[Elenco soci]

Francia Daniela

Professore Associato

Università degli Studi di Bologna

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 36616144900

Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Francia D., Bove D., Santi G.M., Ferretti P., Donnici G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Virtual Design for Repair: The Case of a Gearmotor, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 135-147, (2023). Abstract

Abstract: ‘Repair’ in the design process of products can prolong the life cycle of parts: this is substantiated by a few examples that put this ideology into practice. Among many other products, home printers could be a good example, with huge numbers of printers ending up in landfill after a relatively short life; often due to blocked print heads that are either impossible or too expensive to replace. The act of fixing things can both prolong the life of an artifact, and create new values through the process of engagement for its users. However, the prohibitive cost of repair makes it inaccessible or unfavorable this practice for many. In this paper a preliminary approach to Design for Repair is proposed, in order to virtually test an industrial case study and to show a comparison between a product, that was intended to disposal after a failure of some components, and the same product re-designed, by taking into account how to repair parts in easy and effective way. Redesign of parts in some cases can be very effective and the virtual test can be easily reproposed in practice, for industrial products. Advantages in the repair of parts is evident in terms of sustainability and circular economy pursuit. This paper suggests a sequenced method to approach the Design for Repair and provide the virtual model of a re-designed solution that could replace the previous one in order to make the repair of components easy and effective. The economic analysis on the effective convenience of repair faced to the disposal of a product was not developed within this context.

Keywords: Circular economy | Design for Disassembly | Design for Repair | Gearmotor | Sustainability

[2] Santi G.M., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Francia D., Neri M., Liverani A., A New Sedan Concept Car in Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) Enhanced with Augmented Reality, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 82-90, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: Many industrial technologies are developed to optimize products and bring innovation. In particular, the automotive sector is renewing itself according to the rules of green energy and consumption. This huge change requires a reinterpretation of the models on the market updating them to the present and the future needs of automotive industry. In this paper the best compromise between innovation and tradition is found for the Ford brand that has not yet presented electric cars in the sedan segment. Following the SDE method enriched with Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Benchmarking (BM) and Top Flop Analysis (TPA), it is possible to carry out an innovative project. All these technologies must, however, be ordered according to a specific product allowing the best result for the design process. It is therefore necessary identifying the most common stylistic trends in order to draw the external styling of the vehicle using virtual prototyping techniques. To achieve an innovative result, Augmented Reality (AR) is considered to complete the method substituting the static and expensive procedure of making maquettes.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Augmented reality | Benchmarking | Car design | Design engineering | QFD | Stylistic design engineering (SDE)

[3] Santi G.M., Francia D., Cesari F., Effect of coriolis force on vibration of annulus pipe, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(3), 1-15, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Annulus pipe conveying fluids have many practical applications, such as hydraulic control lines and aircraft fuel lines. In some applications, these tubes are exposed to high speeds. Normally, this leads to a vibration effect which may be of a catastrophic nature. The phenomenon is not only driven by the centrifugal forces, but an important role is played also by the Coriolis forces. Many theoretical approaches exist for a simple configuration or a complex three-dimensional configuration. Finite element models are tested. This paper provides a numerical technique for solving the dynamics of annulus pipe conveying fluid by means of the mono-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM). In particular, this paper presents a numerical solution to the equations governing a fluid conveying pipeline segment, where a Coriolis force effect is taken into consideration both for fix and hinge constraint.

Keywords: Coriolis | FEM | Pipe conveying fluid | Simulation

[4] Amoroso C.L., Liverani A., Francia D., Ceruti A., Dynamics augmentation for high speed flying yacht hulls through PID control of foiling appendages, Ocean Engineering, 221, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: A numerical investigation is conducted in order to identify a PID control loop feedback scheme able to return dynamics augmentation and superior seakeeping characteristics in the application of high speed flying yacht hulls. An existing lumped parameters model based on general unsteady equations of motion is extended and implemented in combination with a regular basic ocean waves model, to conduct parametric studies and predict the overall performances of a specific engine-propelled flying yacht hull, both in calm and rough water conditions. The unsteady behavior of six foiling/maneuvering appendages is investigated, the hydrodynamic characteristics being based on a database generated through the use of computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD) coupled with static/dynamic-mesh schemes. Equations of motion and hydrodynamics are solved numerically by explicit time-integration method. By comparison with control open-loop conditions, the results show the effects of the use of PID controllers in such dynamic systems in terms of seakeeping performances and dynamics augmentation.

Keywords: Flying yacht | Foiling | Hydrodynamic performances | Lumped parameters model | Ocean waves | PID control

[5] Cantarelli S., Francia D., Liverani A., Frizziero L., Design for Additive Manufacturing of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1018-1027, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: This paper aims to provide the study of a design strategy for 3D printing production process, given its recent development, as well as that of high-performance materials. In particular, we focus on the blade of a wind generator by evaluating new construction methods deriving from new design approaches. The strategies used for the present study are described as follows: firstly, it was necessary to proceed to redesign the blade, by CAD software in order to menage a 3D model for the study and to initialize the whole project; then, the FEM analysis to validate the study. Finally, the AM (Additive Manufacturing) theorization and simulation for both a scaled blade and a full-sized one. The motivation behind this paper draws on the predominance and the constant evolution of the 3D printing in recent years, as well as the continuous research on both development and improvement of costs and performance of composite materials used.

