[Elenco soci]


Filippi Stefano

Professore Ordinario


Università degli Studi di Udine
stefano.filippi@uniud.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 15072756800
Orcid: 0000-0001-6281-8690



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Filippi S., Motyl B., Interactive redesign of products' User eXperience: how to, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 16(1), 65-80, (2022). Abstract
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Nowadays, User eXperience (UX) is one of the main concerns in developing innovative products. The literature already offers several UX design methods and tools. Among them, the interaction related Mental Models—based UX evaluation method appeared some years ago. Recently, the modular evaluation of key Components of User Experience questionnaire, a tool for quantifying products’ UX, integrated this method. The knowledge acquired thanks to this synergy suggested the way to define and exploit guidelines for interactive redesign of the UX of products. Because of their origin, these guidelines encompass all UX characteristics reputed as meaningful like usefulness, subjective feelings, motivational aspects, emotions, etc. Moreover, these guidelines are generic enough to be used in different situations and on different products; their structure and functioning make them independent from the methods and tools used to collect data and to implement them, widening in this way their applicability in almost any UX interactive redesign activity by almost any researcher/practitioner. The redesign suggestions offered by these guidelines, as well as the procedures to collect and analyze the data to define other guidelines and suggest the best ways to implement them, push different competencies (engineers, UX experts, psychologists, etc.) to work in synergy, just like an interactive design context requires. To date, this research defined ten guidelines; a first adoption in the field starts witnessing their goodness and effectiveness. The paper describes in detail how to define and exploit the guidelines, as well as the first adoption of them in a real redesign context.

Keywords: Components of User Experience (CUE) model | Interaction related mental models (IrMMs)—based UX evaluation method | Interactive User eXperience redesign guidelines | Mental models | Product User eXperience

[2] Filippi S., Robiony M., Tel A., Montoya Buteler F.D., Limitations of Using Generative Design for Maxillo-Facial Reconstructive Surgery Applications, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 801-808, (2022). Abstract
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Generative Design (GD) is an emerging approach to the development of industrial products. Its key-point is the automatism in defining the shapes of artifacts by obeying to parameters describing the environment the artifacts will interact with, their mechanical properties, their materials and the manufacturing processes that will be used to build them. This paper describes some GD experiences in medicine, aimed at developing artifacts for maxillo-facial surgery. Once highlighted a real surgical case, designers, engineers and surgeons worked together to set the parameters to enable GD generating the artifact to replace a part of a patient’s jaw hit by a genetic disease. Three adoptions of the GD algorithms occurred, along with parameter refinement and integration time after time. Designers, engineers and surgeons reasoned together on the solutions; this led to considerations about the suitability of GD in maxillo-facial surgery and about the current limits of this approach, as well as to some hints for carrying on the research activities in the near future.

Keywords: CAD in medicine | Generative design | Maxillo-facial surgery

[3] Sponchiado R., Grigolato L., Filippi S., Concheri G., Meneghello R., Savio G., Heterogeneous Materials Additive Manufacturing: An Overview, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 462-473, (2022). Abstract
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Advancements in additive manufacturing technology have made it possible to create machines that allow the use of a wider range of materials, even simultaneously in the production of a single piece. The production of heterogeneous objects allows to include multifunctionality within the domain by varying the composition in a gradual or net fashion. This paper analyzes the AM technologies that allow multi-material, emphasizing the constrains and the possible applications with the goal of identifying guidelines for design methods development. From the analysis we observe important innovations that permitted to easily process polymeric materials, especially with material extrusion and material jetting. However, the use of ceramic powders and metallic materials for the creation of heterogeneous objects requires the development of methods which remain very limited by the process conditions.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials | Heterogeneous objects | Multi material AM

[4] Motyl B., Filippi S., Baronio G., Villa V., Reasoning About Technical Drawing Online Teaching During COVID-19, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 889-897, (2022). Abstract
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This work is part of the historic collaboration between the design and methods research groups of the universities of Udine and Brescia. In particular, it presents the results of a survey on the perceptions of engineering students on the online teaching methods activated for the technical drawing courses during the COVID-19 pandemic. 111 students at the University of Udine participated in the survey and the results of the analysis of the responses showed that, in general, online teaching methods are not comparable to face-to-face ones; however, they have been appreciated as they allowed regular teaching during this critical period. Furthermore, opinions and scores from the new teaching methods were more than positive regarding both the availability of the recordings of the lessons and the introduction of generalized corrections of exercises. The authors planned to extend the survey also to the University of Brescia to collect further pieces of information in order to constantly improve this teaching paradigm.

Keywords: COVID-19 | Engineering education | Online teaching | Students survey | Technical drawing

[5] Grigolato L., Filippi S., Cantarella D., Lione R., Moon W., Rosso S., Meneghello R., Concheri G., Savio G., Concept selection and interactive design of an orthodontic functional appliance, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 137-142, (2021). Abstract
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Demand for innovation represents a driver not only in the industrial field but also in niche markets such as orthodontics. Among different type of orthodontic devices, functional appliances are used for the correction of class II skeletal malocclusion, mostly in young patients. In a previous study based on a systematic design approach, several concepts were generated for this device. This work shortly introduces the concept selection and the interactive design process of the device. The concept consisting of two-side guiding surfaces, obtained by TRIZ inventive principles, has been selected by the decision matrix. This concept consists in guiding the jaw movements without any connections between the parts of the device. Operating on patient morphometrics parameters, the proposed approach allows to establish a virtual interaction during the design of the device by facilitating the collaboration between orthodontist, dental technician, designer and the software, through a dedicated user interface. Dedicated algorithms were also developed to simulate the occlusion correction and the mandible path, and to support the geometric modelling in a virtual environment. As a result, the proposed approach allows manufacturing patient-customized devices using a digital interactive workflow in an innovative way.

Keywords: Concept selection | Functional appliances | Interactive design | Morphometric parameters | Orthodontics

[6] Motyl B., Filippi S., Trends in engineering education for additive manufacturing in the industry 4.0 era: a systematic literature review, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 103-106, (2021). Abstract
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Additive manufacturing represents one of the most promising and innovative technologies of the moment. In fact, it is considered among the nine technological pillars on which Industry 4.0 is based. In particular, it has received a lot of interest from industries, educational institutions and government agencies. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop and train a specialised workforce and to prepare it for these new opportunities. This work aims to investigate, through the completion of a survey based on a systematic review of the literature, the current state of education and dissemination of educational practices related to the training of young engineers at university on the issues of additive manufacturing and related to Industry 4.0. The results show that the introduction of additive manufacturing education represents an important leverage in the preparation of young engineers who benefit from it both in terms of personal preparation and in terms of learning and refining different skills. However, certain aspects, linked to the need to have adequate equipment and a properly trained teaching staff, should not be overlooked.

Keywords: 3D printing | Additive manufacturing | Engineering education | Industry 4.0 | Systematic literature review

[7] Filippi S., Motyl B., Define and exploit guidelines for interactive redesign of products’ User eXperience, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 51-54, (2021). Abstract
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Nowadays, User eXperience (UX) is one of the main concerns in developing innovative products. This research develops the way to define and exploit guidelines for interactive redesign of the UX of products. Because of their origin, these guidelines will encompass all UX characteristics reputed as meaningful like usefulness, subjective feelings, motivational aspects, emotions, etc.; moreover, the redesign suggestions offered by these guidelines, as well as the procedures to collect and analyse the data to define other guidelines and suggest the best ways to implement them, push different competencies (engineers, UX experts, psychologists, etc.) to work in synergy, just like an interactive design context requires.

Keywords: CUE model | Interactive UX redesign guidelines | irMMs-based method | Mental models | Product User eXperience

[8] Filippi S., Bellio R., Enhancing a Personality-Based User Selection Tool to Maximize User eXperience Redesign Effectiveness, Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 275, 969-975, (2021). Abstract
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PERSEL (PERsonality SELector) is a personality-based selection tool to maximize UX redesign effectiveness by highlighting the best users to involve time by time in the activities due to the target the UX redesign of products aims at. To date, PERSEL knowledge base was populated using a top-down approach; the literature allowed highlighting relationships between personality traits and UX characteristics. Here, the bottom-up approach aims at generating fresh pieces of information to integrate PERSEL knowledge base by looking at experiences in the field. A questionnaire-based survey allows collecting data about the personality of the participants, together with their inclinations towards UX. The statistical analysis of the collected data highlights further relationships among personality traits, UX characteristics and using metrics like novelty, variety and usefulness of the users’ possible suggestions.

