[Elenco soci]

Ferrise Francesco

Professore Associato

Politecnico di Milano

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 23466900300
Orcid: 0000-0001-8951-8807

Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Dozio N., Marcolin F., Scurati G.W., Ulrich L., Nonis F., Vezzetti E., Marsocci G., La Rosa A., Ferrise F., A design methodology for affective Virtual Reality, International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 162, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: In the era of ‘metaverse’, virtual environments are gaining popularity among new multimedia contents and are also recognized as a valuable means to deliver emotional content. This is favoured by cost reduction, availability and acceptance by end-users of virtual reality technology. Creating effective virtual environments can be achieved by exploiting several opportunities: creating artificial worlds able to generate different stories, mixing sensory cues, and making the whole interactive. The design space for creating emotional virtual environments is ample, and no clear idea of how to integrate the various components exists. This paper discusses how to combine multiple design elements to elicit five distinct emotions. We developed and tested two scenarios per emotion. We present the methodology, the development of the case studies, and the results of the testing.

Keywords: Affective Virtual Reality | Design Methodology | Emotions | Metaverse | Virtual Reality

[2] Scurati G.W., Nylander J.W., Ferrise F., Bertoni M., Sustainability awareness in engineering design through serious gaming, Design Science, 8, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: Sustainability considerations are traditionally difficult to trade-off with technical and business requirements in an early design phase. Hence, design teams need support to reflect early on in the process, on how sustainability may affect profitability and customer value fulfilment in the long term. The commoditisation of modelling and simulation techniques points to gamification and serious gaming as emerging approaches to raise awareness among the design team - as well as users and stakeholders - of the expected behaviour of a solution along its life cycle. The objective of this paper is to explore how serious games can be used to inform decision-makers about the value versus cost implications of being (or not being) 'sustainability compliant' when designing products and systems. The paper initially presents the findings from a descriptive study focused on the definition of 'design support' intended to raise sustainability awareness through serious gaming. It further describes the development, application and testing of one of such games for material selection in the aerospace industry.

Keywords: aerospace | decision-making | design space exploration | gamification | serious gaming | sustainability

[3] Frigione I., Massetti G., Girondini M., Etzi R., Scurati G.W., Ferrise F., Chirico A., Gaggioli A., Gallace A., An Exploratory Study on the Effect of Virtual Environments on Cognitive Performances and Psychophysiological Responses, Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking, 25(10), 666-671, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: Research shows that reduced exposure to natural contexts is associated with an increase in psychophysical disorders. Recent evidence suggests that even a brief experience in natural scenarios can positively affect people's health and well-being. However, natural contexts are not always easily accessible. This study investigates the effects of natural and indoor virtual environments (VREs) on psychophysiological and cognitive responses. Following a within-subject design, 34 healthy participants were exposed to two VREs (i.e., a forest and a living room) in a counterbalanced order through a head-mounted display (Oculus Rift). Participants were asked to explore the scenarios and execute a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Physiological parameters (heart rate, skin conductance level [SCL], and respiration rate) were recorded during the whole session. After the exposure to VREs, participants filled a set of visual analog scales to rate their subjective experience of presence, relaxation, and stress. Participants reported a higher perceived sense of relaxation in the virtual forest. Moreover, their SCLs were significantly higher in this environment, showing that the forest elicited higher physiological arousal than the living room. Furthermore, their SCLs were significantly higher during the attentional task in the virtual living room. The results suggest that a natural virtual environment can make people feel more relaxed and physiologically engaged than an indoor scenario. The latter instead can be linked to a performing venue, as reported for real contexts. However, these changes were not related to modulations of attentional performance.

Keywords: attentional performance | physiological measurement | relaxation | virtual environments | virtual reality

[4] Panagiotopoulou L., Gayarre N.C., Scurati G.W., Etzi R., Massetti G., Gallace A., Ferrise F., Design of a Serious Game for Children to Raise Awareness on Plastic Pollution and Promoting Pro-Environmental Behaviors, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 21(6), (2021). Abstract

Abstract: The massive presence of plastic in the oceans, both in the form of large debris and micro-plastic, is raising global concern due to its severe effects on the marine environment and fauna, causing loss of biodiversity and potentially threatening human health. Even though this is due to poor waste management, the great production and consumption of single-use plastic is a significant exacerbating factor. Despite policies and bans can be effective measures, there is also the need to raise consumers’ awareness, so they can make more sustainable choices when purchasing, using, and dismissing products. In particular, educating young citizens and encouraging them to engage in pro-environmental behaviors is a fundamental task to reach this goal. In this work, we present Contact from the future, a digital game on plastic pollution for children, to create awareness and stimulate pro-environmental behaviors, discussing the definition of objectives and requirements, as well as the design and development of the application.

Keywords: Human computer interfaces/interactions | Virtual and augmented reality environments | Virtual prototyping

[5] Dozio N., Marcolin F., Scurati G.W., Nonis F., Ulrich L., Vezzetti E., Ferrise F., Development of an affective database made of interactive virtual environments, Scientific Reports, 11(1), (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Despite the great potential of Virtual Reality (VR) to arouse emotions, there are no VR affective databases available as it happens for pictures, videos, and sounds. In this paper, we describe the validation of ten affective interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) designed to be used in Virtual Reality. These environments are related to five emotions. The testing phase included using two different experimental setups to deliver the overall experience. The setup did not include any immersive VR technology, because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, but the VEs were designed to run on stereoscopic visual displays. We collected measures related to the participants’ emotional experience based on six discrete emotional categories plus neutrality and we included an assessment of the sense of presence related to the different experiences. The results showed how the scenarios can be differentiated according to the emotion aroused. Finally, the comparison between the two experimental setups demonstrated high reliability of the experience and strong adaptability of the scenarios to different contexts of use.

[6] Pietra A., Vazquez Rull M., Etzi R., Gallace A., Scurati G.W., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Promoting eco-driving behavior through multisensory stimulation: a preliminary study on the use of visual and haptic feedback in a virtual reality driving simulator, Virtual Reality, 25(4), 945-959, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: This paper describes the design and preliminary test of a virtual reality driving simulator capable of conveying haptic and visual messages to promote eco-sustainable driving behavior. The driving simulator was implemented through the Unity game engine; a large street environment, including high-speed and urban sections, was created to examine different driving behaviors. The hardware setup included a gaming driving seat, equipped with a steering wheel and pedals; the virtual scenarios were displayed through an Oculus Rift headset to guarantee an immersive experience. Haptic stimulation (i.e., vibrations) was delivered to the driver through the accelerator pedal, while visual stimuli (i.e., icons and colors) were shown on a virtual head-up display. The sensory feedbacks were presented both alone and in combination, providing information about excessive acceleration and speed. Four different virtual scenarios, each one including a distracting element (i.e., navigator, rain, call, and traffic), were also created. Ten participants tested the simulator. Fuel consumption was evaluated by calculating a mean power index (MPI) in reference to the sensory feedback presentation; physiological reactions and responses to a usability survey were also collected. The results revealed that the haptic and visuo-haptic feedback were responsible for an MPI reduction, respectively, for 14% and 11% compared with a condition of no feedback presentation; while visual feedback alone resulted in an MPI increase of 11%. The efficacy of haptic feedback was also accompanied by a more relaxing physiological state of the users, compared with the visual stimulation. The system’s usability was adequate, although haptic stimuli were rated slightly more intrusive than the visual ones. Overall, these preliminary results highlight how promising the use of the haptic channel can be in communicating and guiding the driver toward a more eco-sustainable behavior.

Keywords: Eco-driving | Haptics | Multisensory | Virtual reality

[7] Di Antonio J.A., Longo M., Zaninelli D., Ferrise F., Labombarda A., MEMS-based measurements in virtual reality: Setup an electric Vehicle, 2021 56th International Universities Power Engineering Conference: Powering Net Zero Emissions, UPEC 2021 - Proceedings, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: The present work is aimed at finding a correspondence between registered consumes for a Battery Electric Vehicle, using a dedicated algorithm, and data available installing a MEMS sensors platform in a scenario which recreates on-road driving conditions. The Virtual Reality (VR) setup is described in its composition together with the placement of MEMS equipment to configurate optimal conditions for driving tests. In specific, the use of SensorTile.box by STMicroelectronics was described in its functioning and for the measurement acquisition chain process. Also, the consumption model is implemented through Unity3D and Matlab software to obtain an estimation of power, State of Charge (SoC) and energy required to perform the simulation path. Afterwards, considering the available literature, it is posed in consideration how the obtained measures from sensors can be useful for a primary characterization of drivers' behavior. Finally, these results for single users are related to the energy requests to determine if and at which level these parameters are also indicators of impact on consumers.

Keywords: Battery Electric Vehicle | Driving behaviors | Eco-driving energy consumption | MEMS sensors

[8] Chirico A., Scurati G.W., Maffi C., Huang S., Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Gaggioli A., Designing virtual environments for attitudes and behavioral change in plastic consumption: a comparison between concrete and numerical information, Virtual Reality, 25(1), 107-121, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Starting from the pro-environmental potential of virtual reality (VR), the aim was to understand how different statistical information formats can enhance VR persuasive potential for plastic consumption, recycling and waste. Naturalistic, immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) were designed ad hoc to display three kinds of statistical evidence formats, featured as three different formats (i.e., numerical, concrete and mixed). Participants were exposed only to one of the three formats in VR, and their affect, emotions, sense of presence, general attitudes toward the environment, specific attitudes and behavioral intentions toward plastic, use, waste, recycle, as well as their social desirability proneness were measured. Numerical format was the least effective across all dimensions. Concrete and mixed formats were similar. Social desirability only partially affected participants’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. Numerical format did not increase the persuasive efficacy of statistical evidence displayed in VR, with respect to visual alone. Implications and future directions for designing effective VRE promoting pro-environmental behaviors were discussed.

Keywords: Concrete | Format | Numerical | Plastic | Statistical evidence | Virtual reality

[9] Scurati G.W., Bertoni M., Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Exploring the use of virtual reality to support environmentally sustainable behavior: A framework to design experiences, Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(2), 1-20, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: The current and future challenges of sustainable development require a massive transformation of habits and behaviors in the whole society at many levels. This demands a change of perspectives, priorities, and practices that can only result from the development of more aware, informed, and instructed communities and individuals. The field of design for sustainable behavior is answering this need through the development of products, systems, and services to support the change of people’s habits and decision-making processes. In this regard, Virtual Reality (VR) is a promising tool: it has already been explored to drive sustainable behavior change in several situations, through a wide range of devices, technologies, and modalities. This variety provides uncountable opportunities to designers, but it comes with a series of ethical, psychological, and technical questions. Hence, VR developers should be able to distinguish and identify possible strategies, delivering suitable solutions for each case study. In this work, we present a framework for the development of VR experiences to support sustainable behavior change, based on a systematic review. We consider the various features to manage and possible alternatives when creating a VR experience, linking them to the behavioral aspects that can be addressed according to the project’s aim. The framework will provide designers with a tool to explore and orient themselves towards possible sets of optimal choices generating tailored solutions.

Keywords: Design framework | Sustainable behavior | Virtual reality

[10] Marcolin F., Scurati G.W., Ulrich L., Nonis F., Vezzetti E., Dozio N., Ferrise F., Stork A., Basole R.C., Affective Virtual Reality: How to Design Artificial Experiences Impacting Human Emotions, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 41(6), 171-178, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Computer graphics is-in many cases-about visualizing what you cannot see. However, virtual reality (VR), from its beginnings, aimed at stimulating all human senses: not just the visual channel. Moreover, this set of multisensory stimuli allows users to feel present and able to interact with the virtual environment. In this way, VR aims to deliver experiences that are comparable to real-life ones in their level of detail and stimulation, intensity, and impact. Hence, VR is not only a means to see, but also to feel differently. With the spreading of VR technologies, there is a growing interest in using VR to evoke emotions, including positive and negative ones. This article discusses the current possibilities and the authors' experience collected in the field in trying to elicit emotions through VR. It explores how different design aspects and features can be used, describing their contributions and benefits in the development of affective VR experiences. This work aims at raising awareness of the necessity to consider and explore the full design space that VR technology provides in comparison to traditional media. Additionally, it provides possible tracks of VR affective applications, illustrating how they could impact our emotions and improve our life, and providing guidelines for their development.

