[Elenco soci]


Favi Claudio

Ricercatore TD(B)


Università degli Studi di Parma
claudio.favi@unipr.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 24558563500
Orcid: 0000-0002-7176-0731



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Marconi M., Zanini A., Favi C., Mandolini M., Design for Additive Manufacturing Tools: Are They an Effective Support for Designers?, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 980-992, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) is currently one of the most promising industrial technologies that allow designers to operate with more degrees of freedom to create shapes without overthinking restrictive manufacturing constraints. Products must be conceived with the “AM on mind” to exploit AM potentialities. Design for AM (DfAM) methods and tools, such as topology optimization and generative design, are crucial for this aim. The present paper aims to understand how existing DfAM tools can effectively support the DfAM process. The study is based on the definition and application of a systematic evaluation protocol consisting of quantitative and qualitative metrics. The case studies involved four commercial DfAM tools tested on three mechanical components. Results confirmed that most of the tools lead to very similar solutions from the technical point of view since they are based on analogous optimization algorithms. The consideration of manufacturability constraints and the availability of advanced functionalities for geometry reconstruction after the optimization phase are relevant issues observed. Finally, regarding tools functionalities, notable differences have been registered

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Design for Additive Manufacturing | DfAM tools | Generative design | Topology optimization

[2] Mandolini M., Sartini M., Favi C., Germani M., An Analytical Cost Model for Laser-Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED), Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 993-1004, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Laser-Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED) is an Additive Manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse powder feedstock. The scientific literature concerning L-DED and cost estimation is not as comprehensive as Laser-powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF). Indeed, a robust and reliable cost model (in terms of the number of materials, machines, and process parameters managed) is not available. The paper aims to define an analytical cost model for L-DED, considering the material, machine, labour, consumables, energy and equipment cost items. The model seeks to evaluate the production cost from the machine setup to the removal of the part. Post-processing steps are not included. The cost model is based on a scientific review of journal papers, handbooks and datasheets from industrial partners. The cost drivers for this model are the overall 3-dimensions of the part, volume, material, accuracy and number of components in the build plate. The meaningful process parameters are the layer thickness, melt pool width and overlap, powder efficiency, laser power, linear energy density, scanning speed, and machine dimensions. The developed cost model was tested on two products: a heat exchanger and a landing gear analyzed in previous works. The comparison led to a deviation of about 10% for the manufacturing cost and printing time.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Cost model | Design to cost | Laser-directed energy deposition | Sensitivity analysis

[3] Lutey A.H.A., Moroni F., Favi C., Boix Rodriguez N., Static and fatigue strength of laser-textured adhesive-bonded polyamide 66 (PA 66) joints, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 116, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Nanosecond pulsed laser texturing has been performed as surface preparation for adhesive-bonded polyamide 66 (PA 66) joints. A Design-of-Experiments approach was firstly applied for optimization of laser parameters in terms of static joint strength, after which the fatigue strength of the best performing joints was determined. Quasi static and fatigue lap shear tests were performed on joints bonded with Teroson PU 9225. Laser texturing of PA 66 was found to be far less sensitive to heat accumulation in the hatch direction than in the laser scanning direction. Static average shear strength was generally found to increase with laser energy dose up to approximately 8–20 J/cm2, while no correlation was observed between the microscale surface roughness and static strength for low values of the former (Sa < 2 μm). A shear strength of 11.60 MPa was achieved with a parallel-line scanning strategy and an average laser power of 3 W, hatch spacing of 50 μm and scanning velocity of 700 mm/s, representing a three-fold increase over standard primed joints. Laser-textured joints prepared with the same parameters exceeded the fatigue performance of atmospheric pressure plasma, mechanical abrasion and primer pre-treatments at both high and low maximum average cyclic shear stress, implying that laser texturing is an appropriate solution for improving bonding at high cyclic shear stress and prolonging the crack propagation phase at low cyclic shear stress.

Keywords: Adhesives | Fatigue | Laser texturing | Polyamide | Polymer | Surface preparation