Keywords: PERSEL | Personality | Product redesign | User eXperience

[9] Filippi S., Robiony M., Tel A., Paludet G., UX Heuristic Evaluation of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 275, 1120-1127, (2021). Abstract
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User eXperience (UX) gains more and more importance due to technological complexity, task specialization, widening of users range, etc. All of this become particularly true in medical contexts, where affordance, empathy with devices, natural interaction, dialogue reliability, real time response, etc., can make the difference for completely successful surgical activities. The PIRG - Product Innovation Research Group and the Clinic of Maxillo-facial Surgery of the University of Udine worked together for investigating about the UX during maxillo-facial surgery planning and implementation. The goal was double-faced: analyze the UX in order to highlight possible needs for improvements and test the evaluation process in terms of tools and activities performed. The outcome consists of suggestions to improve the UX and of a review of the evaluation process.

Keywords: Heuristic evaluation | Maxillo-facial surgery | User eXperience (UX)

[10] Motyl B., Filippi S., Baronio G., Speranza D., Investigating Students’ Perception on the Outcomes of Technical Drawing University Courses, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 379-385, (2021). Abstract
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This paper presents the results of a survey carried out with students enrolled in the first two years of the BS in Engineering at three Italian university locations. The study is part of a wider range of methods, tools and aids for the improvement of teaching and learning of technical drawing at university level developed by the University of Brescia, Udine, and Cassino and Southern Lazio. In particular, this work analyses the results of questionnaires related to the basic technical drawing outcomes, taking inspiration from previous research work in this field. What emerges is a positive picture that shows students’ interest in 3D CAD modeling topics such as part or assembly construction, but also their interest in more traditional subjects like sketching and dimensioning.

Keywords: CAD | Engineering education | Students’ surveys | Technical drawing

[11] Filippi S., PERSEL, a ready-to-use PERsonality-based user selection tool to maximize user experience redesign effectiveness, Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 4(2), (2020). Abstract
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Some literature has already demonstrated the widespread influence of human personality on product design. Nevertheless, most of the existing user experience (UX) design methods and tools do not fully exploit knowledge about user personality in selecting the best participants to maximize the effectiveness of the design efforts. This research tries to fill the gap by introducing PERSEL, the ready-to-use PERsonality-based SELector. PERSEL is a Microsoft Excel workbook, free to download, which allows expression of the objectives (needs) and assessment of the user personality; in turn, PERSEL suggests the best users to be involved in UX redesign activities and in what way, in order to get solutions answering to the needs in the best possible way. A comparison of the solutions generated by the first adoption of PERSEL in the field with those coming from the involvement of users selected without obeying any specific criterion, begins validating the research results, mainly in terms of PERSEL functioning and effectiveness.

Keywords: Human personality in product design | Mental models | User experience | User testing | UX redesign processes

[12] Filippi S., Estimating Designers' Performance considering Personal Characteristics and External Factors Together, Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2020, (2020). Abstract
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Design team performance evaluation can occur in different ways, all of them requiring considerations on interactions among team members; in turn, these considerations should count on as many pieces of information as possible about individuals. The literature already explains how personal characteristics and/or external factors influence designers' performance; nevertheless, a way to evaluate performance considering several personal characteristics and external factors together is missing. This research tries to fill the gap by developing the Designer's Performance Estimator (DPE), a ready-to-use tool for researchers and practitioners who need to make information about team members as richer as possible.

[13] Filippi S., Grigolato L., Savio G., UX Concerns in Developing Functional Orthodontic Appliances, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 12202 LNCS, 229-241, (2020). Abstract
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In the orthodontic field, UX concerns can take an important role in boosting innovation from the designers, engineers, dentists, dental technicians and patients’ points of view. In the last months, these concerns spread over the development of functional orthodontic appliances for the correction of skeletal class II malocclusions. This paper focuses on two phases: the data collection before starting the development and the evaluation of the design results. The UX concerns developed through the involvement of the Quality Function Deployment and the irMMs-based UX evaluation method 2.0, including the meQUE questionnaire 2.0. This paper describes the UX role, the related activities and the impact of its involvement in the design process.

Keywords: Functional orthodontic appliances | irMMs-based UX evaluation method 2.0 | meCUE questionnaire | Quality function deployment | User experience

[14] Moty B., Baronio G., Speranza D., Filippi S., TDT-L0 a Test-Based Method for Assessing Students’ Prior Knowledge in Engineering Graphic Courses, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 454-463, (2020). Abstract
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Since students attending basic engineering courses are numerous and show different background regarding high school, experience, skills and attitudes, it has become important for educators to assess the level of their prior knowledge. In Italy, in order to access university engineering courses (BS degree level), students usually must take an entrance test; it assesses their knowledge about basic subjects such as mathematics, physics and chemistry, as well as their logical and linguistic skills. However, this test does not refer to technical subjects, e.g., the technical drawing. The two university research units of Udine and Brescia collaborate in developing the Technical Drawing Test-Level 0 (TDT-L0), a test-based method to assess students’ prior knowledge about basic engineering graphics topics like axonometric and orthographic projections, sectional views, basic dimensioning standards, etc. This paper describes the definition of the test contents - the selection of the questions to ask to the students - as well as the way to analyze the collected information and exploit the results to improve the learning and teaching experience of both students and educators. An adoption of the TDT-L0 at the University of Udine is reported as first validation.

Keywords: Engineering education | Prior knowledge assessment | Technical drawing | Test

[15] Filippi S., Interaction modeling based on human behavior classification, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, 13(1), 1-11, (2020). Abstract
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The variety of human behaviors makes user-product interaction difficult to manage and foresee, especially concerning users running into problems. This research considers several interaction problems and identifies recurring behaviors. Then, it highlights the users, products and environments' aspects corresponding to each of these behaviors. This makes possible foreseeing the behavior of specific users who run into problems while interacting with specific products in specific environments. The results are used to upgrade an existing user-product interaction modeling approach in order to make it able to suggest better-focused product improvements to designers as well as alternative problem solving to different users.

Keywords: Functional mock-up for interaction | Human behavior | Interaction modeling | User-product interaction

[16] Grigolato L., Filippi S., Barattin D., Cantarella D., Moon W., Meneghello R., Concheri G., Savio G., Conceptual Design of a Functional Orthodontic Appliance for the Correction of Skeletal Class II Malocclusion, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 329-341, (2020). Abstract
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The current requests for continuous innovation represent a challenge in every industry as well as in the field of orthodontics. Aim of this work was to develop new concepts of a functional appliance for the correction of class II skeletal malocclusion through a systematic design methodology. Staring at the existing devices in this field, taking into account the literature and the patient’s needs, the customers’ requirements were identified by Quality Functional Deployment. Systematic methods such as morphological method, theory of inventive problem solving and other creative methods were used for generating concepts some of which are presented at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Functional appliance | Morphological method | Quality function deployment | TRIZ

[17] Motyl B., Filippi S., Investigating the Relationships Between Additive Manufacturing and TRIZ: Trends and Perspectives, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 903-911, (2020). Abstract
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As Industry 4.0 is the driving force behind the manufacturing industry in this period, increasing importance is being attached to its enabling technologies, formerly known as the nine pillars. In particular, within this context, interest in Additive Manufacturing – AM is constantly growing. For this reason, the authors have considered as appropriate to carry out a literature search to assess whether there is any relationship between AM processes and product design and development practices after 2011. Particularly, the authors were interested in considering the use of additive technologies in relation to the TRIZ – theory of inventive problem solving - and its tools. To this end, it has been decided to carry out a search among the publications contained in the Scopus Database. 115 potential papers have been identified for analysis. After a careful selection, 14 papers, containing information on AM and TRIZ useful for our survey, were selected. Reading these works, it was possible to identify current research trends related to the use of creative problem solving strategies such as TRIZ and its combined use with AM, ranging from the definition of particular integrated methodologies of product development to the definition of guidelines for Design for AM or technological predictions, the state of the art of current research, highlights possible levers of intervention and potential developments and future trends.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Research trends | TRIZ