[11] Graziosi S., Scurati G.W., Parmose R., Lecchi A., Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Bioinspired computational design: A case study on a 3D-printed lamp based on the physalis alkekengi, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 561-570, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Nature has always been a source of inspiration for designers and engineers, through the imitation of biological patterns and structures. This emulating and creative process is nowadays supported by technologies and tools as additive manufacturing and computational design. This paper describes the design and prototyping of a lamp inspired by a plant called Physalis Alkekengi, known as Chinese Lantern. We present the development of an algorithm, based on a computational model from literature, to realize the 2D pattern and leaves. They were then 3D printed to create the structure of the lamp and obtain an aesthetical and symbolic shading effect.

Keywords: Bio-inspired design / biomimetics | Computational design methods | Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM)

[12] Nonis F., Ulrich L., Dozio N., Antonaci F.G., Vezzetti E., Ferrise F., Marcolin F., Building an Ecologically Valid Facial Expression Database – Behind the Scenes, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 12768 LNCS, 599-616, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms, together with a general increased computational performance, allow nowadays exploring the use of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) as a method of recognizing human emotion through the use of neural networks. The interest in facial emotion and expression recognition in real-life situations is one of the current cutting-edge research challenges. In this context, the creation of an ecologically valid facial expression database is crucial. To this aim, a controlled experiment has been designed, in which thirty-five subjects aged 18–35 were asked to react spontaneously to a set of 48 validated images from two affective databases, IAPS and GAPED. According to the Self-Assessment Manikin, participants were asked to rate images on a 9-points visual scale on valence and arousal. Furthermore, they were asked to select one of the six Ekman’s basic emotions. During the experiment, an RGB-D camera was also used to record spontaneous facial expressions aroused in participants storing both the color and the depth frames to feed a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to perform FER. In every case, the prevalent emotion pointed out in the questionnaires matched with the expected emotion. CNN obtained a recognition rate of 75.02%, computed comparing the neural network results with the evaluations given by a human observer. These preliminary results have confirmed that this experimental setting is an effective starting point for building an ecologically valid database.

Keywords: 3D facial database | Affective database | Basic emotions | Ecologically-valid data | Facial expression recognition | Human-robot interaction

[13] Riboldi N., Scurati G.W., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Pedrini S., Improving maintenance services through virtual reality, Manufacturing In The Era Of 4th Industrial Revolution: A World Scientific Reference (In 3 Volumes), 49-72, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: The following sections are included: • Introduction • Related Works • VR Maintenance Training: A Case Study • Implementation of the VR Application • Experimental Setup and Testing • Analysis of Test Results • Discussion and Conclusion • References.

[14] Comai S., Costa S., Mastrolembo Ventura S., Vassena G., Tagliabue A.L.C., Simeone D., Bertuzzi E., Scurati G.W., Ferrise F., Ciribini A.L.C., Indoor mobile mapping system and crowd simulation to support school reopening because of Covid-19: A case study, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives, 54(3/W1), 29-36, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Occupancy analyses represent a crucial topic for building performance. At present, this is even true because of the pandemic emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 and the need to support the functional analysis of building spaces in relation to social distancing rules. Moreover, the need to assess the suitability of spaces in high occupancy buildings as the educational ones, for which occupancy evaluations result pivotal to ensure the safety of the end-users in their daily activities, is a priority. The proposed paper investigates the steps that are needed to secure a safe re-opening of an educational building. A case study has been selected as a test site to analyse the re-opening steps as required by Italian protocols and regulations. This analysis supported the school director of a 2-to-10 year old school and its team in the decision-making process that led to the safe school re-opening. Available plants and elevations of the building were collected and a fast digital survey was carried out using the mobile laser scanner technology (iMMS - Indoor Mobile Mapping System) in order to acquire three-dimensional geometries and digital photographic documentation of the spaces. A crowd simulation software (i.e. Oasys MassMotion) was implemented to analyse end-users flows; the social distance parameter was set in its proximity modelling tools in order to check the compliance of spaces and circulation paths to the social distancing protocols. Contextually to the analysis of users flows, a plan of hourly air changes to maintain a high quality of the environments has been defined.

Keywords: Air quality analysis | Crowd simulation | Indoor mobile mapping system | Occupancy analysis | Proximity modelling | SARS-CoV-2 | School re-opening

[15] Etzi R., Gallace A., Massetti G., D'Agostino M., Cinquetti V., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Conveying trunk orientation information through a wearable tactile interface, Applied Ergonomics, 88, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: We present the design and test of a wearable device capable to detect the user's trunk orientation with respect to the gravitational field and to provide tactile stimulation to correct tilted positions. Vibrations are delivered to the shoulders, the frontal and dorsal parts of the trunk, by using the human body as an indicator of the four cardinal directions. The device was experimentally tested in normal gravity conditions by thirty-nine volunteers. The efficacy of tactile cues was investigated in comparison to visual and visuo-tactile cues. The results revealed that, despite the fact that the time needed to complete the task was shorter when people were guided by visual signals, the tactile cues were equally informative and, in some cases, the trunk spatial orientation was even more accurate. Overall, tactile cues were evaluated by users as more intuitive, effective and accurate.

Keywords: Haptics | Trunk orientation | Wearable device

[16] Lamanuzzi M., Di Antonio J.A., Foiadelli F., Longo M., Labombarda A., Dozio N., Ferrise F., Analysis of Energy Consumption in an Electric Vehicle through Virtual Reality Set-Up, 12th AEIT International Annual Conference, AEIT 2020, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The aim of this work is to present an algorithm used to perform an energetic analysis for an electric vehicle in a Virtual Reality (VR) scenario. This was useful to recognize some patterns of driving behavior considering users and their psychological aspects. The primary aspect enlightened is the description of the experimental setup used to perform tests with 26 users. Through Unity and Matlab software, it was possible to exploit a VR scenario aimed at recreating in the same route both urban and highway paths in condition of real traffic, performed with a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). The acquisition part is illustrated in its methodology in two different cases covering disturbance and non-disturbance scenario. Moreover, the population was divided considering gender to establish a characterization which linked energy consumption and associated analysis to psychological traits of the driver.

Keywords: Battery electric Vehicle | dnving behavior | Electric vehicle | energy consumption | psychological aspects | virtual reality

[17] Scurati G.W., Ferrise F., Stork A., Basole R.C., Looking into a Future Which Hopefully Will Not Become Reality: How Computer Graphics Can Impact Our Behavior - A Study of the Potential of VR, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 40(5), 82-88, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Humans tendency to engage in behaviors that are harmful to themselves, the environment, and the society has always been present on a personal and collective level. However, the concern for this kind of phenomena is increasing, as demographic and economic growth is amplifying its impact on people health, economies, and ecosystems. As a consequence, we have seen the rise of research fields as design for behavior change, with a growing interest in the use of tools as persuasive technologies, serious games and interactive systems to affect people awareness, attitude, and behavior. To these purposes, computer graphics and especially virtual reality (VR) has great potential since it can provide experiences to deepen users' understanding and emotional involvement regarding a variety of social and environmental issues. Here, we discuss the use of VR as a powerful, versatile, and cost-effective tool to deliver virtual experiences that inform and motivate users to change behavior. We describe and relate different aspects regarding sustainable behavior and VR experience design with respect to their potential to support behavior change.

[18] Orabona A., Palazzi A., Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., DESIGN of A SIMPLIFIED 3D-PRINTED ARTIFICIAL UNDERACTUATED HAND, Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN Conference, 1, 1027-1036, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The recent interest in human-robot interaction requires the development of new gripping solutions, compared to those already available and widely used. One of the most advanced solutions in nature is that of the human hand, and several research contributions try to replicate its functionality. Technological advances in manufacturing technologies and design tools are opening possibilities in the design of new solutions. The paper reports the results of the design of an underactuated artificial robotic hand, designed by exploiting the benefits offered by additive manufacturing technologies.

Keywords: 3D printing | additive manufacturing | design for additive manufacturing | mechatronics

[19] Scurati G.W., Nylander J.W., Hallstedt S.I., Ferrise F., Bertoni M., RAISING VALUE and SUSTAINABILITY AWARENESS for CRITICAL MATERIALS: A SERIOUS GAME for the AEROSPACE SECTOR, Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN Conference, 1, 737-746, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Aviation strives today to include environmental and social considerations as drivers for decision making in design. This paper proposes a serious game to raise awareness of the value and cost implications of being 'sustainability compliant' when developing aerospace sub-systems and components. After describing the development of the game, from needfinding to prototyping and testing, the paper discusses the results from verification activities with practitioners, revealing the ability of the game to raise sustainability awareness and support negotiation across disciplinary boundaries in design.

Keywords: critical materials | decision making | risk management | serious game | sustainability

[20] Messina M.J., Teves S., Scurati G.W., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Development of virtual reality training scenario for avalanche rescue, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 9, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: As the popularity of winter outdoor sports is increasing, a growing number of users are engaging in activities in uncontrolled terrain, thus training for avalanche rescue is more important than ever. Traditional training takes place through workshops and in field sessions, presenting limitations to the training availability, since they require time, organization and specific weather conditions. This is problematic since the use of transceivers to locate buried individuals is not trivial and requires practice. Virtual Reality (VR) training has shown to be effective in several fields, especially in the context of hazardous conditions and emergencies, which require decision making under time pressure and management of complex tools in uncontrolled or unsafe environments. Examples include disaster medicine, military operations, and other fields in which actions must be performed precisely in short time frame. In this work, we present the development of an immersive VR system for avalanche rescue training as a complementary tool to the traditional techniques in order to prepare the trainee for field training sessions. We discuss the definition of the system requirements, the design and implementation of the tool, and considerations regarding hardware and software. Finally, we discuss possible limitations and future development.

Keywords: Avalanche Rescue Training | Virtual Reality

[21] Scurati G.W., Ferrise F., Bertoni M., Sustainability awareness in organizations through gamification and serious games: A systematic mapping, Proceedings of the NordDesign 2020 Conference, NordDesign 2020, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The transition towards more sustainable practices is one of the main challenges that companies and organizations are currently facing. The use of serious games and gamification has shown to be effective in creating awareness and support learning in many contexts, including sustainability education of practitioners and future ones. We performed a systematic mapping of the use of games on sustainability for companies and organizations. The results show current trends and voids in research concerning a series of categories and provide insights on possible future directions in this area.

Keywords: Gamification | Human behaviour | Sustainability | Sustainable design

[22] Scurati G.W., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Sustainable behaviour: A framework for the design of products for behaviour change, Emotional Engineering, Vol. 8: Emotion in the Emerging World, 65-83, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The increasing concern for sustainability-related issues leads to the rise of new fields in design research, dedicated to limit the negative impact of human activities on the environment and society. After addressing issues related to production, efficiency, recyclability and disassembly, designers start to recognize their responsibility in guiding users to behave in a more responsible and sustainable way. For this reason, designing products to support users’ behaviour change is becoming one of the most popular trends in design research at the moment. To achieve the desired results design for behaviour change, and in particular, Design for Sustainable Behaviour exploits a variety of approaches. In this Chapter, we explore the use of Design for Sustainable Behaviour techniques through a literature review of theories and case studies. Then, we defined a framework which describes the use of multisensory stimuli as elements to support different phases of interaction during the user experience with an interactive product. We relate this framework to previous works and then we discuss two case studies.