Keywords: Composite Materials | Design for Additive Manufacturing | Finite Element Analysis | Wind-turbine

[6] Santi G.M., Francia D., Cesari F., Explicit analytical shape function calculation for macro-element in glue connection, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: This manuscript presents a simplified approach to adhesive joints calculation. Aviation and space rocket engineering constructions joints deals with coaxial cylindrical pipes that can be connected by adhesive with advantages in terms of tightness, aerodynamic efficiency, manufacturability, low weight. Glue joints are, therefore, considered and simplified in this article by the analytical calculation of the shape functions for a macro-element applied to the Volkersen’s theory. The mathematical solution makes possible to calculate the explicit form of the stiffness matrix of the macro-element. The analysis proposed shows the perfect matching of the solution for a single element under classical mechanical loads.

Keywords: FEM | glue connection | macro-element | shape function

[7] Francia D., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Donnici G., Dalledonne N., Augmented reality enabling disassembly sequence planning, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1876-1886, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Nowadays, the importance of the concept of “Urban Mining” is growing even more, which consists in searching for raw materials inside objects that have reached the end of their life, instead of “inside nature”. It can be commonly found especially in mechanical and electronic equipment valuable materials, which can be extracted and reused as secondary raw materials. The importance of Design for Disassembly (DfD), that is the central topic of this paper, is increasing because of it brings great advantages in terms of disassembly times of components that have reached the end of life. According to the Disassembly Sequence Planning (DSP), this paper presents an application of several methods derived from literature to a two-way valve, to find optimal disassembly sequences. Different sequences have been compared in terms of disassembly time consuming, by the conversion of operations into disassembly time using accredited methods found in literature. Finally, an application in Augmented Reality is proposed to simulate a practical evaluation of what has been theorised so far.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | CAD modelling | Design for Disassembly | Sequence Planning

[8] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Innovation design driven by QFD and TRIZ to develop new urban transportation means, Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 19(3), 300-316, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Beginning from an analysis of all the top types of execution of the hoverboard, a contemporary vehicle for city transportation, inventive concepts were generated to design it. Quality-oriented methodology, just like Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for example, contributed the desires to start from, while through an innovation-oriented methodology, just like Teorija Rešenija Izobretatel'skich Zadač (TRIZ) method, proposals and notions for innovative settings were reached. In practice, while the QFD methodology has a powerfully conceptual appeal, and it is the basis of our analysis, the TRIZ method gives a more innovative thrust and deals the aspects that are strongly constructive and concrete. The matrix of contradictions has been used within the Hill model, and through it, it has been possible to rework the innovative problems, suggested by the analysis of the QFD, in terms of technical contradictions. The main purpose of the following work is to demonstrate how the two methodologies mentioned above, namely the QFD methodology and the TRIZ methodology, can be integrated within a path of development of innovative products, supporting one for the other.

Keywords: contradictions | innovative solution | QFD | TRIZ | urban transportation systems

[9] Francia D., Donnici G., Ricciardelli G.M., Santi G.M., Design for six sigma (DFSS) applied to a new E-segment sedan, Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(3), (2020). Abstract

Abstract: "Innovation activities" means all the scientific, technological, organizational, financial and commercial steps aimed at implementing innovation. Some innovation activities are themselves innovative, others are not new, but they are necessary for the implementation of innovation, such as Research and Development not linked to a specific innovation. Innovation has a close reference to the economic market, that is to say with the users of the innovated product: if these are not sufficiently developed they are not able to understand it and appreciate it. Innovation, making the process better, generates greater competitiveness: it is the dream of something better that translates into general well-being. This work presents an innovative hybrid car's design, belonging to the E-segment. The choice of this segment is already innovative in its nature, as despite being currently in strong development, hybrid and electric engines are still little used for large sedans. The method we present in this paper for the car design is also innovative and is called Design for Six Sigma. It is a method used to develop new products, through the determination of customer and market needs and the transformation of these requests into the product generated.

Keywords: Automotive | Bench marking | Car | Design for six sigma | E-segment | Quality function deployment | Sedan

[10] Francia D., Seminerio D., Caligiana G., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Donnici G., Virtual Design for Assembly Improving the Product Design of a Two-Way Relief Valve, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 304-314, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Design for Assembly is a strategy of design aimed at minimising product cost through design and process improvements. It led to a revolution in the manufacturing industry, resulting in reduced product costs, improved quality, shorter time to market, lower inventory, fewer suppliers and many other improvements. DFA is the method of design of the product for ease of assembly and in this context this paper presents an application of the strategy to a virtual case study represented by a two-way relief valve modelled by CAD. The aim of this paper was to test some DFA methods proposed by the literature and search for an efficient assembly of the virtual two-way relief valve reproduced by CAD, then verifying its assembly effectiveness. Some evaluation methods proposed by literature about the optimisation of design efficiency have been applied to the case study and this led to reconsider the design of some parts of the product. A final new design for the valve is proposed and the evaluation methods applied have been tested again on the new solution, in order to validate the results. A comparison between the original valve and the new version proposed by the authors has been made, in order both to check the feasibility of the new valve and in order to check the evaluation methods proposed.

