Stylistic design engineering (SDE) for an innovative green vehicle following QFD and triz applications, International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, 9(2), 805-827, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: With this article, we intend to set the first strategic phase of the product development process, that is to say the one related to the conceptual project. In particular, this work refers to the installation of the project of an innovative, green, sustainable means of transport based on renewable energy, to move to the center of medium and large cities. The discussion presented presents a series of cutting-edge methods, in series of logical use, in order to make both strategic and technical decisions. Among the inputs of the methods, we will have an analysis of customer needs, competitive analysis, a series of technological objectives (or performances) as a result of the work in progress. In particular, we will first use the quality distribution method (QFD), then the method of analyzing competition through Benchmarking to identify the quantitative requirements that will give us the opportunity to create an innovative product, enhanced by a Top-Flop analysis to determine the number of requirements of the best product on the market, which will be the limit to be overcome to embody innovation in a new project. As for the QFD, the input values are the customer's requirements, obtained with the "Six questions" method; then applying an interrelationship of the QFD matrix, the outputs of the method described above were obtained, representing the classification of all the various urban transports, classified according to user preferences. The application of the competition-oriented method of competition analysis through the use of Benchmarking is applied after the QFD. The inputs are the quantitative specifications, that is the performance, of all the hoverboard models of all the brands on the market. The output, however, is a comparison graph that contains all the performance values for each model. Other inputs will be table data, other outputs, values (or ranges of values) for each performance, so as to obtain a technical specification with quantitative objectives to obtain an innovative product.

Keywords: 3D & hoverboard | Design engineering | Quality distribution method | TRIZ

[60] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Dhaimini K., Design for additive manufacturing and advanced development methods applied to an innovative multifunctional fan, International Journal of Manufacturing, Materials, and Mechanical Engineering, 9(2), 1-32, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: In an increasingly competitive business world, the “time to market” of products has become a key factor for business success. There are different techniques that anticipate design mistakes and launch products on the market in less time. Among the most used methodologies in the design and definition of the requirements, quality function deployment (QFD) and design for Six Sigma (DFSS) can be used. In the prototyping phase, it is possible to address the emerging technology of additive manufacturing. Today, three-dimensional printing is already used as a rapid prototyping technique. However, the real challenge that industry is facing is the use of these machineries for large-scale production of parts, now possible with new HP multi-fusion. The aim of this article is to study the entire product development process taking advantage of the most modern models and technologies for the final realization of a case study that involves the design and prototyping of an innovative multifunctional fan (lamp, aroma diffuser and fan) through the Multi Jet Fusion of HP. To begin with, issues related to the DFSS, the QFD and their application to identify the fan requirements are explored. Once the requirements have been defined, the modern CAD design systems and the CAE systems for the validation of the case study will be analyzed and applied. Finally, HP’s Multi Jet Fusion methodology and design rules for additive manufacturing will be analyzed in detail, trying to exploit all the positive aspects it offers.

Keywords: CAD | CAE | Design for additive manufacturing | Design for six sigma | FEA | Multi jet fusion | Product development | QFD | Rapid prototyping

[61] Liverani A., Caligiana G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Donnici G., Dhaimini K., Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) for additive manufacturing applied to an innovative multifunctional fan, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 13(1), 309-330, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: In an increasing number of aggressive enterprise world, “time to market” concerning products has come to be a solution element because of enterprise success. There are exceptional techniques so expect layout mistakes or open products concerning the need between much less time. Among the most used methodologies in the design and setting about stability the requirements, Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) execute remain used. In the prototyping phase, such is feasible in imitation of tackle the rising science regarding additive manufacturing. Today, three-dimensional stamping is in the meanwhile used as a rapid prototyping technique. However, the actual challenge that enterprise is going through is the use of these machineries for large-scale production about parts, at last viable along current HP Multi fusion. The aim of this article is to study the interactive design and engineering applied to the entire product development process taking advantage of the most modern models and technologies for the final realization of a case study that involves the design and prototyping of an innovative multifunctional fan (Lamp, Aroma Diffuser and fan) through the Multi Jet Fusion of HP. To begin with, issues related to the DFSS, the QFD and their application to identify the fan requirements are explored. Once the requirements have been defined, the modern CAD design systems and the CAE systems for the validation of the case study will be analyzed and applied. Finally, HP’s Multi Jet Fusion methodology and design rules for additive manufacturing will be analyzed in detail, trying to exploit all the positive aspects it offers.

Keywords: CAD | CAE | Design for additive manufacturing | Design for Six Sigma | FEA | Multi jet fusion | Product development | QFD | Rapid prototyping

[62] Osti F., Santi G.M., Neri M., Liverani A., Frizziero L., Stilli S., Maredi E., Zarantonello P., Gallone G., Stallone S., Trisolino G., CT conversion workflow for intraoperative usage of bony models: From DICOM data to 3D printed models, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 9(4), (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents the application of a low-cost 3D printing technology in pre-operative planning and intra-operative decision-making. Starting from Computed Tomography (CT) scans, we were able to reconstruct a 3D model of the area of interest with a very simple and rapid workflow, using open-source software and an entry level 3D printer. The use of High Temperature Poly-Lactic Acid (HTPLA) by ProtoPasta allowed fabricating sterilizable models, which could be used within the surgical field. We believe that our method is an appealing alternative to high-end commercial products, being superior for cost and speed of production. It could be advantageous especially for small and less affluent hospitals that could produce customized sterilizable tools with little investment and high versatility.

Keywords: 3D printing | Computed tomography | Diagnostic imaging | Mesh reconstruction | Rapid prototyping | Surgical planning

[63] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Galiè G., Lelli F., A new SUV conceived by stylistic design engineering (SDE), Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 2125-2142, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) is an engineered method developed for creating a structured way to realize Car Design Projects. SDE is composed by the following steps: (1) Stylistic Trends Analysis; (2) Sketches; (3) 2D CAD Drawings; (4) 3D CAD Models; (5) Rendering; (6) Solid Stylistic Model (defined also styling maquettes). In the present paper, SDE is applied to a new SUV, in particular to a new possibility of launching a new FIAT Campagnola, an off-roader that was very successful in the 1950s -1970s. This project deals with the exernal redesign of Fiat Campagnola. It has been carried out using various design technologies and methodologies that will be further explained in details, such as the Pininfarina method, the QFD (Quality Function Deployment) method, Benchmarking e Top Flop analysis. The work has been organized according to different phases. At first it has been studied the Fiat style, an essential step to understand better the features of the brand and also the main characteristics carried out during the decades. Later we carried on with the phase of the freehand sketches, being inspired by what was previously learned in every single step of study. This phase continued until a satisfactory form was found by analyzing and discarding the various proposals of the various types of style. Once the proposal was choosen, then the three-dimensional shape was obtained and on which it was possible to evaluate proportions and dimensions, also thanks to rendering software. All the analysis methodologies required for the quality of the project mentioned before have been used during all these phases.

Keywords: Benchmarking | Car design | Design engineering | QFD | Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) | SUV

[64] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Liverani A., Ximenes N.M.A., Secli` A., Ticca M., Stylistic design engineering (SDE) applied to a new E-segment sport Sedan, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 2371-2386, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The present work is a case study about the application of the methodology named Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE), that is an approach to develop car design projects in the industrial world. For attending this goal, it was chosen the E-segment car products, in particular following the necessity to fill a gap in the Alfa Romeo's market, which offers currently only models in A, B, SUV and coupe´ segments and needs a kind of model that could be successful in the market. In fact Alfa Romeo does not own a E-segment sport sedan flagship car model for years now (the last one was the 166). Based on this assumption and the fact that the largest car manufacturers are currently investing heavily on E segment cars, it was interesting to think about a new Alfa Romeo flagship model, maybe named with glorious name Alfetta. In the following pages will be illustrated the summary of the path that led to the final product following the instructions of SDE.

Keywords: Car design | Design engineering | Stylistic design engineering (SDE)

[65] Frizziero L., Liverani A., Nannini L., Design for six sigma (DFSS) applied to a new eco-motorbike, Machines, 7(3), (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The primary purpose of this work is to organize, in the best possible way, the design of an ecological transport vehicle, using an advanced design methodology, namely design for six sigma (DFSS). The DFSS is indeed a design approach, able to implement, in a logical and integrated way, other advanced methodologies of systematic design, such as quality function deployment (QFD), TRIZ (in Russian, Teorija Rešenija Izobretatel'skich Zadač), benchmarking, top-flop analysis and others, in order to propose design solutions oriented both to quality and innovation, for satisfying customers. The above described has been demonstrated through the application of DFSS to a case study in which the set up phase of an industrial project was completed, without having overlooked any aspect useful for obtaining a new attractive product. The case study concerns the application of DFSS to a new low-polluting motorcycle. At the end of the work, the designer obtained the achievement of the conceptual project.

Keywords: Design For Six Sigma | Eco-motorbike | Project set up | QFD

[66] Frizziero L., Caligiana G., Bagalini E., Bencivenni M., Davoli G., New recovery energy turnstile achieved through research and innovation eco-design method (EQFD), International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, 9(4), 277-286, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The present paper focuses on the recovery of energy from the unitary passage of people inside the turnstiles. Positioned at strategic points such as stadiums, buildings and fairs, the turnstiles are objects that interact with a large number of people, so we decided to take advantage of this peculiarity to get electricity immediately usable [1-3]. The issue of energy sustainability is increasingly discussed in terms of climate change that is undergoing our planet; hence an ever increasing awareness of avoiding energy losses in all phases of everyday life, even in those apparently unimportant. In our case, people do not have to change their habits or gestures during the turnstile approach, what changes is the concept of passing that becomes the protagonist and fundamental to reach our goal [4-5].

Keywords: Energy Harvesting | Inflow | Unitary Transition & Rotation

[67] Francia D., Liverani A., Donnici G., Frizziero L., Marinelli N., A structured index describing the ease of disassembly for handcrafted product, Cogent Engineering, 6(1), (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Both economic and environmental aspects significantly influence the design process since the early phases of preliminary design. The total Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the End of Life (EoL) of products have to be defined in the early design phases too but, for industrial products that are not feasible to automatic production, they are hard issues. However, the EoL of products can be assessed by evaluating the disassembly of joints assembling the product, even when the production process is subject to an important contribute of workmanship. In this paper, a useful method is proposed to analyze the disassembly plant of products, in order to optimize the design process in the early preliminary phases. The method quantitatively evaluates a Disassembly Index that describes the attitude of a product to be disassembled. A case study describes the disassembly attitude of structural subassemblies of a sailboat. In order to test the applicability of the model described to both manual and automated disassembly, a further application of the method is proposed on a Computer CPU. As result, the model demonstrated good sensitiveness to the testing of products quite different for dimensions, number of components, manufacturing processes and, in all cases, it quantified the disassembly easiness with good relevance.