[18] Filippi S., Barattin D., Influence of representations on shape-based design activities, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 13(1), 277-285, (2019). Abstract
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Shape-based design activities analyse specific shapes to highlight functions that products shaped that way could implement. These design activities encompass a clearly interactive approach; designers have direct, personal confrontations with shapes. It is not to say that the effectiveness of these interactions depends on the way the shapes, along with the environments where their evaluations take place, are represented. Different representations may imply different interaction paradigms that, in turn, could be more or less suitable to highlight implicit problems to solve or foster innovative design solutions. The research described in this paper exploits an existing classification of representations to examine in depth the influence of representations on shape-based design activities. Metrics like quantity, novelty, variety, etc., are involved to analyse the results of these activities from the quantitative point of view. All of this confirms the existence of the influence and allows highlighting some direct relationships between representations and design results. These relationships, in turn, are available to select the best representations to lead design efforts towards specific targets time by time.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Interactive approaches to design | Representations | Shape-based design | Virtual reality

[19] Filippi S., Barattin D., X for design: A usable framework for enhancing design activities, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, 12(4), 183-194, (2019). Abstract
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Current market requirements push designers towards the enhancement of their activities. One possibility for doing this consists in analyzing design activities from different points of view, aiming at identifying and implementing possible improvements. The literature already offers descriptive methods and tools to perform this analysis exhaustively and effectively; nevertheless, the increasing variety of starting points and goals as well as the exploitation of user-related concerns like emotions, meanings, etc., sometimes make these methods and tools barely suitable for this analysis. This research aims at developing the X for Design (XfD) framework to model design activities that deal with different starting points and goals as well as with user experience concerns, in order to enhance them by highlighting where to add something new and/or what to modify/delete of the existing. To achieve this, the analysis of existing design activities and design methods allows highlighting some requirements to overcome the weaknesses of the descriptive methods and tools currently available. Then, these requirements lead the development of the XfD framework, based on three well-known descriptive methods and tools. Subsequently, the adoption of the XfD to model and enhance the design activities of two real companies comes as first validation of the research results. This validation highlights both quantitative and qualitative improvements. The XfD could help researchers in deepening their knowledge about the role of emotions and human behaviors in design; at the same time, designers could adopt the framework to enhance their activities in order to match current market requirements at best.

Keywords: Design activities | Human behavior in design | Modeling methods and tools | User experience | X for design

[20] Filippi S., Barattin D., Exploiting the meCUE Questionnaire to Enhance an Existing UX Evaluation Method Based on Mental Models, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 11586 LNCS, 117-133, (2019). Abstract
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Several definitions of User eXperience (UX) are present in the literature, representing the references for different UX evaluation methods and tools. Among these methods and tools, the irMMs-based method and the meCUE questionnaire show different peculiarities and seem good candidates to speculate on their integration, aiming at improving applicability, completeness and effectiveness of UX evaluation activities. The goal of this research is indeed to integrate the irMMs-based method with the meCUE questionnaire in order to enhance the former by exploiting the stronger points of the latter. To achieve this, we analyze the lacks of the irMMs-based method and verify the meCUE questionnaire capabilities in overcoming these lacks. Once verified, we proceed with the integration by modifying the evaluation activities of the irMMs-based method. Finally, we perform a first validation of the enhanced release by comparing it to the old one in the field. Researchers can exploit the same procedure to integrate other methods and tools in order to improve them; on the other hand, industrial practitioners can use the enhanced release for their UX evaluations since it is ready to be applicable even by non-developers.

Keywords: irMMs-based method | meCUE questionnaire | UX evaluation

[21] Filippi S., Barattin D., Influence of Personality on Shape-Based Design Activities, Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2019, (2019). Abstract
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As the literature demonstrates, designers' personality influences design activities like different ways to represent environments and/or products, technological advances, etc. Nevertheless, an exhaustive analysis on the influence of personality on design activities involving different representations is missing. This research explores this gap by studying this influence on specific design activities, the shape-based ones (i.e., analysis of specific shapes and highlighting of functions suggested by them). People showing different personalities undergo tests where they carry out design activities exploiting several representations. The results confirm the influence of personality on shape-based design activities and allow highlighting different keys to interpret and exploit these results. Thanks to the results of this study, researchers can increase their knowledge about subjective aspects of design as well as about how these aspects coexist with classic and emerging representations. As well, designers can try to maximize the effectiveness of their efforts by selecting the best combinations of personality, representations, and characteristics of the expected design results time by time.

[22] Filippi S., Barattin D., Verifying the X for design framework capabilities in improving user experience evaluation activities, Cogent Engineering, 6(1), 1-30, (2019). Abstract
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The literature offers methods and tools for user experience (UX) evaluation. Among them, the irMMs-based method exploits mental models related to specific situations of interaction. The literature also proposes frameworks and models to describe product development activities. One of these, the X for Design framework (XfD), allows modeling different activities and suggests modifications in order to improve them. This research aims at verifying the capabilities of the XfD in improving the irMMs-based method. Once improved thanks to the XfD, the irMMs-based method is adopted together with the original release of it and with the well-known Think Aloud usability evaluation method in evaluating the UX of a CAD software package. The comparison of the results starts demonstrating the capabilities of the XfD in improving UX evaluation activities. The research outcomes can be of interest for researchers who can exploit the XfD suggestions to deepen their knowledge about human cognitive processes and for industrial practitioners who can apply the suggestions proposed by the XfD to their own evaluation activities to make them more effective.

Keywords: irMMs-based method | mental models | think aloud method | user experience evaluation | X for design

[23] Filippi S., Barattin D., Considering users’ different knowledge about products to improve a UX evaluation method based on mental models, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10918 LNCS, 367-378, (2018). Abstract
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User experience (UX) evaluation and design have become important components of the product development process. The UX describes the users’ subjective perceptions, responses and emotional reactions while interacting with products or services, considering users’ emotions and cognitive activities as the basic elements of the experience. The emotions encompass physiological, affective, behavioral, and cognitive components; the cognitive activities generate and exploit the mental models that govern the human behavior. The literature offers several methods to evaluate the UX; one of them, the irMMs-based method, considers both users’ emotions and mental models to evaluate the quality of the UX. Nevertheless, its current release misses the contribution of users who already know the product under evaluation. This research aims at improving the irMMs-based method by considering also users familiar with those products. The expected benefits of this improvement refer to the completeness of the evaluation results and to the definition of relationships between these results and the evaluation activities that allow them to be discovered. All of this can be useful for both researchers and designers who are willing to increase their knowledge about the generation and exploitation of mental models and to select the most suitable evaluation activities to perform time by time depending on the characteristics of the results they are interested in and on the resources available.

Keywords: Mental models | User experience | UX evaluation

[24] Filippi S., Barattin D., User experience (UX) evaluation based on Interaction-Related mental models, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 607, 635-645, (2018). Abstract
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In recent years, user experience (UX) has gained importance in product development because of the increased product complexity, the availability of innovative technologies, etc. UX evaluation methods and tools developed up to now keep users’ emotions in the right consideration; nevertheless, they do not exploit mental models at best. This research aims at developing a UX evaluation method based on the so-called interaction-related mental models, a specific type of mental models focused on interaction matters. The description of the method proposed here considers also its adoption in the field and the results are compared with those obtained by a classic usability evaluation method. Although the scope of the proposed method is quite limited now (the UX evaluation focuses on CAD software packages only), the research results seem very promising. Nevertheless, this limitation will be overcome in the near future.

Keywords: CAD software packages | Evaluation | Interaction-related mental models | User experience

[25] Filippi S., Barattin D., Extending the situated function–behaviour–structure framework to human–machine interaction, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 11(2), 247-261, (2017). Abstract
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Despite the increasing importance of human–machine interaction (HMI) in design, there are not reference models defining and describing design activities where users are directly involved in the team. Some years ago, the situated function–behaviour–structure (FBS) framework was developed to model traditional engineering design processes but these mainly focus on technological matters and users are not directly addressed. The goal of this research is to extend this framework to cover several aspects of the HMI field. To achieve this goal, an existing design aid named interaction design integrated method is exploited. The design activities based on this aid are mapped onto the situated FBS framework to highlight possible lacks or misalignment. The outcomes are used to find where and how to intervene to extend the framework. The mapping highlighted six criticalities and their analysis allowed for adding the users as a new agent in the design process, as well as for introducing new variables and design activities referred to this new actor.