Keywords: CAD | DfA | Optimization

[11] Francia D., Ponti S., Frizziero L., Liverani A., Virtual mechanical product disassembly sequences based on disassembly order graphs and time measurement units, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 9(17), (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Recently, the approach that defines the total life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end of life (EoL) in the early design phases is becoming even more promising. Literature evidences many advantages in terms of the saving of costs and time and in the fluent organization of the whole design process. Design for disassembly (DfD) offers the possibility of reducing the time and cost of disassembling a product and accounts for the reusing of parts and of the dismantling of parts, joints, and materials. The sequence of disassembly is the ordered way to extract parts from an assembly and is a focal item in DfD because it can deeply influence times and operations. In this paper, some disassembly sequences are evaluated, and among them, two methods for defining an optimal sequence are provided and tested on a case study of a mechanical assembly. A further sequence of disassembly is provided by the authors based on experience and personal knowledge. All three are analyzed by the disassembly order graph (DOG) approach and compared. The operations evaluated have been converted in time using time measurement units (TMUs). As result, the best sequence has been highlighted in order to define a structured and efficient disassembly.

Keywords: CAD | Disassembly | DOG | Sequence | TMU | Tools

[12] Liverani A., Francia D., Caligiana G., Cantarelli S., Innovative hoverboard cad design and development for green urban mobility, International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, 9(3), 1033-1050, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: After the application of innovative design methodologies used to define an optimized technical specification, the present paper aims to manage the transition from conceptual design to construction project of an innovative means of urban transport, meeting the needs of 'Renewable energy’ requirements, which then decline into an hoverboard. Hoverboard can be considered, as described by Frizziero L. in “Conceptual design of an innovative electric transportation means with QFD, Benchmarking, TOP-FLOP Analysis” [1], Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, a good solution for green mobility in urban traffic. The methodologies used in the precedent manuscripts were Quality Function Deployment (QFD), to identify quality requirements of the new green product, BENCH MARKING, to perform competition analysis, TOP-FLOP analysis in order to better improve the BENCH MARKING implementation, and finally TRIZ, for identifying the best way to generate innovation [1].

Keywords: Bench marking | Green energy & TRIZ & CAD | QFD | Renewable energy | Top-flop analysis

[13] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., A preliminary evaluation to support DFD of handcrafted products, International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, 9(3), 1033-1050, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Both economical and environmental aspects significantly influence the design process since the early phases of preliminary design. The total Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)and the End Of Life (EOL)of products have to be defined in the early design phase too. For industrial products that are not addressed to automatic manufacturing processes, the LCA and the EOL are an hard issue. However, the EOL of products, meant as recycling or reusing of parts, can be evaluated by means of the disassembly easiness of joints assembling the product, even when the production process is subject to an important contribute of workmanship. To facilitate this approach, a useful method is proposed in this paper to evaluate the disassembly of products, also of handcrafted products, in order to optimize the design process in the early preliminary phase. The method quantitatively evaluates an index, referred as the Disassembly Index, that describes the attitude of a product to be disassembled in order to recover its components (or its partial subassemblies). A case study is proposed to evaluate the disassembly attitude of structural subassemblies of a sailboat. The comparison to a standard product is proposed in order to test the sensitiveness of the Disassembly Index to automatic manufactured products. As conclusion, good performances to support the EOL evaluation of non conventional products have been demonstrated and a huge sensitiveness of the Disassembly Index to destructive and non destructive procedures is evidenced in the paper.

Keywords: Design for disassembly | Handcrafted product | Non-destructive disassembly & reusing of parts

[14] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Francia D., Caligiana G., Gaddoni A., Stylistic design engineering (SDE) for an innovative green vehicle following QFD and triz applications, International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, 9(2), 805-827, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: With this article, we intend to set the first strategic phase of the product development process, that is to say the one related to the conceptual project. In particular, this work refers to the installation of the project of an innovative, green, sustainable means of transport based on renewable energy, to move to the center of medium and large cities. The discussion presented presents a series of cutting-edge methods, in series of logical use, in order to make both strategic and technical decisions. Among the inputs of the methods, we will have an analysis of customer needs, competitive analysis, a series of technological objectives (or performances) as a result of the work in progress. In particular, we will first use the quality distribution method (QFD), then the method of analyzing competition through Benchmarking to identify the quantitative requirements that will give us the opportunity to create an innovative product, enhanced by a Top-Flop analysis to determine the number of requirements of the best product on the market, which will be the limit to be overcome to embody innovation in a new project. As for the QFD, the input values are the customer's requirements, obtained with the "Six questions" method; then applying an interrelationship of the QFD matrix, the outputs of the method described above were obtained, representing the classification of all the various urban transports, classified according to user preferences. The application of the competition-oriented method of competition analysis through the use of Benchmarking is applied after the QFD. The inputs are the quantitative specifications, that is the performance, of all the hoverboard models of all the brands on the market. The output, however, is a comparison graph that contains all the performance values for each model. Other inputs will be table data, other outputs, values (or ranges of values) for each performance, so as to obtain a technical specification with quantitative objectives to obtain an innovative product.

