Abstract: We describe the design of a modular sensorized climbing wall for motion analysis in a naturalistic environment. The wall is equipped with force sensors to measure interaction forces between the athlete and the wall, which can be used by experienced instructors, athletes, or therapists, to gain insights into the quality of motion. A specifically designed triaxial load cell is integrated into each hold placement, invisible to the climber, and compatible with standard climbing holds. Data collected through the sensors is sent to an app running on a portable device. The wall can be adapted to different uses. To validate our design, we recorded a repeated climbing activity of eleven climbers with varying degrees of expertise. Analysis of the interaction forces during the exercise demonstrates that the sensor network design can provide valuable information to track and analyze exercise performance changes over time. Here we report the design process as well as the validation and testing of the sensorized climbing wall.
Keywords: instrumented climbing hold | motion analysis | performance | sensors | sport climbing
Abstract: Interactive data visualization plays a crucial role in the interpretability of large datasets. Virtual reality offers unique advantages in exploring data, beyond traditional 2-D views. This article presents a set of interaction artifacts designed for analyzing and interpreting complex datasets through immersive 3-D graph visualization and interaction. Our system makes complex datasets easier to work with by offering a wide range of visual customization tools and intuitive methods for selection, manipulation, and filtering. It also provides a cross-platform, collaborative environment that can be accessed by remote users through traditional computers, drawing tablets, and touchscreen devices.
Keywords: Data visualization | Large dataset | Three dimensional computer graphics | Visualization
Abstract: ugmented reality (AR) is increasingly considered to support scenarios of co-located and remote collaboration. Thus far, the core goal has been advancing the supporting technologies and assessing how they perform to inform design and development, thus providing support toward their maturity. Nevertheless, while understanding the performance and impact of supporting technology is indisputable groundwork, we argue that the field needs to adopt a framework that moves from answering questions about the proposed methods and technologies to a more holistic view, also encompassing collaboration. However, moving toward this goal challenges how evaluations are designed, adding complexity and raising several questions about what needs to be considered. In this article, we briefly examine the different dimensions entailed in collaborative AR and argue in favor of a distinctive evaluation framework that goes beyond current practice and sets its eyes on the elements that allow judging how collaboration unfolds while informing the role of the supporting technology.
Abstract: The industry's interest in Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR and AR) technologies started from the beginning of their appearance in the research world. Over the years, scholars observed ups and downs, to which various factors contributed. In recent years these technologies, now known as eXtended Reality (XR), have returned to fascinate the industrial world, mainly because most of the related enabling technologies have improved to the point of pushing companies to re-invest in them. The introduction of approaches such as the digital twin one and the recent hype on the metaverse is also a push in this direction. A few questions arise: what are the benefits of such technologies in the industry today, and what are the unexplored possibilities? Starting from a systematic literature review and exploring the practical implications of integrating technologies in the industrial field, the paper tries to answer these questions. The paper is not intended as a technological forecast but as a stimulus for future research.
Keywords: Industry 4.0 | Training | Virtual reality
Abstract: The challenges of sustainable development require a consistent transformation of decision-making practices in society and in the industry. In this regard, Virtual Reality (VR) is an effective tool, providing experiences that are not accessible in the real world. The overview effect is a feeling of interconnectedness and responsibility towards our planet and its inhabitants described by astronauts after seeing the Earth during spaceflights. We present a VR application merging the overview effect with data visualization. We illustrate the design process and perform a pilot test to assess the emotions raised by the VR experience. Furthermore, we report feedback from design engineering and sustainability experts discussing the applications' potential in decision-making contexts, including product development processes.
Keywords: Decision making | Emotional design | Human behaviour in design | Sustainability | Virtual reality
Abstract: Academic institutions are increasingly required to prepare future practitioners to face complex sustainability challenges. The need to foster the development of different skills, attitudes, and multidisciplinary collaboration raised the interest in alternative learning approaches. Game-based learning can be a tool to achieve a variety of desirable learning outcomes, including sustainability and collaborative attitudes change. We present a pilot study investigating the potential of a board game on sustainability risks and opportunities in product development and life cycle, performing a test with different student audiences. The paper discusses our results of the experiment, including a survey following the game, qualitative analysis of students' feedback, and observations during the game sessions. Additionally, we relate insights from students' reflections to CDIO learning objectives. We then illustrate lessons learned and the potential advantages of using the game compared to other teaching approaches and as a complementary tool. Finally, we propose future directions and recommendations for the use of the board game and game-based learning in sustainability education with different student audiences.
Keywords: Early design phases | Education | Game Based Learning | Serious Game | Sustainability
Abstract: In the era of ‘metaverse’, virtual environments are gaining popularity among new multimedia contents and are also recognized as a valuable means to deliver emotional content. This is favoured by cost reduction, availability and acceptance by end-users of virtual reality technology. Creating effective virtual environments can be achieved by exploiting several opportunities: creating artificial worlds able to generate different stories, mixing sensory cues, and making the whole interactive. The design space for creating emotional virtual environments is ample, and no clear idea of how to integrate the various components exists. This paper discusses how to combine multiple design elements to elicit five distinct emotions. We developed and tested two scenarios per emotion. We present the methodology, the development of the case studies, and the results of the testing.
Abstract: Sustainability considerations are traditionally difficult to trade-off with technical and business requirements in an early design phase. Hence, design teams need support to reflect early on in the process, on how sustainability may affect profitability and customer value fulfilment in the long term. The commoditisation of modelling and simulation techniques points to gamification and serious gaming as emerging approaches to raise awareness among the design team - as well as users and stakeholders - of the expected behaviour of a solution along its life cycle. The objective of this paper is to explore how serious games can be used to inform decision-makers about the value versus cost implications of being (or not being) 'sustainability compliant' when designing products and systems. The paper initially presents the findings from a descriptive study focused on the definition of 'design support' intended to raise sustainability awareness through serious gaming. It further describes the development, application and testing of one of such games for material selection in the aerospace industry.