Keywords: disassembly | handcraft | non-destructive | quantitative | reusing

[68] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Dhaimini K., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Advanced design applied to an original multi-purpose ventilator achievable by additive manufacturing, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 8(12), (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Considering the progressively expansive trade world, "time to market" of productions and goods has turned into a key element for business accomplishment. There are diverse practices that antedate design faults and unveil products on the market in minus time. Among the most used methods in the design and explanation of the necessities, quality function deployment (QFD) and design for Six Sigma (DFSS) can be used. In the prototyping stage, it is probable to address the emergent technology of additive manufacturing. Today, 3D printing is employed as a quick prototyping technique. Nevertheless, the tangible task which industry is fronting is the adoption of these machines for large-scale production of components, which is now possible with new HP multi fusion. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the entire product development process taking advantage of the most modern models and technologies for the final realization of a case study that involves the design and prototyping of an innovative multifunctional fan (lamp, aroma diffuser, and fan) through the multi jet fusion of HP. To begin with, issues related to the DFSS, the QFD and their application to identify the fan requirements are explored. Once the requirements have been defined, the modern CAD design systems and the CAE systems for the validation of the case study will be analyzed and applied. Finally, HP's multi jet fusion methodology and design rules for additive manufacturing will be analyzed in detail, trying to exploit all the positive aspects it offers.

Keywords: CAD | CAE | Design for additive manufacturing | Design for Six Sigma | FEA | Multi jet fusion | Product development | QFD | Rapid prototyping

[69] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Increasing innovation of a new transportation means using TRIZ methodology, JP Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 15(2), 341-370, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The present paper begins a series of features considered essential to the success of an innovative means of transport in the cities: the hoverboard. These features are obtained from a previous QFD analysis and are the starting point for a further TRIZ analysis that aims to obtain innovative technical solutions, in order to manage the transition from conceptual design to construction design. Through a hill model, the technical problems have been reformulated in terms of technical contradictions, and through the tools of TRIZ, as the matrix of contradictions, have come to obtain general resolution principles. From these general principles of resolution, innovative solutions for the construction of the innovative transport vehicle have been devised. These innovative solutions will be the starting point for a further engineering process that can be developed into further work.

Keywords: City transportation means | Contradictions | Hill model | Innovative solution | QFD | TRIZ

[70] De Amicis R., Ceruti A., Francia D., Frizziero L., Simões B., Augmented Reality for virtual user manual, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(2), 689-697, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The present work proposes a new approach for defining an interactive user manual in complex assemblies, using a new enabling technology of Industry 4.0, i.e. Augmented Reality. The AR environment supports the user in step-by-step assembly on-the-fly. The study of this method, suitable for the assembly of parts, is a stimulating engineering mission, which takes advantage of the latest innovations in imaging technologies and computer graphics. In the present paper, a proposal for an innovative method based on Augmented Reality used to support the components’ assembly is suggested. The methodology is based on a four steps process: (1) the designer performs the assembly structure through a CAD system; (2) an inexperienced user assembles the same parts without any suggestion, and the differences between the two assembly sequences are documented and broken down in order to distinguish critical points in the assembly; (3) a virtual user manual is shaped in an Augmented Reality environment; and (4) the assembly is then performed by the same inexperienced user, guided by the AR tool. When the end-user employs the instrument, the location of the item to assemble is perceived by tracking the finger position of the user itself. In order to help the end-user in the assembly procedure, a series of symbols and texts is added to the external scene. In this paper, a case study based on the assembly of a scale model has been developed to evaluate the methodology. After an evaluation process, the procedure seems to be feasible and presents some advantages over the state-of-the-art methodologies proposed by literature.

Keywords: Assembly | Augmented Reality | Marker | Task automation | User manual

[71] Francia D., Caligiana G., Liverani A., Frizziero L., Donnici G., PrinterCAD: a QFD and TRIZ integrated design solution for large size open moulding manufacturing, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(1), 81-94, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Over the last years, good strategies for efficient manufacturing were considered increasing the volume of production and reducing the time and costs. Emerging design strategies as the Design for Environment and life cycle assessment, the Design for Sustainability, the Design for Disassembly moved the focus to conceive a product by taking care of all the effect that its use can cause to the economy, to the society and to the environment, also at its disposal. In this context, design strategies have to be enhanced in order to integrate innovation with sustainability and social care. Thus, the horizon for strategic manufacturing has to pay particular attention to the effects that it could produce to the surrounding environment. This way, some manufacturing techniques that could be considered obsolete in terms of sustainability awareness, but that are not yet ready to be replaced by advanced available technologies, need a requalification in order to be collocated in the current scenario. In this paper, the open moulding technique has been discussed in order to update the current manufacturing technique to meet the emerging sustainable strategies. Through the integration of QFD and TRIZ an innovative design method have been assessed to enhance the manufacturing process by means of computer aided engineering devices. PrinterCAD is a project that aims to manage additive and subtractive techniques, applied to complex and large-scale products, by means of an open source software with an integrated module, in order to enhance the CAD, CAM and slicing for the 3D printer’s languages intercommunication.

Keywords: CAD | CAM | Hybrid manufacturing | Open source | QFD | TRIZ

[72] Frizziero L., Francia D., Donnici G., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Sustainable design of open molds with QFD and TRIZ combination, Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 35(1), 21-31, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The planning activity relative to physical items, environment, and services that adapts to optimize social, economic, and ecological impact is the target of sustainable design. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) achieves product design by choosing and defining factors that can be qualitatively argued. The aim of design is to match needs in new and innovative ways. In this perspective, the QFD aims to evaluate the quality of a design process. TRIZ is a design methodology that aims at defining and overcoming some critical issues that can affect the development of a product, by means of potential innovative solutions. In this paper, QFD and TRIZ analysis were adopted in order to validate a design method for direct open molds by means of a new strategy: hybrid manufacturing can reduce production time, use of material, and energy and waste consumption, employing subtractive and additive techniques efficiently combined.

Keywords: Additive | direct open mold | hybrid manufacturing | QFD | subtractive | TRIZ

[73] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Di Bucchianico F., Innovative urban transportation means developed by integrating design methods, Machines, 6(4), (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The aim of this article is to apply some design methodologies to define, as a first objective, an optimized technical specification and then, as a second objective, to manage the transition from conceptual design to construction project of an innovative means of urban transport, meeting the needs of 'renewable energy' requirements, which then decline into this new urban vehicle formed by a hoverboard and an electric scooter. The first part of the article is focused on the conceptual design of the means by using methodologies such as the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), applied in the first phase of the work to compare some of the most popular electric scooters on the market; we then used a typical method for product marketing, i.e., the decision-making process driven by the analysis of benchmarking, suitable for quantitatively organize competitive analysis and choosing innovation targets; finally, we implemented the top-flop analysis in order to better improve the benchmarking implementation, identifying the best product on the market, basing on the highest number of innovative requirements owned by it, as shown by Frizziero in 2018 and Meuli et al. in 1997. The second part of the article focuses on the project of the kick scooter through the use of a software for the FEA simulation and on the possible realization of the prototype through a suitable connecting component.

Keywords: Benchmarking | Conceptual design | Innovation | Product design | QFD | Top-flop analysis | Transport | Vehicle

[74] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., TRIZ method for innovation applied to an hoverboard, Cogent Engineering, 5(1), 1-24, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The aim of this work is to complete the QFD analysis carried out in a previous work that aimed to identify the main features that contribute to the success of a modern urban transport means: the hoverboard. Starting from this analysis, through the TRIZ methodology, resolutive principles have been identified for the realization of innovative solutions of the said urban transport means. In practice this analysis aims to manage the next phase of conceptual design realized with the QFD methodology and tries to guide the design process in its next phase. In this work was used the hill model, a characteristic model of the TRIZ methodology, and the technical innovative problems encountered were reformulated in terms of technical contradictions. Subsequently, general principles of inventive solutions were obtained using one of the tools of TRIZ: the matrix of contradiction. Finally, starting from these general principles of solution, innovative constructive solutions have been developed to be applied to the design of an innovative hoverboard.

Keywords: contradictions | hill model | innovative solution | QFD | TRIZ | urban transportation systems

[75] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Project of inventive ideas through a TRIZ study applied to the analysis of an innovative urban transport means, International Journal of Manufacturing, Materials, and Mechanical Engineering, 8(4), 1-24, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Opening from an examination of all the best features of accomplishment of the hoverboard, a modern vehicle for urban transport, we have created inventive ideas to design the transport means itself. Quality Function Deployment methodology has given us the requirements to start from, while the TRIZ methods have provided us the proposals and notions of an innovative landscape to which we tend. In practice, while the QFD methodology has a powerfully conceptual appeal, and it is the basis of our analysis, the TRIZ method gives a more innovative thrust and deals the aspects that are strongly constructive and concrete. The Matrix of Contradictions was used within the Hill Model, and through it, we have been able to rework the innovative problems, suggested by the QFD analysis, in terms of technical contradictions. At the end of the work, a number of suggestions were made to further innovate this urban and modern means of transport: the hoverboard.

Keywords: Contradictions | Innovative solution | QFD | TRIZ | Urban transportation systems

[76] Caligiana G., Liverani A., Francia D., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Integrating QFD and TRIZ for innovative design, Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems and Manufacturing, 11(2), (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Sustainable design aims at the creation of physical objects, environment and services that complies to optimize social, economic, and ecological impact. QFD is able to assess the product design by the choice and definition of parameters that can be qualitatively discussed. The purpose of design is to meet a need in new ways and in innovative ways. In this context, the QFD aims at evaluating the quality of a design process. TRIZ is a design method that aim at defining and overcome some critical issue that can affect the development of a product, by means of potential innovative solutions. In this paper QDF and TRIZ analysis have been adopted in order to validate a design method for direct open moulds, by a new strategy: hybrid manufacturing can reduce the production time, the use of material, the energy and the waste consumption, employing subtractive and addictive techniques efficiently combined.

Keywords: Additive | Direct open mould | Hybrid manufacturing | QFD | Subtractive | TRIZ

[77] Caligiana G., Liverani A., Francia D., Frizziero L., Mechanical device with five-arms tested on service, Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, 17(2), 327-349, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: We present the stress analysis of a pouring concrete device. In order to test the prototype of a pouring concrete equipment composed of fivearms with hollow rectangular cross sections, an extensive study about equipment for pouring concrete has been undertaken. An upgrade of a four-arms device already existing and actually working would be developed. Tests have been performed both on the prototype of the equipment and on a virtual model of the device, performed by a 3D CAD modeler and analyzed through FEM numerical programs. During experimental tests, a laser device has measured deflections at the end of the fifth arm, corresponding to applied loads. For measuring strains in the critical points highlighted by the numerical simulation strain rosette have been employed. In both the static and the dynamic conditions, Mohr's circles have been drawn from the 3D strain state and the 2D plane stress experimental records and they have been compared with those predicted through the finite element analysis. From the comparison between numerical and experimental results, a very good correlation has been obtained for static loading to assess the soundness of the virtual model.

Keywords: Articulated device | CAD | FEM | Mohr's circle | Strain analysis

[78] Ceruti A., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Visual aided assembly of scale models with AR, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 727-735, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The study of the methodologies useful to support the assembly of parts is a challenging engineering task which can benefit of the most recent innovations in computer graphics and visualization technologies. This paper presents a proposal for an innovative methodology based on Virtual and Augmented Reality useful to support the components’ assembly. The herein introduced strategy is based upon a four stages procedure: at first the designer conceives the assembly sequence using a CAD system, visualizing the scene wearing an immersive Virtual Reality device. In the second stage, the same sequence is developed by an unexperienced user using the same equipment: the differences between two assembly sequences are recorded and exploited to detect critical points in the assembly sequence and to develop a Knowledge Based System. Finally, a virtual user manual is produced in Augmented Reality. When the final user uses the tool, the position of the object to assemble is detected by tracking the finger position of the user itself. A series of symbols and writings is added to the external scene to help the end-user in the assembly procedure. A test case based on the assembly of a scale model has been developed to evaluate the methodology. After an evaluation process, the procedure seems to be feasible and presents some advantages over the state-of-the-art methodologies proposed by literature.