[23] Gattullo M., Scurati G.W., Evangelista A., Ferrise F., Fiorentino M., Uva A.E., Informing the Use of Visual Assets in Industrial Augmented Reality, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 106-117, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Augmented Reality is considered one of the most promising technologies for Industry 4.0. Augmented Reality allows to display the needed information at the right time and to locate it in the desired space, superimposing it to the real world. In this way, it could simplify the work of industrial operators in a variety of tasks, from planning and commissioning to assembly and maintenance. Despite the growing research interest and efforts for the development of Augmented Reality applications and technologies for the industrial domain, Augmented Reality is still rarely used in real industrial procedures, often remaining at a conceptual level. In fact, developers fail to completely answer the actual needs of industries and workers because of a lack of knowledge of the context and the absence of guidelines to drive the design and development of Augmented Reality applications. One of the open issues is the choice of the proper visualization methods to display technical information in Augmented Reality, which is not trivial. Both the paper-based documentation, based on text and illustrations, and digital documentation, including CAD models and image or video-based tutorials, present different criticalities when adapted to the Augmented Reality technology. Other visual material has been developed specifically to be used in Augmented Reality, but it is difficult to use because of a lack of standards which are instead present for the former paper-based and digital documentation. In this work, we categorize and compare different Augmented Reality visual assets, illustrating their advantages and disadvantages and providing directions for future research.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Graphical User Interface | Industry 4.0 | Technical documentation

[24] Micaroni L., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Gallace A., Bordegoni M., An olfactory display to study the integration of vision and olfaction in a virtual reality environment, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 19(3), (2019). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes the design of an innovative virtual reality (VR) system, based on a combination of an olfactory display and a visual display, to be used for investigating the directionality of the sense of olfaction. In particular, the design of an experimental setup to understand and determine to what extent the sense of olfaction is directional and whether there is prevalence of the sense of vision over the one of smell when determining the direction of an odor, is described. The experimental setup is based on low-cost VR technologies. In particular, the system is based on a custom directional olfactory display (OD), a head mounted display (HMD) to deliver both visual and olfactory cues, and an input device to register subjects' answers. The paper reports the design of the olfactory interface as well as its integration with the overall system.

[25] Gattullo M., Scurati G.W., Fiorentino M., Uva A.E., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Towards augmented reality manuals for industry 4.0: A methodology, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 56, 276-286, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Augmented Reality (AR), is one of the most promising technology for technical manuals in the context of Industry 4.0. However, the implementation of AR documentation in industry is still challenging because specific standards and guidelines are missing. In this work, we propose a novel methodology for the conversion of existing “traditional” documentation, and for the authoring of new manuals in AR in compliance to Industry 4.0 principles. The methodology is based on the optimization of text usage with the ASD Simplified Technical English, the conversion of text instructions into 2D graphic symbols, and the structuring of the content through the combination of Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) and Information Mapping (IM). We tested the proposed approach with a case study of a maintenance manual of hydraulic breakers. We validated it with a user test collecting subjective feedbacks of 22 users. The results of this experiment confirm that the manual obtained using our methodology is clearer than other templates.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Industry 4.0 | Maintenance support | Technical documentation

[26] Mangiarotti M., Ferrise F., Graziosi S., Tamburrino F., Bordegoni M., A Wearable Device to Detect in Real-Time Bimanual Gestures of Basketball Players during Training Sessions, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 19(1), (2019). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes the design of a wearable and wireless system that allows the real-time identification of some gestures performed by basketball players. This system is specifically designed as a support for coaches to track the activity of two or more players simultaneously. Each wearable device is composed of two separate units, positioned on the wrists of the user, connected to a personal computer (PC) via Bluetooth. Each unit comprises a triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope, a microcontroller, installed on a TinyDuino platform, and a battery. The concept of activity recognition chain is investigated and used as a reference for the gesture recognition process. A sliding window allows the system to extract relevant features from the incoming data streams: mean values, standard deviations, maximum values, minimum values, energy, and correlations between homologous axes are calculated to identify and differentiate the performed actions. Machine learning algorithms are implemented to handle the recognition phase.

[27] Huang S., Scurati G.W., Elzeney M., Li Y., Lin X., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., AIM: An interactive ashtray to support behavior change through gamification, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 3811-3820, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Littering is a highly diffused anti-environmental and anti-social behavior, especially among young people. Furthermore, cigarette butts are one of the most littered items and are responsible for both severe environmental damages and high clean up expenses. The aim of this project is to design an interactive ashtray for the campus environment to limit the cigarette butts littering behavior in an engaging and effective way. Qualitative and quantitative data are collected. Coded observations were implemented through the research process, including the 2 pre (without the prototype) and 2 pros (with the prototype) sessions. Also, user experience test and one to one interview were conducted for deepening the understanding of the littering phenomenon and the reasons behind in the behavior among young people. The prototype indeed reduced the number of cigarette butts littering among observed behaviors of 156 students, especially in male sample. Final results indicate the behavior change of disposers is moderated by other factors, as the environmental cleanliness. Future development is also discussed.

Keywords: Design for Behavior Change | Gamification | Multisensory product experience | Sustainability | User centred design

[28] Scurati G.W., Huang S., Wu S., Chen T., Zhang Y., Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Multisensory nudging: A design intervention for sustainable hand-washing behavior in public space, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 3341-3350, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: The scarce availability of water in highly populated cities is about to become a social problem. While the water service companies work on improving the distribution network in order to reduce losses, it is evident that one of the main problems is due to an excess of use of this resource by users. This consumption is relatively controlled when excessive consumption is clearly associated, in the consumer mind, with high costs. However, when users are in public places they tend to consume water because of a loss of correlation with costs. In this paper, we describe the design of a device to be installed in public environments, which aims to reduce the consumption of water. The device measures in real time the flow of water and sends the user visual and sound information trying to create a link between consumption and costs. The device has been installed in a university campus bathroom and has been tested. Test results show a reduction in water consumption, especially in the interactive prototype approach compared to the conventional treatment. Further modifications for future development of the interactive device is also discussed.

Keywords: Design for sustainable behavior | Multisensory product experience | Sustainability | User centred design | Water conservation

[29] Etzi R., Huang S., Scurati G.W., Lyu S., Ferrise F., Gallace A., Gaggioli A., Chirico A., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Using virtual reality to test human-robot interaction during a collaborative task, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: The use of collaborative robots in the manufacturing industry has widely spread in the last decade. In order to be efficient, the human-robot collaboration needs to be properly designed by also taking into account the operator’s psychophysiological reactions. Virtual Reality can be used as a tool to simulate human-robot collaboration in a safe and cheap way. Here, we present a virtual collaborative platform in which the human operator and a simulated robot coordinate their actions to accomplish a simple assembly task. In this study, the robot moved slowly or more quickly in order to assess the effect of its velocity on the human's responses. Ten participants tested this application by using an Oculus Rift head-mounted display; ARTracking cameras and a Kinect system were used to track the operator's right arm movements and hand gestures respectively. Performance, user experience, and physiological responses were recorded. The results showed that while humans’ performances and evaluations varied as a function of the robot’s velocity, no differences were found in the physiological responses. Taken together, these data highlight the relevance of the kinematic aspects of robot’s motion within a human-robot collaboration and provide valuable insights to further develop our virtual human-machine interactive platform.

Keywords: Human-robot collaboration | Stress | Virtual reality | Workload

[30] Gaggioli A., Falletta E.M., Ferrise F., Graziosi S., Gallace A., D'Ausilio A., Cipresso P., Riva G., Chirico A., Effects of interpersonal sensorimotor synchronization on dyadic creativity: Gender matters, Frontiers in Psychology, 9(FEB), (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Although it is noted that interpersonal sensorimotor coordination can influence several high-level socio-cognitive processes, its impact on creative collaboration is nearly unexplored. Here, we investigated the effects of a form of sensorimotor coordination, that is, sensorimotor synchronization, on a subsequent creative collaboration task. 60 pairs (n total = 120 participants) formed by previously unacquainted individuals performed a tower-building task either jointly or alone, followed by a dyadic creativity task. Tower building time in the joint condition was recorded through a sensorized platform and creativity performance was evaluated by two independent raters based on the quantity and quality of generated ideas. We controlled for gender composition and for the disposition to cooperate and to adopt a creative, analytical style. Results showed that male-male couples were more creative after the joint-action condition, whereas female-female and mixed-gender couples were more creative after the solo condition. Regression analyses of tower building time on creativity performance revealed that building time was a significant predictor of creativity dimensions in male-male and in mixed-gender couples but did not predict creative performance in female-female couples. Overall, these findings suggest that the manipulation of sensorimotor coordination can influence performance in a subsequent creative collaboration task, with the nature, and magnitude of this effect depending on the gender composition of the dyads. These results have potential implications for the design of sensorimotor-based strategies to enhance dyadic creative performance in several contexts, especially for the organizational settings.

Keywords: Dyadic creativity | Gender | Interpersonal coordination | Interpersonal synchronization | Joint action | Networked flow

[31] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Improving multisensory user experience through olfactory stimuli, Emotional Engineering, Vol.7: The Age of Communication, 201-231, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: More and more modern digital applications allow users to make experiences that elicit their senses. More traditional applications allow users to make visual and sound experiences. Recently, the sense of touch has been introduced to enrich the users’ experiences with digital worlds. The sense of smell is equally important for enriching and making the experiences engaging, but has been mostly neglected so far, mostly because of the limited knowledge about olfaction and of olfactory technologies. This chapter presents a methodology for the development of applications including multisensory user experiences based also on the sense of olfaction. The methodology has been used and tested for the development of applications in various sectors, which are reported in the chapter.

[32] Carulli M., Tosin A., Previtali F., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Simulating a virtual journey on italian alps through a multisensory mixed reality environment, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(4), 755-765, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality technologies are more and more getting attention from tourism researchers and professionals, because of their recognized potential to support marketing activities. The paper describes the development of a multisensory environment thought for a travel agency, which combines visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory stimuli. The idea is to develop an experience able to provide a virtual preview of the desired holiday destination, resulting in both an attractive experience for the customer and an effective way to increase sales. A case study about the multisensory experience of a walk on Italian Alps has been developed. The multisensory experience is based on a video streaming, recorded in the real environment, synchronously matched with a haptic interface. The haptic interface is made up of a pair of slippers provided with actuators, and also an actuator positioned on the customer trunk, used to reproduce the feeling of a snowball hit. Moreover, an olfactory display is also used to provide pine smell during the walk. During the experience, the user is sitting on a yoga ball, whose inclination allows him/her to start and stop the multisensory virtual experience.

Keywords: Multisensory simulation | User experience | Virtual prototyping | Virtual tourism

[33] Scurati G.W., Gattullo M., Fiorentino M., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Uva A.E., Converting maintenance actions into standard symbols for Augmented Reality applications in Industry 4.0, Computers in Industry, 98, 68-79, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: The evolution of technical documentation in the age of Industry 4.0 is going towards the use of visual manuals, in particular exploiting Augmented Reality (AR) technology. Traditional manuals are rich of text instructions that in AR applications are not advisable. In fact text occludes the real scene behind and it is an issue for the translation. For this reason, we propose to create and adopt a controlled and exhaustive vocabulary of graphical symbols, to be used in AR to represent maintenance instructions. In particular, in this work we identified the most frequent maintenance actions used in manuals, and converted them into graphical symbols. Then, we made an elicitation of the symbols designed and created different candidate vocabularies of symbols basing on the criteria found in literature of guessability and homogeneity. Moreover, the vocabularies had to respect two constraints: conflict set and reversibility. Finally, we identified the best of symbols and integrated this one in a real AR application for remote maintenance.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Industry 4.0 | Maintenance

[34] Chirico A., Ferrise F., Cordella L., Gaggioli A., Designing awe in virtual reality: An experimental study, Frontiers in Psychology, 8(JAN), (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Awe is a little-studied emotion with a great transformative potential. Therefore, the interest toward the study of awe's underlying mechanisms has been increased. Specifically, researchers have been interested in how to reproduce intense feelings of awe within laboratory conditions. It has been proposed that the use of virtual reality (VR) could be an effective way to induce awe in controlled experimental settings, thanks to its ability of providing participants with a sense of "presence," that is, the subjective feeling of being displaced in another physical or imaginary place. However, the potential of VR as awe-inducing medium has not been fully tested yet. In the present study, we provided an evidence-based design and a validation of four immersive virtual environments (VEs) involving 36 participants in a within-subject design. Of these, three VEs were designed to induce awe, whereas the fourth VE was targeted as an emotionally neutral stimulus. Participants self-reported the extent to which they felt awe, general affect and sense of presence related to each environment. As expected, results showed that awe-VEs could induce significantly higher levels of awe and presence as compared to the neutral VE. Furthermore, these VEs induced significantly more positive than negative affect. These findings supported the potential of immersive VR for inducing awe and provide useful indications for the design of awe-inspiring virtual environments.