Abstract: Research shows that reduced exposure to natural contexts is associated with an increase in psychophysical disorders. Recent evidence suggests that even a brief experience in natural scenarios can positively affect people's health and well-being. However, natural contexts are not always easily accessible. This study investigates the effects of natural and indoor virtual environments (VREs) on psychophysiological and cognitive responses. Following a within-subject design, 34 healthy participants were exposed to two VREs (i.e., a forest and a living room) in a counterbalanced order through a head-mounted display (Oculus Rift). Participants were asked to explore the scenarios and execute a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Physiological parameters (heart rate, skin conductance level [SCL], and respiration rate) were recorded during the whole session. After the exposure to VREs, participants filled a set of visual analog scales to rate their subjective experience of presence, relaxation, and stress. Participants reported a higher perceived sense of relaxation in the virtual forest. Moreover, their SCLs were significantly higher in this environment, showing that the forest elicited higher physiological arousal than the living room. Furthermore, their SCLs were significantly higher during the attentional task in the virtual living room. The results suggest that a natural virtual environment can make people feel more relaxed and physiologically engaged than an indoor scenario. The latter instead can be linked to a performing venue, as reported for real contexts. However, these changes were not related to modulations of attentional performance.
Abstract: The massive presence of plastic in the oceans, both in the form of large debris and micro-plastic, is raising global concern due to its severe effects on the marine environment and fauna, causing loss of biodiversity and potentially threatening human health. Even though this is due to poor waste management, the great production and consumption of single-use plastic is a significant exacerbating factor. Despite policies and bans can be effective measures, there is also the need to raise consumers’ awareness, so they can make more sustainable choices when purchasing, using, and dismissing products. In particular, educating young citizens and encouraging them to engage in pro-environmental behaviors is a fundamental task to reach this goal. In this work, we present Contact from the future, a digital game on plastic pollution for children, to create awareness and stimulate pro-environmental behaviors, discussing the definition of objectives and requirements, as well as the design and development of the application.
Keywords: Human computer interfaces/interactions | Virtual and augmented reality environments | Virtual prototyping
Abstract: Despite the great potential of Virtual Reality (VR) to arouse emotions, there are no VR affective databases available as it happens for pictures, videos, and sounds. In this paper, we describe the validation of ten affective interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) designed to be used in Virtual Reality. These environments are related to five emotions. The testing phase included using two different experimental setups to deliver the overall experience. The setup did not include any immersive VR technology, because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, but the VEs were designed to run on stereoscopic visual displays. We collected measures related to the participants’ emotional experience based on six discrete emotional categories plus neutrality and we included an assessment of the sense of presence related to the different experiences. The results showed how the scenarios can be differentiated according to the emotion aroused. Finally, the comparison between the two experimental setups demonstrated high reliability of the experience and strong adaptability of the scenarios to different contexts of use.
Abstract: This paper describes the design and preliminary test of a virtual reality driving simulator capable of conveying haptic and visual messages to promote eco-sustainable driving behavior. The driving simulator was implemented through the Unity game engine; a large street environment, including high-speed and urban sections, was created to examine different driving behaviors. The hardware setup included a gaming driving seat, equipped with a steering wheel and pedals; the virtual scenarios were displayed through an Oculus Rift headset to guarantee an immersive experience. Haptic stimulation (i.e., vibrations) was delivered to the driver through the accelerator pedal, while visual stimuli (i.e., icons and colors) were shown on a virtual head-up display. The sensory feedbacks were presented both alone and in combination, providing information about excessive acceleration and speed. Four different virtual scenarios, each one including a distracting element (i.e., navigator, rain, call, and traffic), were also created. Ten participants tested the simulator. Fuel consumption was evaluated by calculating a mean power index (MPI) in reference to the sensory feedback presentation; physiological reactions and responses to a usability survey were also collected. The results revealed that the haptic and visuo-haptic feedback were responsible for an MPI reduction, respectively, for 14% and 11% compared with a condition of no feedback presentation; while visual feedback alone resulted in an MPI increase of 11%. The efficacy of haptic feedback was also accompanied by a more relaxing physiological state of the users, compared with the visual stimulation. The system’s usability was adequate, although haptic stimuli were rated slightly more intrusive than the visual ones. Overall, these preliminary results highlight how promising the use of the haptic channel can be in communicating and guiding the driver toward a more eco-sustainable behavior.
Abstract: The present work is aimed at finding a correspondence between registered consumes for a Battery Electric Vehicle, using a dedicated algorithm, and data available installing a MEMS sensors platform in a scenario which recreates on-road driving conditions. The Virtual Reality (VR) setup is described in its composition together with the placement of MEMS equipment to configurate optimal conditions for driving tests. In specific, the use of SensorTile.box by STMicroelectronics was described in its functioning and for the measurement acquisition chain process. Also, the consumption model is implemented through Unity3D and Matlab software to obtain an estimation of power, State of Charge (SoC) and energy required to perform the simulation path. Afterwards, considering the available literature, it is posed in consideration how the obtained measures from sensors can be useful for a primary characterization of drivers' behavior. Finally, these results for single users are related to the energy requests to determine if and at which level these parameters are also indicators of impact on consumers.
Keywords: Battery Electric Vehicle | Driving behaviors | Eco-driving energy consumption | MEMS sensors
Abstract: Starting from the pro-environmental potential of virtual reality (VR), the aim was to understand how different statistical information formats can enhance VR persuasive potential for plastic consumption, recycling and waste. Naturalistic, immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) were designed ad hoc to display three kinds of statistical evidence formats, featured as three different formats (i.e., numerical, concrete and mixed). Participants were exposed only to one of the three formats in VR, and their affect, emotions, sense of presence, general attitudes toward the environment, specific attitudes and behavioral intentions toward plastic, use, waste, recycle, as well as their social desirability proneness were measured. Numerical format was the least effective across all dimensions. Concrete and mixed formats were similar. Social desirability only partially affected participants’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. Numerical format did not increase the persuasive efficacy of statistical evidence displayed in VR, with respect to visual alone. Implications and future directions for designing effective VRE promoting pro-environmental behaviors were discussed.