[4] Formentini G., Boix Rodríguez N., Favi C., Design for manufacturing and assembly methods in the product development process of mechanical products: a systematic literature review, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 120(7-8), 4307-4334, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) is a family of methods belonging to the design for X (DfX) category which goal is to optimize the manufacturing and assembly phase of products. DFMA methods have been developed at the beginning of the 1980s and widely used in both academia and industries since then. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no systematic literature reviews or mapping has been proposed yet in the field of mechanical design. The goal of this paper is to provide a systematic review of DFMA methods applied to mechanical and electro-mechanical products with the aim to collect, analyse, and summarize the knowledge acquired until today and identify future research areas. The paper provides an overview of the DFMA topic in the last four decades (i.e., from 1980 to 2021) emphasizing operational perspectives such as the design phase in which methods are used, the type of products analysed, the adoption of quantitative or qualitative metrics, the tool adopted for the assessment, and the technologies involved. As a result, the paper addresses several aspects associated with the DFMA and different outcomes retrieved by the literature review have been highlighted. The first one concerns the fact that most of the DFMA methods have been used to analyse simple products made of few components (i.e., easy to manage with a short lead-time). Another important result is the lack of valuable DFMA methods applicable at early design phases (i.e., conceptual design) when information is not detailed and presents more qualitative than quantitative data. Both results lead to the evidence that the definition of a general DFMA method and metric adaptable for every type of product and/or design phase is a challenging goal that presents several issues. Finally, a bibliographic map was developed as a suitable tool to visualize results and identify future research trends on this topic. From the bibliometric analysis, it has been shown that the overall interest in DFMA methodologies decreased in the last decade.

Keywords: Design for assembly | Design for manufacturing | Design for manufacturing and assembly | DFA | DFM | DFMA | Engineering design | Product development | Systematic review

[5] Formentini G., Favi C., Mandolini M., Germani M., A Framework to Collect and Reuse Engineering Knowledge in the Context of Design for Additive Manufacturing, Proceedings of the Design Society, 2, 1371-1380, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for AM (DfAM) requires the definition of Design Actions (DAs) to optimize AM manufacturing processes. However, AM understanding is still very blurred. Often designers are challenged by selecting the right design parameters. A method to list and collect DfAM DAs is currently missing. The paper aims at providing a framework to collect DfAM DAs according to a developed ontology to create databases (DBs). DBs were tested with two real case studies and geometric features to improve identified. Future developments aim at widening the database to provide all-around support for AM processes.

Keywords: computer-aided design (CAD) | design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) | knowledge-based engineering (KBE) | ontology

[6] Mandolini M., Sartini M., Favi C., Germani M., Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Proceedings of the Design Society, 2, 1411-1420, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Laser Powder Bed Fusion is the most widespread additive manufacturing process for metals. In literature, there are several analytical models for estimating the manufacturing cost. However, few papers present sensitivity analyses for evaluating the most relevant product and process parameters on the production cost. This paper presents a cost model elaborated from previous studies used in a sensitivity analysis. The most relevant process parameters observed in the sensitivity analysis are the 3D printer load factor, layer thickness, raw material price and laser speed.

Keywords: additive manufacturing | cost estimation | design costing | design to x (DtX) | sensitivity analysis

[7] Favi C., Marconi M., Mandolini M., Germani M., Sustainable life cycle and energy management of discrete manufacturing plants in the industry 4.0 framework, Applied Energy, 312, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Industry 4.0 (I4.0), through the digitalization and interconnection of manufacturing processes, can offer opportunities to improve production systems' sustainability. Despite the increasing number of scientific review papers related to I4.0 and production sustainability, most approaches and tools for sustainability evaluation lack of a tangible implementation framework. The paper presents a framework that originated from the plant metabolism concept, a simplified version of industrial metabolism. It is based on Energy Material Flow Analysis (EMFA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools for production plants' economic and sustainability assessment, using the I4.0 enabling technologies. A Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method combines the two sustainability pillars for aiding companies in optimizing their production processes towards a reduction of energy/material flows. The combination of EMFA, LCA and MCDM tools into a plant metabolism-based model is the main novelty of this paper. The framework consists of three main phases. The first phase allows to model the manufacturing system by defining the plant layout, the assets, and the input/output flows. The second phase allows gathering information from the manufacturing plant to assess environmental and economic Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) following the LCA principles. The third phase consists of post-processing results, minimizing specific KPIs for establishing the optimal production scenario. A washing machine plant has been chosen as a case study to demonstrate the proposed method's capability in authentic contexts. Besides, the effectiveness in supporting companies in the analysis, identifying criticalities, and the proper energy and material flows management of production plants has been verified. Plant managers could use this framework for managing the production plans. From the scientific standpoint, the proposed method positively contributes to integrating the existing state of the art studies concerning the I4.0-related framework for the sustainability assessment and energy/material flows minimization of production systems.