Keywords: Awe | Emotion inducti | Emotions | Presence | Virtual reality

[35] Micaroni L., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Gallace A., Design of a directional olfactory display to study the integration of vision and olfaction, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2018, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: This research aims to design and develop an innovative system, based on an olfactory display, to be used for investigating the directionality of the sense of olfaction. In particular, the design of an experimental setup to understand and determine to what extent the sense of olfaction is directional and whether there is prevalence of the sense of vision over the one of smell when determining the direction of an odor, is described. The experimental setup is based on low cost Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. In particular, the system is based on a custom directional olfactory display, an Oculus Rift Head Mounted Display (HMD) to deliver both visual and olfactory cues and an input device to register subjects’ answers. The VR environment is developed in Unity3D. The paper describes the design of the olfactory interface as well as its integration with the overall system. Finally the results of the initial testing are reported in the paper.

[36] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Wendrich R., Barone S., Virtual and mixed prototyping techniques and technologies for consumer product design within a blended learning design environment, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 1, 183-192, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Both physical and virtual prototyping are core elements of the design and engineering process. In this paper, we present an industrial case-study in conjunction with a collaborative agile design engineering process and "methodology." Four groups of heterogeneous Post-doc and Ph.D. students from various domains were assembled and instructed to fulfill a multi-disciplinary design task based on a real-world industry use-case. We present findings, evaluation, and results of this study.

Keywords: Augmented reality (AR) | Collaborative design | Engineering design | Virtual prototyping | Virtual reality (VR)

[37] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Gallace A., Gustafsson M., Pfuhl T., Simulating multisensory wine tasting experience, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 5, 2177-2186, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper, we present the development of an application that allows us to simulate the multisensory experience of tasting a glass of wine. To this end, technologies for the sense of touch, sight, hearing, and smell have been integrated, creating an interactive multi-sensory experience. The user, after picking up a glass, activates an application in which he is guided by a virtual sommelier to make a tasting, and he is able to perceive the multi-sensory experience of the wine tasting experience. The paper describes the application and its potential use in marketing.

Keywords: Multisensory product experience | User experience | Virtual reality (VR)

[38] Chirico A., Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Gallace A., Mosconi C., Cazzaniga M.J., Zurloni V., Elia M., Cerritelli F., Mantovani F., D’Ausilio A., Cipresso P., Riva G., Gaggioli A., COLLEGO: An interactive platform for studying joint action during an ecological collaboration task, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, 207, 67-72, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: We describe the implementation and preliminary validation of an interactive platform – COLLEGO – to investigate joint action in a goal-oriented collaborative task. The platform records the interaction sequence of two partners alternating their leader/follower role. Two sensitized wooden surfaces are placed in front of each participant, who can use 6 cubes to build the tower. Any time a cube is picked/released, time stamp (ms) and position of selected objects are recorded. A case study showing how data are collected and analyzed to study dyad performance during the task is described. Finally, potential applications of the proposed solution are discussed.

Keywords: Human-human interaction | Joint action | Performance | Sensors | Synchronization | Time-series analysis

[39] Etzi R., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Zampini M., Gallace A., The Effect of Visual and Auditory Information on the Perception of Pleasantness and Roughness of Virtual Surfaces, Multisensory Research, 31(6), 501-522, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Despite the large number of studies on the multisensory aspects of tactile perception, very little is known regarding the effects of visual and auditory sensory modalities on the tactile hedonic evaluation of textures, especially when the presentation of the stimuli is mediated by a haptic device. In this study, different haptic virtual surfaces were rendered by varying the static and dynamic frictional coefficients of a Geomagic® Touch device. In Experiment 1, the haptic surfaces were paired with pictures representing everyday materials (glass, plastic, rubber and steel); in Experiment 2, the haptic surfaces were paired with sounds resulting from the haptic exploration of paper or sandpaper. In both the experiments, participants were required to rate the pleasantness and the roughness of the virtual surfaces explored. Exploration times were also recorded. Both pleasantness and roughness judgments, as well as the durations of exploration, varied as a function of the combinations of the visuo-tactile and the audio-tactile stimuli presented. Taken together, these results suggest that vision and audition modulate haptic perception and hedonic preferences when tactile sensations are provided through a haptic device. Importantly, these results offer interesting suggestions for designing more pleasant, and even more realistic, multisensory virtual surfaces.

Keywords: Haptics | hedonic touch | multisensory interaction | virtual surface

[40] Ferrise F., Graziosi S., Bordegoni M., Prototyping strategies for multisensory product experience engineering, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 28(7), 1695-1707, (2017). Abstract

Abstract: The paper deals with prototyping strategies aimed at supporting engineers in the design of the multisensory experience of products. It is widely recognised that the most effective strategy to design it is to create working prototypes and analyse user’s reactions when interacting with them. Starting from this consciousness, we will discuss of how virtual reality (VR) technologies can support engineers to build prototypes suitable to this aim. Furthermore we will demonstrate how VR-based prototypes do not only represent a valid alternative to physical prototypes, but also a step forward thanks to the possibility of simulating and rendering multisensory and real-time modifiable interactions between the user and the prototype. These characteristics of VR-based prototypes enable engineers to rapidly test with users different variants and to optimise the multisensory experience perceived by them during the interaction. The discussion is supported both by examples available in literature and by case studies we have developed over the years on this topic. Specifically, in our research we have concentrated on what happens in the physical contact between the user and the product. Such contact strongly influences the user’s impression about the product.

Keywords: Experience design | Interaction design | User experience | Virtual-mixed prototyping

[41] Chirico A., D’Ausilio A., Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Gallace A., Mosconi C., Cazzaniga M.J., Zurloni V., Elia M., Cerritelli F., Mantovani F., Cipresso P., Riva G., Gaggioli A., The sensorimotor dimension of the networked flow: An exploratory study using an interactive collaborative platform, Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine, 15, 65-69, (2017). Abstract

Abstract: Joint action - the cooperation with other individuals to achieve a shared motor goal, is a crucial ability for human survival. This process takes place when actors are synchronized at a sensorimotor level. However, the experiential correlates of sensorimotor synchronization are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the experience of flow and social presence in a sensorimotor collaborative task. 12 female couples (mean age = 22.33; S.D. = .815) and 12 male couples (mean age = 22.88; S.D. = .789) were involved in a tower-building task across 10 consecutive trials using the COLLEGO platform [1]. Couple members alternated their leader/follower role. Platform recorded time stamp (ms) and position of each selected object when it was picked/released, providing a measure of performance. Thereafter, participants’ level of flow (Flow State Scale), an intrinsically motivating state of consciousness, and social presence (Networked Minds Social Presence Inventory), i.e., the feeling of being with other Selves in a real or virtual environment, were assessed. Flow and Social presence correlated positively at a global level. Having clear goals was negatively associated with performance, while awareness and merging with one’s own actions correlated positively with performance. Task duration correlated negatively with attentive and behavioral dimensions of social presence, but positively with cognitive and emotional dimensions. Results are discussed according to the Networked Flow model assuming a positive correlation between social presence and flow at the base of the highest levels of collaborative performance.

Keywords: COLLEGO platform | Flow experience | Joint action | Networked flow model | Sensorimotor interaction | Social presence | Synchronization

[42] Masoni R., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Gattullo M., Uva A.E., Fiorentino M., Carrabba E., Di Donato M., Supporting Remote Maintenance in Industry 4.0 through Augmented Reality, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1296-1302, (2017). Abstract

Abstract: Due to the Industry 4.0 initiative, Augmented Reality (AR) has started to be considered one of the most interesting technologies companies should invest in, especially to improve their maintenance services. Several technological limitations have prevented AR to become an effective industrial tool in the past. Now some of them have been overcome, some others not yet by off-the-shelf technologies. In this paper, we present a solution for remote maintenance based on off-the-shelf mobile and AR technologies. The architecture of the application allows us to remotely connect a skilled operator in a control room with an unskilled one located where the maintenance task has to be performed. This application, which has been initially described in a previous work, has been improved on the basis of feedback received by industrial partners. We describe the important features we have added and the rationale behind them to make the remote communication more effective.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Industry 4.0 | Remote Maintenance

[43] Gattullo M., Uva A.E., Fiorentino M., Scurati G.W., Ferrise F., From Paper Manual to AR Manual: Do We Still Need Text?, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1303-1310, (2017). Abstract

Abstract: In this work, we proposed a method to reduce text in technical documentation, aiming at Augmented Reality manuals, where text must be reduced as much as possible. In fact, most of technical information is conveyed through other means such as CAD models, graphic signs, images, etc. The method classifies technical instructions into two categories: instructions that can be presented with graphic symbols and instructions that should be presented with text. It is based on the analysis of the action verbs used in the instruction, and makes use of ASD Simplified Technical English (STE) for remaining text instructions and let them easier to translate into other languages.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Graphic symbols | Industry 4.0 | Simplified Technical English | Technical Documentation | Text reduction | Visual

[44] Monici D., Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Design of a smart alarm clock to foster sustainable urban mobility, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 8(DS87-8), 359-368, (2017). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper we describe the design of a smart alarm clock, conceived as a persuasive system to foster a sustainable urban mobility. Automatically retrieving and elaborating information available on the web, such as means of transport and weather forecast, the device is able to suggest to the user the most sustainable travelling solution, to help him/her to wake-up and reach the destination on time. Following a user-centered design approach the elaboration of the best travelling solution takes also into account, together with his/her next day appointments, user's needs and habits such as: The time he/she needs to get ready in the morning; his/her travelling preferences. A functional prototype has been built to test the effectiveness of the device using as a context the city of Milan.

Keywords: Design for sustainable behaviour | Multisensory product experience | Smart mobility | Sustainability | User centred design

[45] Filippi S., Barattin D., Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., A discussion on specifications and prototyping in designing for sustainable behavior, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1A-2016, (2016). Abstract

Abstract: Today's world is facing numerous problems due to an uncontrolled waste of energy and of primary resources in general. To manage this, on one side designers are asked to improve the efficiency of products; on the other side, users must be trained toward a more sustainable lifestyle. Some researchers are exploring the idea of trying to change users' behavior while interacting with products in order to make it more sustainable. This trend is known as "design for sustainable behavior" applied to energy/resources consumption issues. Our idea is to stimulate users in changing their behavior by introducing a multisensory communication with the product. This communication is not meant as warning messages informing the users about wrong habits/actions or something like; instead, it should consist of sensorial stimuli able to naturally drive users in performing the right actions. However, before designing these stimuli, it is fundamental to highlight the aspects and conditions that do not allow users behaving in a sustainable way when interacting with products. In this paper we discuss about the aspects that could be useful to explore in order to retrieve the specifications to drive both the design and prototyping phases, so as to faithfully test the effectiveness of the feedback with final users.

[46] Ciuffini A.F., Di Cecca C., Ferrise F., Mapelli C., Barella S., Application of virtual/augmented reality in steelmaking plants layout planning and logistics, Metallurgia Italiana, 2016(7), 5-10, (2016). Abstract

Abstract: In the past years, Virtual or immersive Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR) technologies have largely been developed for the military, although it has been used for commercial purposes as well, especially for the development of virtual museums, exhibitions, games, and other cultural and amusement projects. Moreover, as realistic and productive visual simulation continues to develop, coupled with a drop in prices for image generators, the market for architectural design systems based on AR is expected to rapidly grow. Nowadays, the human-computer interaction, due to its long-established approach, can show drawbacks and limitations of traditional interfaces. Promising alternatives are offered by Virtual or immersive Reality (VR) and by Augmented Reality (AR), enabling humans to behave in a nearly natural way. Natural interaction means human actions in the real world with other humans and/or with real world objects. In order to achieve these results, prototype tools, build on video-based interaction, support construction and plant layout planning. The exploitation of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) has already been studied and used in architecture, construction and logistics, application fields with many common duties to the steelmaking industry. In detail, the best possible configuration and arrangement of all production units and transport systems are necessary prerequisites to maximize productivity. Furthermore, also the rationalization of the logistics is a crucial point in order to achieve both the lowest operating costs and a seamless material flow without bottlenecks. These reasons grant to Facility Layout Planning (FLP) and logistics a very promising scenario for VR/AR employment in steel industry. Consequently, possible on-field applications in a near future have been investigated. Indeed, although the metal industry is still conservative, the need for more efficiency and an overall optimization of whole plants would lead to the integration of these new technologies in the daily practice.