Abstract: The current and future challenges of sustainable development require a massive transformation of habits and behaviors in the whole society at many levels. This demands a change of perspectives, priorities, and practices that can only result from the development of more aware, informed, and instructed communities and individuals. The field of design for sustainable behavior is answering this need through the development of products, systems, and services to support the change of people’s habits and decision-making processes. In this regard, Virtual Reality (VR) is a promising tool: it has already been explored to drive sustainable behavior change in several situations, through a wide range of devices, technologies, and modalities. This variety provides uncountable opportunities to designers, but it comes with a series of ethical, psychological, and technical questions. Hence, VR developers should be able to distinguish and identify possible strategies, delivering suitable solutions for each case study. In this work, we present a framework for the development of VR experiences to support sustainable behavior change, based on a systematic review. We consider the various features to manage and possible alternatives when creating a VR experience, linking them to the behavioral aspects that can be addressed according to the project’s aim. The framework will provide designers with a tool to explore and orient themselves towards possible sets of optimal choices generating tailored solutions.
Abstract: Computer graphics is-in many cases-about visualizing what you cannot see. However, virtual reality (VR), from its beginnings, aimed at stimulating all human senses: not just the visual channel. Moreover, this set of multisensory stimuli allows users to feel present and able to interact with the virtual environment. In this way, VR aims to deliver experiences that are comparable to real-life ones in their level of detail and stimulation, intensity, and impact. Hence, VR is not only a means to see, but also to feel differently. With the spreading of VR technologies, there is a growing interest in using VR to evoke emotions, including positive and negative ones. This article discusses the current possibilities and the authors' experience collected in the field in trying to elicit emotions through VR. It explores how different design aspects and features can be used, describing their contributions and benefits in the development of affective VR experiences. This work aims at raising awareness of the necessity to consider and explore the full design space that VR technology provides in comparison to traditional media. Additionally, it provides possible tracks of VR affective applications, illustrating how they could impact our emotions and improve our life, and providing guidelines for their development.
Abstract: Nature has always been a source of inspiration for designers and engineers, through the imitation of biological patterns and structures. This emulating and creative process is nowadays supported by technologies and tools as additive manufacturing and computational design. This paper describes the design and prototyping of a lamp inspired by a plant called Physalis Alkekengi, known as Chinese Lantern. We present the development of an algorithm, based on a computational model from literature, to realize the 2D pattern and leaves. They were then 3D printed to create the structure of the lamp and obtain an aesthetical and symbolic shading effect.
Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms, together with a general increased computational performance, allow nowadays exploring the use of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) as a method of recognizing human emotion through the use of neural networks. The interest in facial emotion and expression recognition in real-life situations is one of the current cutting-edge research challenges. In this context, the creation of an ecologically valid facial expression database is crucial. To this aim, a controlled experiment has been designed, in which thirty-five subjects aged 18–35 were asked to react spontaneously to a set of 48 validated images from two affective databases, IAPS and GAPED. According to the Self-Assessment Manikin, participants were asked to rate images on a 9-points visual scale on valence and arousal. Furthermore, they were asked to select one of the six Ekman’s basic emotions. During the experiment, an RGB-D camera was also used to record spontaneous facial expressions aroused in participants storing both the color and the depth frames to feed a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to perform FER. In every case, the prevalent emotion pointed out in the questionnaires matched with the expected emotion. CNN obtained a recognition rate of 75.02%, computed comparing the neural network results with the evaluations given by a human observer. These preliminary results have confirmed that this experimental setting is an effective starting point for building an ecologically valid database.
Keywords: 3D facial database | Affective database | Basic emotions | Ecologically-valid data | Facial expression recognition | Human-robot interaction
Abstract: The following sections are included: • Introduction • Related Works • VR Maintenance Training: A Case Study • Implementation of the VR Application • Experimental Setup and Testing • Analysis of Test Results • Discussion and Conclusion • References.
Abstract: Occupancy analyses represent a crucial topic for building performance. At present, this is even true because of the pandemic emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 and the need to support the functional analysis of building spaces in relation to social distancing rules. Moreover, the need to assess the suitability of spaces in high occupancy buildings as the educational ones, for which occupancy evaluations result pivotal to ensure the safety of the end-users in their daily activities, is a priority. The proposed paper investigates the steps that are needed to secure a safe re-opening of an educational building. A case study has been selected as a test site to analyse the re-opening steps as required by Italian protocols and regulations. This analysis supported the school director of a 2-to-10 year old school and its team in the decision-making process that led to the safe school re-opening. Available plants and elevations of the building were collected and a fast digital survey was carried out using the mobile laser scanner technology (iMMS - Indoor Mobile Mapping System) in order to acquire three-dimensional geometries and digital photographic documentation of the spaces. A crowd simulation software (i.e. Oasys MassMotion) was implemented to analyse end-users flows; the social distance parameter was set in its proximity modelling tools in order to check the compliance of spaces and circulation paths to the social distancing protocols. Contextually to the analysis of users flows, a plan of hourly air changes to maintain a high quality of the environments has been defined.
Keywords: Air quality analysis | Crowd simulation | Indoor mobile mapping system | Occupancy analysis | Proximity modelling | SARS-CoV-2 | School re-opening
Abstract: We present the design and test of a wearable device capable to detect the user's trunk orientation with respect to the gravitational field and to provide tactile stimulation to correct tilted positions. Vibrations are delivered to the shoulders, the frontal and dorsal parts of the trunk, by using the human body as an indicator of the four cardinal directions. The device was experimentally tested in normal gravity conditions by thirty-nine volunteers. The efficacy of tactile cues was investigated in comparison to visual and visuo-tactile cues. The results revealed that, despite the fact that the time needed to complete the task was shorter when people were guided by visual signals, the tactile cues were equally informative and, in some cases, the trunk spatial orientation was even more accurate. Overall, tactile cues were evaluated by users as more intuitive, effective and accurate.
Abstract: The aim of this work is to present an algorithm used to perform an energetic analysis for an electric vehicle in a Virtual Reality (VR) scenario. This was useful to recognize some patterns of driving behavior considering users and their psychological aspects. The primary aspect enlightened is the description of the experimental setup used to perform tests with 26 users. Through Unity and Matlab software, it was possible to exploit a VR scenario aimed at recreating in the same route both urban and highway paths in condition of real traffic, performed with a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). The acquisition part is illustrated in its methodology in two different cases covering disturbance and non-disturbance scenario. Moreover, the population was divided considering gender to establish a characterization which linked energy consumption and associated analysis to psychological traits of the driver.