Keywords: Descriptive models of design processes | Human–machine interaction | Situated function–behaviour–structure framework | User–centered design

[26] Motyl B., Baronio G., Uberti S., Speranza D., Filippi S., How will Change the Future Engineers’ Skills in the Industry 4.0 Framework? A Questionnaire Survey, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1501-1509, (2017). Abstract
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Industry 4.0 represents one of the most challenging themes for engineering design and also for engineering education. At this moment there are few studies in the field of engineering teaching that aim to investigate how the educational needs of students and of the industrial workforce are changing. On this basis, this research would like to investigate which are the necessary skills and expertise young engineers require to be ready for the Industry 4.0 framework. In particular, a questionnaire was developed to analyze this situation. It has been administered to students enrolled in the first and second year of the engineering undergraduate degrees held in three Italian universities: Brescia, Udine and Cassino. During two different academics years, a total of 463 students participated to the survey. The questions were aimed to investigate some key issues of Industry 4.0, and the students’ digital belief and behaviors at their entrance in the university education system. The collected answers provided a picture of the actual situation in these three universities with some relevant considerations about engineering education. So, the fundamental question that authors want to answer is “Are the Italian engineering students effectively ready for Industry 4.0 or do we still work on it?”

Keywords: digital skills | Engineering Education | Industry 4.0 | questionnaire | student skills

[27] Filippi S., Barattin D., Evaluating the influences of heterogeneous combinations of internal/external factors on product design, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 8(DS87-8), 1-10, (2017). Abstract
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Several factors could affect the effectiveness of product design activities. These factors can be internal to the designers like skill, knowledge and personality traits, as well as external like instructions and examples provided. Up to now, researchers and designers in the academic and industrial fields analysed the effects of at most two factors at the same time, always of the same type (internal or external). This paper describes the activities and results of the preliminary stage of a wider research that aims at understanding the relationships among heterogeneous factors (internal and external together) and at defining the best combinations of any number of them to maximize the effectiveness of product design activities. This preliminary stage aims at verifying the possibility of overcoming the limits in the number of the factors to consider as well as in their membership to the same type (internal or external). To implement this verification, some heterogeneous combinations composed by more than two factors are defined and tested. The results of the tests show that the limits can be overcome; this, in turn, allows the wider research to be carried on.

Keywords: Case study | Design process | Evaluation | Human behaviour in design | Shape-based design

[28] Filippi S., Barattin D., Involving autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affected people in design, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 373-383, (2017). Abstract
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This research aims at moving from design for disabled people to design led by disabled people. This is achieved by defining a roadmap suggesting how to involve people affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in design. These people could represent an added value given their uncommon reasoning mechanisms. The core of the roadmap consists of tests involving groups of ASD and neurotypical people. These tests are performed using shapes; the testers are asked for interacting with these shapes and highlighting aroused functions, meanings and emotions. The outcomes are analyzed in terms of variety, quality, frequency and originality, and elaborated in order to pursue unforeseen, innovative design solutions.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) | Design Activities | Design by disabled people

[29] Speranza D., Baronio G., Motyl B., Filippi S., Villa V., Best practices in teaching technical drawing: Experiences of collaboration in three Italian universities, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 905-914, (2017). Abstract
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This work present some best practice cases in teaching technical drawing done by three Italian Universit ies: Brescia, Udine, and Cassino and Southern Lazio. The intention to innovate and improve the basic technical drawing courses offered by these three Universities started in 2014. The objective of this collaboration was the development of some tools to help the students in understanding the fundamental concepts of technical drawing. The first tool developed, in order of time, was the Technical Drawing Evaluation Grid – TDEG. Starting fro m this tool, other learning aids were developed for the undergraduate engineering st u-dents. Some of them are: an online test for students’ self-assessment of technical drawing knowledge; a questionnaire to collect students’ opinions on different technical drawing and engineering design topics; a method for the improvement of students’ motivation to study; and a self-learning tool for teaching manufacturing dimensioning. The preliminary results of these different practices are presented and discussed in the following, posing the basis of the definition of some best practice methods that can be used for the improvement of the teaching and learning of technical drawing basic concepts for engineering students.

Keywords: Best practices | Collaboration | Teaching & learning tools | Technical drawing

[30] Filippi S., Barattin D., IDGL, an interaction design framework based on systematic innovation and quality function deployment, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 10(2), 119-137, (2016). Abstract
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Concerns about human-machine interaction are becoming one of the most important thrusts for the development of innovative and successful products. Interaction design methods and tools are already described in literature and available for designers, and the analysis of their characteristics suggests the synergy with other research fields aimed at developing an interaction design framework as complete as possible. The complementary aspects of the inventive problem solving theory named TRIZ were considered, and the linking was done thanks to the structured approach to information gathering of the house of quality, one of the data structures in the quality function deployment (QFD) design method. The result is the interaction design guidelines (IDGL), a framework implemented in a Microsoft access database that supports designers starting from collecting users’ needs up to the generation of design solutions. This paper describes the IDGL development, together with a first adoption in the field and a validation of the process and results.

Keywords: Interaction design | Product innovation | QFD | TRIZ

[31] Filippi S., Barattin D., Definition and quantification of innovation in interaction, International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, 4(3-4), 119-143, (2016). Abstract
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A method for determining which product is more innovative than others and for determining the degree of innovation could be useful. Furthermore, such determination could focus on human–machine interaction. Based on a set of trends of evolution in interaction and on existing methods for the definition and quantification of innovation and related concepts, this research defines and quantifies innovation in interaction. This approach can help designers select the most innovative solution concepts and can help marketing experts establish their selling strategies; in addition, final users can be aided when choosing the best product to buy. This paper describes the definition of new metrics that focus on interaction in conjunction with a computational pipeline that uses these metrics to assess the presence and degree of innovation in interaction. An early validation of the results in the field is reported as well.

Keywords: Creativity evaluation | Design methodology | Innovation management

[32] Filippi S., Barattin D., Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., A discussion on specifications and prototyping in designing for sustainable behavior, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1A-2016, (2016). Abstract
X

Today's world is facing numerous problems due to an uncontrolled waste of energy and of primary resources in general. To manage this, on one side designers are asked to improve the efficiency of products; on the other side, users must be trained toward a more sustainable lifestyle. Some researchers are exploring the idea of trying to change users' behavior while interacting with products in order to make it more sustainable. This trend is known as "design for sustainable behavior" applied to energy/resources consumption issues. Our idea is to stimulate users in changing their behavior by introducing a multisensory communication with the product. This communication is not meant as warning messages informing the users about wrong habits/actions or something like; instead, it should consist of sensorial stimuli able to naturally drive users in performing the right actions. However, before designing these stimuli, it is fundamental to highlight the aspects and conditions that do not allow users behaving in a sustainable way when interacting with products. In this paper we discuss about the aspects that could be useful to explore in order to retrieve the specifications to drive both the design and prototyping phases, so as to faithfully test the effectiveness of the feedback with final users.

[33] Filippi S., Barattin D., X for design, a descriptive framework for modelling the cognitive aspects of different design activities, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, DS 84, 1265-1274, (2016).
[34] Filippi S., Barattin D., Definition of the form-based design approach and description of it using the FBS framework, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2(DS 80-02), 65-76, (2015). Abstract
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The most of design methods and tools consider product functions as the basis to generate design solutions, but in the aesthetic and industrial design the situation is different. The sensorial experience during the interaction between users and products is the focus of the design process. It is composed by three elements: form, function and emotion; functions are only one of the elements. There is not a clear definition of this design approach, and no methods exist to describe its processes. The FBS framework allows describing design approaches based on user needs and functions, from which the technical requirements of the products are derived. It is not suitable as it is, but its flexible and generic structure makes it the candidate to become a descriptive method for the form-based design approach. The goal of this research is to define the form-based design approach and to describe it by exploiting the FBS framework. To achieve this, the form is introduced as a variable and the processes exploiting it are defined. Thanks to a comparison with the processes belonging to the FBS framework, this is modified and integrated to be able to describe the form-based design approach.