Keywords: Energy/material flows | Industry 4.0 | Life cycle assessment | Manufacturing plant | Plant metabolism | Sustainable manufacturing

[8] Formentini G., Bouissiere F., Cuiller C., Dereux P.E., Favi C., Conceptual Design for Assembly methodology formalization: systems installation analysis and manufacturing information integration in the design and development of aircraft architectures, Journal of Industrial Information Integration, 26, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, the air transport market has experienced strong growth, increasing the demand for new civil aircraft, challenging the actual production rate of aerospace industries. The bottleneck of the production for the aviation industry lies in the capability of the manufacturing and assembly facilities to fulfill the module arrangement in the current design. The development of optimized product architecture requires the implementation of design for assembly principles at the conceptual design phase closing the gap between the design and the production departments. The study proposes a Conceptual Design for Assembly (CDfA) methodology which aims at the assessment of aircraft systems installation and assembly at the early phase of product development (conceptual design). The CDfA methodology allows comparing assembly performance of different aircraft architectures identifying critical modules and interfaces as well as assembly/installation issues. The methodology is based on a specific framework (hierarchical structure) which is characterized by levels, domains, and attributes. Levels enable the analysis of product architectures at different levels of granularity, splitting the global analysis into sub-problems (problem discretization). Domains and attributes are defined with a knowledge-based engineering approach considering available information at the conceptual design phase and production criteria. A complex system (the nose fuselage of a commercial aircraft) was chosen as a case study to test the robustness of the methodology in relation to the assembly performance observed within the manufacturing facilities. Results revealed the architectural elements (modules and interfaces) that contribute to inefficient assembly operations, as well as the rationales enabling to elaborate alternative architectures for an improved product industrial efficiency.

Keywords: aircraft | conceptual design | design for manufacturing and assembly | DFMA | modularity | product architecture | product design and development | system installation

[9] Martinelli I., Favi C., Campi F., Lo Presti G.M., Germani M., Gas turbine cost and value management in the conceptual design stage, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 16(1), 389-407, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The development of product concept is a crucial task which cannot leave aside value assessment and product cost management. Value engineering is in charge of ensuring that key operations are performed at the lowest possible cost while still meeting performance, reliability, availability, quality, and safety requirements. This paper aims to describe a systematic approach for comparing design options created during the conceptual design stage of gas turbine components, based on cost evaluation and value analysis. The method allows designers to define design concepts for achieving target costs by combining functional decomposition, conceptual cost modelling, and the Value Analysis Value Engineering (VAVE) method. Functional decomposition allows identifying gas turbine modules and related components providing the main features to develop. Conceptual cost modelling is used as a decision-making design tool to predict the overall cost of gas turbine modules, and VAVE is adopted to find disruptive ideas and design changes whenever the gap between the estimated cost and the target cost is not compliant with the company requirements. The main outcome of the proposed methodology is to anticipate the cost of projects since the very conceptual stages with an acceptable level of accuracy compared with the target cost. The feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed approach in value assessment, cost estimate, and optimization are demonstrated through a case study related to gas turbine blades. In the presented example, product value has been increased by lowering the manufacturing cost of key components while maintaining the same functions. Results highlight how the application of the proposed approach allows to reduce the overall cost of approximately 25% compared with the original design solution and to increase the product value up to 33%.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Gas turbine | Parametric cost estimation | Product cost management | Value analysis value engineering | Value management

[10] Rodríguez N.B., Favi C., Eco-design guidelines takeaways from the analysis of product repairability and ease of disassembly: A case study for electric ovens, Procedia CIRP, 105, 595-600, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the main aspects to increase the useful life of ErP and reduce waste generation is the product repairability. Key factors in assessing the ability to repair a product are the ease of disassembly, and the use of repairability indexes (i.e., eDiM, French repairability index, RSS, etc.). The goal of this paper is to retrieve eco-design guidelines analyzing the product repairability of target components belonging to four different types of electric ovens. The analysis adopts as baseline the report of the Joint Research Centre and the European standard EN 45554. Results provide interesting insights concerning the identification of disassembly issues and the mitigation of these hotspots through eco-design guidelines retrieved by the analysis of repairability.

Keywords: circular economy | cooking appliances | design for disassembly | design for repairability | disassemblability index | disassembly | eco-design | oven | repairability

[11] Favi C., Moroni F., Lutey A.H.A., Rodríguez N.B., Life cycle analysis of engineering polymer joining methods using adhesive bonding: Fatigue performance and environmental implications, Procedia CIRP, 105, 565-570, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Traditional assembly processes such as screw fastening and riveting are increasingly being replaced by new processes such as adhesive bonding. Life cycle performance including fatigue and durability are critical, for which surface activation techniques are often used with the aim of improving both mechanical and life cycle performance. Within this context, the present paper aims to investigate the life cycle performance of adhesive bonding in relation to engineering polymers considering four surface pre-treatments: mechanical, chemical, plasma, and laser activation. The work focuses on two key aspects: (i) mechanical characterization of fatigue performance by assessing the useful life of joints, and (ii) environmental analysis through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The outcome of this study provides important insight into the development of laser and plasma technologies as sustainable surface activation methods for polymer joining methods. The substitution of traditional joining methods (i.e., bolting, riveting) with adhesive bonding will allow reductions in overall product weight to be achieved.