Keywords: 3D & hoverboard | Design engineering | Quality distribution method | TRIZ

[15] Liverani A., Caligiana G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Donnici G., Dhaimini K., Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) for additive manufacturing applied to an innovative multifunctional fan, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 13(1), 309-330, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: In an increasing number of aggressive enterprise world, “time to market” concerning products has come to be a solution element because of enterprise success. There are exceptional techniques so expect layout mistakes or open products concerning the need between much less time. Among the most used methodologies in the design and setting about stability the requirements, Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) execute remain used. In the prototyping phase, such is feasible in imitation of tackle the rising science regarding additive manufacturing. Today, three-dimensional stamping is in the meanwhile used as a rapid prototyping technique. However, the actual challenge that enterprise is going through is the use of these machineries for large-scale production about parts, at last viable along current HP Multi fusion. The aim of this article is to study the interactive design and engineering applied to the entire product development process taking advantage of the most modern models and technologies for the final realization of a case study that involves the design and prototyping of an innovative multifunctional fan (Lamp, Aroma Diffuser and fan) through the Multi Jet Fusion of HP. To begin with, issues related to the DFSS, the QFD and their application to identify the fan requirements are explored. Once the requirements have been defined, the modern CAD design systems and the CAE systems for the validation of the case study will be analyzed and applied. Finally, HP’s Multi Jet Fusion methodology and design rules for additive manufacturing will be analyzed in detail, trying to exploit all the positive aspects it offers.

Keywords: CAD | CAE | Design for additive manufacturing | Design for Six Sigma | FEA | Multi jet fusion | Product development | QFD | Rapid prototyping

[16] Francia D., Liverani A., Donnici G., Frizziero L., Marinelli N., A structured index describing the ease of disassembly for handcrafted product, Cogent Engineering, 6(1), (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Both economic and environmental aspects significantly influence the design process since the early phases of preliminary design. The total Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the End of Life (EoL) of products have to be defined in the early design phases too but, for industrial products that are not feasible to automatic production, they are hard issues. However, the EoL of products can be assessed by evaluating the disassembly of joints assembling the product, even when the production process is subject to an important contribute of workmanship. In this paper, a useful method is proposed to analyze the disassembly plant of products, in order to optimize the design process in the early preliminary phases. The method quantitatively evaluates a Disassembly Index that describes the attitude of a product to be disassembled. A case study describes the disassembly attitude of structural subassemblies of a sailboat. In order to test the applicability of the model described to both manual and automated disassembly, a further application of the method is proposed on a Computer CPU. As result, the model demonstrated good sensitiveness to the testing of products quite different for dimensions, number of components, manufacturing processes and, in all cases, it quantified the disassembly easiness with good relevance.

Keywords: disassembly | handcraft | non-destructive | quantitative | reusing

[17] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Increasing innovation of a new transportation means using TRIZ methodology, JP Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 15(2), 341-370, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: The present paper begins a series of features considered essential to the success of an innovative means of transport in the cities: the hoverboard. These features are obtained from a previous QFD analysis and are the starting point for a further TRIZ analysis that aims to obtain innovative technical solutions, in order to manage the transition from conceptual design to construction design. Through a hill model, the technical problems have been reformulated in terms of technical contradictions, and through the tools of TRIZ, as the matrix of contradictions, have come to obtain general resolution principles. From these general principles of resolution, innovative solutions for the construction of the innovative transport vehicle have been devised. These innovative solutions will be the starting point for a further engineering process that can be developed into further work.

Keywords: City transportation means | Contradictions | Hill model | Innovative solution | QFD | TRIZ

[18] De Amicis R., Ceruti A., Francia D., Frizziero L., Simões B., Augmented Reality for virtual user manual, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(2), 689-697, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: The present work proposes a new approach for defining an interactive user manual in complex assemblies, using a new enabling technology of Industry 4.0, i.e. Augmented Reality. The AR environment supports the user in step-by-step assembly on-the-fly. The study of this method, suitable for the assembly of parts, is a stimulating engineering mission, which takes advantage of the latest innovations in imaging technologies and computer graphics. In the present paper, a proposal for an innovative method based on Augmented Reality used to support the components’ assembly is suggested. The methodology is based on a four steps process: (1) the designer performs the assembly structure through a CAD system; (2) an inexperienced user assembles the same parts without any suggestion, and the differences between the two assembly sequences are documented and broken down in order to distinguish critical points in the assembly; (3) a virtual user manual is shaped in an Augmented Reality environment; and (4) the assembly is then performed by the same inexperienced user, guided by the AR tool. When the end-user employs the instrument, the location of the item to assemble is perceived by tracking the finger position of the user itself. In order to help the end-user in the assembly procedure, a series of symbols and texts is added to the external scene. In this paper, a case study based on the assembly of a scale model has been developed to evaluate the methodology. After an evaluation process, the procedure seems to be feasible and presents some advantages over the state-of-the-art methodologies proposed by literature.