Keywords: Design process | Form-based design approach | Function-Behaviour-Structure Framework

[35] Filippi S., Barattin D., Analysis of users and designers' cognitive processes in interaction design activities, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2015, (2015). Abstract
X

Over the years, the increasing importance of interaction issues has suggested involving final users in design teams. This involvement requires a careful reasoning in order to maximize the users' contribution. The research described in this paper aims at this maximization based on considerations about cognitive processes. The situated FBS framework - an existing tool to describe designers' reasoning - is exploited to analyze the users and designers' cognitive processes while they are designing together. The quantification of the cognitive effort allows highlighting and managing peaks, possible further interactions and missing activities. The result is a revised release of the design process, with a redistribution of the effort, an enhancement of the user-designer dialogue and the introduction of a new activity.

Keywords: Cognitive processes | Interaction design | Situated FBS framework

[36] Filippi S., Barattin D., Exploiting TRIZ tools in interaction design, Procedia Engineering, 131, 71-85, (2015). Abstract
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Current market laws ask for new product development methods and tools dealing with both technological and interaction related issues. Starting from this, the research described in this paper aims at finding and exploiting some TRIZ tools in interaction design field of practice. TRIZ theory offers well defined and structured methods and tools, and allows generation of generic guidelines for innovative design of a huge variety of products. Interaction design focuses on studying and developing a correct interaction between users and products, in order to maximize cognitive compatibility. Real goal of this research is developing a new design method where systematic approach to innovation of TRIZ compensates for some lacks of the user centered interaction design process. Starting from similarities and differences between tools currently used in these two domains, the research considers the TRIZ thirty-nine features, the forty inventive principles, and the contradiction matrix. These elements are adapted to the requirements of the interaction design field of practice, obeying to classic usability rules. These new elements contribute to the definition and development of a new design framework named interaction design guidelines - IDGL. The effectiveness of these elements has started to be tested in a case study focused on the interaction design of a new DVD recorder.

Keywords: Interaction design | Inventive principles | TRIZ | TRIZ contradiction matrix | TRIZ features

[37] Filippi S., Barattin D., Silva P.A., Investigating synergies between interaction design methods, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 9186, 179-190, (2015). Abstract
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A successful product provides a pleasurable and straightforward experience. This leads to an increasing importance of the human-computer interaction and user experience issues in design. Despite the wealth of methods and tools available to support the design process, these are frequently incomplete and difficult to use. This research contributes to fill this gap by investigating the possible synergies between two design methods, the BadIdeas method (BI) and the Interaction Design Integrated Method (IDIM). BI is an early design method especially suited for the ideation phase of the design process. IDIM deals with design, evaluation, and innovation forecasting, and covers the first part of the product development process. Two limitations are highlighted in each of these methods and their concepts and tools are mutually exploited to improve the other. Suggestions for integration and improvement are presented with examples that demonstrate the benefits of this research.

Keywords: Badideas | Design process | IDIM | Interaction design methods

[38] Filippi S., Barattin D., A selection algorithm for prototyping activities, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 8(1), 1-11, (2014). Abstract
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Modern product development processes heavily exploit both classic prototyping technologies and procedures and new ones appearing on the market almost every day. Such heavy use has generated a wide collection of prototyping activities, making the selection of the best ones for specific development contexts increasingly difficult. The authors recently highlighted five dimensions for characterizing prototyping activities. In this study, these dimensions were to propose a new classification of prototyping activities. Within this context, the research described in this paper was aimed at developing a selection algorithm that covers as wide a variety of design situations as possible. The algorithm has already been implemented in the field, and the initial experiences with the algorithm are also described herein. © 2013 Springer-Verlag France.

Keywords: Design process | Prototyping activities | Selection algorithms

[39] Filippi S., Barattin D., In-depth analysis of non-deterministic aspects of human-machine interaction and update of dedicated functional mock-ups, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8517 LNCS(PART 1), 185-196, (2014). Abstract
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Increasing product complexity makes usability matters more and more important to account for in product development processes. For this reason, tools to design and evaluate interaction are studied and developed day by day. Unfortunately, user non-determinism is difficult to manage. When problems occur during interaction, users can react in several, different ways, depending from their behavioral characteristics. The research described in this paper analyzes non-determinism in depth, characterize situations where it can raise and exploits an existing tool to model and manage it as best as possible. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Keywords: Functional mock-up | Human-machine interaction | Simulation of non-determinism

[40] Motyl B., Filippi S., Comparison of creativity enhancement and idea generation methods in engineering design training, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8510 LNCS(PART 1), 242-250, (2014). Abstract
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The research presented in this paper aims at evaluating how simple and intuitive are the learning, understanding, and application of some creativity enhancement methods by non-expert users in an engineering design context. The three methods under investigation are TRIZ, C-K theory and SCAMPER. To evaluate the training experience the authors set an evaluation framework based on Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation and used a questionnaire to collect students' experiences. The results show that the understanding and the consequent application of the three creativity enhancement and idea generation methods are judged positively by the participants. In particular, TRIZ method represents the most appreciated at all, while SCAMPER stands out for its intuitiveness and easiness of use. Finally, C-K theory is revealed as the newest one and very promising for future developments. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

Keywords: C-K theory | engineering education | SCAMPER | training evaluation | TRIZ

[41] Filippi S., Barattin D., Definition and exploitation of trends of evolution about interaction, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 86, 216-236, (2014). Abstract
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In the last decades, there have been researches on development processes that focused on technological evolutions, aiming at anticipating future product releases. The information obtained has been formalized in trends of evolution, and systems to manage and exploit these have appeared on the market. One of the most important examples comes from the TRIZ theory. It uses a set of technological trends of evolution to suggest innovative engineering solution concepts. The research described in this paper analyzes the TRIZ approach to trend discovery and exploitation and applies it in the interaction design domain. A set of trends of evolution about interaction is highlighted first; a method for their effective exploitation is then developed. This is followed by an integration of this method in an existing interaction design framework, and an early validation in the field represents the current state of the research. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Keywords: Interaction design | Trends of evolution | TRIZ theory

[42] Motyl B., Filippi S., Integration of creativity enhancement tools in medical device design process, Procedia Engineering, 69, 1316-1325, (2014). Abstract
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This paper aims at presenting the integration of different creativity enhancement tools, from C-K theory and TRIZ, in medical device design. After the description of the current development process, the paper focuses on the application of C-K mapping and TRIZ tools in a case study concerning the improvement of knee implants for total knee replacement - TKR - surgery. The analysis of this case study highlights that the synergy between TRIZ and C-K theory is possible. As a result, C-K theory represents a good way for structuring design reasoning mostly in the conceptual phases of product innovation and development and it may be also used to explore market information, while TRIZ is suitable for formulating and refining the design problem in a structured way. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of DAAAM International Vienna. Keywords:. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: C-K theory | Creativity in engineering | Medical product development | Total knee replacement -TKR | TRIZ

[43] Filippi S., Barattin D., Cascini G., Analyzing the cognitive processes of an interaction design method using the FBS framework, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 7 DS75-07, 119-128, (2013). Abstract
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The engineering design community is debating since more than two decades on the development of models and methods suitable for analyzing the cognitive processes that occur within design activities. An acknowledged model in this domain is the situated FBS framework that describes the design process as consisting of elementary sub-processes defined in terms of modifications on functions, behavior and structures. This framework has been successfully applied to the analysis of the information gathered within industrial innovation projects and to the related design activities. However, it is definitely unusual to use it for analyzing a design method itself, so as to highlight its potential shortcomings and suggest directions of further development. In this paper, the authors investigate this original application through a detailed examination of the IDIM, an interaction design integrated method aimed at generating and validating innovative design suggestions related to interaction issues. The highlighted criticalities are discussed and some suggestions for possible IDIM improvements are depicted. © 2013 The Design Society.