Keywords: adhesive bonding | assembly | design for assembly | environmental impact | fatigue | LCA | polymers | surface activation

[12] Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Mandolini M., Engineering knowledge formalization and proposition for informatics development towards a CAD-integrated DfX system for product design, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 51, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Target design methodologies (DfX) were developed to cope with specific engineering design issues such as cost-effectiveness, manufacturability, assemblability, maintainability, among others. However, DfX methodologies are undergoing the lack of real integration with 3D CAD systems. Their principles are currently applied downstream of the 3D modelling by following the well-known rules available from the literature and engineers’ know-how (tacit internal knowledge). This paper provides a method to formalize complex DfX engineering knowledge into explicit knowledge that can be reused for Advanced Engineering Informatics to aid designers and engineers in developing mechanical products. This research work wants to define a general method (ontology) able to couple DfX design guidelines (engineering knowledge) with geometrical product features of a product 3D model (engineering parametric data). A common layer for all DfX methods (horizontal) and dedicated layers for each DfX method (vertical) allow creating the suitable ontology for the systematic collection of the DfX rules considering each target. Moreover, the proposed framework is the first step for developing (future work) a software tool to assist engineers and designers during product development (3D CAD modelling). A design for assembly (DfA) case study shows how to collect assembly rules in the given framework. It demonstrates the applicability of the CAD-integrated DfX system in the mechanical design of a jig-crane. Several benefits are recognized: (i) systematic collection of DfA rules for informatics development, (ii) identification of assembly issues in the product development process, and (iii) reduction of effort and time during the design review.

Keywords: CAD | Design guidelines | Design rules | DfX | Engineering knowledge | Feature recognition | Ontology

[13] Formentini G., Bouissiere F., Cuiller C., Dereux P.E., Favi C., CDFA method: a way to assess assembly and installation performance of aircraft system architectures at the conceptual design, Research in Engineering Design, 33(1), 31-52, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper describes an engineering design methodology, called conceptual design for assembly (CDFA) in the context of aircraft development, to assess aircraft systems’ installation during conceptual phase, in relation to industrial performance objectives. The methodology is based on a given framework (hierarchical structure) which includes a set of attributes, collected in recognized domains that characterize the aircraft systems installation. The framework of the CDFA methodology enables to analyze product architectures at different levels of granularity, splitting the global analysis into sub-problems (problem discretization) with the aim to help architects and designers to identify product architecture weaknesses in terms of fit for assembly performances. The CDFA methodology was applied on a complex system (the nose-fuselage of a commercial aircraft) presenting a high number of criticalities both for the product and its assembly operations. Results identified the architectural components leading to the less efficient assembly operations and the rationales enabling to elaborate alternative architectures for an improved product industrial efficiency.

Keywords: Aircraft design | Architectural design | Conceptual design | Design for manufacturing and assembly | Design methodology | Fit for assembly | Product development

[14] Boix Rodríguez N., Rossi M., Cappelletti F., Favi C., Implementation of Eco-Design Actions in the Development of a Sustainable Heat Exchanger in a Life Cycle Perspective, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 390-398, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: According to the European energy consumption reports, the highest energy consumption in residential sector is due to space heating, followed by water heating. Generally, the product used to warm water in residential building is the boiler where heat exchanger is the core of the system. The paper aims to develop a novel concept of heat exchanger by following eco-design actions retrieved by the analysis of life cycle performance. Several eco-design actions were put into practice to reduce the environmental issues in each phase of the life cycle. Concerning the materials and manufacturing phase, a novel design based on different material (i.e., stainless steel) was developed to replace a mix of materials (i.e., copper and aluminum alloy). Concerning the use phase, the overall product efficiency was increased allowing important savings in terms of gas/energy consumptions. Finally, concerning the end-of-life phase, brazing processes was replaced by other joining processes to increase component’s disassembly and varnishing process was avoided due to the better corrosion resistance performance of the stainless steel. The new heat exchanger shows better environmental performance in each Life Cycle Assessment indicator, saving more than 40% in CO2 emissions (GWP) in the whole product life cycle.

Keywords: Ecodesign | Energy consumption | Heat exchanger | LCA | Life cycle

[15] Mandolini M., Santucci F., Cicconi P., Santecchia E., Germani M., Palladino M., Favi C., Marconi M., A Numerical Model for Simulating the Selective Laser Melting of Closed Impellers, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 494-501, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is accelerating the adoption of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies in the industry. One of the most critical benefits concerns the possibility of manufacturing complex-shaped components, which are not feasible or too expensive using traditional processes. Recent studies are evaluating the SLM manufacturability of closed impellers through laboratory tests. The adoption of numerical simulation models for achieving this goal is still limited due to the complexity of the additive process and the number of phases to be considered. The paper presents a numerical model developed in the ANSYS workbench platform for simulating the SLM process of closed impellers. This work is one of the first studies available in the literature for such a particular kind of components. The paper describes the overall simulation model and the steps required for its definition. Furthermore, boundary conditions and process parameters are provided for a better understanding of the model. A case study illustrates its application to a specific part, intending to evaluate (i) impact between the recoater and the component, (ii) maximum von Mises stress and (iii) maximum displacement during the printing phase and following post-processing. These evaluations will support design and manufacturing engineers during product and process engineering. The promising results of this study are encouraging further research about the application of SLM for closed impellers.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Impeller | Numerical simulation | Selective laser melting