Keywords: Assembly | Augmented Reality | Marker | Task automation | User manual

[19] Francia D., Caligiana G., Liverani A., Frizziero L., Donnici G., PrinterCAD: a QFD and TRIZ integrated design solution for large size open moulding manufacturing, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(1), 81-94, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Over the last years, good strategies for efficient manufacturing were considered increasing the volume of production and reducing the time and costs. Emerging design strategies as the Design for Environment and life cycle assessment, the Design for Sustainability, the Design for Disassembly moved the focus to conceive a product by taking care of all the effect that its use can cause to the economy, to the society and to the environment, also at its disposal. In this context, design strategies have to be enhanced in order to integrate innovation with sustainability and social care. Thus, the horizon for strategic manufacturing has to pay particular attention to the effects that it could produce to the surrounding environment. This way, some manufacturing techniques that could be considered obsolete in terms of sustainability awareness, but that are not yet ready to be replaced by advanced available technologies, need a requalification in order to be collocated in the current scenario. In this paper, the open moulding technique has been discussed in order to update the current manufacturing technique to meet the emerging sustainable strategies. Through the integration of QFD and TRIZ an innovative design method have been assessed to enhance the manufacturing process by means of computer aided engineering devices. PrinterCAD is a project that aims to manage additive and subtractive techniques, applied to complex and large-scale products, by means of an open source software with an integrated module, in order to enhance the CAD, CAM and slicing for the 3D printer’s languages intercommunication.

Keywords: CAD | CAM | Hybrid manufacturing | Open source | QFD | TRIZ

[20] Frizziero L., Francia D., Donnici G., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Sustainable design of open molds with QFD and TRIZ combination, Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 35(1), 21-31, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: The planning activity relative to physical items, environment, and services that adapts to optimize social, economic, and ecological impact is the target of sustainable design. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) achieves product design by choosing and defining factors that can be qualitatively argued. The aim of design is to match needs in new and innovative ways. In this perspective, the QFD aims to evaluate the quality of a design process. TRIZ is a design methodology that aims at defining and overcoming some critical issues that can affect the development of a product, by means of potential innovative solutions. In this paper, QFD and TRIZ analysis were adopted in order to validate a design method for direct open molds by means of a new strategy: hybrid manufacturing can reduce production time, use of material, and energy and waste consumption, employing subtractive and additive techniques efficiently combined.

Keywords: Additive | direct open mold | hybrid manufacturing | QFD | subtractive | TRIZ

[21] Frizziero L., Donnici G., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Di Bucchianico F., Innovative urban transportation means developed by integrating design methods, Machines, 6(4), (2018). Abstract

Abstract: The aim of this article is to apply some design methodologies to define, as a first objective, an optimized technical specification and then, as a second objective, to manage the transition from conceptual design to construction project of an innovative means of urban transport, meeting the needs of 'renewable energy' requirements, which then decline into this new urban vehicle formed by a hoverboard and an electric scooter. The first part of the article is focused on the conceptual design of the means by using methodologies such as the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), applied in the first phase of the work to compare some of the most popular electric scooters on the market; we then used a typical method for product marketing, i.e., the decision-making process driven by the analysis of benchmarking, suitable for quantitatively organize competitive analysis and choosing innovation targets; finally, we implemented the top-flop analysis in order to better improve the benchmarking implementation, identifying the best product on the market, basing on the highest number of innovative requirements owned by it, as shown by Frizziero in 2018 and Meuli et al. in 1997. The second part of the article focuses on the project of the kick scooter through the use of a software for the FEA simulation and on the possible realization of the prototype through a suitable connecting component.

Keywords: Benchmarking | Conceptual design | Innovation | Product design | QFD | Top-flop analysis | Transport | Vehicle

[22] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., TRIZ method for innovation applied to an hoverboard, Cogent Engineering, 5(1), 1-24, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: The aim of this work is to complete the QFD analysis carried out in a previous work that aimed to identify the main features that contribute to the success of a modern urban transport means: the hoverboard. Starting from this analysis, through the TRIZ methodology, resolutive principles have been identified for the realization of innovative solutions of the said urban transport means. In practice this analysis aims to manage the next phase of conceptual design realized with the QFD methodology and tries to guide the design process in its next phase. In this work was used the hill model, a characteristic model of the TRIZ methodology, and the technical innovative problems encountered were reformulated in terms of technical contradictions. Subsequently, general principles of inventive solutions were obtained using one of the tools of TRIZ: the matrix of contradiction. Finally, starting from these general principles of solution, innovative constructive solutions have been developed to be applied to the design of an innovative hoverboard.

Keywords: contradictions | hill model | innovative solution | QFD | TRIZ | urban transportation systems

[23] Donnici G., Frizziero L., Francia D., Liverani A., Caligiana G., Project of inventive ideas through a TRIZ study applied to the analysis of an innovative urban transport means, International Journal of Manufacturing, Materials, and Mechanical Engineering, 8(4), 1-24, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Opening from an examination of all the best features of accomplishment of the hoverboard, a modern vehicle for urban transport, we have created inventive ideas to design the transport means itself. Quality Function Deployment methodology has given us the requirements to start from, while the TRIZ methods have provided us the proposals and notions of an innovative landscape to which we tend. In practice, while the QFD methodology has a powerfully conceptual appeal, and it is the basis of our analysis, the TRIZ method gives a more innovative thrust and deals the aspects that are strongly constructive and concrete. The Matrix of Contradictions was used within the Hill Model, and through it, we have been able to rework the innovative problems, suggested by the QFD analysis, in terms of technical contradictions. At the end of the work, a number of suggestions were made to further innovate this urban and modern means of transport: the hoverboard.