Keywords: Augmented Reality (AR) | Facility layout planning (FLP) | Logistics | Virtual Reality (VR)

[47] Di Cecca C., Ciuffini A.F., Ferrise F., Mapelli C., Gruttadauria A., Study about the augmented reality adoption in the maintenance in steelmaking area, Metallurgia Italiana, 2016(7), 11-16, (2016). Abstract

Abstract: In this work a study about the application of the augmented reality in steelmaking area is presented. Augmented reality systems add virtual computer-generated material to the surrounding physical world. The augmented reality systems use see-through headworn displays to overlay graphics and sounds on a person's natural vision and hearing. As the person moves about, the position and orientation of the head is tracked, allowing the overlaid material to remain tied to the physical world. An application and description of prototypes to the training and maintenance of continuous casting machine is described.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Ironmaking | Maintenance | Prototypes | Steelmaking

[48] Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Costanzi A.A.M., Bordegoni M., The use of multisensory feedback to make users behave in a sustainable way, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 11(DS 80-11), 11-20, (2015). Abstract

Abstract: The paper proposes an alternative approach to well-known feedback solutions, such as visual displays or warning sound messages, to make users perceptually aware of the energy consumption occurring when using a product. The approach is grounded on the use of multisensory feedback interfaces that are designed to make the user experience the consumption process directly during the interaction with the product. Such multisensory feedback should be intended as indications, rather then alarms, so as to naturally guide users towards a more sustainable behaviour. The daily task of opening the fridge door has been used as case study. All the steps followed to ideate and test the effectiveness of the designed multisensory interfaces are discussed. The results demonstrate how even simple stimuli, such as a gradual colour change of the fridge cavity from a cold to a warm one, may be able to reduce the time users keep the fridge door open.

Keywords: Design for behaviour change | Human behaviour in design | Multisensory design | Sustainability | User centred design

[49] Romagnoli C., Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., A multimodal virtual environment based on haptic interfaces for upper-limb rehabilitation, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2015, (2015). Abstract

Abstract: The interest of people working in rehabilitation towards the possibilities offered by Virtual Reality (VR) technologies is growing in years. Through VR technologies, rehabilitation can become more engaging with respect to traditional methods, since exercises can be performed in different simulated scenarios. They can be adapted on the basis of patient's requests, and can be easily modified to have growing difficulties, according to the rehabilitation progresses. Furthermore results can be collected and monitored, even remotely, if necessary. The paper describes the development and testing of a set of exercises in a multimodal VR environment for upper limb rehabilitation. The VR environment includes technologies addressing three senses: vision, hearing and touch. The patient is asked to grab and move a number of objects in an ecologically valid environment, which corresponds to a household scenario. While s/he performs the exercises, object trajectories are recorded in order to be analyzed later on. The development as well as a preliminary testing activity are reported in the paper.

[50] Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Marseglia L., Fiorentino M., Uva A.E., Can Interactive Finite Element Analysis Improve the Learning of Mechanical Behavior of Materials? A Case Study, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 12(1), 45-51, (2015). Abstract

Abstract: ABSTRACT: The paper describes an interactive Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) tool that aims to improve the learning of mechanical behavior of materials in industrial engineering schools. We implemented a “user in the loop” approach where students can explore the mechanical behavior of virtual specimens selected from a library of standard elements (cantilever beam, IPE beams etc.). The users can apply forces or displacements interactively by mouse or haptic device, and visualize and “feel” the structures stress configurations. We extended our previous work and compared this novel approach with respect to traditional FEA learning techniques. A test with twenty engineering students showed that learners following the interactive approach are faster in completing the given assignment showing a reduced error rate.

Keywords: engineering education | haptics | real-time finite element analysis | virtual reality

[51] Lavatelli A., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Design of an open-source low cost 2DOF haptic device, MESA 2014 - 10th IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications, Conference Proceedings, (2014). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes the design and preliminary virtual testing of OSHap, an open-source low cost 2DOF haptic interface. The aim the research is to create a mechatronic platform for haptic interaction based mainly on cheap and open source components. The results will be distributed freely in order to provide guidelines for expert users to develop their own haptic interface. Both the mechanical design philosophy and the control electronics are hereby discussed together with a preliminary testing made by using virtual prototyping tools. The kinematic layout is based on a serial double joint scheme. This choice is claimed to be the less expensive one, inasmuch as tolerances do not have to be narrow as for the parallel systems. The system also allows future users to tune dimensions (and relative workspace) easily. The interface is admittance controlled for maximizing the transparency with low cost drives. The device is based on the Intel Galileo open-source development board: this board embeds a powerful chip-sets that enables us to perform real-time 2DOF control tasks that are hardly reachable with the most common open source electronic platforms. All the choices listed above are discussed and evaluated, with focus on performance-to-cost ratio.

[52] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Carrabba E., Di Donato M., Fiorentino M., Uva A.E., An application based on Augmented Reality and mobile technology to support remote maintenance, 11th Conference and Exhibition of the European Association of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality, EuroVR 2014, 131-135, (2014). Abstract

Abstract: Product maintenance is a service offered to customers which represents an interesting business for companies. Their interest is both providing a good service in terms of quality and at the same time cutting operational costs. In this view companies are seeking tools that enable them to reach both goals, among those offered by the rapidly evolving ICT sector. The paper describes an application based on augmented reality and mobile technologies aiming to support remote maintenance operations, and improve maintenance services that companies offer to their customers. The paper describes the main idea at the basis of the application, the requirements as well as its implementation. Finally a case study is presented.

[53] Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Human-centred early prototypes of consumer products: Insights from HCI, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 2014-January, 507-516, (2014).
[54] Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Ferrise F., Graziosi S., Prototyping for the product experience: An example in the household appliances industry, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1A, (2014). Abstract

Abstract: The objective of the paper is to present a case study to exploit interactive Virtual Prototypes (iVPs) for investigating the way humans experience products. This method can be used for "prototyping" new product experiences, for monitoring users' emotional reactions during the interaction and finally, for practically redesigning these experiences on the basis of the users' feedback. Products considered here are domestic appliances, where the experience consists of the interaction with their physical interfaces.

[55] Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Ferrise F., Graziosi S., A method for bringing user experience upstream to design: This paper intends to correlate human emotional response to product physical characteristics, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 9(3), 181-194, (2014). Abstract

Abstract: In the product development process one of the crucial phases is the evaluation of the design of the product that must satisfy the marketing targets based on the users' needs analysis. It is commonly acknowledged that a product is successful if people like and buy it. In the phase of ideation of a new product, it is paramount to test functionality and performances as well as the users' appreciation and feeling towards the new product. More specifically, in the case of consumer products characterised by a plurality of offers, interaction and experience should be addressed in addition to function and aesthetics in the user studies. Recent research has focused on the study of the user's emotional reaction when interacting and experiencing products, which is correlated with the global appreciation of the product and of its attributes. This paper presents an emotional engineering methodology using interactive virtual prototyping for evaluating the user experience and the emotional response with newly designed products early in the development process. The methodology suggests a way to optimise those aspects at the product concept phase. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Keywords: emotional engineering | product experience | virtual prototyping

[56] Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Phillips Furtado G., Bordegoni M., Reverse engineering of interactive mechanical interfaces for product experience design: This paper proposes a method for guiding the redesign of product interfaces based on a reverse engineering approach, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 9(2), 65-79, (2014). Abstract

Abstract: Designing physical interfaces, like the doors of consumer products, able to elicit a positive experience when interacting with them, is now becoming a key priority for design teams. One of the main difficulties of this activity consists of translating all the qualitative perceptual feedback that can be captured from the customers into quantitative specifications. Performing this translation is not an easy task since there are still no effective tools, methodologies or approaches able to guide designers in accomplishing this goal. To overcome this lack a reverse engineering-based approach is proposed. This one guides designers towards the modelling, parameterisation and reproduction of the behaviour of the product interface to be redesigned, within a multisensory virtual environment. The intent is to let the user experience different behaviours in order to ask them to identify the desired one or to express preferences for updating it in real-time according to indications provided. At the same time a detailed physics model, built by the designer, is used to convert this desired behaviour, into detailed quantitative design specifications. The method is defined as a reverse engineering one for two main reasons: first the new interaction is derived on the basis of the behaviour of an existing interface, taken as reference, and second a reverse engineering of the user's perceptual preferences is applied to derive new specifications. A case study is discussed to demonstrate the method effectiveness and to highlight its limitations. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Keywords: haptics | interactive systems | product experience | reverse engineering | virtual prototyping

[57] Beni N., Grottoli M., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Rapid prototyping of low cost 1 DOF haptic interfaces, IEEE Haptics Symposium, HAPTICS, 479-483, (2014). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes the issues related to the implementation and the control of a low cost 1DOF haptic device. Arduino, which has been widely adopted in the interaction design schools as a means to produce low cost, low-fi and rapid prototypes of interactive systems, has been used here as an alternative to more performing electronic control boards to control a DC motor and simulate a haptic knob. The idea is to explore the possibility of creating simple prototypes of haptic devices before building the final product. At this stage we have explored the implementation of a simple haptic knob, trying to identify the main issues. In particular, some control strategies have been used for the motor, and pros and cons are described in the paper. © 2014 IEEE.

Keywords: H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: User Interfaces?Haptic I/O

[58] Ferrise F., Furtado G.P., Graziosi S., Bordegoni M., Digitalizing and capturing haptic feedback in virtual prototypes for user experience design, 2013 18th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing, DSP 2013, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: The term User Experience (UX) is commonly associated with interactive computer-based systems. Companies operating in the consumer market are recently discovering the importance of designing UX, and in particular multisensory UX, of any kind of system, and not necessarily high-tech products. One of the most effective ways to design UX is to enable users interacting with the prototype of the system during the design process, and in particular already during its initial stages. These prototypes should provide the same experience occurring while interacting with the corresponding real product. To this aim Virtual Prototypes (VPs) may be effectively used, especially in the early design stages when the activities are still in progress and changes are frequent. Multisensory UX can be effectively designed through VPs only if all the senses involved in the real interaction are recreated into the virtual simulation. To date, despite a growing interest of research and industry in the development and use of VPs, many applications are still limited to visual and sound simulations. This paper focuses on the use of VPs to design multisensory UX, concentrating on the introduction of the sense of touch in the simulation. The methodological approach as well as the development of a case study are described in the paper. © 2013 IEEE.

Keywords: Haptics | User experience design | Virtual prototyping

[59] Graziosi S., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Ozbey O., A method for capturing and translating qualitative user experience into design specifications: The haptic feedback of appliance interfaces, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 7 DS75-07, 427-436, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes a methodological approach specifically developed to capture and transform the qualitative User Experience (UX) of a consumer product into quantitative technical specifications. Merging the potentialities of Virtual Prototypes (VPs) and Digital Mock-Ups (DMU), a flexible design scenario is built to interpret users' desires. Visual, sound and haptic stimuli are reproduced in order to let users live a realistic multisensory experience interacting with the virtual replica of the product. Parametric models are defined to acquire users' preferences while optimization algorithms are used to transform them into technical specifications. The aim of the approach is to propose a robust technique to objectify users' desires and enable their direct and active participation within the product development process. The methodology is derived merging insights coming from four case studies as well as indications available in literature. Specifically the paper describes how to design the multisensory UX with household appliance doors and drawers with a specific focus on the haptic/force feedback objectification. © 2013 The Design Society.