[16] Formentini G., Favi C., Bouissiere F., Cuiller C., Dereux P.E., Jurbert C., A Method to Assess Design for Assembly Efficiency of Aircraft Cabin Concepts, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 287-297, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The design for assembly and installation of aircraft systems is a challenging topic to tackle in the conceptual design phase. This paper presents the definition of a Conceptual Design for Assembly (CDfA) methodology for cabin architecture concept of a commercial aircraft. The cabin equipping includes the assembly of many interior components (here called modules) such as toilets, galleys, seats, etc. The method has been developed and experimented on a civil aircraft cabin installation. Results provide interesting insight in the identification of the most complex items to install, enabling to understand, in terms of design, were criticalities lie and where improvements can be implemented. Results highlight how the new cabin architecture design performs better (approximately 23%) than the previous one in terms of assembly, which has been confirmed by the workload measurement performed on the assembly line.

Keywords: Aircraft | Cabin architecture | Conceptual design | Design for assembly | Design for manufacturing | DFA | DFMA

[17] Campi F., Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., CAD-integrated design for manufacturing and assembly in mechanical design, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 35(3), 282-325, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DfMA) is a consolidated engineering activity that suffers a real integration with 3D CAD systems. DfMA principles are currently applied downstream of the 3D modelling, by following the well-known rules available from the literature and company’s know-how. The paper provides a method to acquire, elaborate and represent DfMA rules sets to aid designers and engineers in developing mechanical products. This research work wants to define a general method able to couple DfMA design guidelines (knowledge-based design) with geometrical product features available by the investigation of the 3D model. The analysis of the 3D CAD model allows to anticipate manufacturing issues and to control manufacturing cost during product design. Moreover, a framework to embed this approach within a 3D CAD system is presented for future development in a software tool. Two case studies, a simple casing made of six parts and a centrifugal pump made of sixty-eight parts, highlight how the proposed method allows easy deployment of this approach in DfMA projects. Several benefits are recognized: (i) anticipation of manufacturing and assembly issues, (ii) reduction of manufacturing and assembly cost and, (iii) reduction of effort and time required by designers during the product development process.

Keywords: cad | design guidelines | dfa | DfM | feature recognition

[18] Mio A., Fermeglia M., Favi C., A critical review and normalization of the life cycle assessment outcomes in the naval sector. Bibliometric analysis and characteristics of the studies, Journal of Cleaner Production, 371, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Most of the actual industrial research efforts are aimed at reducing environmental burdens associated with human activities in the context of sustainable development. This trend has become increasingly prevalent in the naval transportation sector shown by a growing number of scientific publications dealing with life cycle assessments of maritime-related activities. However, the life cycle assessment framework provides practitioners with a variety of alternatives for conducting the analyses, giving room for defining key factors, such as functional units, system boundaries, and impact assessment methods, among others. This lack of standardization resulted in a wide range of assumptions and findings that are seldom comparable. The goal of this review is providing a systematic literature analysis, focusing on the characteristics of life cycle assessments dealing with the environmental impacts of various maritime vessel categories. In the first part, a qualitative analysis of the available scientific literature has been performed, providing a bibliometric analysis and a general overview of the characteristics of the studies (i.e., life cycle impact assessment methodologies, background data, and software tools used). The outcomes of the bibliometric analysis are then summarized and discussed to understand current practices and future trends in this field, providing the basis for the normalization phase of the results. The second section of the paper offers advice for naval practitioners on how to perform results normalization to produce comparable analyses. Two approaches for normalization have been proposed in the frame of this study: an “horizontal” one, which is based on vessel features and allows a comparison among different vessel typologies, and a “vertical” one that enables to fairly compare vessels of the same category to one another. In addition, each section reports the outcomes of greenhouse gas-related impact categories, which have been subjected to the proposed normalization procedure, along with the order of magnitude of the results for each life cycle phase. The overall work provides an overview of LCA impact results as well as a collection of procedures and recommendations for future life cycle assessments based on specific vessel types, in terms of functional unit selection, system boundary definition, impact assessment approach, presentation of the outcomes, and normalization basis.