Keywords: Cognitive processes | Design methods | FBS framework | Human behavior in design | User centered design

[44] Filippi S., Barattin D., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Human in the loop: A model to integrate interaction issues in complex simulations, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8012 LNCS(PART 1), 242-251, (2013). Abstract
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Several activities of the product development process as for example ergonomic analyses, usability testing, and what is defined as User Experience - UX- design in general require humans to be involved as testers. In order to achieve a good effectiveness degree, these tests must be performed on prototypes as much as possible similar to the final product, and this is costly and sometimes difficult to obtain during the development process. This is especially true at the earliest stages of the process. Functional mock-up - FMU - methods and tools can be of great help, because they allow technological aspects of the products, as electronics, hydraulics, mechanics, etc. to be represented and managed in a simple and effective way. Mathematical equations allow product behavior to be determined, due to input values representing the application environment of the product. At the moment, an FMU model is great in simulating product behavior from the technological point of view, but concerns about user interaction issues are left apart. The research described in this paper aims at widening the coverage of FMU to user-product interaction issues. The goal aims at evaluating the possibility of substituting real users with a characterization of them, and to model and simulate interaction in a homogeneous way together with all the other product aspects. All of this makes the research activities very challenging, and the result is a sort of FMU-assisted interaction modeling. As an evolution of what is generally recognized as hardware and software-in-the-loop, this methodology will be referred as human-in-the-loop. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Keywords: Functional Mock-Up | Interaction | User Experience

[45] Filippi S., Barattin D., Integrating systematic innovation, interaction design, usability evaluation and trends of evolution, CIRP Design 2012 - Sustainable Product Development, 301-311, (2013). Abstract
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Day by day, more R&D divisions of modern industries start adopting inventive design tools and methods. Creativity needed in designing complex products cannot be left to subjective behavior; it must be helped and exploited by a systematic approach. The research described in this paper aims at developing a design framework focused on interaction issues, by exploiting the systematic approach of the theory of inventing problem solving TRIZ. The final result should integrate design, evaluation, and evolution issues. For this reason, the starting point consists in three tools already developed by the authors' research group: the interaction design guidelines-IDGL, the usability evaluation multi-methods- UEMM, and ITRE, a gatherer of interaction trends of evolution. All of them contain generic elements both of the TRIZ theory and the interaction design field; for this reason the proposed integrated approach could be exploited in completely different contexts. A first prototype of the framework has been developed as a Microsoft Access database. Its validation has started with two experiences in the field. Results are reported and discussed in the last section of the paper. © Springer-Verlag London 2013.

[46] Filippi S., Barattin D., Generation, Adoption, and Tuning of Usability Evaluation Multimethods, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 28(6), 406-422, (2012). Abstract
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The selection and customization of usability evaluation methods, given the peculiarities of their application domains, still remains a critical issue; this especially when dealing with complex products and/or nonexpert usability evaluators. Moreover, as time goes by, the quality of the evaluation results has a heavier impact on the product design process. Starting from classic usability evaluation methods, the research described in this article generates multimethods semiautomatically. It allows quantitative characterization of these multimethods before their application in the field and exploits the comparison between this prior assessment and a final estimate, made after adoption, to update the information used by the method selection process. The most critical issue related to usability, subjectivity, is considered and dealt with throughout the entire research. A case study, done at the end of the development phase, helps validate the proposed approach to usability evaluation. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

[47] Filippi S., Barattin D., Amato M., Tozzi R., An augmented reality based application for furnishing configuration and evaluation, ASME 2011 World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality, WINVR 2011, 19-29, (2011). Abstract
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Virtual reality as the way to display digital models and to interact with them has flourished in industrial contexts some years ago, both for design and marketing reasons. However, some specific sectors, e.g. furnishings and garments, would prefer to evaluate their products in a real environment, where their models could be easily placed, and where the interaction with them could take place in a natural way. These requirements suggested the design of an application, based on the augmented reality, which allows users placing digital models of pieces of furniture in real domestic environments, verifying their dimensional and aesthetic compatibility with the existing context, and interacting with them to test functional behavior and usability issues. Such a project would result interesting both for possible customers and for designers, because some important design hints could come from its adoption. An application prototype has been developed and tested in the field in a couple of case studies. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Furnishing configuration | Interaction design

[48] Bandera C., Filippi S., Motyl B., Survey on virtual prototyping technologies for orthopedic implants and prosthesis design, ASME 2011 World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality, WINVR 2011, 199-206, (2011). Abstract
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Nowadays, Virtual Prototyping (VP) methods are widely used for product design and development purposes. In particular, VP methods are now used also for the orthopedic products development process, to better understand the functional performance of prostheses or implants within the musculoskeletal system. In fact, developing validated virtual models of joints or of other anatomical structures may reduce design and prototyping costs and compress development cycles. The purpose of this paper is to point out first the state of art of both the VP technologies and the kinds of virtual models used in the medical field, with particular attention to those used for the design and development of orthopedic products. Then, it focuses on a qualitative analysis of some biomechanical simulation software packages (LifeMOD, AnyBody, and OpenSim) as tools for the improvement of the product design and development processes. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

Keywords: Biomechanical simulation | Orthopedic devices | Product design and development cycle | Virtual prototyping

[49] Filippi S., Motyl B., Ciappina F.M., Classifying TRIZ methods to speed up their adoption and the ROI for SMEs, Procedia Engineering, 9, 172-182, (2011). Abstract
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The interest about TRIZ is increasing day by day in the Small and Medium Enterprises - SMEs. Many of them ask for solutions but sometimes they cannot manage the costs coming from a deep review of their design projects. Our research group is carrying on a project to customize the adoption of TRIZ by the SMEs. The goal is to speed up this adoption and to disclose the Return Of Investment - ROI - as early as possible. The project classifies and subdivides TRIZ methods in order to foresee the generation of solutions falling into different categories. This classification has been exploited and validated in the field thanks to the collaboration with a hi-tech SME, the Sei Laser Converting srl. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: Creativity in design | Product innovation | Product redesign | TRIZ

[50] Filippi S., Cristofolini I., The design guidelines collaborative framework: A design for multi-x method for product development, The Design Guidelines Collaborative Framework: A Design for Multi-X Method for Product Development, 1-186, (2010). Abstract
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The Design Guidelines Collaborative Framework describes a knowledge-based 'design for multi-X' method, aimed at improving and assisting the work of designers, manufacturers, and inspectors in the areas of product redesign and process reconfiguration. Designers are not necessarily experts in manufacturing and verification processes; likewise, manufacturers and inspectors may not be experts in design. For this reason, the Design Guidelines Collaborative Framework (DGLs-CF) constitutes a meeting point for all three parties, where their knowledge is formalized, expanded upon, and put at the designers' disposal, thereby maximizing the user-friendliness of the results. The DGLs-CF is characterized by the homogeneous union of different algorithms, clear interfaces among the modules that implement them, and clear roles assigned to the different actors. These elements, together with a strong adherence to the ISO GPS standards, make the DGLs-CF the perfect environment for researchers, experts in different fields, and industrial partners to formalize their knowledge, and develop and implement their own algorithms and procedures. The Design Guidelines Collaborative Framework uses the simple IDEF0 formalism to describe the DGLs-CF framework in a top-down way, in order to facilitate readers' comprehension, and their adoption and development of the framework. Several case studies on the application of the DGLs-CF in industrial environments show the framework's effectiveness and robustness. Industrial and academic researchers will find this book a useful guide to the DGLs-CF and mechanical engineers will be quick to appreciate the streamlined approach it describes. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010.

[51] Colombo G., Filippi S., Rizzi C., Rotini F., A new design paradigm for the development of custom-fit soft sockets for lower limb prostheses, Computers in Industry, 61(6), 513-523, (2010). Abstract
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This paper presents a new 3D design paradigmfor the development of specific custom-fit products, such as the soft socket of prostheses for lower limb amputees. It is centered on the digitalmodel of the human body and, contrarily to the traditional process almost manually based, it considers the integration of methods and tools coming from different research and application fields: Reverse Engineering, Medical Imaging, Virtual Prototyping, Physics-based Simulation, and Rapid Prototyping. The paper describes the techniques adopted to acquire and create the digital model of the residual limb, the procedure to generate the socket model, the strategy developed for the functional simulation of the socket-stump interaction and, finally, the realization of the physical prototype. Each design step is described with the related problems and the obtained results. Both trans-tibial and trans-femoral amputees have been considered; however, for now the complete process has been validated for trans-tibial prostheses. Major outcomes of the proposed approach stand in a better quality of the final product, in a shorter involvement of the amputee implying a lower psychological impact, in a limited use of physical prototypes, and in a shorter development time. Moreover, the resulting paradigm answers to the Collaborative Engineering guidelines by optimizing the interaction between different domains and enhancing their contributions in a homogeneous development framework. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Custom-fit products | Human-centric soft product design | Physics-based modeling for soft products | Prosthesis development process

[52] Cristofolini L., Filippi S., Exploiting the features of ISO GPS standards to enhance a knowledge-based method for product redesign and process reconfiguration, 2008 Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, DETC 2008, 1(PART A), 185-194, (2009). Abstract
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Previous work developed a knowledge-based method named Design GuideLines Collaborative Framework (DGLs-CF), adopted during product redesign and process reconfiguration and aimed at dealing and matching with particular manufacturing and verification technologies, according to ISO GPS concepts. Aim of present work is improving the role of the ISO GPS within the DGLs-CF, not only to raise coherence in terms of concepts, but to gain some important internal and external improvements for the DGLs-CF. The main activity toward achieving this goal is the formalization of DGLs-CF product features by means of the ISO GPS features. The procedure is proposed and the consequences of its application on the elements of the DGLs-CF are evaluated. A case of study as an example of application is also presented. A significant improvement in the DGLs-CF is realized, both in terms of knowledge structure and organization, and in terms of the possibility of interfacing it with other methodologies, tools, and environments. Copyright © 2008 by ASME.