Keywords: Experience design | Haptic feedback | Human in the loop | User centred design | Virtual reality

[60] Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Ferrise F., Multisensory user experience design of consumer products, Emotional Engineering, 2, 219-242, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: In recent years, the production of consumer goods has exceeded that of industrial products. This has led to changes in the areas of design and production. The target users of industrial products (in the Business to Business-B2B market) are industries that decide to purchase a product on the basis of its technical features, functions and performance. Differently, the target users of consumer products (in the Business to Consumer-B2C market) are the consumers who choose a product driven by other aspects, besides features and functions, such as the perceived value, the expected benefits, the emotions elicited, as well as features and functions. This has brought a paradigm shift in the design process. And in fact, the design of consumer products is increasingly focusing on the so-called user experience. The designer must not design only the product, but also the user experience in relation to its use. The resulting product should have a high perceived value and generate positive emotions in the consumer. These factors make a successful product on the market. Therefore, the role of the designer is designing the products and the perceptual aspects of their use, that is, designing the user experience and deriving from that the products' specifications. Consequently to that, the design process has changed in the last years. In fact, the user is now at the center of the design process, named user-centered design. Being the new focus the target users, the evaluation of their interaction with the new designed products is expected to be rigorous and systematic. An efficient approach has proved to be one in which the validation is made up by involving users in the early stages of the product design. Since typically at the level of the concept the product, or a prototype that is comparable with it at the perceptual level, is not available, it is not possible to make a thorough validation of its use with users. However, new methodologies of Virtual Prototyping allow us to simulate multisensory user interaction with product concepts early in the design process. This chapter introduces the use of interactive Virtual Prototyping (iVP) methodology for the design of the user experience with the concept of a new product. Interactive components of new products and their behavior are simulated through functional models, and users can experience them through multisensory Virtual Reality (VR) technologies.

[61] Filippi S., Barattin D., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Human in the loop: A model to integrate interaction issues in complex simulations, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8012 LNCS(PART 1), 242-251, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: Several activities of the product development process as for example ergonomic analyses, usability testing, and what is defined as User Experience - UX- design in general require humans to be involved as testers. In order to achieve a good effectiveness degree, these tests must be performed on prototypes as much as possible similar to the final product, and this is costly and sometimes difficult to obtain during the development process. This is especially true at the earliest stages of the process. Functional mock-up - FMU - methods and tools can be of great help, because they allow technological aspects of the products, as electronics, hydraulics, mechanics, etc. to be represented and managed in a simple and effective way. Mathematical equations allow product behavior to be determined, due to input values representing the application environment of the product. At the moment, an FMU model is great in simulating product behavior from the technological point of view, but concerns about user interaction issues are left apart. The research described in this paper aims at widening the coverage of FMU to user-product interaction issues. The goal aims at evaluating the possibility of substituting real users with a characterization of them, and to model and simulate interaction in a homogeneous way together with all the other product aspects. All of this makes the research activities very challenging, and the result is a sort of FMU-assisted interaction modeling. As an evolution of what is generally recognized as hardware and software-in-the-loop, this methodology will be referred as human-in-the-loop. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Keywords: Functional Mock-Up | Interaction | User Experience

[62] Ferrise F., Graziosi S., Phillips Furtado G., Bordegoni M., Bongini D., Re-engineering of the haptic feedback of a dishwasher door, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 10(6), 995-1006, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes the results of an on-going research activity whose aim is to allow companies, operating in the consumer goods market, to design the multisensory experience of their products. In case of the household appliances market, which is the research context of this study, the user experience derives from the interaction with specific product features such as the door, buttons, and drawers. Designing a good multisensory experience is complex since it means taking into account a combination of visual, hearing and haptic feedbacks a user perceives when interacting with the product. Virtual Reality offers the technologies to design and test that experience thought virtual prototypes, even if to date there is a lack of methodological approaches to practically guide and support this design activity. Relying on the results of previous authors' researches, the paper describes further methodological advances focused on making usable the proposed approach in the current design practice. The case study chosen to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method is a dishwasher door and the paper describes how to re-engineer the haptic feedback of a commercial model in order to make it more perceptually appealing at the moment of purchase. © 2013 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: Haptic interaction | Reverse engineering | User experience design | Virtual prototyping

[63] Ferrise F., Caruso G., Bordegoni M., Multimodal training and tele-assistance systems for the maintenance of industrial products: This paper presents a multimodal and remote training system for improvement of maintenance quality in the case study of washing machine, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 8(2), 113-126, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes an application based on Virtual and Augmented Reality technologies specifically developed to support maintenance operations of industrial products. Two scenarios have been proposed. In the first an operator learns how to perform a maintenance operation in a multimodal Virtual Reality environment that mixes a traditional instruction manual with the simulation, based on visual and haptic technologies, of the maintenance training task. In the second scenario, a skilled user operating in a multimodal Virtual Reality environment can remotely train another operator who sees the instructions about how the operations should be correctly performed, which are superimposed onto the real product. The paper presents the development of the application as well as its testing with users. Furthermore limits and potentialities of the use of Virtual and Augmented Reality technologies for training operators for product maintenance are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Keywords: assembly | haptics | virtual prototyping

[64] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Designing interaction with consumer products in a multisensory virtual reality environment: This paper shows how Virtual Reality technology can be used instead of physical artifacts or mock-ups for the new product and evaluation of its usage, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 8(1), 51-64, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: In the domain of industrial product development, products have been traditionally communicated to final users by means of technical drawings, sketches and physical prototypes. Recently, companies have tended to develop digital versions of products, which can be used with the purpose of communicating a new product to users, and also with the aim of allowing users to evaluate the product and its variants before its physical construction. Virtual prototyping is a relatively recent practice used in various industrial domains, which aims at anticipating a product that does not exist in reality yet. This practice can be used for evaluating the aesthetic quality of a product, its functional features and also its ergonomic and usability aspects. Current virtual reality technology well supports the implementation of effective virtual prototypes. In fact, one can touch, move, manipulate, and operate the virtual prototypes of products, such as household appliances, electronic devices, etc., with a good degree of realism. In order to do this, the interaction with virtual prototypes is multimodal and multisensory, and is often based on the combination of visual, haptic and auditory modalities. This paper shows how virtual prototypes can be used instead of physical artefacts or mock-ups for the communication of a new product or of variants of an existing product, and for the preliminary evaluation of its usage. The effectiveness of this practice is proved by tests performed by users. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Keywords: haptic interaction design | virtual environments | virtual prototyping

[65] Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Graziosi S., A method for designing users' experience with industrial products based on a multimodal environment and mixed prototypes, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 10(3), 461-474, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes a methodology that can be employed to perform the analysis of aspects related to human interaction with consumer products during the Product Development Process, thanks to the use of mixed prototypes. The methodology aims at helping designers to take decisions earlier compared to the current practice based on not easily modifiable physical prototypes. Authors' method considers the interaction with adaptable mixed prototypes as a possible validating procedure for product interaction-enabling features: a multimodal environment is created to perform these validations, integrating three sensorial modalities such as vision, hearing and touch. The paper firstly describes the requirements for the creation of the multimodal environment. Then it focuses on the opportunity of using an approach based on mixed prototypes rather than on completely virtual ones: the intent is to increase the level of "realism" of the simulation by overcoming limitations of actual technologies for the sense of touch. Finally, a case study is discussed, starting from the analysis of a commercial consumer product up to the interaction with the developed Mixed Prototype. The expected benefits for the product development process are highlighted. © 2013 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: Haptic interaction | Product virtualization | Virtual and mixed prototyping

[66] Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Interactive virtual prototypes for testing the interaction with new products, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 10(3), 515-525, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: Today, the tests of a new product in its conceptual and design stage can be performed by using digital models owning various levels of complexity. The level of complexity depends on the nature and on the accuracy of the tests that have to be performed. Besides, the tests can involve or not the interaction with humans. Particularly, this second aspect must be taken into account when developing the simulation model. In fact, this introduces a different kind of complexity with respect to simulations where humans are not involved. Simulation models used for numerical analyses of the behavior of the product (such as Finite Element Analysis, multi- body analysis, etc.) are typically named Digital Mock- Ups. Instead, simulations that are interactive in their nature, requiring humans- in- the- loop, are named interactive Virtual Prototypes. They cannot be intended as a simple upgrade of a CAD model of a product, but they are instead a combination of functional models, mapped into sensorial terms and then accessed through multisensory and multimodal interfaces. In this paper, the validity of this concept is demonstrated through some case studies where interactive Virtual Prototypes are used to substitute the corresponding physical ones during activities concerning the product conceptualization and design. © 2013 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: CAD modeling | Mixed prototyping | Simulations | Virtual prototyping

[67] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Cugini U., Development of virtual prototypes based on visuo/tactile interaction for the preliminary evaluation of consumer products usage, CIRP Design 2012 - Sustainable Product Development, 149-158, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes an application based on low cost Virtual Reality technologies whose aim is to help designers in testing some functional aspects of their product concepts without the need of building physical mockups. In particular the application allows the designers to test aspects related to the usage of products. A case study that enables designer to verify the ergonomics aspects of the interactive Virtual Prototype (iVP) of a commercial refrigerator has been implemented. The iVP is based on a three-dimensional scale representation of the product and the use of a low cost user interface as input/output device. The paper describes the implementation of the iVP and the results of some preliminary user study that has been performed in order to validate the visuo/haptic interaction approach. © Springer-Verlag London 2013.

[68] Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Functional modeling: A key point in CAD systems, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 12, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: For more than 40 years the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools has been focused on the description of the geometry of products. More recently, CAD tools have evolved in tools to support the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), which are more oriented to support the management aspects of the product development process than the design process itself. Recently, it has been introduced a new design method that adopts a top-down approach, which starts from the definition of a Functional MockUp (FMU) allowing to simulate the overall behavior and the use of the concept level before the detailed design. This method is closer to the typical logical sequence of design, where the designer has at first an overall view of a system and of its sub-components, and then he takes care of the details. This method is supported by commercial tools, as the LMS-Amesim suite, or by open-source software tools based on the Modelica language. This is an open-source language allowing designers to integrate and describe at functional level several aspects of a system, including mechanical, electrical, thermal, hydraulic, control and others allowing to simulate all together. The paper analyses this methodological approach and presents some applications where some systems are designed using a functional modeling approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

[69] Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Fiorentino M., Uva A.E., Integration of realtime finite element analysis and haptic feedback for hands-on learning of the mechanical behavior of materials, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2 B, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes a novel application of real-time finite element analysis controlled by a haptic device. The user can impose displacement constraints to a virtual structure using a probe and sense in real-time the response in terms of forces on her/his hand. In addition, conventional color map results are visualized on a desktop monitor. The application has been developed with the aim of simplifying the teaching of the mechanical behavior of materials in engineering schools by transforming the learning phase into an enactive process. A set of examples commonly used in the mechanical engineering courses have been implemented and tested. The paper describes and discusses the system implementation, the potentialities and the issues of such approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

[70] Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., A methodology based on interactive virtual prototypes for a better design of consumer-product interaction, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 3(PARTS A, B, AND C), 433-440, (2012). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes the preliminary results of a research activity on the design of consumer-product interaction by means of interactive Virtual Prototypes (iVPs). Differently from Virtual Prototypes (VPs), which can be defined as an integration of geometries and functional multi-domain and multi-physics models, interactive Virtual Prototypes can be implemented as an integration of functional models for each sense - in this case vision, touch and hearing - which are parametric and independent from each other, so that they can be modified on request. Thanks to the use of iVPs the interaction design approach can be reversed. In fact, first the iVP can be used for the design and evaluation with final users of the consumer-product interaction, and then the resulting interaction parameters can be mapped back to the functional models of the VPs by following a sort of reverse engineering activity. So, the interaction specifications are not derived by questionnaires and focus groups with potential customers, but products are shown, tested, and customised directly with the potential buyers. This method presents several advantages for companies. It allows designers to more easily and directly capture the voice of the customers by gathering an immediate feedback about new interaction modalities, and also to design and validate at the same time the emotional response of their products. Besides, these studies and validations can be performed when the product design is in its infancy and technical decisions have not been taken, with the consequent advantage that design changes are not too expensive. The paper demonstrates the validity and potentiality of the methodology through some case studies. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