Keywords: LCA | Life cycle analysis | Life cycle assessment | Maritime | Naval | Ship

[19] Mio A., Fermeglia M., Favi C., A critical review and normalization of the life cycle assessment outcomes in the naval sector. Articles description, Journal of Cleaner Production, 370, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Most of the actual industrial research efforts are aimed at reducing environmental burdens associated with human activities in the context of sustainable development. This trend has become increasingly prevalent in the naval transportation sector shown by a growing number of scientific publications dealing with life cycle assessments of maritime-related activities. However, the life cycle assessment framework provides practitioners with a variety of alternatives for conducting the analyses, giving room for defining key factors, such as functional units, system boundaries, and impact assessment methods, among others. This lack of standardization resulted in a wide range of assumptions and findings that are seldom comparable. The goal of this review is providing a systematic literature analysis, focusing on the characteristics of life cycle assessments dealing with the environmental impacts of various maritime vessel categories. In the first part, a qualitative analysis of the available scientific literature has been performed, providing a bibliometric analysis and a general overview of the characteristics of the studies (i.e., life cycle impact assessment methodologies, background data, and software tools used). The outcomes of the bibliometric analysis are then summarized and discussed to understand current practices and future trends in this field, providing the basis for the normalization phase of the results. The second section of the paper offers advice for naval practitioners on how to perform results normalization to produce comparable analyses. Two approaches for normalization have been proposed in the frame of this study: an “horizontal” one, which is based on vessel features and allows a comparison among different vessel typologies, and a “vertical” one that enables to fairly compare vessels of the same category to one another. In addition, each section reports the outcomes of greenhouse gas-related impact categories, which have been subjected to the proposed normalization procedure, along with the order of magnitude of the results for each life cycle phase. The overall work provides an overview of LCA impact results as well as a collection of procedures and recommendations for future life cycle assessments based on specific vessel types, in terms of functional unit selection, system boundary definition, impact assessment approach, presentation of the outcomes, and normalization basis.

Keywords: LCA | Life cycle analysis | Life cycle assessment | Maritime | Naval | Ship

[20] Lozano R., Barreiro-Gen M., D'Amato D., Gago-Cortes C., Favi C., Martins R., ... , Gladysz B., Improving sustainability teaching by grouping and interrelating pedagogical approaches and sustainability competences: Evidence from 15 Worldwide Higher Education Institutions, Sustainable Development, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: There has been increasing research on pedagogical approaches, sustainability competences, and how to connect them in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). This paper's aim is to provide deeper insights into the system of pedagogical approaches and sustainability competences, as well as how these interrelate. A survey was developed to investigate sustainability teaching in 15 HEIs. The survey was sent to educators of each HEI from which 668 responses were obtained. The responses were analysed in a five-step process: (1) descriptive statistics; (2) Pearson correlations; (3) principal component analyses (PCAs) to detect groups; (4) Pearson correlations between the groups; and (5) regressions. The first step provided the base to carry out the PCAs, from which three groups for the pedagogical approaches (Universal, Social, and Environmental) and three for the sustainability competences (Extrospective-social, Introspective-personal, and Cogitative-processual) were obtained. The correlations between the groups showed that: (1) the competences are closely interrelated; (2) the pedagogical approaches are somehow interrelated; and (3) the pedagogical approaches are somehow interrelated to the competences. The regressions showed that the Universal and Social groups would be most suitable to develop all the competences' groups. The Environmental group develops only the cogitative-processual competences' group. The results served as bases to propose the Sustainability Teaching System (STS), which provides deeper insights into the system of pedagogical approaches and sustainability competences by grouping them, as well as showing directionality and strength. To improve sustainability teaching, it is necessary to understand the pedagogical approaches' groups and how they can develop the competences' groups.

Keywords: education for sustainable development | Higher Education Institutions | holistic thinking | pedagogical approaches | sustainability competences | systems thinking

[21] Favi C., Campi F., Mandolini M., Martinelli I., Germani M., Key features and novel trends for developing cost engineering methods for forged components: a systematic literature review, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 117(9-10), 2601-2625, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Engineering design shows a growing interest in exploring cost analysis to anticipate manufacturing issues and integrate production aspects within the product development process. This research aims to highlight key elements (inputs, parameters, models) to accurately predict the cost of a forged part using a complete model, with important information that can be available during the design phase. For this purpose, a systematic literature review of existing engineering methodologies developed for cost analysis of forged parts (i.e., cost estimation, DtC, and ABC) was performed with characterizations of the different approaches for evaluating the most important topics related to this objective. As a result, the most important insights related to the aim of this review are provided: (i) among quantitative methods, analytical and parametric models are the most suitable approaches to develop a cost estimation, (ii) a cost model based on a linear equation supported by single or multiple variables seems to be the most accurate tool to establish a robust cost analysis in the design of forged components, and (iii) input parameters related to the material type and geometrical features are the most critical cost-drivers in the cost assessment. Moreover, this review contributes to identifying emerging applications and obsolete topics, providing the ground to investigate unexplored areas relevant to future research.