Keywords: Battery electric Vehicle | dnving behavior | Electric vehicle | energy consumption | psychological aspects | virtual reality
Abstract: Humans tendency to engage in behaviors that are harmful to themselves, the environment, and the society has always been present on a personal and collective level. However, the concern for this kind of phenomena is increasing, as demographic and economic growth is amplifying its impact on people health, economies, and ecosystems. As a consequence, we have seen the rise of research fields as design for behavior change, with a growing interest in the use of tools as persuasive technologies, serious games and interactive systems to affect people awareness, attitude, and behavior. To these purposes, computer graphics and especially virtual reality (VR) has great potential since it can provide experiences to deepen users' understanding and emotional involvement regarding a variety of social and environmental issues. Here, we discuss the use of VR as a powerful, versatile, and cost-effective tool to deliver virtual experiences that inform and motivate users to change behavior. We describe and relate different aspects regarding sustainable behavior and VR experience design with respect to their potential to support behavior change.
Abstract: The recent interest in human-robot interaction requires the development of new gripping solutions, compared to those already available and widely used. One of the most advanced solutions in nature is that of the human hand, and several research contributions try to replicate its functionality. Technological advances in manufacturing technologies and design tools are opening possibilities in the design of new solutions. The paper reports the results of the design of an underactuated artificial robotic hand, designed by exploiting the benefits offered by additive manufacturing technologies.
Keywords: 3D printing | additive manufacturing | design for additive manufacturing | mechatronics
Abstract: Aviation strives today to include environmental and social considerations as drivers for decision making in design. This paper proposes a serious game to raise awareness of the value and cost implications of being 'sustainability compliant' when developing aerospace sub-systems and components. After describing the development of the game, from needfinding to prototyping and testing, the paper discusses the results from verification activities with practitioners, revealing the ability of the game to raise sustainability awareness and support negotiation across disciplinary boundaries in design.
Keywords: critical materials | decision making | risk management | serious game | sustainability
Abstract: As the popularity of winter outdoor sports is increasing, a growing number of users are engaging in activities in uncontrolled terrain, thus training for avalanche rescue is more important than ever. Traditional training takes place through workshops and in field sessions, presenting limitations to the training availability, since they require time, organization and specific weather conditions. This is problematic since the use of transceivers to locate buried individuals is not trivial and requires practice. Virtual Reality (VR) training has shown to be effective in several fields, especially in the context of hazardous conditions and emergencies, which require decision making under time pressure and management of complex tools in uncontrolled or unsafe environments. Examples include disaster medicine, military operations, and other fields in which actions must be performed precisely in short time frame. In this work, we present the development of an immersive VR system for avalanche rescue training as a complementary tool to the traditional techniques in order to prepare the trainee for field training sessions. We discuss the definition of the system requirements, the design and implementation of the tool, and considerations regarding hardware and software. Finally, we discuss possible limitations and future development.
Keywords: Avalanche Rescue Training | Virtual Reality
Abstract: The transition towards more sustainable practices is one of the main challenges that companies and organizations are currently facing. The use of serious games and gamification has shown to be effective in creating awareness and support learning in many contexts, including sustainability education of practitioners and future ones. We performed a systematic mapping of the use of games on sustainability for companies and organizations. The results show current trends and voids in research concerning a series of categories and provide insights on possible future directions in this area.
Keywords: Gamification | Human behaviour | Sustainability | Sustainable design
Abstract: The increasing concern for sustainability-related issues leads to the rise of new fields in design research, dedicated to limit the negative impact of human activities on the environment and society. After addressing issues related to production, efficiency, recyclability and disassembly, designers start to recognize their responsibility in guiding users to behave in a more responsible and sustainable way. For this reason, designing products to support users’ behaviour change is becoming one of the most popular trends in design research at the moment. To achieve the desired results design for behaviour change, and in particular, Design for Sustainable Behaviour exploits a variety of approaches. In this Chapter, we explore the use of Design for Sustainable Behaviour techniques through a literature review of theories and case studies. Then, we defined a framework which describes the use of multisensory stimuli as elements to support different phases of interaction during the user experience with an interactive product. We relate this framework to previous works and then we discuss two case studies.
Abstract: Augmented Reality is considered one of the most promising technologies for Industry 4.0. Augmented Reality allows to display the needed information at the right time and to locate it in the desired space, superimposing it to the real world. In this way, it could simplify the work of industrial operators in a variety of tasks, from planning and commissioning to assembly and maintenance. Despite the growing research interest and efforts for the development of Augmented Reality applications and technologies for the industrial domain, Augmented Reality is still rarely used in real industrial procedures, often remaining at a conceptual level. In fact, developers fail to completely answer the actual needs of industries and workers because of a lack of knowledge of the context and the absence of guidelines to drive the design and development of Augmented Reality applications. One of the open issues is the choice of the proper visualization methods to display technical information in Augmented Reality, which is not trivial. Both the paper-based documentation, based on text and illustrations, and digital documentation, including CAD models and image or video-based tutorials, present different criticalities when adapted to the Augmented Reality technology. Other visual material has been developed specifically to be used in Augmented Reality, but it is difficult to use because of a lack of standards which are instead present for the former paper-based and digital documentation. In this work, we categorize and compare different Augmented Reality visual assets, illustrating their advantages and disadvantages and providing directions for future research.
Keywords: Augmented Reality | Graphical User Interface | Industry 4.0 | Technical documentation
Abstract: The paper describes the design of an innovative virtual reality (VR) system, based on a combination of an olfactory display and a visual display, to be used for investigating the directionality of the sense of olfaction. In particular, the design of an experimental setup to understand and determine to what extent the sense of olfaction is directional and whether there is prevalence of the sense of vision over the one of smell when determining the direction of an odor, is described. The experimental setup is based on low-cost VR technologies. In particular, the system is based on a custom directional olfactory display (OD), a head mounted display (HMD) to deliver both visual and olfactory cues, and an input device to register subjects' answers. The paper reports the design of the olfactory interface as well as its integration with the overall system.
Abstract: Augmented Reality (AR), is one of the most promising technology for technical manuals in the context of Industry 4.0. However, the implementation of AR documentation in industry is still challenging because specific standards and guidelines are missing. In this work, we propose a novel methodology for the conversion of existing “traditional” documentation, and for the authoring of new manuals in AR in compliance to Industry 4.0 principles. The methodology is based on the optimization of text usage with the ASD Simplified Technical English, the conversion of text instructions into 2D graphic symbols, and the structuring of the content through the combination of Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) and Information Mapping (IM). We tested the proposed approach with a case study of a maintenance manual of hydraulic breakers. We validated it with a user test collecting subjective feedbacks of 22 users. The results of this experiment confirm that the manual obtained using our methodology is clearer than other templates.