Keywords: Contradictions | Innovative solution | QFD | TRIZ | Urban transportation systems

[24] Caligiana G., Liverani A., Francia D., Frizziero L., Donnici G., Integrating QFD and TRIZ for innovative design, Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems and Manufacturing, 11(2), (2017). Abstract

Abstract: Sustainable design aims at the creation of physical objects, environment and services that complies to optimize social, economic, and ecological impact. QFD is able to assess the product design by the choice and definition of parameters that can be qualitatively discussed. The purpose of design is to meet a need in new ways and in innovative ways. In this context, the QFD aims at evaluating the quality of a design process. TRIZ is a design method that aim at defining and overcome some critical issue that can affect the development of a product, by means of potential innovative solutions. In this paper QDF and TRIZ analysis have been adopted in order to validate a design method for direct open moulds, by a new strategy: hybrid manufacturing can reduce the production time, the use of material, the energy and the waste consumption, employing subtractive and addictive techniques efficiently combined.

Keywords: Additive | Direct open mould | Hybrid manufacturing | QFD | Subtractive | TRIZ

[25] Caligiana G., Liverani A., Francia D., Frizziero L., Mechanical device with five-arms tested on service, Far East Journal of Electronics and Communications, 17(2), 327-349, (2017). Abstract

Abstract: We present the stress analysis of a pouring concrete device. In order to test the prototype of a pouring concrete equipment composed of fivearms with hollow rectangular cross sections, an extensive study about equipment for pouring concrete has been undertaken. An upgrade of a four-arms device already existing and actually working would be developed. Tests have been performed both on the prototype of the equipment and on a virtual model of the device, performed by a 3D CAD modeler and analyzed through FEM numerical programs. During experimental tests, a laser device has measured deflections at the end of the fifth arm, corresponding to applied loads. For measuring strains in the critical points highlighted by the numerical simulation strain rosette have been employed. In both the static and the dynamic conditions, Mohr's circles have been drawn from the 3D strain state and the 2D plane stress experimental records and they have been compared with those predicted through the finite element analysis. From the comparison between numerical and experimental results, a very good correlation has been obtained for static loading to assess the soundness of the virtual model.

Keywords: Articulated device | CAD | FEM | Mohr's circle | Strain analysis

[26] Caligiana G., Liverani A., Francia D., Frizziero L., Donnici G., QFD and TRIZ to sustain the design of direct open moulds, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 68, 898-908, (2017). Abstract

Abstract: Sustainable design aims at the creation of physical objects, environment and services that complies to optimize social, economic, and ecological impact. QFD is able to assess the product design by the choice and definition of parameters that can be qualitatively discussed. The purpose of design is to meet a need in new ways and in innovative ways. In this context, the QFD aims at evaluating the quality of a design process. TRIZ is a design method that aim at defining and overcome some critical issue that can affect the development of a product, by means of potential innovative solutions. In this paper QDF and TRIZ analysis have been adopted in order to validate a design method for direct open moulds, by a new strategy: hybrid manufacturing can reduce the production time, the use of material, the energy and the waste consumption, employing subtractive and addictive techniques efficiently combined.

Keywords: Additive | Direct open mould | Hybrid manufacturing | QFD | Subtractive | TRIZ

[27] Caligiana G., Francia D., Liverani A., CAD-CAM integration for 3D hybrid manufacturing, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 329-337, (2017). Abstract

Abstract: Hybrid Manufacturing (HM) is oriented to combine the advantages of additive manufacturing, such as few limits in shape reproduction, good customization of parts, distributive production, minimization of production costs and minimization of waste materials, with the advantages of subtractive manufacturing, in terms of finishing properties and accuracy of dimensional tolerances. In this context, our research group presents a design technique that aims to data processing that switches between additive and subtractive procedures, to the costs and time of product-manufacturing optimization. The component prototyping may be performed combining different stages (addiction, gross milling, fine milling, deposition…) with different parameters and head/nozzles and is able to work with different materials either in addictive, either in milling. The present paper is dedicated to introduce different strategies, or in other terms, different combinations of machining features (addictive or deductive) and different materials to complete a prototype model or mold. The optimization/analys ispiece of software is fully integrated in classic CAD/CAM environment for better supporting the design and engineering processes.

Keywords: CAD | CAM | Hybrid manufacturing | Multimaterial manufacturing | Process design

[28] Degidi M., Caligiana G., Francia D., Liverani A., Olmi G., Tornabene F., Strain gauge analysis of implant-supported, screw-retained metal frameworks: Comparison between different manufacturing technologies, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 230(9), 840-846, (2016). Abstract

Abstract: Over the past decades, the technological development in the medical field, coupled with the ongoing scientific research, has led to the development and improvement of dental prostheses supported by screw-retained metal frameworks. A key point in the manufacture of the framework is the achievement of a passive fit, intended as the capability of an implant-supported reconstruction to transmit minimum strain to implant components as well as to the surrounding bone, when subject to any load. The fitting of four different kinds of screw-retained metal frameworks was tested in this article. They differ both in materials and manufacturing process: two frameworks are made by casting, one framework is made by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing and one framework is made by electric resistance spot welding (WeldONE, DENTSPLY Implants Manufacturing GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). The passivity of the frameworks was evaluated on the entire system, composed of a resin master cast, the implant analogues embedded in the cast and the frameworks. Strains were recorded by means of an electrical strain gauge connected to a control unit for strain gauge measurements. The experimental tests were carried out in the laboratories of the Department of INdustrial engineering at the University of Bologna. The results of the test campaigns, which compared three samples for each technological process, showed that no significant differences exist between the four framework types. In particular, the frameworks made by the resistance welding approach led to a mechanical response that is well comparable to that of the other tested frameworks.