Keywords: ISO GPS (geometrical product specifications) | ISO TC 213 | Knowledge-based engineering | Process reconfiguration | Product features | Product redesign

[53] Filippi S., Motyl B., Bandera C., Comparing parametric solid modelling/reconfiguration, global shape modelling and free-form deformation for the generation of 3D digital models of femurs from X-ray images, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 12(1), 101-108, (2009). Abstract
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At present, computer assisted surgery systems help orthopaedic surgeons both plan and perform surgical procedures. To enable these systems to function, it is crucial to have at one's disposal 3D models of anatomical structures, surgical tools and prostheses (if required). This paper analyses and compares three methods for generating 3D digital models of anatomical structures starting from X-ray images: parametric solid modelling/reconfiguration, global shape modelling and free-form deformation. Seven experiences involving the generation of a femur model were conducted by software developers and different skilled users. These experiences are described in detail and compared at different stages and from different points of view. © 2009 Taylor & Francis.

Keywords: 3D modelling of anatomical structures | CAS systems | Orthopaedic surgery | Surgical planning

[54] Cristofolini I., Filippi S., Bandera C., The role of product feature relations in a knowledge based methodology to manage design modifications for product measurability, International Journal of Production Research, 47(9), 2373-2389, (2009). Abstract
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During product development, the verification process should already be considered at the design phase to ensure that the characteristics of the product are measured effectively and reliably. Moreover, the verification process may prove more effective if the inspector is aware of the specific designer's intents. The development of the new ISO GPS (Geometrical Product Specifications) standards is mainly founded on these considerations. In accordance with the ISO GPS concepts, previous work developed a knowledge based system named Design GuideLines (DGLs). This system provides the designer with the knowledge concerning the manufacturing and verification procedures/tools and better links the manufacturing and verification processes to the designer's activities/needs. Further research then exploited the DGLs to discover the relations among product features determined by a particular manufacturing process. This work again uses the DGLs to prove that further relations among product features may also be determined by the verification process. This knowledge helps designers in understanding the consequences of the modifications applied to the product features required to improve the measurability of the product. Moreover, inspectors can better manage the verification procedure knowing these relations among the product features.

Keywords: Geometrical product specifications (GPS) | ISO/TC 213 | Knowledge based engineering (KBE) | Product features | Verification process

[55] Cristofolini I., Filippi S., Exploiting the features of ISO GPS standards to enhance a knowledge-based method for product redesign and process reconfiguration, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1(PARTS A AND B), 185-194, (2008). Abstract
X

Previous work developed a knowledge-based method named Design GuideLines Collaborative Framework (DGLs- CF), adopted during product redesign and process reconfiguration and aimed at dealing and matching with particular manufacturing and verification technologies, according to ISO GPS concepts. Aim of present work is improving the role of the ISO GPS within the DGLs-CF, not only to raise coherence in terms of concepts, but to gain some important internal and external improvements for the DGLs-CF. The main activity toward achieving this goal is the formalization of DGLs-CF product features by means of the ISO GPS features. The procedure is proposed and the consequences of its application on the elements of the DGLs-CF are evaluated. A case of study as an example of application is also presented. A significant improvement in the DGLs-CF is realized, both in terms of knowledge structure and organization, and in terms of the possibility of interfacing it with other methodologies, tools, and environments. Copyright © 2008 by ASME.

Keywords: ISO GPS (geometrical product specifications) | ISO TC 213 | Knowledge-based engineering | Process reconfiguration | Product features | Product redesign

[56] Robiony M., Salvo I., Costa F., Zerman N., Bandera C., Filippi S., Felice M., Politi M., Accuracy of virtual reality and stereolithographic models in maxillo-facial surgical planning, Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 19(2), 482-489, (2008). Abstract
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Computed tomography is a medical instrument that can be useful not only for diagnostic purposes, but also for surgical planning, thanks to the fact that it offers volumetric information which can be translated in three dimensional models. These models can be visualized, but also exported to Rapid Prototyping (RP) systems, that can produce these structures thanks to the rapidity and versatility of the technologies involved. The literature reports various cases of stereolithographic models used in orthopedic, neurological, and maxillo-facial surgery. In these contexts, the availability of a copy of the real anatomy allows not only planning, but also the practical execution of surgical operations, within the limitations of the materials. Nevertheless, the Rapid Prototyping model also presents some disadvantages that can be reduced if practical simulation is accompanied by virtual simulation, performed on a digital model. The purpose of this work is to examine and present the use of Virtual Reality (VR) and Rapid Prototyping for surgical planning in Maxillo-Facial surgery. ©2008Muntaz B. Habal, MD.

Keywords: Osteogenesis distraction | Rapid prototyping | Reverse engineering | Surgical planning | Virtual reality

[57] Filippi S., Motyl B., Bandera C., Analysis of existing methods for 3D modelling of femurs starting from two orthogonal images and development of a script for a commercial software package, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 89(1), 76-82, (2008). Abstract
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Background: At present the interest in medical field about the generation of three-dimensional digital models of anatomical structures increases due to the widespread diffusion of CAS - computer assisted surgery - systems. Most of them are based on CT - computer tomography - or MR - magnetic resonance - data volumes but sometimes this information is not available; there are only few X-ray, ultrasound or fluoroscopic images. Methods: This paper describes the study and the development of a script for a commercial software package (3ds Max) able to reconfigure the template model of a femur starting from two orthogonal images representing the specific patient's anatomy. Results: The script was used in several tests as summarized in this paper and the results appear to be interesting and acceptable, even for the medical experts that evaluated them. Conclusions: The script developed in this work allows the generation of the 3D model of a femur in a very simple way (the user interface has been developed obeying to the main usability guidelines) and using a widespread commercial package. The quality of the results can be compared to the quality of more expensive and specialized systems. © 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Bone modelling | Computer aided design | Free form deformation | Image-based reconfiguration

[58] Robiony M., Salvo I., Costa F., Zerman N., Bazzocchi M., Toso F., Bandera C., Filippi S., Felice M., Politi M., Virtual Reality Surgical Planning for Maxillofacial Distraction Osteogenesis: The Role of Reverse Engineering Rapid Prototyping and Cooperative Work, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 65(6), 1198-1208, (2007). Abstract
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Purpose: The purpose of this article is the demonstration of virtual reality (VR) and rapid prototyping (RP) in surgical planning in maxillofacial surgery. The authors emphasize the role of reverse engineering (RE) and RP, suggesting a model of cooperative work, with the interaction of maxillofacial surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. Materials and Methods: Data acquisition is performed using computed tomography. The 3D model is the result of RE practices based on image segmentation, and the real model is produced via stereolithography. Virtual simulations are performed on the 3D model obtained from image segmentation. All these stages require the interaction and collaboration of various experts: maxillofacial surgeons, radiologists, and RE and RP experts. Results: VR and stereolithography models represent a new technology to help the surgeon who has to work in cooperation with engineers and radiologists to improve the results in surgical planning of maxillofacial distraction. Conclusion: When performing the VR simulation, surgeons and engineers operate together in order to optimize the exploitation of the instruments available. Both VR and RP, with different and complementary advantages and limitations, can improve surgical planning activities and this is particularly effective when dealing with complex anatomical structures in maxillofacial surgery. © 2007 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

[59] Filippi S., Cristofolini I., The Design Guidelines (DGLs), a knowledge-based system for industrial design developed accordingly to ISO-GPS (Geometrical Product Specifications) concepts, Research in Engineering Design, 18(1), 1-19, (2007). Abstract
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Product design and optimisation today involves so many fields of expertise, many of which are in rapid evolution, that it can be very difficult for the designer to manage them. This paper describes the development of the DGLs (Design Guidelines), a knowledge-based tool that could be of great help to designers and engineers in modifying their products to get compatibility with different manufacturing and verification technologies. The current release of the DGLs, heavily influenced by the adoption of some ISO-GPS (Geometrical Product Specification) concepts, has been validated using the Rapid Prototyping technique called FDM (Fluid Deposition Modelling) and the CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) verification technique. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007.