Keywords: Augmented reality | Industry 4.0 | Maintenance support | Technical documentation
Abstract: The paper describes the design of a wearable and wireless system that allows the real-time identification of some gestures performed by basketball players. This system is specifically designed as a support for coaches to track the activity of two or more players simultaneously. Each wearable device is composed of two separate units, positioned on the wrists of the user, connected to a personal computer (PC) via Bluetooth. Each unit comprises a triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope, a microcontroller, installed on a TinyDuino platform, and a battery. The concept of activity recognition chain is investigated and used as a reference for the gesture recognition process. A sliding window allows the system to extract relevant features from the incoming data streams: mean values, standard deviations, maximum values, minimum values, energy, and correlations between homologous axes are calculated to identify and differentiate the performed actions. Machine learning algorithms are implemented to handle the recognition phase.
Abstract: Littering is a highly diffused anti-environmental and anti-social behavior, especially among young people. Furthermore, cigarette butts are one of the most littered items and are responsible for both severe environmental damages and high clean up expenses. The aim of this project is to design an interactive ashtray for the campus environment to limit the cigarette butts littering behavior in an engaging and effective way. Qualitative and quantitative data are collected. Coded observations were implemented through the research process, including the 2 pre (without the prototype) and 2 pros (with the prototype) sessions. Also, user experience test and one to one interview were conducted for deepening the understanding of the littering phenomenon and the reasons behind in the behavior among young people. The prototype indeed reduced the number of cigarette butts littering among observed behaviors of 156 students, especially in male sample. Final results indicate the behavior change of disposers is moderated by other factors, as the environmental cleanliness. Future development is also discussed.
Keywords: Design for Behavior Change | Gamification | Multisensory product experience | Sustainability | User centred design
Abstract: The scarce availability of water in highly populated cities is about to become a social problem. While the water service companies work on improving the distribution network in order to reduce losses, it is evident that one of the main problems is due to an excess of use of this resource by users. This consumption is relatively controlled when excessive consumption is clearly associated, in the consumer mind, with high costs. However, when users are in public places they tend to consume water because of a loss of correlation with costs. In this paper, we describe the design of a device to be installed in public environments, which aims to reduce the consumption of water. The device measures in real time the flow of water and sends the user visual and sound information trying to create a link between consumption and costs. The device has been installed in a university campus bathroom and has been tested. Test results show a reduction in water consumption, especially in the interactive prototype approach compared to the conventional treatment. Further modifications for future development of the interactive device is also discussed.
Keywords: Design for sustainable behavior | Multisensory product experience | Sustainability | User centred design | Water conservation
Abstract: The use of collaborative robots in the manufacturing industry has widely spread in the last decade. In order to be efficient, the human-robot collaboration needs to be properly designed by also taking into account the operator’s psychophysiological reactions. Virtual Reality can be used as a tool to simulate human-robot collaboration in a safe and cheap way. Here, we present a virtual collaborative platform in which the human operator and a simulated robot coordinate their actions to accomplish a simple assembly task. In this study, the robot moved slowly or more quickly in order to assess the effect of its velocity on the human's responses. Ten participants tested this application by using an Oculus Rift head-mounted display; ARTracking cameras and a Kinect system were used to track the operator's right arm movements and hand gestures respectively. Performance, user experience, and physiological responses were recorded. The results showed that while humans’ performances and evaluations varied as a function of the robot’s velocity, no differences were found in the physiological responses. Taken together, these data highlight the relevance of the kinematic aspects of robot’s motion within a human-robot collaboration and provide valuable insights to further develop our virtual human-machine interactive platform.
Abstract: Although it is noted that interpersonal sensorimotor coordination can influence several high-level socio-cognitive processes, its impact on creative collaboration is nearly unexplored. Here, we investigated the effects of a form of sensorimotor coordination, that is, sensorimotor synchronization, on a subsequent creative collaboration task. 60 pairs (n total = 120 participants) formed by previously unacquainted individuals performed a tower-building task either jointly or alone, followed by a dyadic creativity task. Tower building time in the joint condition was recorded through a sensorized platform and creativity performance was evaluated by two independent raters based on the quantity and quality of generated ideas. We controlled for gender composition and for the disposition to cooperate and to adopt a creative, analytical style. Results showed that male-male couples were more creative after the joint-action condition, whereas female-female and mixed-gender couples were more creative after the solo condition. Regression analyses of tower building time on creativity performance revealed that building time was a significant predictor of creativity dimensions in male-male and in mixed-gender couples but did not predict creative performance in female-female couples. Overall, these findings suggest that the manipulation of sensorimotor coordination can influence performance in a subsequent creative collaboration task, with the nature, and magnitude of this effect depending on the gender composition of the dyads. These results have potential implications for the design of sensorimotor-based strategies to enhance dyadic creative performance in several contexts, especially for the organizational settings.
Abstract: More and more modern digital applications allow users to make experiences that elicit their senses. More traditional applications allow users to make visual and sound experiences. Recently, the sense of touch has been introduced to enrich the users’ experiences with digital worlds. The sense of smell is equally important for enriching and making the experiences engaging, but has been mostly neglected so far, mostly because of the limited knowledge about olfaction and of olfactory technologies. This chapter presents a methodology for the development of applications including multisensory user experiences based also on the sense of olfaction. The methodology has been used and tested for the development of applications in various sectors, which are reported in the chapter.
Abstract: Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality technologies are more and more getting attention from tourism researchers and professionals, because of their recognized potential to support marketing activities. The paper describes the development of a multisensory environment thought for a travel agency, which combines visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory stimuli. The idea is to develop an experience able to provide a virtual preview of the desired holiday destination, resulting in both an attractive experience for the customer and an effective way to increase sales. A case study about the multisensory experience of a walk on Italian Alps has been developed. The multisensory experience is based on a video streaming, recorded in the real environment, synchronously matched with a haptic interface. The haptic interface is made up of a pair of slippers provided with actuators, and also an actuator positioned on the customer trunk, used to reproduce the feeling of a snowball hit. Moreover, an olfactory display is also used to provide pine smell during the walk. During the experience, the user is sitting on a yoga ball, whose inclination allows him/her to start and stop the multisensory virtual experience.