Keywords: Dental prosthesis | passive fit | screw-retained framework | strain gauge analysis

[29] Bajana J., Francia D., Liverani A., Krajčovič M., Mobile tracking system and optical tracking integration for mobile mixed reality, International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, 53(1), 13-22, (2016). Abstract

Abstract: Augmented Reality (AR) technology is becoming more available for everyday applications, providing advanced information about the observed objects. In this paper we present a system combining optical tracking and augmented reality with applications in local large areas. We use two different tracking technologies for positioning objects: the infrared marker-based motion capture system OptiTrack and the Vuforia software platform, which enables augmented reality app across the real world environment. We present a robust solution for communication between a client (mobile platform) and a server that computes all global tracking data. This technology has high potential for end users and can be of great benefit.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Client-server architecture | Mobile device | Network streaming | Tracking systems

[30] Bagassi S., Bertini G., Francia D., Persiani F., Design analysis for hybrid propulsion, 28th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences 2012, ICAS 2012, 4, 2804-2810, (2012). Abstract

Abstract: Developing green propulsion concepts for aviation requires some changes in standard procedures for the preliminary aircraft design. Standard design procedures are not readily applicable to aircraft/rotorcraft that use multiple energy sources; innovative concepts like hybrid propulsion systems require new approaches in weight and performance prediction. In this paper the application of new methods is explored to account for the changes in the governing equations when using hybrid propulsion: a design code allows predicting the performances once the hybrid propulsion architecture is chosen. Focus is on hybrid propulsion systems based on a diesel heavy fuel ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) combined with an electric motor in a parallel configuration. This study relies on simple structure and material performance indexes, neglects stability and control analysis, and uses very simple aerodynamic models.

Keywords: Aircraft sizing | Diesel | Hybrid propulsion

[31] Bagassi S., Francia D., Persiani C.A., Terminal area "green" optimization using job-shop scheduling techniques, 27th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences 2010, ICAS 2010, 6, 5135-5143, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: In the Approach Control Area an important match for reducing aviation environmental impact is played. Aircraft Sequencing Problem (or Aircraft Landing Problem) has been widely studied for the last years in order to find the optimal sequence that maximizes the number of landing aircraft in the time unit. The model we propose is based on no-wait Job- Shop Scheduling with sequence dependent machine set up time and release date. In our model STAR and SID are divided into air segments: runways and air segments of arrival and departure procedures are modeled as machines, airplanes are considered as job with release date. Each machine i processes an Aircraft/Job and produces a cost for the environment. The impact of the pollution in each element of the grid map depends on the related machine. The "green" sensitivity of each grid map element is defined by using numerical models. Starting from existing Job-Shop Scheduling models, by means of elitary Genetic Algorithm, the number of movements in the time unit is optimized to manage the Approach airspace. Finally, an experimental analysis is presented, it has been performed on a case study of Bologna airport terminal area.

Keywords: Aircraft sequencing | Job-shop scheduling

[32] Bagassi S., Francia D., Persiani F., Preliminary study of a new UAV concept: The variable geometry vehicle, 27th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences 2010, ICAS 2010, 1, 199-204, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: Since 1989 the military scene has substantially changed: There are many nimble and dynamic threats as opposed to the former deployment of each state army. Therefore, this leads to the need of permanent surveillance and monitoring of large areas associated with the capability of a fast combat reaction and this demand is usually performed by deploying both surveillance and ground attack aircrafts. Fighter employment increases the mission costs, because of their oor flight endurance, so it is necessary to use many aircraft; moreover, these vehicles are equested to have a very low radar and infrared signature. On the other hand, surveillance aircraft usually have a very limited attack capability, so there is a dead time between the detection of a threat and the action, with a consequent tactical inefficiency. This paper shows a preliminary analysis referred to an unmanned vehicle with a variable geometry configuration, named VGV (Variable Geometry Vehicle), that aims at matching thehigh endurance capability of surveillance aircrafts with the high performances and survivability of fighter-ground attack aircrafts. The performance analysis of an open and a closed configuration has been undertaken and a conceptual study has been afforded in order to find a mechanical solution to move the outer portion of the wing and inserting it into the trailing edge of the fixed part in order to change the geometry of the aircraft in flight. The proposed design solution is innovative because it matches two different configurations in a unique aircraft. A new unmanned system concept is proposed, with a variable wing geometry which can move from a typical surveillance configuration to a combat one. © 2010 by the International Council of Aeronautical Sciences - ICAS.