Keywords: CAD | CAE | Cost assessment | Cost model | Engineering knowledge | Forging | Material processing | Systematic literature review

[22] Rodríguez N.B., Formentini G., Favi C., Marconi M., Engineering design process of face masks based on circularity and life cycle assessment in the constraint of the covid-19 pandemic, Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(9), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Face masks are currently considered key equipment to protect people against the COVID-19 pandemic. The demand for such devices is considerable, as is the amount of plastic waste generated after their use (approximately 1.6 million tons/day since the outbreak). Even if the sanitary emergency must have the maximum priority, environmental concerns require investigation to find possible mitigation solutions. The aim of this work is to develop an eco-design actions guide that supports the design of dedicated masks, in a manner to reduce the negative impacts of these devices on the environment during the pandemic period. Toward this aim, an environmental assessment based on life cycle assessment and circularity assessment (material circularity indicator) of different types of masks have been carried out on (i) a 3D-printed mask with changeable filters, (ii) a surgical mask, (iii) an FFP2 mask with valve, (iv) an FFP2 mask without valve, and (v) a washable mask. Results highlight how reusable masks (i.e., 3D-printed masks and washable masks) are the most sustainable from a life cycle perspective, drastically reducing the environmental impacts in all categories. The outcomes of the analysis provide a framework to derive a set of eco-design guidelines which have been used to design a new device that couples protection requirements against the virus and environmental sustainability.

Keywords: Circularity | COVID-19 | Eco-design | Engineering design | Environmental analysis | Face masks | LCA | Life cycle assessment | Product development process

[23] Favi C., Garziera R., Campi F., A rule-based system to promote design for manufacturing and assembly in the development of welded structure: Method and tool proposition, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(5), 1-34, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Welding is a consolidated technology used to manufacture/assemble large products and structures. Currently, welding design issues are tackled downstream of the 3D modeling, lacking concurrent development of design and manufacturing engineering activities. This study aims to define a method to formalize welding knowledge that can be reused as a base for the development of an engineering design platform, applying design for assembly method to assure product manufacturability and welding operations (design for welding (DFW)). The method of ontology (rule-based system) is used to translate tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, while geometrical feature recognition with parametric modeling is adopted to couple geometrical information with the identification of welding issues. Results show how, within the design phase, manufacturing issues related to the welding operations can be identified and fixed. Two metal structures (a jack adapter of a heavy-duty prop and a lateral frame of a bracket structure) fabricated with arc welding processes were used as case studies and the following benefits were highlighted: (i) anticipation of welding issues related to the product geometry and (ii) reduction of effort and time required for the design review. In conclusion, this research moves forward toward the direction of concurrent engineering, closing the gap between design and manufacturing.

Keywords: CAD | Design for manufacturing and assembly | DFMA | Engineering design | Feature recognition | Knowledge-based system | Rule-based system | Welded structure | Welding

[24] Moroni F., Musiari F., Favi C., Influence of the laser ablation surface pre-treatment over the ageing resistance of metallic adhesively bonded joints, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 105, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: In order to prevent the generation of a potential weakness at the substrate/adhesive interface of adhesively bonded joints, many methods were developed during the decades to pre-treat the substrates surfaces before the deposition of the adhesive. Experimental tests were carried out to simulate the real environmental conditions in which the joints have to work characterizing the mechanical properties of the joints caused by the exposition to high temperature, moisture, presence of chemical agents. The industrial need towards long-scale problem lead to the development of specific accelerated ageing methods able to induce in few weeks the same damage mechanisms within the joints which arise in years during their working life. In this work, different surface laser pre-treatments were studied with a focus on the influence that pre-treatments produce over the variation of the tensile failure load of Single Lap Joints (SLJ), previously subjected to different accelerated ageing cycles. Simple degreasing and grit blasting were also considered as reference treatments. The materials chosen for the manufacturing of the substrates were an aluminium alloy (AA 6082-T6) and a stainless steel (AISI 304). Three different accelerated ageing techniques were tested and compared to each other: (i) a cycle involving the simultaneous presence of high temperature gradient and moisture (method A), (ii) the immersion into an alkaline foam-forming cleanser (method B), and (iii) the immersion into an acid foam-forming cleanser (method C). The results showed that, while the method A did not significantly modify the mechanical strength of the joints, the method B and C resulted detrimental for the mechanical performance of the joints, even if their sensitivity to the tested pre-treatments was different. In particular, for both aluminum and stainless steel joints, it was noticed that the laser pre-treatment was able to reduce the loss of strength produced by the ageing process in comparison with the two reference pre-treatments. However, this result was also dependent of the specific value of energy density used for the laser ablation during the joints pre-treatment.