Keywords: Assembly | Augmented Reality | Marker | Task automation | Virtual Reality

[79] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Cremonini M., GA multi-objective and experimental optimization for a tail-sitter small UAV, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 597-604, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper introduces a Montecarlo Genetic Algorithm, hierarchical, multiobjective optimization of a Vertical Take Off landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle having a tail sitter configuration. An optimization of the hierarchical type is introduced in place of the methods generally used multi-objective optimization, such as Pareto and “arbitrary” weighted sums. A Montecarlo method optimizes the weights of the final objective function used by the Genetic Algorithm. A very simple “spreadsheet based” algorithm defines the CAD model of the Genetic Algorithm individuals in order to evaluate the performance of the candidates. The optimization method described in this study appears to be very effective. Then experimental tests were conducted with scaled-down prototypes. Four flight tests were performed: Take Off, Cruise, Slow flight, Landing. A Taguchi matrix was defined for each experiment. The tests started from a prototype that comes directly from the Montecarlo Genetic Algorithm optimization and led to the final prototype shown along the paper (page 7, right figure). Unfortunately, the tail sitter approach proved poor control authority in the final phase of the vertical landing. Even the “final” prototype showed unsatisfactory behavior in case of erratic wind gusts. This unsolved problem is common to the tail sitter configuration that requires a power control by air jets or additional propeller to control the aircraft in the final phase of landing. Unfortunately, this necessity renders the tail sitter configuration inconvenient for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm | Montecarlo random optimization | Tail sitter | UAV

[80] Caligiana G., Liverani A., Francia D., Frizziero L., Donnici G., QFD and TRIZ to sustain the design of direct open moulds, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 68, 898-908, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Sustainable design aims at the creation of physical objects, environment and services that complies to optimize social, economic, and ecological impact. QFD is able to assess the product design by the choice and definition of parameters that can be qualitatively discussed. The purpose of design is to meet a need in new ways and in innovative ways. In this context, the QFD aims at evaluating the quality of a design process. TRIZ is a design method that aim at defining and overcome some critical issue that can affect the development of a product, by means of potential innovative solutions. In this paper QDF and TRIZ analysis have been adopted in order to validate a design method for direct open moulds, by a new strategy: hybrid manufacturing can reduce the production time, the use of material, the energy and the waste consumption, employing subtractive and addictive techniques efficiently combined.

Keywords: Additive | Direct open mould | Hybrid manufacturing | QFD | Subtractive | TRIZ

[81] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Pica S., Donnici G., High altitude operations with piston engines powerplant design optimization part IV: Radiators optimum design, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(9), 5650-5660, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: In high altitude operations, the cooling system takes part to the vehicle design optimization process. An integrated design of the cooling ducts is strictly necessary. At high altitudes, the cooling air is taken from high-pressure areas into an alternate, extremely optimized, path. A diffuser reduces the airspeed and increases pressure of the cooling air. Then a group of high performance finned radiators rejects the heat from coolant, air charge and oil. The high altitude, after diffuser radiator performance is discussed in this paper. At first high performance Formula 1 radiators are introduced and discussed. Experimental data are also exposed and summarized. The pressure drop and heat rejection are expressed in function or Re and Pr numbers of cooling air. Then the radiator performance at high altitude is extrapolated from the ground test data. Finally a few suggestions on radiator and cooling ducts arrangement are introduced.

Keywords: Cooling | HALE | Meredith effect | Optimization | Radiators | UAV

[82] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., The installation of a common rail diesel engine on a light helicopter of the Eurocopter EC120 class, Ingenieria e Investigacion, 36(1), 6-13, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: A feasibility study for the installation of a CRDID (Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel) on a light helicopter is introduced. The total mass available for the CRDID is evaluated starting from fuel consumption and helicopter data. The conversion of an automotive unit was discarded to excessive mass and excessive costs of the conversion. A derivative of an automotive engine was then considered. This solution proved to be feasible. The installation of the new CRDID was then studied. The turbocharger and the cooling system were defined for the application. The result was the evaluation of the power plant installation mass that proved to be much lower than the maximum admissible. The installation is then possible.

Keywords: Common rail | Diesel | Helicopter

[83] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Pica S., Donnici G., High altitude operations with piston engines powerplant design optimization, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(5), 3525-3533, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Diesel and spark-ignition piston engines are an ideal choice for long endurance, high altitude operations (10, 000m/33, 000ft) and extremely high altitude operations (20,000m-65,000ft). These systems are more complex than traditional applications that are normally limited to 5, 000-7, 000m (16, 000-23, 000ft). In fact, the air propulsion system (propeller or fan), the air intake, the fuel system, the turbo charging, the exhaust and the cooling system take part to the design optimization process. An integrated design is strictly necessary. Since prop-fan is currently under development, the design should start from the choice between propeller and fan. This choice will influence optimum cruise speed, critical altitude and aircraft design as a whole. The air induction system is extremely important to improve efficiency, endurance and critical altitude. At low altitude, a filtered induction system is used for takeoff. At high altitudes, the intake air is taken from high-pressure areas into an alternate, extremely optimized, path. This induction system recovers as much pressure as possible, air kinetic energy at cruise speed. In propeller systems, the intake is usually positioned in the lower part of the aircraft. On fan systems, a little amount of "high pressure" air is taken from the high-pressure area of the fan. The exhaust system is also critical with the choice between pressure recovery and thrust. Exhaust-pressure-recovery reduces backpressure and temperature at exhaust. However, the improvement in critical altitude is marginal. In more common, thrust driven exhaust systems, the exhaust energy is converted into speed and thrust. At the relatively high speed of high altitude cruise, also the cooling system adds a small amount of thrust through the Meredith's effect. The piston engine power plant design is then extremely critical. Many different components should find the correct position for maximum performance. The power-plants of WWII water-cooled fighters and bombers are good examples, even if their design cruise altitude is below 10, 000m (33, 000ft). Modern turbofan and turbojet air intakes are also of help. However, the requirements of low weight, high reliability and long endurance HALE (High Altitude Long Endurance) UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) requires further work on this specific subject.

Keywords: Cooling | HALE | Meredith effect | Optimization | Thruster | UAV

[84] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Pica S., Donnici G., TBO evaluation of naval and aircraft diesel engines, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(1), 716-725, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper demonstrates that the experience from Formula 1 and watercraft racing can be applied directly to assess and improve the aircraft/maritime conversion of automotive commercial engines. A direct comparison of the main parameters that characterizes modern CRDID (Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel) and Formula 1 racing engine demonstrates that the similarities are hidden inside the design criteria. In fact, CRDIDs should output high torque at low rpm (1000-3000rpm) while racing engine should have top torque at 9000-11000 rpm. This fact introduces much shorter strokes in racing engines that reduce inertia loads. Since pressures are higher for CRDIDs the combustion loads are similar. The techniques used to improve the TBO of Formula 1 spark ignition engine and racing watercraft diesel can then be directly applied to naval and aircraft engines where the low-cost requirements are not so stringent as in mass-produced automotive CRDIDs (millions of items). The same technology that prolongs the Formula 1 TBO from a single race to the whole season can then be successfully used in aircraft/naval CRDIDs. A quantitative assessment of the TBO increase is included in this paper for the various systems that compose a CRDID.

Keywords: Common rail | Friction | Load factor method | Piston engines | TBO | Wear

[85] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Pica S., Donnici G., Optimal intercooler layout arrangement for Formula 1 racing engines, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(3), 1443-1450, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper demonstrates that efficiency and torque output of the actual Formula 1 power units depends mostly on the turbocharger (TC) efficiency. Compressor and turbine off-design efficiency and turbine energy recovery capability should be maximized to maximize the torque to fuel ratio. Since larger TCs increase turbolag, a new layout for the intercooler is proposed in this paper. This solution reduces turbolag and make it possible to focus on the TC efficiency as a thermal machine. In fact, not only the TC design choices can radically alter the efficiency of the TC itself, but also influence the efficiency of the ICE and of the MGU (Motor Generator Units). Energy evaluation of the TC readily exploits the concept.

Keywords: Compressor | ERS | Formula 1 | Intercooler | Turbine | Turbocharger

[86] Piancastelli L., Castagnoli A., Frizziero L., Design and optimization of an aircraft propeller for tuned torsional vibration damping, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(16), 6725-6731, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper analyzes the design process of an aircraft propeller for a piston engine. The propeller should also damp the main critical torsional frequency of the crankshaft. The first step was the calculation of the geometrical parameters of two different blades: one according to Larrabee's procedure and the other one according to the Theodorsen's theory. The evaluation of the effect of aerodynamics and centrifugal loads has required the union of the results come from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and the ones come from the CSM (Computational Structural Mechanics), through the execution of several one way FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) analyses. The results allowed making pre-stressed modal analyses, which gave the opportunity to identify the kinds of propeller having the fundamental frequency coincident with the main resonance frequency of the crankshaft. The final design is a blade having the deformed shape of the optimum aerodynamic design.

Keywords: Aircraft propeller | Crankshaft | Torsional vibrations | Tuned damper

[87] Piancastelli L., Castagnoli A., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Pica S., Direct comparison of fsi optimized theodorsen and larrabee propellers, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(16), 7250-7258, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The goal of this study is the analysis of the design process of aircraft propellers which are coupled to a piston engine, aiming to find the best design approach. The first design step is the calculation of the initial geometry. This phase is particularly critical since it will affect the following optimization. Several theories for blade design have been proposed during the years. The most popular are the Larrabee's procedure and the Theodorsen's theory. The Larrabee theory is the most used in recent years, while the Theodorsen was most popular in the WWII era. This work focuses on the differences on the results of the two approaches for a general aviation propeller for light aircrafts. For this aerial vehicle category both the strength and efficiency should be considered, since the production technology cannot be as refined as for larger propellers. As it will be seen, the subsonic nature of these aerial vehicles makes it possible to use both initial design approaches. In a second phase, the evaluation of the effect of aerodynamics and centrifugal loads requires the union of the results that come from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and the ones come from the CSM (Computational Structural Mechanics), through the execution of several one way FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) analyses. However the starting point proved to be critical for the final result. The Larrabee procedure proves to be ideal for high speed aircraft propellers manufactured with up-to-date materials and procedures. The "old" Theodorsen theory leads to a stronger blade that can be easily manufactured with wood or simplified technologies. The Theodorsen blade is superior for the centrifugal load bearing capacity. This geometry leads to lighter blades. The efficiency of the Larrabee blade seems to be superior. However, experience proved that the CFD analysis can be tricky and unreliable for efficiency evaluation. The pressures are better distributed along the Larrabee's blade with better results at high airspeed. Eventually two geometrically optimized blades have been designed, which have a deformed shape (at cruise conditions) similar to the best aerodynamic geometry and comparable technological characteristics. The Larrabee and Theodorsen designs lead to different optimized blades even after the FSI simulation, demonstrating that the optimization procedure is largely influenced by the initial propeller blade design.