Keywords: Morphing aircraft | Preliminary study | UAV

[33] Bagassi S., Bombardi T., Francia D., Persiani C.A., 3D trajectory optimization for UAS insertion in civil non-segregated airspace, AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, (2009). Abstract

Abstract: The use of UAS (Uninhabited Aerial System) in civil missions addresses quite a number of questions related to safety, security and economics, but the most critical challenge the civil UAS will face is the insertion into civil airspace. Avoiding collisions between aircrafts, expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic are very important goals for Air Traffic Management (ATM). The methodology we propose matches aeronautical science and operation research with ATM constraints and it is based on a two phases procedure: strategic and tactical. The strategic phase is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) method; it is performed off-line and gives as output a basic 3D route in order to allow the UAV to fly over N target points selected by the operator, avoiding fixed obstacles and minimizing an assigned cost function (fuel consumption, time and environmental impact). Once computed the route, the tactical phase starts, which is entirely performed on-line during flight. Civil air traffic constraints (minimum separation) are taken into account using TAR (Traffic Avoidance Resolution) module that combines a simple geometric computation with a TSP time extension model. The results coming from simulation are analyzed using Computer Graphic tools in order to easily and rapidly evaluate the performances of the proposed model. Separation between the UAV and physical obstacles, no fly-zones or other aircrafts populating the scenario, can be evaluated. Moreover, results coming from optimization such as trajectory and the associated fuel consumption, time or environmental impact of the mission are displayed. Copyright © 2009 by the authors.

[34] Francia D., Piancastelli L., Renzi C., A very simple and effective method for off-design simulation of modern aircraft piston engines, AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit, (2008). Abstract

Abstract: A new generation of aircraft piston engines is currently being introduced on the market. These new engines come directly from the huge experience achieved in the motorcycle and automotive racing and production. However direct use of automotive power unit is not advisable, since car engines work mainly in the first quarter of the power output, while sport motorcycles are used in a very "light" way, with the engines that span several times through the entire range of power outputs and rpm. The other problem is fuel. Aircraft spark ignition engine for ultralight and light aircrafts may continue to use automotive gasoline, while diesel engines for light up to cargo aircraft should use jet(A1) and jp4. However, the large experience obtained from racing/high-performance motorcycles, racing/high-performance cars and common rail engines cannot be ignored. Thousand of hours and billion of Euros have been spent for this development and the results are interesting. This paper tries to calculate the future aircraft engine performance from the many experimental data already available on a certain type of combustion chamber or better from a well defined and experimented cylinder unit. On the other side the "lean-thinking" approach to aircraft engine design may be not applicable. The lean thinking approach tends to prefer the time-to-market to the optimization of the engine unit. With engines that will probably stay on the market for 30 years this approach is not convenient. An important optimization during the design phase is possible with modern CAD tools. Mass and cost reduction may easily reach the 30%. On the other side the "brain storming approach" is not applicable to the heavily-constrained aircraft-engine design, where it is common that inapplicable solutions and ideas seem to be the best during the initial phase even to experts. Our research team developed three different families of engines: the first family uses the cylinder unit of a well proven motorcycle engine, which comes directly from racing and was sold in tenth of thousands in the world market. These spark ignition engines have 4 up to 16 cylinders (Figg. 1, 2), with power from 150 HP to 800 HP. This type of engines have very brilliant power to weight ratios with not superlative fuel consumptions. They are conceived for ultralight aircrafts and helicopters, tilt rotor, tilt shaft and tilt motor power lift V/STOL aircrafts. The second cylinder unit comes directly from the 2 valves FIAT 1900 jtd, that is one of the best two valves turbocharged common rail diesel available on the market. These units span from 4 up to 16 cylinders with power outputs from 175 HP (Fig. 3) up to 1000 HP. They run with jp4, jp8 or jet (A1) and can be bolted directly to the original engine mount of existing light aircraft like Cessna 172/182/337 or can be used in new light aircrafts. The third one is an originally conceived twin combustion chamber diesel family with output power from 600 HP to 4000 HP (hybrid engine) originally conceived for the Hercules C130J, ATR42 or ATR72 aircrafts (Figg. 4, 5). Our hybrid engine is composed by two separate engines: the VD007 diesel and a turboshaft. Each engine moves a separate contra rotating propeller. In ordinary flight the turboshaft works as a turbocharger. In this case the rear propeller is nearly idle. During take off or emergency the turboshaft combustion chamber is activated and additional power is available. In this case pitch is given to the rear propeller that outputs additional useful thrust. All these engines use only the thermo-fluid-dynamics and a few parts of the original cylinder unit, since aircraft application need extended modifications and, in many cases, complete redesign. However on all these engines a large amount of experimental, road and reliability data are available. Their direct application in the aircraft field is a plain mistake, since automotive and motorcycle are very different, but it is not the case to discard all this data that are available for free. For this reason innovative simulation methods were used to obtain engine performance envelope, with the possibility to choose the most convenient off-design solution on a certain aircraft, depending on the use and on the requirements. It is also possible to obtain reliability data for the aircraft FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) that controls all these new units. It is important to underline that airborne FADECs should be completely different from ground borne FADECs since in the aircraft application recovery strategies are to be chosen by the well trained pilot, while in the automotive field recovery is usually applied automatically in order to preserve engine integrity. A new method for the determination of the engine performance envelope is introduced as an example on the turbo/hybrid diesel unit for the C130J; this engine is called VD007. This approach has been successfully applied on the small diesel jtd family and also to the spark ignition family. © 2008 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.