[71] Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Ferrise F., Requirements for an enactive tool to support skilled designers in aesthetic surfaces definition, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 6(2), 83-91, (2012). Abstract

Abstract: In common industrial practice the definition of shapes of styling products is performed by product designers by handcrafting scale models made of clay while exploiting their manual skills. Several Computer-Aided Styling tools have been introduced in years with the aim of allowing the creation of product shapes in digital. But the low interest of developers to provide designers with a natural interface that would allow them to continue to use their learned manual skills, has led them to continue to work on clay materials and produce expensive physical prototypes. Enactive Interfaces have been demonstrated to be effective to support the exploitation of human skills including the manual skill of industrial designers. The paper describes an Enactive Interface that has been conceived to support designers in the evaluation of aesthetic shapes, which consists of a combination of an active manual and visual exploration of the shape. The Enactive Interface is the combination of visuo-haptic technologies and has been implemented on the basis of observations of the shape evaluation activity performed by manually skilled designers. In the paper we describe the testing sessions performed to capture the designers' manual skill, the working principles of the enactive interface and finally the results of the subsequent testing activities specifically carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the interface. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: Aesthetic shape evaluation | Designers' skills | Enactive Interface | Haptic interface | Multimodal interface

[72] Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., A multimodal environment for the simulation and training of maintenance operations: A case study, ASME/ISCIE 2012 International Symposium on Flexible Automation, ISFA 2012, 653-661, (2012). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes the development of a multimodal environment that can be used as a tool to train operators to perform maintenance tasks of industrial products during their lifecycle. The environment provides a visual and haptic representation of a product through the use of commercially-available hardware and software technologies. The new environment mixes interactive simulations of products, based on Virtual Reality technologies, and the information included in the traditional instruction manuals. The paper discusses about what can be effectively simulated with the available technology, and how the current technological limitations can be overcome by using the potentialities offered by a multimodal approach. Technology limitations can also be overcome by mixing two different strategies for coupling parts: the physics-based and the constraint-based approach. A case study provided by a company working in the field of household appliances has been used to prove the concept, to develop, test and finally refine the multimodal environment. The paper describes the development of the multimodal environment and presents the results of the user tests. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

[73] Ferrise F., Ambrogio M., Gatti E., Lizaranzu J., Bordegoni M., Virtualization of industrial consumer products for haptic interaction design, ASME 2011 World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality, WINVR 2011, 9-18, (2011). Abstract

Abstract: The haptic feedback perceived during the interaction with consumer products is an important aspect since it concurs in creating, together with the aesthetic features and sonic feedback, the emotional response during the first contacts with a product. And this may be decisive for the user's decision of purchasing a product instead of another one. So the design of the haptic behavior of interaction elements of products can be both a successful strategy for capturing consumers' attention but even a need for avoiding problems during the use. The paper describes the process of virtualization of the interaction with an industrial consumer product by means of haptic, sound and visualization technologies in order to obtain a prototype (interactive Virtual Prototypes) useful to design and test the haptic feedback of interaction elements directly with end users. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

[74] Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Fast prototyping of virtual replica of real products, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 6774 LNCS(PART 2), 318-326, (2011). Abstract

Abstract: The ability to capture customers' needs and the voice of customers, and to translate them into a set of product specifications that at best satisfy the target customers has increasingly become a key element of business strategy. The common practice consists in evaluating products at the end of the design process through physical prototypes with the participation of users and potential customers. The same practice can be implemented by using virtual replica of real products, reducing cost and time necessary to build some variants. The paper presents a methodology for the development of the virtual prototype of a piece of furniture, produced by a company that is interested in studying how customers perceive and evaluate some variants of the hinge mechanism. The virtual prototype has been implemented using a tool for virtual reality applications oriented to non-expert programmers. The modularity and flexibility of the approach used for implementing the virtual replica has allowed us to re-use the components, and to easily change the parameters, also during the test activities. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: Fast Prototyping | Virtual Products | Virtual Prototyping

[75] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Covarrubias M., Antolini M., Geodesic spline interface for haptic curve rendering, IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 4(2), 111-121, (2011). Abstract

Abstract: Several haptic devices have been developed in recent years in order to reproduce the sensation of physical contact with virtual objects. Many of these devices are point-based, and some haptic interfaces behave like small surfaces that conform to a virtual shape. None of these allow a full-hand contact with the shape, and they are, in general, too small to render big surfaces. The simulation of tasks, such as the exploration of aesthetic surfaces made by industrial designers in order to check the quality of prototypes, require full-hand contact with the shape on a one-to-one scaled representation of the object. These explorations follow trajectories that can be approximated with planar or geodesic curves. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a linear haptic device that is able to render these trajectories. The device is part of a multimodal system including stereoscopic visualization that allows visual representation of the entire surface. Industrial designers use the system for checking the quality of shapes while exploiting their manual and visual skills. The system has been tested by industrial designers and the results are reported in this paper. © 2011 IEEE.

Keywords: curve rendering | Haptic strip | industrial design | mixed reality | multimodal interfaces | virtual prototyping

[76] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Lizaranzu J., Use of interactive Virtual Prototypes to define product design specifications: A pilot study on consumer products, ISVRI 2011 - IEEE International Symposium on Virtual Reality Innovations 2011, Proceedings, 11-18, (2011). Abstract

Abstract: Virtual Prototyping (VP) aims at substituting physical prototypes currently used in the industrial design practice with their virtual replica. The ultimate goal of VP is reducing the cost and time necessary to implement and test different design solutions. The paper describes a pilot study that aims at understanding how interactive Virtual Prototypes (iVPs) of consumer products (where interaction is based on the combination of haptic, sound and 3D visualization technologies) would allow us to design the interaction parameters that concur in creating the first impression of the products that customers have when interacting with them. We have selected two commercially available products and, once created the corresponding virtual replica, we have first checked the fidelity of the iVPs by comparing them with the corresponding real products, when used to perform the same activities. Then, differently from the traditional use of Virtual Prototypes for product design evaluation, we have used them for haptic interaction design, i.e. as a means to define some design variables used for the specification of new products: variations are applied to iVP haptic parameters so as to test with final users their preferences concerning the haptic interaction with a simulated product. The iVP configuration that users liked most has then been used for the definition of the specifications for the design of the new product. © 2011 IEEE.

Keywords: I.3.6 [Computing Methodologies]: Methodology and TechniquesInteraction techniques | J.6 [Computer Applications]: COMPUTERAIDED ENGINEERINGComputer-aided design (CAD)

[77] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Lizaranzu J., The use of interactive Virtual Prototypes for products specification in the concept design phase, Proceedings - IEEE Virtual Reality, 197-198, (2011). Abstract

Abstract: The paper describes the use of interactive Virtual Prototypes (iVP) for the specification of consumer products and for the evaluation of the perceived quality of the product already in its conceptual form. iVPs are based on multimodal interaction including force-feedback and sound in addition to 3D stereoscopic visualization. The fidelity of the prototypes has been evaluated in comparison with the corresponding real products, when used for performing the same tests. Differently from the traditional use of Virtual Prototypes, which aims at evaluating the product design, we have used iVPs for the interaction design of a new product, i.e. it has been used as a means to define the design parameters used for the specification of a new product. © 2011 IEEE.

Keywords: I.3.6 [Computing Methodologies]: Methodology and TechniquesInteraction techniques | J.6 [Computer Applications]: COMPUTERAIDED ENGINEERINGComputer-aided design (CAD)

[78] Ferrise F., Ambrogio M., Parise E., A mixed reality annotation tool for collaborative design, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering, TMCE 2010, 2, 1647-1660, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: The design of industrial products is a process based on the collaboration of different experts with different technical knowledge and backgrounds. For example during the first stages of the design process the shape of the product is defined by designers from the aesthetic point of view. Late in the process the same shape is analyzed by engineers and refined. Today, due to the use of different specific computer-aided tools, it happens that sometimes the representation of the product made by the different members of the design team is not the same. Then the different backgrounds of the members of the team may cause the use of different languages and concepts to represent the same information. So the exchange of information in the design team can become the bottleneck of the entire design process. This paper describes an annotation tool integrated in a Mixed Reality environment whose aim is to try to reduce the time and augment the level of collaboration. The Mixed Reality environment, in which the two phases of the definition and analysis of the shape have been integrated, makes use of a semi-immersive visualization system and some haptic technologies. The application has been validated through some user tests and the results have highlighted the potentialities of the entire application in terms of collaboration and the limits in terms interaction that are basically due to the fact that some users are still not familiar with these technologies. © Organizing Committee of TMCE 2010 Symposium.

Keywords: Annotation systems | Collaborative design and engineering | Knowledge management | Virtual prototyping

[79] Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Lizaranzu J., Product design review application based on a vision-sound-haptic interface, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 6306 LNCS, 169-178, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: Most of the activities concerning the design review of new products based on Virtual Reality are conducted from a visual point of view, thus limiting the realism of the reviewing activities. Adding the sense of touch and the sense of hearing to traditional virtual prototypes, may help in making the interaction with the prototype more natural, realistic and similar to the interaction with real prototypes. Consequently, this would also contribute in making design review phases more effective, accurate and reliable. In this paper we describe an application for product design review where haptic, sound and vision channels have been used to simulate the interaction with a household appliance. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: Interaction Design | Multimodal Interaction | Product Design Review | Virtual Prototyping

[80] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Covarrubias M., Antolini M., Haptic and sound interface for shape rendering, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 19(4), 341-363, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: This paper presents a system for the evaluation of the shape of aesthetic products. The evaluation of shapes is based on characteristic curves, which is a typical practice in the industrial design domain. The system, inspired by characteristic curves, is based on a haptic strip that conforms to a curve that the designer wishes to feel, explore, and analyze by physically touching it. The haptic strip is an innovative solution in the haptics domain, although it has some limitations concerning the domain of curves that can be actually represented. In order to extend this domain and make users feel the various curve features, for example curvature discontinuities, sound has been exploited as an additional information modality. © 2010 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

[81] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Covarrubias M., Antolini M., A linear haptic interface for the evaluation of shapes, Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference 2009, DETC2009, 2(PART B), 1571-1579, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: The paper presents a haptic device that allows a user to explore a virtual object along a continuous line. In particular the device is developed with the aim of supporting designers during the evaluation of the aesthetic quality of a virtual product. This is generally done by means of the global and local analysis of the shape in terms of curvature characteristics, presence of inflections points and discontinuities. In order to evaluate such features, designers are used to work on physical prototypes, relying on their skilled sense of touch. It is known that physical prototypes are expensive in terms of cost and time for their re-alization, and a modification on a physical prototype implies a reverse engineering process for appling such modifications on the virtual model. A linear haptic interface, that adapts its shape reproducing a generic curve on a surface, has been developed to replicate the behavior of a physical strip. This is the way to replace real prototypes with virtual ones without changing the evaluation paradigms that designers are used to. The physical limitations encountered in representing discontinuities in po.sition, tangency and curvature, not renderable by bending and de-forming a physical strip, have been overcome thanks to the application of some principles of the theory of haptic illusions by means of sonification of some curve characteristics, The paper describes the linear haptic interface developed and the solution based on haptic illusion that has been implemented to overcome the strip limitations. Copyright © 2009 by ASME.