Keywords: Aircraft propeller | CFD | FEA | FSI | Optimization | Starting design

[88] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Fuel consumption reduction and power downsize via robotized multiple speed gearbox and automatic selection system for an automotive application, JP Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 12(2), 197-210, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Multiple-speed gearboxes with computer controlled automatic gear selection devices are a common possible choice in cars. Robotized gear insertion of one tenth of a second is possible. Economical and weight consideration are to be made to verify if it is convenient to use a smaller engine and a larger gearbox with a wider choice of speeds. In this paper, an automotive application for a public transport vehicle based on a Class S chassis with the choice of common-rail direct injection engines. This choice is particular unfavorable for the multispeed gearbox since common-rail engines have very flat specific fuel consumption curves. The lumped mass model implemented is conceived to estimate velocity, acceleration and fuel consumption starting from aerodynamic, inertia and thermodynamic data of the vehicle. The estimated data of performance and fuel consumption were compared with measured values. A Genetic elitarian Algorithm (GA) was used to optimise the engine choice and the gearbox speeds distribution. A maximum reduction of 15% was then calculated with a 16-speeds gearbox and a 140 HP/300Nm engine in comparison with the standard 5-speeds 204 HP/500Nm engine. This fuel reduction was obtained on the mixed city-motorway cycle. In this case, maximum speed is limited to 180km/h and the 0-100km/h acceleration is reduced to 11s (from the original 8.6s). The weight remains almost unaltered since the 204 HP engine is heavier than the 140 HP and this largely compensates the gearbox weight increase. The multiple speed solution seems to be very interesting also for public transports vehicles and for trucks.

Keywords: Automatic selection system | Automotive | Multiple-speed gearbox

[89] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Diesel ecu mapping optimization for aircraft and helicopter applications, JP Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 11(2), 151-167, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Starting from a good automotive engine is always a good idea, also for brand new automotive design. In the case of automotive to aircraft conversions, the automotive engine is modified as little as possible. This approach has several advantages: reduced development time, good reliability and availability of cheap and worldwide spare parts. What it may appear a good idea is to tune up the original ECU (electronic control unit) by using one of the several softwares available on the market. However, this approach is not feasible even for ultra light aircrafts. This is due to the lack of control on the software of these ECUs. In fact, automotive software timing or ECU set-up is performed in the following way. The final ECU manufacturer (who holds the responsibility of the hardware and the software in the final car ECU) supplies to the car manufacturer a “development ECU” with a “development Software”. This system is tuned on the engine and on the car to fulfill the car manufacturer requirement. When the tuning is considered satisfactory, the “maps” (the data inputted by the manufactured) are given to the ECU manufacturer. This later translates the data into the software of a “production ECU”, that is given back to the car manufacturer for final validation prior to serial production of ECU and car. In this case, even the car manufacturer does not have a full control of what happens inside his ECU. This is logical since the full responsibility is given to the ECU part supplier. So the tuning of a serial production ECU is more than a true programming. Results are unpredictable to a certain extent that depends on the level of knowledge of the person who performed the tuning and of the software house that implemented the software. The software that truly runs on serial production ECU is a well kept secret of the ECU manufacturer, since it is the knowledge of ECU. The simpler is the software the less expensive will be the ECU and the larger the profits of the ECU supplier. Tricks are hidden inside the ECU to obtain these results; these tricks multiplied per millions of ECU give the supplier a competitive advantage. So, even the car manufacturer has a limited control on what happens inside the real-time software of the ECU, what emerges is the engine and the car behavior. Aircraft conversions require the replacement of ECU, wirings and sensors with appropriate units. This assembly with its own software constitutes the aircraft FADEC.

Keywords: Aircraft | Diesel | Electronic control unit | Helicopters | Mapping optimization

[90] Frizziero L., Rocchi I., Donnici G., Pezzuti E., Aircraft diesel engine turbocompound optimized, JP Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 11(2), 133-150, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: In order to optimize the design of the thermodynamic cycle of a turbine (Brayton cycle) for using modern common rail as an “active” combustion chamber, it was intended to write the present paper. About the present case, the “active” combustion chamber produces a large amount of the mechanical energy that drives the fan. The incoming air is compressed by the compressor, then it is refrigerated and inputted in the diesel engine. A high pressure common rail system optimizes the combustion in the diesel combustion chamber and the expansion begins inside the diesel engine. At the exhaust of the combustion chamber, a turbine completes the expansion of the hot gases. A nozzle accelerates the exhaust from the turbine to increase the overall thrust.

Keywords: Aircraft | Diesel engines

[91] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Di Giacomo G., Gattii A., Optimized FSI flow simulation using modern up-to-date software systems: A direct comparison between simulated and tunnel results, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(20), 9174-9182, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The goal of this study is the analysis of the CFD/FSI simulation accuracy of complex shapes with standard CADembedded software packages. In a PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) system, the continuous improvement of CADembedded FSI (Fluid System Interaction) software packages has progressively reduced the necessity for highly specialized external partners. These simulation software packages are designed to keep pace with the unavoidable design development. To make FSI and CFD usable for mechanical designers and design engineers from other engineering disciplines, CFD software package have been largely automated. The specialist expertise required to operate traditional CFD software may be negligible However, the capabilities of CAD-embedded CFD to handle complex geometries and to simulate complex industrial turbulent flows with heat and mass transfer raise question of the accuracy on the results obtainable by a nonspecialized designer. In this paper, a paraglider wing from NASA TN D3442 was used as a case study. This wing was modelled inside commercial CAD software and then thoroughly analysed by using the simulation tools with their default settings. The accuracy of results was then evaluated.

Keywords: CFD | FEA | FSI | Paraglider wing

[92] Piancastelli L., Forghieri M., Frizziero L., Chinni L., Cremonini M., Large HSDI CR diesel engines multiple injections and multiple swirls concept, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(18), 7919-7928, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: All future power developments should consider as primary tasks the achievement of the required emission levels and CO2-values, while still providing optimum torque-to-rpm curves, the lowest SFC (Specific Fuel Consumption) over the widest range possible, good power-to-weight and affordable costs. One method to achieve these objectives is the downsizing. To achieve the levels of engine performance that are required, a significant increase in the rated speed and in the boost pressure is mandatory. In this case, the result is an increase in the flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves. Considering the impact of these changes, the port layout of the system is reanalyzed. Another physical limit to the maximum speed depends on the CR (Common Rail) injector dynamic performances. These performances decrease with size for inertia problems and they depend on the amount of effort involved in their development. Automotive engines in the range of 10 to 100 HP per cylinder are the most common. For this reason, these injectors are the most advanced and costeffective. Furthermore, their small size and inertia is favorable to the best dynamic performance. The larger number of nozzles improves combustion performance. In fact the better surface to volume ratio or the spray improves heat transfer. For this reason, multiple injection systems can be used in the modern HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) CR large diesels. This solution was commonplace before WWII, but has been progressively abandoned with the introduction of mechanical high-pressure injection systems and the bowl combustion chamber. In this paper, a dual combustion chamber per cylinder engine is considered. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the best port layout on a modern diesel combustion system and to introduce a new promising concept. The study included flow measurements of intake flow and CFD simulations of the flow field during intake. This design enables the formation of two homogenous swirls centered onto the injectors, with excellent flow coefficient. The design also allows an increase in volumetric efficiency combined with a reduction in flow losses.

Keywords: Diesel engines | Multiple injections | Multiple swirls

[93] Piancastelli L., Gatti A., Frizziero L., Ragazzi L., Cremonini M., CFD analysis of the Zimmerman's V173 stol aircraft, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(18), 8063-8070, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The present work had as its main aim to carry out a study of the high lift of an unconventional aircraft of the '40s, the Vought V-173 Flying Pancake. To obtain this result the Authors used the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software SolidWorks Flow Simulation. In particular, the CL-αand CD-αcurves have been interpolated from the points obtained from the simulations for different configurations of the V173 aircraft CAD model. In a first phase the aerodynamics of the aircraft was evaluated 'clean' without the presence of the propellers was analysed. In a second phase, the influence of the two large propellers was taken into account. The effect of the propeller was clearly shown especially at high AOA. These results were obtained from the direct comparison of the Lift-AOA and Drag-AOA curves for the unpowered and the powered condition. The CFD results confirmed the impression of high controllability of the powered aircraft up to AOA of 50°. This behavior with the extremely smooth stall gave the impression of an aircraft impossible to stall or to spin.

Keywords: CAD | CFD | Flying pancake | STOL | V173

[94] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Common rail diesel-automotive to aerial vehicle conversions: An update (Part III), ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(14), 5823-5830, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Back to the 1997 when this activity began, it was generally though that CRDIDs (Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel) would have completely replaced the piston gasoline engines used in aircrafts within a decade. This fact did not happen for several reasons. This paper tries to individuate these reasons. The more updated solutions to the many problems that almost stopped this application are also introduced. In this third part, maintenance and cost effectiveness related issues are introduced. Automotive OBD concept is described as a method to reduce maintenance costs and risks.

Keywords: Automotive and aerial-vehicle | Common rail direct injection diesel | On board diagnostic (OBD)

[95] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., A new concept for low inertia electric turbocompounding in racing spark ignition engines, JP Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 12(1), 1-14, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Electric turbocompounding in racing spark ignition engine is focused on transient operation. Classical compressor and turbine maps should be adapted for this particular condition. Electric turbocompounding has limited torque and power available on the electric side. For this reason, an ad hoc solution should be devised. A low inertia solution is proposed in this paper with the advantage of minor modifications on existing commercial highly optimized turbochargers. A large advantage over the current solution may be achieved. In this solution, a very low inertia electric/motor generator is magnetically coupled to the turbocharger on the compressor side of the shaft. The electromagnetic coupling acts also as a torque limiter allowing extremely large slips between turbocharger and generator shafts.

Keywords: Electric turbocompound | Spark ignition engines

[96] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Rotondi A., Optimum installation of a common rail diesel engine on a “classical” helicopter: The UH1, JP Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 12(1), 45-64, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: A feasibility study for the installation of a CRDID (Common Rail Diesel Engine) on a medium helicopter is introduced. The total mass available for the CRDID is evaluated starting from fuel consumption and helicopter data. A derivative of an automotive engine was considered. The installation of the new CRDID was then studied. The result was the evaluation of the power plant installation mass that proved to be lower than the maximum admissible. The installation is then possible. Care should be taken in the cooling system to avoid large penalties in power and efficiency. For CRDID powered helicopters, the ejector exhaust system can be successfully used. With CRDIDs, huge advantages can be obtained on operating costs due to reduced fuel consumption, safety and helicopter availability. In fact, diesel fuel is available everywhere and flights to airports just for refueling can be avoided.

Keywords: Common rail diesel | Helicopter power unit

[97] Frizziero L., Piancastelli L., Bombardi T., Graphically enhanced visual concealment of large objects, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(12), 5157-5163, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Inexpensive, flicker free, flat, large, extremely bright LCD panels can be effectively used to conceal very large objects both stationary and moving. CCDC (Charge Coupled Device Camera) may capture the surrounding environment and reproduce it on the LCD screens. LCDs may easily be installed on the surface of the objects. It is also possible to use the video cards of personal computers and laptops to digitally process the image captured with the CCDS and obtain patterns to disguise the real appearance of the object or the way it is moving. The visual CCD (Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception) system so obtained is extremely effective. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the digital image processing techniques necessary to obtain a successful concealment are elementary and already embedded in the hardware of video card for real time image processing. It is also possible to superimpose patterns at defined frequencies that will obscure the image to the human observer especially in case of use of magnifying optics. The CCD effect in the visual and ultralight field is extremely effective. An example of active CCD of the Ariete MBT (Main Battle Tank) is shown in this paper.