Abstract: The evolution of technical documentation in the age of Industry 4.0 is going towards the use of visual manuals, in particular exploiting Augmented Reality (AR) technology. Traditional manuals are rich of text instructions that in AR applications are not advisable. In fact text occludes the real scene behind and it is an issue for the translation. For this reason, we propose to create and adopt a controlled and exhaustive vocabulary of graphical symbols, to be used in AR to represent maintenance instructions. In particular, in this work we identified the most frequent maintenance actions used in manuals, and converted them into graphical symbols. Then, we made an elicitation of the symbols designed and created different candidate vocabularies of symbols basing on the criteria found in literature of guessability and homogeneity. Moreover, the vocabularies had to respect two constraints: conflict set and reversibility. Finally, we identified the best of symbols and integrated this one in a real AR application for remote maintenance.
Keywords: Augmented Reality | Industry 4.0 | Maintenance
Abstract: Awe is a little-studied emotion with a great transformative potential. Therefore, the interest toward the study of awe's underlying mechanisms has been increased. Specifically, researchers have been interested in how to reproduce intense feelings of awe within laboratory conditions. It has been proposed that the use of virtual reality (VR) could be an effective way to induce awe in controlled experimental settings, thanks to its ability of providing participants with a sense of "presence," that is, the subjective feeling of being displaced in another physical or imaginary place. However, the potential of VR as awe-inducing medium has not been fully tested yet. In the present study, we provided an evidence-based design and a validation of four immersive virtual environments (VEs) involving 36 participants in a within-subject design. Of these, three VEs were designed to induce awe, whereas the fourth VE was targeted as an emotionally neutral stimulus. Participants self-reported the extent to which they felt awe, general affect and sense of presence related to each environment. As expected, results showed that awe-VEs could induce significantly higher levels of awe and presence as compared to the neutral VE. Furthermore, these VEs induced significantly more positive than negative affect. These findings supported the potential of immersive VR for inducing awe and provide useful indications for the design of awe-inspiring virtual environments.
Abstract: This research aims to design and develop an innovative system, based on an olfactory display, to be used for investigating the directionality of the sense of olfaction. In particular, the design of an experimental setup to understand and determine to what extent the sense of olfaction is directional and whether there is prevalence of the sense of vision over the one of smell when determining the direction of an odor, is described. The experimental setup is based on low cost Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. In particular, the system is based on a custom directional olfactory display, an Oculus Rift Head Mounted Display (HMD) to deliver both visual and olfactory cues and an input device to register subjects’ answers. The VR environment is developed in Unity3D. The paper describes the design of the olfactory interface as well as its integration with the overall system. Finally the results of the initial testing are reported in the paper.
Abstract: Both physical and virtual prototyping are core elements of the design and engineering process. In this paper, we present an industrial case-study in conjunction with a collaborative agile design engineering process and "methodology." Four groups of heterogeneous Post-doc and Ph.D. students from various domains were assembled and instructed to fulfill a multi-disciplinary design task based on a real-world industry use-case. We present findings, evaluation, and results of this study.
Abstract: In this paper, we present the development of an application that allows us to simulate the multisensory experience of tasting a glass of wine. To this end, technologies for the sense of touch, sight, hearing, and smell have been integrated, creating an interactive multi-sensory experience. The user, after picking up a glass, activates an application in which he is guided by a virtual sommelier to make a tasting, and he is able to perceive the multi-sensory experience of the wine tasting experience. The paper describes the application and its potential use in marketing.
Abstract: We describe the implementation and preliminary validation of an interactive platform – COLLEGO – to investigate joint action in a goal-oriented collaborative task. The platform records the interaction sequence of two partners alternating their leader/follower role. Two sensitized wooden surfaces are placed in front of each participant, who can use 6 cubes to build the tower. Any time a cube is picked/released, time stamp (ms) and position of selected objects are recorded. A case study showing how data are collected and analyzed to study dyad performance during the task is described. Finally, potential applications of the proposed solution are discussed.
Abstract: Despite the large number of studies on the multisensory aspects of tactile perception, very little is known regarding the effects of visual and auditory sensory modalities on the tactile hedonic evaluation of textures, especially when the presentation of the stimuli is mediated by a haptic device. In this study, different haptic virtual surfaces were rendered by varying the static and dynamic frictional coefficients of a Geomagic® Touch device. In Experiment 1, the haptic surfaces were paired with pictures representing everyday materials (glass, plastic, rubber and steel); in Experiment 2, the haptic surfaces were paired with sounds resulting from the haptic exploration of paper or sandpaper. In both the experiments, participants were required to rate the pleasantness and the roughness of the virtual surfaces explored. Exploration times were also recorded. Both pleasantness and roughness judgments, as well as the durations of exploration, varied as a function of the combinations of the visuo-tactile and the audio-tactile stimuli presented. Taken together, these results suggest that vision and audition modulate haptic perception and hedonic preferences when tactile sensations are provided through a haptic device. Importantly, these results offer interesting suggestions for designing more pleasant, and even more realistic, multisensory virtual surfaces.
Abstract: The paper deals with prototyping strategies aimed at supporting engineers in the design of the multisensory experience of products. It is widely recognised that the most effective strategy to design it is to create working prototypes and analyse user’s reactions when interacting with them. Starting from this consciousness, we will discuss of how virtual reality (VR) technologies can support engineers to build prototypes suitable to this aim. Furthermore we will demonstrate how VR-based prototypes do not only represent a valid alternative to physical prototypes, but also a step forward thanks to the possibility of simulating and rendering multisensory and real-time modifiable interactions between the user and the prototype. These characteristics of VR-based prototypes enable engineers to rapidly test with users different variants and to optimise the multisensory experience perceived by them during the interaction. The discussion is supported both by examples available in literature and by case studies we have developed over the years on this topic. Specifically, in our research we have concentrated on what happens in the physical contact between the user and the product. Such contact strongly influences the user’s impression about the product.