[82] de Araújo B.R., Guerreiro T., Fonseca M.J., Jorge J.A., Pereira J.M., Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Covarrubias M., Antolini M., An haptic-based immersive environment for shape analysis and modelling, Journal of Real-Time Image Processing, 5(2), 73-90, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: Currently, the design of aesthetic products is a process that requires a set of activities where digital models and physical mockups play a key role. Typically, these are modified (and built) several times before reaching the desired design, increasing the development time and, consequently, the final product cost. In this paper, we present an innovative design environment for computer-aided design (CAD) surface analysis. Our system relies on a direct visuo-haptic display system, which enables users to visualize models using a stereoscopic view, and allows the evaluation of sectional curves using touch. Profile curves are rendered using an haptic device that deforms a plastic strip, thanks to a set of actuators, to reproduce the curvature of the shape co-located with the virtual model. By touching the strip, users are able to evaluate shape characteristics, such as curvature or discontinuities (rendered using sound), and to assess the surface quality. We believe that future computer-aided systems (CAS)/CAD systems based on our approach will contribute in improving the design process at industrial level. Moreover, these will allow companies to reduce the product development time by reducing the number of physical mockups necessary for the product design evaluation and by increasing the quality of the final product, allowing a wider exploration and comparative evaluation of alternatives in the given time. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: Haptic | Immersive | Stereo | Tracking

[83] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Ambrogio M., Caruso F., Bruno F., Data exchange and multi-layered architecture for a collaborative design process in virtual environments, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 4(2), 137-148, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: The design review process of new products is time consuming, requires the collaboration and synchronization of activities performed by various experts having different competences and roles, and is today performed using different tools and different product representations. In order to improve the performances of the overall product design process, it would be beneficial the availability of Computer Aided tools supporting both conceptual design and analysis activities within an integrated environment based on a multi-disciplinary model paradigm. The paper presents an environment named PUODARSI that allows product designers to intuitively modify the shape of a product through haptic interaction and to test in real-time the structural and fluid-dynamics impact of these changes. The research work shows that a smooth and effective integration of modeling tools based on haptic interfaces, fluid-dynamics analysis tools, and Virtual Reality visualization systems is feasible in real-time through the use of a proper data model exchange. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: Design review | Haptic interaction | Interactive simulation | Multi-disciplinary model | Virtual design

[84] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Covarrubias M., Antolini M., A linear haptic interface for the evaluation of shapes, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2(PARTS A AND B), 1571-1579, (2009). Abstract

Abstract: The paper presents a haptic device that allows a user to explore a virtual object along a continuous line. In particular the device is developed with the aim of supporting designers during the evaluation of the aesthetic quality of a virtual product. This is generally done by means of the global and local analysis of the shape in terms of curvature characteristics, presence of inflections points and discontinuities. In order to evaluate such features, designers are used to work on physical prototypes, relying on their skilled sense of touch. It is known that physical prototypes are expensive in terms of cost and time for their realization, and a modification on a physical prototype implies a reverse engineering process for appling such modifications on the virtual model. A linear haptic interface, that adapts its shape reproducing a generic curve on a surface, has been developed to replicate the behavior of a physical strip. This is the way to replace real prototypes with virtual ones without changing the evaluation paradigms that designers are used to. The physical limitations encountered in representing discontinuities in position, tangency and curvature, not renderable by bending and de-forming a physical strip, have been overcome thanks to the application of some principles of the theory of haptic illusions by means of sonification of some curve characteristics. The paper describes the linear haptic interface developed and the solution based on haptic illusion that has been implemented to overcome the strip limitations. © 2009 by ASME.

[85] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Ambrogio M., Haptic interaction and interactive simulation in an AR environment for aesthetic product design, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 5622 LNCS, 293-302, (2009). Abstract

Abstract: Market rules show that most of the times the aesthetic impact of a product is an important aspect that makes the difference in terms of success among different products. The product shape is generally created and represented during the conceptual phase of the product and the last trends show that the use of haptic devices allows users to more naturally and effectively interact with 3D models. Nevertheless the shape needs to satisfy some engineering requirements, and its aesthetic and functional analysis requires the collaboration and synchronization of activities performed by various experts having different competences and roles. This paper presents the description of an environment named PUODARSI that allows designers to modify the shape of a product and engineers to evaluate in real-time the impact of these changes on the structural and fluid dynamic properties of the product, describing the choice of the software tools, the implementation and some usability tests. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Keywords: Haptic interaction | Interactive simulation | Mixed reality

[86] Mussio P., Valtolina S., Barricelli B.R., Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Ambrogio M., Distributed knowledge creation, recording and improvement in collaborative design, Studies in Computational Intelligence, 226, 31-41, (2009). Abstract

Abstract: The design of complex industrial products requires more knowledge than the one that a single person can possess. A successful industrial design entails a collaborative activity between designers and engineers during which they share their specialized knowledge accepting and interpreting their points of view through a multi-disciplinary and collaborative methodology. In particular, this paper focuses on issues related to the knowledge creation, management and enrichment for industrial collaborative design in virtual environment. The idea is to endow the virtual environment, used to create the 3D models and to carry out the analysis, with a knowledge management (KM) module able to gather information about different versions of the product and simulation analysis data. Moreover, this KM module includes an annotation tool used to support annotation-based collaboration between designers and engineers through which they can exchange impressions, ideas, and comments in order to achieve a shared solution about an industrial design issue. © 2009 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

[87] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Ambrogio M., Caruso G., Bruno F., Caruso F., Environment based on Augmented Reality and interactive simulation for product design review, 6th Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference 2008 - Proceedings, 27-34, (2008). Abstract

Abstract: The aesthetic impact of a product is an important parameter that makes the difference among products technologically similar and with same functionalities. Product shape, which is strictly connected to the aesthetic impact, has different meanings if seen from the design and the engineering point of view. The conceptual design of shape of aesthetic products is usually performed by designers at the beginning of the product development cycle. Subsequent engineering design and studies, such as structural and fluid-dynamic analyses, lead to several design reviews where the original shape of the object is often modified. The design review process is time consuming, requires the collaboration and synchronization of activities performed by various experts having different competences and roles, and is performed using different tools and different product representations. Then, computer aided tools supporting conceptual design and analysis activities within the same environment are envisaged. The paper presents the conceptual description of an environment named PUODARSI that allows designers to modify the shape of a product and evaluate in real-time the impact of these changes on the results of the structural and fluid dynamic analyses in an Augmented Reality (AR) collaborative environment. Main problems in integrating tools developed for different purposes, such as, haptic interaction, FEM and CFD analyses, AR visualization concern the feasibility of the integration, the data exchange, and the choice of those algorithms that allow all that while guaranteeing low computational time. The paper describes the main issues related to the choice of hardware and software technologies, and the PUODARSI system implementation. © The Eurographics Association 2008.

[88] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Ambrogio M., Caruso G., Bruno F., Caruso F., Mixed-reality environment based on haptics and interactive simulation for product design review, 20th European Modeling and Simulation Symposium, EMSS 2008, 140-145, (2008). Abstract

Abstract: The aesthetic impact of a product is an important parameter that makes the difference among products technologically similar and with same functionalities. The shape, which is strictly connected to the aesthetic impact, has different meanings if seen from the design and the engineering point of view. This paper describes an environment based on an integration of Mixed- Reality technologies, haptic tools and interactive simulation systems, named PUODARSI whose aim is to support designers and engineers during the phase of design review of aesthetic products. The environment allows the designer to modify the object shape, through the use of haptic devices, and the engineer to run the fluid-dynamics simulation on the product shape. The paper describes the main problems faced in integrating tools, originally developed for different purposes and in particular issues concerning data exchange, and the choice of those algorithms that guarantees low computational time as required by the application.

Keywords: Design review | Fluiddynamics analysis | Haptic interfaces | Mixed-Reality

[89] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Shelley S., Alonso M.A., Hermes D., Sound and tangible interface for shape evaluation and modification, HAVE 2008 - IEEE International Workshop on Haptic Audio Visual Environments and Games Proceedings, 148-153, (2008). Abstract

Abstract: One of the recent research topics in the area of design and virtual prototyping is offering designers tools for creating and modifying shapes in a natural and interactive way. Multimodal interaction is part of this research. It allows conveying to the users information through different sensory channels. The use of more modalities than touch and vision augments the sense of presence in the virtual environment and can be useful to present the same information in various ways. In addition, multimodal interaction can sometimes be used to augment the perception of the user by transferring information that is not generally perceived in the real world, but which can be emulated by the virtual environment. The paper presents a prototype of a system that allows designers to evaluate the quality of a shape with the aid of touch, vision and sound. Sound is used to communicate geometrical data, relating to the virtual object, which are practically undetectable through touch and vision. In addition, the paper presents the preliminary work carried out on this prototype and the results of the first tests made in order to demonstrate the feasibility. The problems related to the development of this kind of application and the realization of the prototype itself are highlighted. This paper also focuses on the potentialities and the problems relating to the use of multimodal interaction, in particular the auditory channel. ©2008 IEEE.

Keywords: Audio & visual sensors and displays | Haptic | Humancomputer interaction

[90] Bordegoni M., Caruso G., Ferrise F., Giraudo U., A mixed environment for ergonomic tests: Tuning of the stereo viewing parameters, 5th Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference 2007 - Proceedings, 1, 127-134, (2007). Abstract

Abstract: Virtual Reality and related technologies are becoming a common practice in the design industry in general and more specifically in the automotive field. By the joined use of virtual prototyping methodologies it is possible to achieve the reduction of the time-to-market, as well as the costs deriving from the creation of physical prototypes. Ergonomics tests conducted in Virtual Reality environments can be successfully used to influence the design of products. We have set up a mixed reality environment that allows us to simulate and test postural aspects as well as various levels and modalities of users' interaction. In order to achieve a performing interaction, correct registration and visualization parameters must be carefully set for preventing possible interaction errors, such as pointing with precision to the assigned target. The paper presents a methodology for tuning stereoscopic properties of the mixed reality environments used for ergonomic tests of a car interior in order to achieve correct visualization and positioning parameters. The environment includes a virtual human controlled by an optical motion tracking system, physical objects onto which the graphic virtual environment is superimposed, and a rotatory haptic device for controlling the car on-board infotainment. interface. © The Eurographics Association 2007.

[91] Bordegoni M., Giraudo U., Caruso G., Ferrise F., Ergonomic interactive testing in a mixed-reality environment, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 4563 LNCS, 431-440, (2007). Abstract

Abstract: The field of computer graphics is greatly increasing its overall performance enabling consequently the implementation of most of the product design process phases into virtual environments. The deriving benefits of using virtual practices in product development have been proved intrinsically highly valuable, since they foster the reduction of time to market, process uncertainty, and the translation of most prototyping activities into the virtual environment. In this paper we present the developed platform in mixed environment for ergonomic validation. Specifically we defined a methodology for testing both aspects related to design and ergonomic validation by allowing the tester to interact visually and physically with the car dashboard control devices and related interface by the mean of a rotatory haptic device. By experimental session it has been highlighted that it is possible gathering qualitative data about the design, and finding typical occlusion problems, but also quantitative data can be collected by testing the infotainment interface and the consequent users' distraction during the device use. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007.

Keywords: Ergonomic analysis | Mixed environments | Tactons

[92] Bruno F., Caurso F., Ferrise F., Muzzupappa M., VTK4AR: An object oriented framework for scientific visualization of CAE data in Augmented Reality, 4th Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference 2006 - Proceedings, 75-81, (2006). Abstract

Abstract: In the last ten years many Augmented Reality (AR) applications for Scientific Visualization have been developed, attesting the effectiveness of this technique for data visualization and interaction. In all these applications, a software framework for scientific visualization was used to process data to be visualized, while an AR system was employed to display these data within an AR context. Hence, everyone who intended to approach the development of such applications should become necessarily familiar with the scientific visualization framework and the augmented reality one. This is of course an hurdle for the applications development, and the idea behind this work is exactly to provide a software framework that simplifies the development of such applications. With this in mind, we extended an existing and powerful open source library for scientific visualization (VTK) with few but useful classes for the interfacing with an existing AR library (ARToolKit) to easily handle the video see-through and the video-tracking functionalities. The resulting software tool, called VTK4AR, can be considered as an all in one software framework specific for scientific visualization in AR. Moreover, since it is built on top of VTK, it will be possible to employ a wide range of visualization techniques in many application fields. In particular, it has been tested in two AR applications: one for displaying data relative to a CFD simulation of a flow past a helmet, and another for displaying the forming error obtained prototyping an ankle support with the incremental forming technique. © 2006 The Eurographics Association.