Keywords: Graphically enhancement | Visual concealment

[98] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., The meredith ramjet: An efficient way to recover the heat wasted in piston engine cooling, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(12), 5327-5333, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Piston engines with power up to 1000HP (735.5 kW) are becoming popular in the aeronautical field for the high efficiency and the possibility to work with Diesel, jp4 and jp8 fuels up to altitudes up to 20,000m (65,000 ft). This paper updates a secondary advantage of piston engines: the Meredith effect. The Meredith duct is a ramjet powered by the heat wasted in cooling. In this way the efficiency of the original piston engine that can be higher than 50% which is the normal in common rail diesel engines. Even if the efficiency of this ramjet is lower than 30%, an accurate Design of this secondary engine can add a significant amount of thrust to the fan or the propeller powered by the piston engine. This effect, well known since the beginning of WWII, is being thoroughly analysed in this paper with regard of the efficiency. Previous papers introduced and a new radiator, with wing section tubes. As it will be seen the main design variable for the Meredith ramjet it the air temperature increase. This paper demonstrates that it is not convenient to increase this temperature over 200°C for aircrafts flying at about 600km/h@6000m (~330knots@20,000ft). The in-wing duct appears to be slightly better than the in-fuselage or the in-nacelle ones.

Keywords: Piston engine cooling

[99] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Preliminary optimization of a common rail direct injection diesel alternative to the AE2100 class turboshafts, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(11), 4738-4747, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: It is shown that a CRDID (Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel) turbo compound design is a highly over constrained problem. Very few options are available to the designer, even from the metallurgical point of view. The process of the preliminary design is fully described and the preliminary performance evaluation is fully described. A comparison with the original turbo shaft installation of a Hercules C130J aircraft is performed and the results are analyzed. The CRDID turbo compound seems an extremely convenient option since it can halve the fuel consumption, with increased safety and reduced logistical problems. CRDID emissions, with SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) may easily reach the automotive Euro 6 standard.

Keywords: AE2100 | Common rail direct injection diesel (CRDID)

[100] Piancastelli L., Bernabeo R.A., Frizziero L., UAV remote control distraction prevention trough synthetic augmented virtual imaging and oculus rift-style headsets, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(10), 4359-4365, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: A remote control station for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based on oculus Rift-style headsets and joysticks is proposed in this paper. With this solution situation awareness and distraction can be controlled and measured during the flight. With Virtual Augmented Reality (VAR) software it is possible reproduce accurately both the cockpit and the external view thanks to the helmet tracking system. Also the head-up display (HUD) and up-to-date flight instruments can be reproduced. In this way the PF (Pilot Flyng) station can be reduced to helmet, throttle/stick joysticks with force feedback and a few additional LCDs. Another main advantage of VAR headsets is the possibility of reconfiguring the cockpit via software and to use it for several different UAVs. In Figure-5 it is possible to see a logical schema of a VAR station: the pilot inputs via helmets (line of sight direction), flight controls (stick and throttle) and switches on joysticks the data in the AVCS software (Aircraft Visualization and Control System): The Aircraft Visualization and Control System take the data from the aerial vehicles, elaborates them and outputs the external view (external visual system) and the view of instruments (instrument visualization system). These two "images" are overlapped and mixed in a highly hierarchical visualization system, where only the relevant objects are depicted. To do so the external camera images from the aerial vehicle are analyzed and cleaned of all non-relevant data. The data from the sensors are also to be included in the synthesizing process. The application of these ideas as discussed in this paper consists of the realisation of a VAR display system for a remotely piloted aerial vehicle. All the instruments are modelled via Head Up Display (HUD) while the external scenery is analyzed and only relevant elements for mission accomplishment or collision avoidance are represented. The PF have the possibility of a 360° field of view. Sound realism and true situation awareness can be then achieved. Software for distraction control and situation awareness can be easily implemented in the system. A synthetic audio interrogation system can keep track of the current state of alert of the PF.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Remote control | UAV

[101] Frizziero L., Piancastelli L., An over constrained optimization problem: The prolonged autonomy bike (PA bike), ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(10), 4563-4570, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The Prolonged Autonomy e-bike o PA-bike is a e-bike that can use a traditional fuel to charge the battery during run or at rest. In this way it is possible to prolong the autonomy of the e-bike. A fuel cell with a reformer or a traditional very small catalyzed piston engine can be used. In both cases the emissions are very limited and the efficiency is very high, since the "traditional fuel" motors work at constant optimum condition. This paper tries to optimize the PA-bike by assembling commercial components. Outsourcing for bicycles should be very easy since commercial part availability is very high. Customization is a very common practice for bikers, since it does not require authorizations. However the problem proved to be over constrained. The commercial components, in particular the electric motor, proved to be an important boundary condition. The result is a single possible solution, or a category of solutions, all similar. This is due to the fact that commercial components are highly standardized for marketing reasons.

Keywords: Autonomy | E-bike | Optimization

[102] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Common rail diesel - automotive to aerial vehicle conversions: An update (Part II), ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(8), 3286-3294, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Back to the 1997 when this activity began, it was generally thought that CRDIDs (Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel) would have completely replaced the piston gasoline engines used in aircrafts within a decade. This fact did not happen for several reasons. This paper tries to individuate these reasons. The more updated solutions to the many problems that almost stopped this application are also introduced. In this second part of this paper engine selection concepts and TBO (Time between Overhaul) are introduced.

Keywords: Avionization | Conversion | Diesel common rail

[103] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Different approach to robust automatic control for airplanes, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(6), 2321-2328, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Current automatic control system uses linear mathematical models to validate automatic flight control for airplanes. Gain scheduling, non linearity and improved feedback through simulation are also introduced. Very computers operate the actuators in order to keep the airplane on the right path, in the current trim and with the proper safety margin. Some engineers are testing fuzzy control logic to control airplanes and UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). The result is brilliant, since very simple controllers are able to fulfill the specification with little "knowledge" about the airplane performances. This means that fuzzy controllers are very robust since they are able to operate with much degraded aerodynamics or with reduced thrust. However no one was able to validate the airplane/fuzzy controller with a mathematical proof. So it is not sure that it will works in any condition. By the way the same happens for the airplane/human pilot model. So a mathematical proof is still required also for this later solution. On the other side, very accurate, time based non linear mathematical models are available for flight simulation. These models are used in several fields ranging from development to training. In recent years computers that can run these accurate models in fractions of seconds were marketed at very low prices. The idea introduced in this paper is to run an accurate mathematical model on some of these fast autopilot computer in order to optimize the sequence of commands to be inputted to the FBW system of the airplane in order to keep the path in the safest way possible. For this purpose it is necessary to have enough computing power to calculate this best solution at a rate compatible to a correct control of the airplane. In this paper we will demonstrate that these computing resources are already available and it is predictable that the computing speed of future years will allow running even more sophisticated simulators. The question may be: why use more complicated systems when current control system fulfills satisfactorily the same task in a cheaper and more reliable way? The answers are several. At first it is a matter of robustness, what happens if the yaw damper fails or the actuator of the left ailerons is unable to fulfill its task or the tail is ripped off? In this case standard systems are not able to take the airplane to the ground safely even if it is indeed possible to control the airplane by a coordinate action of the remaining control surfaces. Optimization means that it is possible to reduce the stress on structures in order to improve aircraft life, to find the control sequence that assure the mean fuel consumption or to prefer the shortest time possible to reach the required trim on the right path. In other words it is more flexible. It is also possible to monitor aircraft performance in order to evaluate external or internal disturbances. Air turbulences, wind gusts may be controlled in order to optimize structural integrity or passenger comfort. Internal disturbances, as defective functioning of components or controls, occasional failure of sensors may be diagnosed, in some cases corrected in other simply reported after landing. The reliability improvement is not the latest benefit. As a rule of the thumb more electronics or more components means less reliability with the exception of redundancy and this is the case of this paper.

Keywords: Airplane control | Automatic control

[104] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Common rail diesel - Automotive to aerial vehicle conversions: An update (Part I), ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(6), 2479-2487, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Back to the 1997 when this activity began, it was generally thought that CRDIDs would have completely replaced the piston gasoline engines used in aircrafts within a decade. This fact did not happen for several reasons. This paper tries to individuate these reasons. The more updated solutions to the many problems that almost stopped this application are also introduced. In this first part FADEC related issues are introduced. Torsional vibration control is also briefly discussed.

Keywords: Aeronautical engines | Conversion of automotive engines | Diesel engines

[105] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Common rail diesel-electric propulsion for small boats and yachts, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(6), 2378-2385, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The marine propulsion system is the heart of the ship. Its reliability will directly affect the safe navigation and operating costs of ship and its overall safety. The individuation of the best propulsive solution is one of the key technologies in marine field. Focusing on the study of comprehensive reliability, this study analyses operation environments of the marine propulsion system firstly, and then evaluate the comprehensive reliability of the chosen marine propulsion system. According to the fault tree of the marine propulsion system, a CRDID (Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel) electric hybrid marine engine system is taken as an example The result shows that a new engine CRDID-hybrid system can be reliably installed on small boats and yachts. It is believed that the knowledge gained in this study will provide a theoretical reference for research on comprehensive reliability of hybrid marine propulsion systems.

Keywords: Diesel electric marine propulsion system | Failure probability | Fault tree analysis | Reliability

[106] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., GA based optimization of the preliminary design of an extremely high pressure centrifugal compressor for a small common rail diesel engine, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(4), 1623-1630, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: A method to perform the preliminary design of an impeller for an extremely high pressure ratio centrifugal compressor is introduced in this paper. The equations used are fully detailed and a design procedure is introduced. This design procedure required a GA (Genetic Algorithm) optimization to obtain an acceptable optimum result. It is demonstrated that a 8:1 compressor can be designed for a mass flow of 500 kg/h. This GA optimized initial design should be then be validated through CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and then tested on a test bench. However, the initial design phase is critical, since a CAD model of the impeller is needed to start the simulation process. In our case this initial phase couldn't be inspired by existing design, since none were found. Aircraft and Helicopter engines do not have the problem of turbo lag, since fan/propeller inertia eliminates this problem. On the contrary these engines necessitate of performance at altitudes (flight levels) much higher than automotive applications. Small turbochargers with high compressor ratio are not available on the market, so a special design is needed.

[107] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Mapping optimization for common rail diesel conversions from the automotive to the flying applications, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(4), 1539-1547, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Performance of electronic controlled diesel engine is depended on quality of the map(s). In this paper, the implementation of an electronic-control map in common rail diesel engine is made, the character of operational profile in diesel engine and rule of typical profile data obtained from experiment is analyzed, a method of developing these surfaces from very few data point is applied. The particular application of aircraft and elicopter common rail direct injection diesel engines is considered. The steps of this experimental optimization activity is presented in order to test to operational profile demand. This demand is very different from the automotive to the aircraft/helicopter application. The preparation of the test engine(s) and of the test electronics for brake tests is completely different. Also the mapping technique differs substantially being the primary objectives widely different.