Keywords: Design Guidelines | Geometrical Products Specifications (GPS) | ISO Technical Committee 213 (ISO/TC 213) | Knowledge based systems (KBS) | Rapid Prototyping

[60] Colombo G., Filippi S., Rissone P., Rizzi C., ICT methodologies to model and simulate parts of human body for prosthesis design, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 4561 LNCS, 559-568, (2007). Abstract
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The work presented in this paper refers to the implementation of a product development process based on the use of virtual model of the human body to design specific custom-fit product, such as a prosthesis socket (interface between the residual limb and the mechanical part of the prosthesis). It considers the integration of advanced ICT tools coming from the reverse engineering, the physics-based modelling and simulation, and the rapid prototyping fields. The paper describes problems related to the implementation of each step within a real socket development process. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007.

Keywords: Human body modeling | Physics-based simulation | Product customization | Prosthesis design

[61] Bandera C., Filippi S., Motyl B., Validating CSCW strategies and applications for rapid product development in the investment casting process, International Journal of Production Research, 44(9), 1659-1680, (2006). Abstract
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The aim of this study is to apply and validate a general-purpose working methodology, derived from the analysis of processes which come from two different domains (the field of medicine and the preservation of cultural heritage), in the investment casting process. CSCW methods and tools have proven to be the best 'gluing tool to bond the different activities, and thus heavily exploited during the customization of the general-purpose working methodology. This paper describes a case study performed in an industrial sector and related to the investment casting application field. It was chosen to test methodology and to demonstrate its wide applicability. The case study involved the realization of a centrifugal pump impeller, where the application of this CSCW-based methodology has delivered important results such as the reduction of product development time and the drastic reduction of production costs.

Keywords: CSCW | IDEF modelling | Rapid prototyping | Virtual team-working

[62] Cristofolini I., Filippi S., Bandera C., How rapid prototyping process parameters could affect the product design phase: A KBS approach, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2006, (2006). Abstract
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Considering the whole product life-cycle, product model is usually defined during the design phase, given a set of requirements and constraints belonging to the same domain. The use of different manufacturing and verification technologies may, however, profoundly affect the characteristics of the product, so that a re-design phase is often necessary. In previous work, a Knowledge Based System named Design GuideLines (DGLs) was developed, aiming to help the designers make the product model compatible with the requirements and constraints of the specific manufacturing and verification domains. During the DGLs development, the possibility emerged to exploit them in order to identify possible relations among product features. This aspect seems very important, further helping the designer to better understand the consequences of the modifications suggested by the DGLs and applied to the product model during the re-design phase. The present work aims to identify these relations among product features. The result of DGLs exploitation has been critically analyzed to highlight the link between manufacturing characteristics and product features, and, further, among features themselves. Unpredictable relations among the product features, given a particular Rapid Prototyping technology as manufacturing technology, have been discovered and exploited. Copyright " 2006 by ASME.

Keywords: Fluid deposition modeling | Knowledge based systems | Process parameters | Product features | Rapid prototyping

[63] Sansoni G., Docchio F., Trebeschi M., Filippi S., Motyl B., Virtual and rapid prototyping by means of 3D optical acquisition and CAD modeling: Application to cultural heritage and to the automotive domain, Virtual Modelling and Rapid Manufacturing - Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, 251-257, (2005). Abstract
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In this paper, the activity aimed at the contact less acquisition, the generation of polygonal descriptive models, the generation of NURBS-based models and the reproduction by means of rapid prototyping tools of pieces of interest in both the heritage and the automotive domains are presented. The work gives an insight of how three-dimensional range cameras and suitable data modeling can be helpful in the reverse engineering and in the virtual representation of complex shapes. In addition, the research represents a valuable example of Computer Support Collaboration Work (CSCW) for the restoration and the rapid prototyping of the objects. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group.

[64] Bandera C., Filippi S., Motyl B., Reverse engineering of a turbine blade: Comparison between two different acquisition techniques, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, Courses and Lectures, 486, 635-644, (2005). Abstract
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Reverse Engineering is a rapidly evolving discipline. Nowadays shape acquisition systems have reached enough capabilities to reproduce complex free form objects. This paper presents a comparison between two different acquisition systems to evaluate their performances and their easy to use capabilities and to evaluate quality and accuracy of the 3D reconstructed models. To achieve this task, a complex free form object, a steam turbine blade, was acquired. After shape acquisition and data elaboration of this particular object an evaluation of the two systems characteristics and of the 3D CAD reconstructed models were done and results are illustrated here.

Keywords: Methods comparison | Reverse engineering | Turbine blade

[65] Bandera C., Cristofolini I., Filippi S., Customising a knowledge-based system for design optimisation in fused deposition modelling RP-technique, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, Courses and Lectures, 486, 607-616, (2005). Abstract
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In a Design For Manufacturing context, Rapid Prototyping techniques are some way still considered as “new technologies”: the peculiar characteristics of the manufacturing processes are not widely known and may deeply affect the final product functionality. A Knowledge Based System, the Design Guidelines — DGLs, was developed by our Research Group at the University of Udine; it evaluated the products design, in order to verify its feasibility by DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering) Rapid Prototyping technique. During the evaluation process, the DGLs also keep into consideration the aspects relating the verification step, according to the ISO-GPS principles, thus enhancing the completeness of the tool. Aim of this work was to customise the DGLs for design optimisation in FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling), also evidencing the critical aspects and proposing alternative solutions. The contents and structure of the customised version of DGLs are presented in this work.

Keywords: Fused deposition modelling | Knowledge-based systems | Rapid prototyping

[66] Bandera C., Filippi S., Felice M., Politi M., Robiony M., Salvo I., Concurrent Engineering in maxillo-facial surgery: The role of Virtual Reality and Rapid Prototyping, Proceedings of the 10th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering Research and Application, Enhanced Interoperable Systems, 1171-1176, (2003). Abstract
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The evolution of Computer Tomography and Rapid Prototyping allows production of accurate replicas of the internal anatomical structures of the specific patient. However, the exploitation of all the possibilities offered by these technologies can be obtained only in a collaborative environment, involving doctors and engineers. This article describes three different methods of surgical planning in maxillo-facial surgery: the first involves only medical competences, the second and the third require the use of engineering instruments and personnel. For every method, we will describe instruments, activities and special attention will be payed to the interaction methods between experts of different fields.

[67] Bordegoni M., Cascini G., Filippi S., Mandorli F., A methodology for evaluating the adoption of knowledge and innovation management tools in a product development process, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 3, 595-602, (2003). Abstract
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The efforts made by a company to focus on the manufacturing process to minimize production costs are not any more sufficient to launch competitive products on the market. In recent years, the industry has focused on the integration and optimization of the phases of the product development process and on the introduction of innovations in the attempt to tackle and solve the above mentioned issues. The paper presents the results of a research project whose aim is to study a methodology for the evaluation of the impact and costs related to the adoption of new and innovative technologies for knowledge and innovation management within currently implemented companies' product development processes (As-Is process).

Keywords: Knowledge management | Product development process | Product innovation | Technical creativity

[68] Ferretti G., Filippi S., Maffezzoni C., Magnani G., Rocco P., Modular dynamic virtual-reality modeling of robotic systems, IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 6(4), 13-23, (1999). Abstract
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A modular environment for modeling, simulation, and 3-D animation of mechanical and robotic system is described. The key word of the whole project is modularity, accomplished first of all in the dynamic modeling approach, through the adoption of a declarative definition of models, and a strict standardization of the interfaces among submodels. The issue of efficiency is also pursued through the adoption of an object-oriented database to manage the system model data and through a symbolic manipulation process. This allows one to derive an efficient procedural form of an numerical solution of the system model.