Abstract: Joint action - the cooperation with other individuals to achieve a shared motor goal, is a crucial ability for human survival. This process takes place when actors are synchronized at a sensorimotor level. However, the experiential correlates of sensorimotor synchronization are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the experience of flow and social presence in a sensorimotor collaborative task. 12 female couples (mean age = 22.33; S.D. = .815) and 12 male couples (mean age = 22.88; S.D. = .789) were involved in a tower-building task across 10 consecutive trials using the COLLEGO platform . Couple members alternated their leader/follower role. Platform recorded time stamp (ms) and position of each selected object when it was picked/released, providing a measure of performance. Thereafter, participants’ level of flow (Flow State Scale), an intrinsically motivating state of consciousness, and social presence (Networked Minds Social Presence Inventory), i.e., the feeling of being with other Selves in a real or virtual environment, were assessed. Flow and Social presence correlated positively at a global level. Having clear goals was negatively associated with performance, while awareness and merging with one’s own actions correlated positively with performance. Task duration correlated negatively with attentive and behavioral dimensions of social presence, but positively with cognitive and emotional dimensions. Results are discussed according to the Networked Flow model assuming a positive correlation between social presence and flow at the base of the highest levels of collaborative performance.
Abstract: Due to the Industry 4.0 initiative, Augmented Reality (AR) has started to be considered one of the most interesting technologies companies should invest in, especially to improve their maintenance services. Several technological limitations have prevented AR to become an effective industrial tool in the past. Now some of them have been overcome, some others not yet by off-the-shelf technologies. In this paper, we present a solution for remote maintenance based on off-the-shelf mobile and AR technologies. The architecture of the application allows us to remotely connect a skilled operator in a control room with an unskilled one located where the maintenance task has to be performed. This application, which has been initially described in a previous work, has been improved on the basis of feedback received by industrial partners. We describe the important features we have added and the rationale behind them to make the remote communication more effective.
Keywords: Augmented Reality | Industry 4.0 | Remote Maintenance
Abstract: In this work, we proposed a method to reduce text in technical documentation, aiming at Augmented Reality manuals, where text must be reduced as much as possible. In fact, most of technical information is conveyed through other means such as CAD models, graphic signs, images, etc. The method classifies technical instructions into two categories: instructions that can be presented with graphic symbols and instructions that should be presented with text. It is based on the analysis of the action verbs used in the instruction, and makes use of ASD Simplified Technical English (STE) for remaining text instructions and let them easier to translate into other languages.
Keywords: Augmented Reality | Graphic symbols | Industry 4.0 | Simplified Technical English | Technical Documentation | Text reduction | Visual
Abstract: In this paper we describe the design of a smart alarm clock, conceived as a persuasive system to foster a sustainable urban mobility. Automatically retrieving and elaborating information available on the web, such as means of transport and weather forecast, the device is able to suggest to the user the most sustainable travelling solution, to help him/her to wake-up and reach the destination on time. Following a user-centered design approach the elaboration of the best travelling solution takes also into account, together with his/her next day appointments, user's needs and habits such as: The time he/she needs to get ready in the morning; his/her travelling preferences. A functional prototype has been built to test the effectiveness of the device using as a context the city of Milan.
Keywords: Design for sustainable behaviour | Multisensory product experience | Smart mobility | Sustainability | User centred design
Abstract: Today's world is facing numerous problems due to an uncontrolled waste of energy and of primary resources in general. To manage this, on one side designers are asked to improve the efficiency of products; on the other side, users must be trained toward a more sustainable lifestyle. Some researchers are exploring the idea of trying to change users' behavior while interacting with products in order to make it more sustainable. This trend is known as "design for sustainable behavior" applied to energy/resources consumption issues. Our idea is to stimulate users in changing their behavior by introducing a multisensory communication with the product. This communication is not meant as warning messages informing the users about wrong habits/actions or something like; instead, it should consist of sensorial stimuli able to naturally drive users in performing the right actions. However, before designing these stimuli, it is fundamental to highlight the aspects and conditions that do not allow users behaving in a sustainable way when interacting with products. In this paper we discuss about the aspects that could be useful to explore in order to retrieve the specifications to drive both the design and prototyping phases, so as to faithfully test the effectiveness of the feedback with final users.
Abstract: In the past years, Virtual or immersive Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR) technologies have largely been developed for the military, although it has been used for commercial purposes as well, especially for the development of virtual museums, exhibitions, games, and other cultural and amusement projects. Moreover, as realistic and productive visual simulation continues to develop, coupled with a drop in prices for image generators, the market for architectural design systems based on AR is expected to rapidly grow. Nowadays, the human-computer interaction, due to its long-established approach, can show drawbacks and limitations of traditional interfaces. Promising alternatives are offered by Virtual or immersive Reality (VR) and by Augmented Reality (AR), enabling humans to behave in a nearly natural way. Natural interaction means human actions in the real world with other humans and/or with real world objects. In order to achieve these results, prototype tools, build on video-based interaction, support construction and plant layout planning. The exploitation of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) has already been studied and used in architecture, construction and logistics, application fields with many common duties to the steelmaking industry. In detail, the best possible configuration and arrangement of all production units and transport systems are necessary prerequisites to maximize productivity. Furthermore, also the rationalization of the logistics is a crucial point in order to achieve both the lowest operating costs and a seamless material flow without bottlenecks. These reasons grant to Facility Layout Planning (FLP) and logistics a very promising scenario for VR/AR employment in steel industry. Consequently, possible on-field applications in a near future have been investigated. Indeed, although the metal industry is still conservative, the need for more efficiency and an overall optimization of whole plants would lead to the integration of these new technologies in the daily practice.
Abstract: In this work a study about the application of the augmented reality in steelmaking area is presented. Augmented reality systems add virtual computer-generated material to the surrounding physical world. The augmented reality systems use see-through headworn displays to overlay graphics and sounds on a person's natural vision and hearing. As the person moves about, the position and orientation of the head is tracked, allowing the overlaid material to remain tied to the physical world. An application and description of prototypes to the training and maintenance of continuous casting machine is described.
Abstract: The paper proposes an alternative approach to well-known feedback solutions, such as visual displays or warning sound messages, to make users perceptually aware of the energy consumption occurring when using a product. The approach is grounded on the use of multisensory feedback interfaces that are designed to make the user experience the consumption process directly during the interaction with the product. Such multisensory feedback should be intended as indications, rather then alarms, so as to naturally guide users towards a more sustainable behaviour. The daily task of opening the fridge door has been used as case study. All the steps followed to ideate and test the effectiveness of the designed multisensory interfaces are discussed. The results demonstrate how even simple stimuli, such as a gradual colour change of the fridge cavity from a cold to a warm one, may be able to reduce the time users keep the fridge door open.