Keywords: Aircraft | Common rail | Diesel engine | Electronic control | Fitting surface | Helicopter | Mapping

[108] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., A new approach for energy recovery and turbocompounding systems for high altitude flight with common rail diesel engines, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(2), 828-834, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper introduces an original method for the preliminary calculations and the turbomatching of a dual stage high altitude turbocompounding system. This method is conceived to use modified automotive commercial turbochargers along with electric motor/generators. The method used is innovative and uses only the data commonly available from the manufacturer. In the example described herein, full power and throttle control are achieved up to 10, 000m (32, 000ft). The engine is a Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel engine derived from the automotive market. The calculation method and the problems connected are widely discussed. For this application turbocompunding is a good option that partially compensates the unavoidable increase in TOW (Take Off Weight). In drones that have relatively large batteries, the ERS (Energy Recovery System) does not increase the air vehicle mass.

Keywords: Diesel common rail | Energy recovery | Turbocompunding system

[109] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Multistage turbocharging systems for high altitude flight with common rail diesel engines, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(1), 370-375, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: A Fiat 1.9jtd diesel engine has been extensively reviewed to output 300HP. This paper introduces a multiple stage turbocharging system that uses commercial turbocharger, taken from the catalogue of a popular manufacturer. The calculation method and the problem connected are widely discussed. Along with the problem that may arise in using these off the shelf unit. The quite heavy result advice the user to adopt ad-designed turbochargers for this task.

[110] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Turbomatching of small aircraft diesel common rail engines derived from the automotive field, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(1), 172-178, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Common rail automotive (Direct Injection) Diesels (DID) are always turbocharged. This engine works at limited altitude and should output torque at low rotational speeds. Not so for engines that work coupled to propeller and fans. This is the case of aircraft and helicopter engines. In this case it is important to have high output power at high rpm and to keep throttle authority and power at the higher altitude possible. Some basic concepts to achieve this result are introduced in this paper. Single turbocharging systems are introduced and an option to improve the altitude performance is discussed. Far from being exhaustive, this paper is an initial step in the long and awkward technology of turbocharging automotivederived engines. The basic concepts for efficiency are also discussed.

Keywords: Common rail automotive Diesels (DID) | Turbocharging

[111] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Supercharging systems in small aircraft diesel common rail engines derived from the automotive field, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(1), 20-26, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Common rail automotive diesels are always turbocharged. This engine works at limited altitude and should output torque at low rotational speeds. Not so for engines that work coupled to propeller and fans. This is the case of aircraft and helicopter engines. In this case it is important to have high output power at high rpm and to keep throttle authority and power as high as possible. Some basic concepts to achieve this result are introduced in this paper. Single turbocharging systems are introduced and an option to improve the altitude performance is discussed. Far from being exhaustive, this paper is an initial step in the long and awkward technology of aircraft common rail diesels. The basic combustion principles and the basic concepts for efficiency are also discussed.

Keywords: Aircraft | DIDs | Rail automotive diesels | Turbocharging systems

[112] Frizziero L., Piancastelli L., Accelerated FEM analysis for critical engine components, Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 12(2), 151-165, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper introduces a method to simplify a nonlinear problem in order to use linear finite element analysis. This approach improves calculation time by 2 orders of magnitude. It is then possible to optimize the geometry of the components even without supercomputers. In this paper the method is applied to a very critical component: the aluminium alloy piston of a modern common rail diesel engine. The method consists in the subdivision of the component, in this case the piston, in several volumes, that have approximately a constant temperature. These volumes are then assembled through congruence constraints. To each volume a proper material is then assigned. It is assumed that material behaviour depends on average temperature, load magnitude and load gradient. This assumption is valid since temperatures vary slowly when compared to pressure (load). In fact pressures propagate with the speed of sound. The method is validated by direct comparison with nonlinear simulation of the same component, the piston, taken as an example. In general, experimental tests have confirmed the cost-effectiveness of this approach.

Keywords: CAD | FEA | Geometry | Optimization | Simulation

[113] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Design, study and optimization of a semiautomatic pasta cooker for coffee shops and the like, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(12), 2608-2617, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: The advantage to have an automatic pasta machine that cooks dry semolina pasta automatically seems to be several, ranging from energy consumption to freshness and taste. However these machines have proved to be highly problematic. Several problems of pasta cooking machines are diffusively discussed. Also several automatic pasta machine patents are briefly described. The machine described herein is conceived for coffee shop where a hot water reservoir and an operator are available. This makes it possible to simplify the machine and improve the safety of use. Several technical solutions are analyzed in this paper. Energy concepts and concerns are also discussed. Different technical solution to achieve the best compromise between cost, functionally and safety are introduced. Several fashionable designs are analysed and introduced in this paper. At the end a very simple "rocket" patented machine is described. This machine can cook the special patented "geared spaghetti" in less than a minute and every other type of spaghetti in half the time indicated in the box. This solution seems to be the best compromise for taste, safety and performance.

Keywords: Automatic pasta machine | Coffee

[114] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., The common-rail fuel injection technique in turbocharged di-diesel-engines for aircraft applictions, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(12), 2493-2499, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: In the activity of injection mapping optimization, a good degree of knowledge on how a common rail injection works is strictly necessary. This paper is aimed to summarize the basic knowledge about turbocharged Common Rail Direct-injection Diesel engines (CRDID). It is possible to use automotive CRDIDs on aircrafts and helicopter; however their use is very different for the original car installation. For this reason a complete rethinking of the engine and the way the engine control is performed is strictly necessary. For this reason the engine should be reprogrammed for the new application. To perform this activity it is strictly necessary to know how the original automotive application works. This paper is aimed to this objective, in order to point out the differences with the automotive installation and the new optimization functions. The combustion process of turbocharged CRDID, equipped with high pressure common-rail fuel injection systems, with different boost pressures, injection pressures, and fuel quantities are introduced. The influence of the injection and the swirl mode on the ignition delay and the flame propagation is analyzed. The sac hole nozzles with a variable number of holes and different injector types (electromagnetic/piezoelectric) are also briefly described. An experimental analysis of the combustion process is briefly discussed along with spray penetration, dispersing angle, velocity, the distribution/evaporation of the fuel droplets, ignition delay, ignition location, combustion progression. The applied swirl has not an influence on the spray penetration, but it is extremely important for the ignition and the combustion process. On the contrary the swirl itself is reduced by the injected amount of high pressured fuel. The droplet turbulence increases from the center of the combustion chamber of the spray radial rapidly decreases. The difference in the combustion of CRDIDs, traditional diesel engines and spark ignition engine is also briefly discussed. Finally the difference from automotive and aircraft and helicopter CRDIDs, from the combustion tuning point of view is discussed. Optimum combustion (and mapping) is also introduced as basic concepts.

Keywords: Aircraft | Turbocharged di-diesel-engines

[115] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Turbocharging and turbocompounding optimization in automotive racing, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(11), 2192-2199, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Turbocharged spark ignition engine for automotive racing have a long and controversial history. From the times of high torque at all cost, to the actual F1 era of maximum efficiency. However turbocharging and turbocoumpounding basic concepts have not changed. It is surprising that, through the years, the same identical errors are repeated. Turbocharger (TC) unit design is a highly optimized task, that requires good concepts, good mathematical models, lots of experimental data and a very good optimization. Performances vary completely with design choices, with big differences between even close solutions. Present software for mathematical modeling of performances are far from accurate and should be corrected with experimental data to obtain effective results. Genetic Algorithms are to be used as optimization method to evaluate the best design solution. Even minor errors in design choices result in large penalties on performance.

Keywords: Automotive racing | Turbocharger

[116] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Learning by failures: The "Astura II" concept car design process, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(10), 2009-2015, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Accessibility has always been a problem in sport car. Very low car floors, small doors, almost horizontal seating position with upward cramped legs are the negation of comfort. In marketing clips long legged girls show their knickers for the joy of the potential buyer. In the old times there were rumors that the four seats, automatic transmission Ferrari was made for the Drake himself, who was "obliged" to own and drive a Ferrari. Yet the only place where people with impaired legs are identical to all the others is the car. However the sports cars are usually denied to people with problems of motion. The Ercolani's idea was to overcome these problems by several concurrent solutions. The idea proved to be nice, while the design approach from sketch to 3D-CAD proved to be a complete failure. The final project fulfils many of the requirements, but with a completely different style. This project proved the substantial unfeasibility of the outside-in approach in the automotive field.

Keywords: ASTURA II | Car design

[117] Pezzuti E., Valentini P.P., Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Development of a modular system for drilling aid for the installation of dental implants, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(9), 1527-1534, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: In oral implantology, proper execution of the holes for the installation of dental implants is directly related to the correct functioning and durability of the system itself. For this reason, the procedure discussed here, which was once performed freehand in all its phases, is now being implemented through aids with more precision. Masks currently in use are created in resin ad hoc; surgical stents are inserted into the holes that will then be used as a guide. These aids are fixed into the jaw by means of micro bone screws in order to prevent movement during surgery. Despite this, we still use the guides as they are, centered properly with the help of drilling jigs. The same technique is also used in partially edentulous cases through smaller jig fixed on teeth near to the implant zone. In this article, we propose a guidance system for milling cutters used in partially edentulous cases involving from one to three adjacent installations. The purpose of the study was to realize a modular model adaptable to most dental implants, as well as efficient, quick, and low cost by pouring the resin into a plaster mold of the teeth, and then drilling the masks into position in the plants at the required angle.

Keywords: Dental implants | Drilling aid

[118] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Study and optimization of an innovative CVT concept for bikes, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(8), 1289-1296, (2014). Abstract
X

Abstract: The standard bicycle has a well defined form: two same-size in-line wheels with a triangular-shaped frame and an almost vertical riding position. This bike model is the "safety bicycle" 1870's model. May be it is not the most efficient form and, for sure, not the latest developed. The improvement had not been so important. There was indeed a big jump in the late 80's/early 90's, some of which could be attributed both to an increase in time trials and, may be, also to the doping practices of the time. In any case, doping of some form or another has been going on since the beginning of the Tour de France. Time trials are crucial for average speed and it may be they are entirely responsible for the improvement. In any case many other significant advantages have been made on the man-machine. Training and nutrition have been improved through the years. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Keywords: Bicycle system | Electric facilities | Transportation

[119] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Bombardi T., Bézier based shape parameterization in high speed mandrel design, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 32(1-2), 57-63, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: The optimization of bi-dimensional profiles of axisymmetric parts is one of the most commonly addressed problems in engineering. Shafts are a typical example of this basic shape. This work is concerned with the use of Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Finite Elements (FE) and rational Bézier curves for the optimization of high speed mandrels. The design variables of the problem are the weights of the nodes of the Bézier boundary curves used to define the finite element discretization. These values are generated by the GA and handled by a mesh generator which defines a candidate solution to the problem. The value of the natural frequencies for each individual is evaluated. For a given set of values of cross-sectional areas and resulting natural frequencies, the value of the fitness function of an individual is obtained. Is this case of a constrained optimization problem The binary-coded generational GA uses a Gray code, rank-based selection, and elitism. The paper briefly summarizes the basis of the GAs formulation and describes how to use refined genetic operators. The mixed pure cylindrical and Bézier shaped model boundary is discretized by using a beam FEM (Finite Element Method) model. Some selected parts of the boundary are modeled by using curves, in order to allow easy meshing and adaptation of the boundary to optimization process. A numerical examples is presented and discussed in detail, showing that the proposed combinedtechnique is able to optimize the shape of the domains with minimum computational effort. The improvement in confront with the original multiple-cylinder shape is significant, without violating the restrictions imposed to the model.

Keywords: Bézier | FEA | Genetic algorithm | High speed winding mandrel | Natural frequencies

[120] Frizziero L., Freddi A., Methodology for aesthetical design in a citycar, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(7), 1064-1068, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: The present work aims to indicate a methodology of "design for aesthetics", through the realization of a particular city-car body. We should realize a good looking car, without forgetting the importance of mechanical and economical aspects. The result we have got is very interesting; in fact the city-car obtained is a sum of beauty, economics and intelligence. The method followed is very similar to those methods used by the most famous firms of design products, just like Pininfarina, Giugiaro Design, Bertone, etc. This method is illustrated in the paragraphs below. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Keywords: Car design | Innovative methodologies

[121] Frizziero L., A coffee machine design project through innovative methods: QFD, value analysis and design for assembly, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(7), 1134-1139, (2014). Abstract
X

Abstract: This work is a sample of designing a simple object, just like a coffee machine, using innovative methodologies as Quality Function Deployment, Value Analysis and Design for Assembly. These are three methods which serve to improve quality during the process of design; they are part of the famous designing technique which is named Concurrent Engineering. The first one, QFD, is structuring all the information which come along with each design project; the second one, Value Analysis, is about the evaluation of all the costs that our project implicates; the last one, Design for Assembly, is a methodology oriented to direct the design process towards the exemplification of all the components' shapes: in this way, we can obtain a product easy to be assembled. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Keywords: Coffee machine | Design for assembly | Innovative methodologies | QFD | Value analysis

[122] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Rocchi I., A low-cost, mass-producible, wheeled wind turbine for easy production of renewableenergy, Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, 12(1), 19-37, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Wind turbine farms have many disadvantages: it is hard to identify the best location in terms of wind, permissions are difficult to obtain and the energy needed is produced far away from customers who have network problems. Our idea is to manufacture a large number of very small turbines and install them close to consumers. Mass production would minimize cost. The wind turbine would be self-contained in a wheeled trailer for better transportation and it would require no installation. A "plug & play" approach is employed. If the generator fails to produce a sufficient quantity of energy, the user could easily move the wind turbine to a more suitable position or sell the unit. This paper describes a small 5000 W wind turbine mounted on a wheeled trailer. It is easily transportable, and extremely simple to install. When the system is folded down, the single-blade is contained within the overall dimensions of the retracted column. The electrically powered hydraulic deployment system unfolds and then extends the retractable column (tower) of the windmill. At the end of the column extension the single-blade is released, turning upwards due to gravity imbalance and the system is ready to function. © 2014 Pushpa Publishing House.

Keywords: Plug & play | Transportation | Wheeled trailer | Wind turbine

[123] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Donnici G., A highly constrained geometric problem: The inside-outhuman-based approach for the automotive vehicles design, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(6), 901-906, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: The traditional automotive design process that starts from the sketches and the 2D drawings has been superseded by the modern CAD modeling tools. The step through the clay model and the following digitalization problems can be superseded. It is now possible to construct the inside and to define the ergonomic boundaries of the vehicle in an inside out process. This approach greatly reduces the time to market of the final product by including all the parts and the components that comes from other projects or from outsourcing. However a 1:1 (true scale) physical mock up of the vehicle is, in most the cases, still necessary. In fact the evaluation of the real aesthetics of the new project should be made in a true 3D environment. The inside-out approach optimizes the standardization, the outsourcing, the multi powertrains and the unified "platform" concepts. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Keywords: Automotive design | Methodology to design | Optimization

[124] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., How to adopt innovative design in a sportscar factory, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(6), 859-870, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Inspired by an article which analyzes the implementation of an innovative system approach to a more sustainable and innovative design, the present paper would like to try to apply the same approach to a real case, inside of a famous Italian sportscar factory. A case study in this factory was developed and decoded gaining improved understanding of innovative system design and those factors that substantially influence its success. All the factors mentioned above are used, into the application presented in this paper, to achieve an ultimate optimization of the system. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Keywords: Design methods | Design organization | Innovative design | Sportscar factory

[125] Frizziero L., Curbastro F.R., Innovative methodologies in mechanical design: QFD vs TRIZ to develop an innovative pressure control system, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(6), 966-970, (2014). Abstract
X

Abstract: A mechanical device to control kart's tire pressure was developed. This valve must blow air when temperature's tire and pressure rise with a not acceptable shape deformation and a corresponding modification of the vehicles trim. With the new solution, drivers can drive faster and more safely. Two design methods have been utilized: QFD and TRIZ. The first one, Quality Function Deployment, offers a clarification tool for organizing the information flow in a structured way, and TRIZ, Theory of Inventing Problem Solving, is an efficient tool in the discovering the solution principles. With TRIZ's Table, technical and physical contradiction are put in evidence and eliminated to improve the robustness of the device. The two methods interact one another and offer the best path for the development of a new design. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Keywords: Innovative methodologies | QFD | Triz

[126] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Pezzuti E., Kers applications to aerospace diesel propulsion, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(5), 807-818, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Surprisingly, the safety of a flight is still not guaranteed to maximum steam ejection of power during take-off. Moreover, modern aircraft require significant amounts of electricity. It could also be argued that today in many respects the automotive industry appears to be a technology leader with respect to the aerospace industry that, instead, is more conservative. Ferrari has developed, and implemented, on their F1 cars, an electronic device, called KERS, which is able to produce electricity, with peaks of 60 KW for 7s, with a mass of 20 kg, including rechargeable batteries. The main goal of this paper is to explore utilization of turbo-charged aerodiesel engines and conduct feasibility study of the F1-derived KERS to assist power generation in normal and critical flight phases. The KERS' reversible brushless electric motor works as a generator for all aircraft power needs and also provides starting power. It is demonstrated here that such design philosophy improves performance and flight safety of light-to-medium airplanes and helicopter. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Keywords: Diesel engine | Hybrid aircraft | Kinetic energy recovery system | Li-ion battery systems | Turbine engines

[127] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Pezzuti E., Aircraft diesel engines controlled by fuzzy logic, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 9(1), 30-34, (2014). Abstract
X

Abstract: Normally in diesel and gasoline engines, common rail systems are employed. The key factors for correct engine power management are pressure, precision and velocity. Digital computers and PID control systems characterize current systems. Recovery strategies are used when anomalies occur and engine performance is significantly reduced. So, restoring normal conditions needs technical assistance. For safety reasons this approach cannot be used in aeronautical, naval and energy-supply applications. In some cases it is necessary to utilize all the possible energy from the power unit causing significant life-reduction of the engine. In this case a progressive reduction strategy should be used and injection law should be reduced accordingly. For this purpose injection control based on fuzzy logic is more effective. In this case, traditional PID control systems are substituted by fuzzy logic control. A reference map is introduced in the Full Authority Digital Electronic Control; this map is interpreted by the fuzzy logic control system that adapts the injection law to the current engine situation. This method has been experimented on a common-rail test bed and results are compared with traditional "binary recovery strategy" FADEC. ©2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Keywords: Aircraft | Diesel propulsion | Engine control | Fuzzy logic

[128] Frizziero L., Rocchi I., New finite element analysis approach, Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, 11(2), 85-100, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper is an integration of a method which intends to simplify a nonlinear problem in order to use linear finite element analysis. This approach improves calculation time by two orders of magnitude. It is then possible to further optimize the geometry of the components even without supercomputers. In this paper, the method is applied to a very critical component: the aluminium alloy piston of a modern common rail diesel engine. The method consists in the subdivision of the component, in this case the piston, in several volumes, that have approximately a constant temperature. These volumes are then assembled through congruence constraints. To each volume, a proper material is then assigned. It is assumed that material behaviour depends on average temperature, load magnitude and load gradient. This assumption is valid, since temperatures vary slowly when compared to pressure (load). In fact, pressures propagate with the speed of sound. The method is validated by direct comparison with nonlinear simulation of the same component, the piston, taken as an example. In general, experimental tests have confirmed the costeffectiveness of this approach. © 2013 Pushpa Publishing House, Allahabad, India.

Keywords: CAD | FEA.Communicated by Hung-Wei Wu | Geometry | Optimization | Simulation

[129] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Rocchi I., Zanuccoli G., Daidzic N.E., The "C-triplex" approach to design of CFRP transport-category airplane structures, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 31(2), 51-59, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: The quality of CFRP composites is highly dependent on the manufacturing process. Laminate performance is greatly affected by the void and resin fractions. Thicker structures result in lower quality. Thin composite laminates manufactured at high pressures offer best quality. However, impact and damage tolerance, buckling and concentrated stresses for rivets and bolts require redundancy which increases the thickness. Thick laminate structures lower CFRP mechanical properties. Composite laminates have advantage of good surface smoothness and low tolerances. A thin laminate tailored for the specific application with good monitoring system and support for buckling prevention with impact protection offers good solution. The bearing laminate is encapsulated between two sup porting layers with excellent outside tolerances and smoothness rep resenting the C-triplex concept. Inserts are included in the constructions for bolts or rivets. On the bearing laminate a monitoring tissue is installed for load history and structural integrity. The three layers are arranged in a way to house foam that provides support for buckling and thermal insulation. The C-triplex macro panels are bolted to a titanium or aluminum alloy skeleton of the aircraft body. C-triplex panels contain all ducts for the wires, pipes, and plug? necessary for the body interior.

Keywords: Aircraft structures | C-triplex | CFRP | Composite material | Modular construction

[130] Piancastelli L., Daidzic N.E., Frizziero L., Rocchi I., Analysis of automotive diesel conversions with KERS for future aerospace applications, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 31(1), 143-153, (2013). Abstract
X

Abstract: Maximum takeoff or maximum continuous power is surprisingly often insufficient to guarantee absolute flight safety. Modern aircraft also need a conspicuous amount of electric power. The automotive industry in many respects is technology leader while aerospace industry is more conservative due to safety concerns. Ferrari developed an electronic KERS and implemented it in their Formula-One racing cars. KERS is capable of producing peak electrical power of 60 kW for 7s at a mass of 20 kg including rechargeable batteries. The main goal of this article is to explore utilization of turbo-charged aerodiesel engines and conduct feasibility study of the F1-derived KERS to assist power generation in normal and critical flight phases. The KERS' reversible brushless electric motor works as a generator for all aircraft power needs and also provides starting power. It is demonstrated here that such design philosophy improves performance and flight safety of light-to-medium airplanes and helicopters.

Keywords: Diesel engine | Hybrid aircraft | Kinetic energy recovery system | Li-ion battery systems | Turbine engines

[131] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Zanuccoli G., Daidzic N.E., Rocchi I., A comparison between CFRP and 2195-FSW for aircraft structural designs, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 31(1), 17-24, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Composite structures such as CFRP offer significant weight reduction over the conventional aluminum alloys for aircraft. Weight reduction improves fuel efficiency of the aircraft by approximately 20% which results in cost savings and simultaneously reduces the operational environmental footprint. However, the new aluminum-lithium alloys offer significant improvements and are viable alternatives to CFRP. Aluminum lithium alloy 2195 with Friction Stir Welding is introduced as a successful alternative to CFRP primary structures. A "thick skin" monocoque design with integral stringers as crack stoppers is discussed. An old Macchi 205 WWII fighter plane has been redesigned both in CFRP and 2195-FSW for comparison. The final designs are comparable in weight, but 2195-FSW is more competitive based on mass production costs, reparability, and environmental impact. Macchi 205 airplane is used due to in-depth experience with the original aircraft geometry and loads. Knowledge gained here can be directly transferred to larger structures, from corporate jets to large transport category airplanes.