Keywords: Design for behaviour change | Human behaviour in design | Multisensory design | Sustainability | User centred design
Abstract: The interest of people working in rehabilitation towards the possibilities offered by Virtual Reality (VR) technologies is growing in years. Through VR technologies, rehabilitation can become more engaging with respect to traditional methods, since exercises can be performed in different simulated scenarios. They can be adapted on the basis of patient's requests, and can be easily modified to have growing difficulties, according to the rehabilitation progresses. Furthermore results can be collected and monitored, even remotely, if necessary. The paper describes the development and testing of a set of exercises in a multimodal VR environment for upper limb rehabilitation. The VR environment includes technologies addressing three senses: vision, hearing and touch. The patient is asked to grab and move a number of objects in an ecologically valid environment, which corresponds to a household scenario. While s/he performs the exercises, object trajectories are recorded in order to be analyzed later on. The development as well as a preliminary testing activity are reported in the paper.
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The paper describes an interactive Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) tool that aims to improve the learning of mechanical behavior of materials in industrial engineering schools. We implemented a “user in the loop” approach where students can explore the mechanical behavior of virtual specimens selected from a library of standard elements (cantilever beam, IPE beams etc.). The users can apply forces or displacements interactively by mouse or haptic device, and visualize and “feel” the structures stress configurations. We extended our previous work and compared this novel approach with respect to traditional FEA learning techniques. A test with twenty engineering students showed that learners following the interactive approach are faster in completing the given assignment showing a reduced error rate.
Abstract: The paper describes the design and preliminary virtual testing of OSHap, an open-source low cost 2DOF haptic interface. The aim the research is to create a mechatronic platform for haptic interaction based mainly on cheap and open source components. The results will be distributed freely in order to provide guidelines for expert users to develop their own haptic interface. Both the mechanical design philosophy and the control electronics are hereby discussed together with a preliminary testing made by using virtual prototyping tools. The kinematic layout is based on a serial double joint scheme. This choice is claimed to be the less expensive one, inasmuch as tolerances do not have to be narrow as for the parallel systems. The system also allows future users to tune dimensions (and relative workspace) easily. The interface is admittance controlled for maximizing the transparency with low cost drives. The device is based on the Intel Galileo open-source development board: this board embeds a powerful chip-sets that enables us to perform real-time 2DOF control tasks that are hardly reachable with the most common open source electronic platforms. All the choices listed above are discussed and evaluated, with focus on performance-to-cost ratio.
Abstract: Product maintenance is a service offered to customers which represents an interesting business for companies. Their interest is both providing a good service in terms of quality and at the same time cutting operational costs. In this view companies are seeking tools that enable them to reach both goals, among those offered by the rapidly evolving ICT sector. The paper describes an application based on augmented reality and mobile technologies aiming to support remote maintenance operations, and improve maintenance services that companies offer to their customers. The paper describes the main idea at the basis of the application, the requirements as well as its implementation. Finally a case study is presented.
Abstract: The objective of the paper is to present a case study to exploit interactive Virtual Prototypes (iVPs) for investigating the way humans experience products. This method can be used for "prototyping" new product experiences, for monitoring users' emotional reactions during the interaction and finally, for practically redesigning these experiences on the basis of the users' feedback. Products considered here are domestic appliances, where the experience consists of the interaction with their physical interfaces.
Abstract: In recent years, the production of consumer goods has exceeded that of industrial products. This has led to changes in the areas of design and production. The target users of industrial products (in the Business to Business-B2B market) are industries that decide to purchase a product on the basis of its technical features, functions and performance. Differently, the target users of consumer products (in the Business to Consumer-B2C market) are the consumers who choose a product driven by other aspects, besides features and functions, such as the perceived value, the expected benefits, the emotions elicited, as well as features and functions. This has brought a paradigm shift in the design process. And in fact, the design of consumer products is increasingly focusing on the so-called user experience. The designer must not design only the product, but also the user experience in relation to its use. The resulting product should have a high perceived value and generate positive emotions in the consumer. These factors make a successful product on the market. Therefore, the role of the designer is designing the products and the perceptual aspects of their use, that is, designing the user experience and deriving from that the products' specifications. Consequently to that, the design process has changed in the last years. In fact, the user is now at the center of the design process, named user-centered design. Being the new focus the target users, the evaluation of their interaction with the new designed products is expected to be rigorous and systematic. An efficient approach has proved to be one in which the validation is made up by involving users in the early stages of the product design. Since typically at the level of the concept the product, or a prototype that is comparable with it at the perceptual level, is not available, it is not possible to make a thorough validation of its use with users. However, new methodologies of Virtual Prototyping allow us to simulate multisensory user interaction with product concepts early in the design process. This chapter introduces the use of interactive Virtual Prototyping (iVP) methodology for the design of the user experience with the concept of a new product. Interactive components of new products and their behavior are simulated through functional models, and users can experience them through multisensory Virtual Reality (VR) technologies.
 Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Covarrubias M., Antolini M.,
A linear haptic interface for the evaluation of shapes, Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference 2009, DETC2009,
Abstract: The aesthetic impact of a product is an important parameter that makes the difference among products technologically similar and with same functionalities. The shape, which is strictly connected to the aesthetic impact, has different meanings if seen from the design and the engineering point of view. This paper describes an environment based on an integration of Mixed- Reality technologies, haptic tools and interactive simulation systems, named PUODARSI whose aim is to support designers and engineers during the phase of design review of aesthetic products. The environment allows the designer to modify the object shape, through the use of haptic devices, and the engineer to run the fluid-dynamics simulation on the product shape. The paper describes the main problems faced in integrating tools, originally developed for different purposes and in particular issues concerning data exchange, and the choice of those algorithms that guarantees low computational time as required by the application.
Per qualunque informazione non esitare a
contattare la Segreteria ADM tramite le modalità
previste nella sezione Contatti.
Se vuoi diventare membro dell'Associazione ADM, visiona
la pagina "Diventa Socio".
Iscriviti e sarai informato su tutte le
novità riguardanti l'Associazione