Keywords: 2195-FSW | Aircraft structures | Aluminium alloys | CFRP | Composite material

[132] Dumas A., Trancossi M., Madonia M., Garziera R., Piancastelli L., Pirondi A., Frizziero L., Zero emission temporary habitation: Analysis of a passive container housing system acclimatized by geothermal water, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 6(PARTS A AND B), 1701-1717, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a novel concept of container mobile housing system denominated ZETHa (Zero Energy Temporary Habitation). It is based on the LESP (Low Exergy Structured Panel) concept, in which the acclimatization is realized by water recirculation inside the external walls of the building and the ZEBRA concept (Zero Energy Consumption building. This evaluation will also consider energy needs by appliances. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

[133] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Morganti E., Pezzuti E., Method for evaluating the durability of aircraft piston engines, Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 9(4), 425-431, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: A significant issue in aircraft engines is quantifying residual life to overhaul. The algorithm described in this paper calculates with a good level of reliability the residual life of a petrol piston engine. The method was tested on small, latest-generation, naturally-aspirated aircraft and racing piston engines, and has been effective in several experiments. This method is implemented directly on the electronic control system of the engine with very few lines of C-code. The method can also be used in many industrial engines. This innovative method assumes that only two main factors (power level and wear) affect engine durability or time between overhauls. These two factors are considered as separate and combined with worst case criteria. The wear is assumed to follow a logarithmic law and a formula similar to the Miner's law for material fatigue is used, making it possible to calculate the power-level curve with knowledge of only two points. The wear-curve is also related to elapsed engine cycles. The algorithm is very simple and can be implemented with just a few lines of software code accessing data collected from existing sensors. The system is currently used to evaluate actual residual life of racing engines.

Keywords: Aircraft | Algorithm | Durability | Engine

[134] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Marcoppido S., Pezzuti E., Revised KAD tool to optimize F1 cars through a combined-elitarian genetic-fuzzy algorithm, Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 24(2), 165-171, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: The KAD (Knowledge Aided Design) tool is developed to predict the performance of an F1 car in different driving conditions and with different configurations. The regulations to put in trimming a car, also in the exasperated technology of the competitions, still demand a remarkable dose of luck and an elevated number of tests. It is then important to know a set of regulations close to the optimal trim before testing the car on the track. The difficult phase of this process is to evaluate the lap time. As a matter of fact driving style, track conditions and car behavior should be simulated. The optimisation of the fuzzy controller that simulates the pilot for an F1 racing car is difficult due to handling problems and velocity of response. For this purpose a specific Genetic Algorithm (GA) was conceived and tuned to work with a lumped mass model of an F1 racing car for the optimization of the fuzzy controller that simulates the pilot. A new mutation and a new crossover operator were defined to complement the standard crossover and mutation operators of the basic Holland's GA. This was necessary in order to increase the overall performance of the fuzzy pilot. This approach was tested on an F1 car due to the huge amount of data available (Donnarumma, 1998; Moelenbein, 1989; Lee and Takagi, 1993).

Keywords: Control | Fuzzy logic | KAD | Performance

[135] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Rocchi I., An innovative method to speed up the finite element analysis of critical engine components, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 30(2), 127-132, (2012). Abstract
X

Abstract: This paper introduces a method to simplify a non linear problem in order to use linear finite element analysis. This approach improves calculation time by two orders of magnitude. It is then possible to optimize the geometry of the components even without supercomputers. In this paper the method is applied to a very critical component: the aluminium alloy piston of a modern common rail diesel engine. The method consists in the subdivision of the component, in this case the piston, in several volumes, that have approximately a constant temperature. These volumes are then assembled through congruence constraints. To each volume a proper material is then assigned. It is assumed that material behaviour depends on average temperature, stress magnitude and stress gradient. This assumption is valid since temperatures varies slowly when compared to pressure (load & stress). In fact pressure propagates with the speed of sound. The method is validated by direct comparison with non linear simulation of the same component, the piston, taken as an example. In general, experimental tests have confirmed the cost-effectiveness of this approach.

Keywords: CAD | FEA | Geometry | Optimization | Simulation

[136] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Rocchi I., Feasible optimum design of a turbocompound Diesel Brayton cycle for diesel-turbo-fan aircraft propulsion, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 30(2), 121-126, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper is conceived to optimize the design of the thermodynamic cycle of a turbine (Brayton cycle) that uses a modern common rail diesel engine as an "active" combustion chamber. In this case the "active" combustion chamber produces the mechanical energy that drives the fan. The incoming air is compressed by the compressor, then is cooled (aftercooler) and inputted in the diesel engine. A high pressure common rail system optimizes the combustion in the diesel combustion chamber and the expansion begins inside the diesel engine. At the exhaust of the combustion chamber a turbine completes the expansion of the hot gases. A nozzle accelerates the exhaust from the turbine to increase the overall thrust. The mechanical energy from the diesel and from the turbine engizes the compressor and the fan. The system can be seen as a turbocharged diesel engine with the turbocharger that outputs energy to the turbofan, increasing the output power and or the efficiency. A diesel-turbine compound can be realized in this way. The coupling of the two system may be obtained in several different ways. The simplest is to put on the same shaft the compressor, the diesel crankshaft and the turbine. In front of the compressor a speed reducer drives the fan. A second example is to connect the turbine and the diesel on to electric generators. Electric engines are connected to the compressor and to the fan. The traditional turbo-diesel has the compressor coupled to the turbine, and the diesel engine that moves the fan. In this latter case, however, the turbine does not energize the fan. Many other hybrid and non hybrid solution are possible. The problem is to optimize temperatures, pressures and rpm to the different machines that form the compound. The availability of many experimental data for diesel and turbines makes it possible to obtain a design of a "true" feasible optimum Diesel-Brayton cycle. The high efficiency justifies the huge manufacturing and development costs of these turbocompound engines.

[137] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Morganti E., Canaparo A., Fuzzy control system for aircraft diesel engines, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 30(1), 131-135, (2012). Abstract
X

Abstract: Common rail systems are conventionally employed in diesel and gasoline engines. Pressure, precision and velocity are key factors for correct engine power management. Current systems are based on digital computers and PID control systems. When anomalies occur, recovery strategies are used and engine performance is significantly reduced. Then technical assistance is required to restore normal condition. For safety reasons this approach cannot be used in aeronautical, naval and energy-supply applications. In some cases it is necessary to utilize all the possible energy from the power unit causing significant life-reduction of the engine. In this case a progressive reduction strategy should be used and injection law should be reduced accordingly. For this purpose injection control based on fuzzy logic is more effective . In this case, traditional PID control systems are substituted by fuzzy logic control. A reference map is introduced in the Full Authority Digital Electronic Control, this map is interpreted by the fuzzy logic control system that adapts the injection law to the current engine situation. For example, if fuel temperature tends to increase over the normal level, injection pressure is reduced by the fuzzy control system and injection time is increased to obtain the maximum possible power output. This approach can be easily implemented with very simple and effective fuzzy logic controllers. This method has been experimented on a commonrail test bed and results are compared with traditional "binary recovery strategy" FADEC. Maximum power output is slightly reduced since fuzzy controllers are less effective than PID in "near reference" conditions. However, when anomalies take place or are simply beginning to appear the fuzzy FADEC behaviour is more effective and preserves engine performance more effectively. Aim of this paper it to define rules and fuzzy controllers to optimize the performance of a diesel engine in various operating conditions with particular attention to the power output.

[138] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Diem S.M., Pezzuti E., Methodology to evaluate aircraft piston engine durability, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 30(1), 89-92, (2012). Abstract
X

Abstract: A main problem in aircraft engines is the evaluation of residual life to TBO. The algorithm described in this paper calculates with good reliability the residual life to TBO of a petrol piston engine. The method was tested on small last-generation naturally-aspirated-avio piston engine, and has demonstrated to be effective in several experimental tests. This method is implemented directly in the FADEC or ECU of the engine with very few lines of C-Code. The method can be used also in many industrial engines. This innovative method assumes that only two main factors (load and wear) affect engine durability or Time Between Overhauls (TBO). These two factors are considered as separate and combined with the worst case criteria. The load is assumed to follow a logarithmic law and a formula similar to the Miner's law for material fatigue is used, making possible to calculate the "load curve" with die knowledge of only two points. The "wear" curve is related to elapsed engine cycles, and is easy to implement since it is related to technological. The resulting algorithm is very simple and can be implemented in very few software lines with data collected from the already existing sensors.

[139] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Marcoppido S., Donnarumma A., Pezzuti E., Active antiskid system for handling improvement in motorbikes controlled by fuzzy logic, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 29(2), 95-101, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: Active antiskid systems for high performance motorbikes are difficult to implement due to the necessity to combine performance, equilibrium, handling and safety. In order to design and optimize a fuzzy controlled antiskid system for motorbikes a fuzzy model of the pilot was applied to a lumped-mass model of the motorcycle (two different models have been considered). The fuzzy pilot acts on the steering angle to control trajectory, yaw angle, yaw velocity and roll angle. Throttle position vs. time curve, gear and an adherence model between tire and road are given as input. The fuzzy pilot is implemented with Matlab/Simulink, and simply tries to keep equilibrium. Only measurable inputs were given as input variables of the antiskid fuzzy controller. The output is the percent reduction in throttle position. The motorcycle-fuzzy-pilot model proved to be quite accurate. Motorcycle maximum velocity resulted higher than the real one due to the simplifying hypothesis. In curves the fuzzy pilot is less efficient than the real pilot. In fact there was a low frequency oscillation around the optimum steering angle. This fuzzy controlled antiskid proved to work quite well since equilibrium is attained also in critical situations where the motorcycle-fuzzy-pilot model alone fails to keep equilibrium.

[140] Piancastelli L., Frizziero L., Marcoppido S., Donnarumma A., Pezzuti E., Fuzzy control system for recovering direction after spinning, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 29(2), 87-93, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: The progressive increase of tire-size has concurred to a sensitive improvement of the adherence with consequent increase of car safety. However, the wide tires have problems to expel the water in excess in heavy rain condition. For this reason the phenomenon of the aquaplaning is increasingly felt and is the cause of several automotive accidents. It is not a case that nearly all tire manufacturers supply "rain" tires and adherence in wet conditions is highly advertised. A typical accident happens when aquaplaning occurs in motorway at high speed. One or more tires lose adherence and the car begins to spin. If the pilot is not able to regain the initial direction, the car may hit the guardrail or another car. In this case the modern control systems like the ESP (Electronic Stability Program) and the ASR (Anti Skid Regelung) do not have time or are not able to manage a pre-spin or spin situation at elevated slip-angles. In this paper, a fuzzy control system able to deal with these conditions is introduced. The car has been simulated with a 9 DOF lumped-mass model that does not take into account suspensions and it considers a rigid car on smooth asphalt. The model of adhesion of the tire, instead, takes into account the effect of transverse forces on the longitudinal adherence. An expert pilot controls a high-speed spin with difficulty also. In this paper, a fuzzy control system that is able to control the brake torque on each single tire has been considered. The fuzzy control system works quite well and the car does not even enter in a true spin if enough adherence is present or if the slippery zone on asphalt is limited.