Keywords: Ageing | Aluminum | Laser ablation | Stainless steel | Surface treatment

[25] Favi C., Campi F., CAD-based design for welding (DFW) method, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 95-97, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper provides a method to integrate Design for Welding (DFW) method with CAD systems. The method is based on three main phases: (i) definition of DFW rules for the development of mechanical products, (ii) link of DFW rules with product geometrical features that are available by the investigation of the 3D model, and (iii) integration with CAD systems to support product design review. A method and a software tool are described including their features to help designers in the product development process. Case study aims to validate the proposed method in the identification of assembly issues early in the product development process. The CAD-based DFW tool is a useful assistant to avoid design problems related to the welding technology.

Keywords: CAD system | Design for welding | Design rules | DFMA | Embodiment design | Mechanical products

[26] Favi C., Mandolini M., Campi F., Cicconi P., Germani M., DESIGN FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING: A FRAMEWORK TO COLLECT AND REUSE ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE TOWARDS A CAD-BASED TOOL, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 6, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Within the context of modern industries, additive manufacturing (AM) plays a critical role. Design for AM (DfAM) requires defining design actions related to the product's geometry under development. DfAM affects design choices such as the type of process, the material, the geometry, and the model's features. Knowledge-based engineering (KBE) is promising for integrating DfAM principles in the early phases of product development. Still, few limitations are noticed, such as the real interoperability between DfAM and 3D CAD systems, leading to the application of proper DfAM rules downstream of the 3D modeling. This paper aims to describe a method to formalize AM engineering knowledge used as a repository to develop a CAD-integrated decision support tool by acknowledging the current gap. The method uses, as input, geometrical data retrieved by the feature analysis of the 3D CAD model (feature recognition approach) and manufacturing information related to AM processes. The method will allow closing the gap between the design and production departments by creating a knowledge-based system. The outcome of this system does not concern the possibility of predicting the AM process parameters. The system will support engineers in delivering product designs compliant with AM processes. Based on this system, a CAD-integrated DfAM tool can be developed in the future.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Am | Cad | Design for additive manufacturing | Design rules | Design tool | Feature recognition | Knowledge-based system

[27] Boix Rodríguez N., Marconi M., Favi C., Formentini G., Eco-design actions to improve life cycle environmental performance of face masks in the pandemic era, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 1333-1342, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Face masks are currently considered essential devices that people must wear today and in the near future, until the COVID-19 pandemic will be completely defeated through specific medicines and vaccines. Such devices are generally made of thermoplastic polymers, as polypropylene and polyethylene and are single use products. Even if in this period the sanitary emergency must have the maximum priority, the world society should not completely forget the environmental problem that are causing more and more obvious climate changes with correlated damages to ecosystems and human health. Despite the well-known correlation among anti-COVID protective equipment (or more generally medical devices) and environmental issues, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and eco-design-based studies in this field is very scarce. The present study aims to derive the most important environmental criticalities of such products, by using LCA and product circularity indicators of five different common masks. The final aim is to provide eco-design guidelines, useful to design new face masks by preventing negative impact on the environment.

Keywords: Circular economy | COVID-19 | Ecodesign | Face mask | Sustainability

[28] Formentini G., Favi C., Cuiller C., Dereux P.E., Bouissiere F., Jurbert C., Conceptual design for assembly in aerospace industry: Sensitivity analysis of mathematical framework and design parameters, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 731-740, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most challenging activity in the engineering design process is the definition of a framework (model and parameters) for the characterization of specific processes such as installation and assembly. Aircraft system architectures are complex structures used to understand relation among elements (modules) inside an aircraft and its evaluation is one of the first activity since the conceptual design. The assessment of aircraft architectures, from the assembly perspective, requires parameter identification as well as the definition of the overall analysis framework (i.e., mathematical models, equations). The paper aims at the analysis of a mathematical framework (structure, equations and parameters) developed to assess the fit for assembly performances of aircraft system architectures by the mean of sensitivity analysis (One-Factor-At-Time method). The sensitivity analysis was performed on a complex engineering framework, i.e. the Conceptual Design for Assembly (CDfA) methodology, which is characterized by level, domains and attributes (parameters). A commercial aircraft cabin system was used as a case study to understand the use of different mathematical operators as well as the way to cluster attributes.

Keywords: Aicraft systems | Conceptual design | Design for Assembly (DFA) | Product architecture | Product modelling / models

[29] Campi F., Mandolini M., Santucci F., Favi C., Germani M., Parametric cost modelling of components for turbomachines: Preliminary study, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 2379-2388, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The ever-increasing competitiveness, due to the market globalisation, has forced the industries to modify their design and production strategies. Hence, it is crucial to estimate and optimise costs as early as possible since any following changes will negatively impact the redesign effort and lead time. This paper aims to compare different parametric cost estimation methods that can be used for analysing mechanical components. The current work presents a cost estimation methodology which uses non-historical data for the database population. The database is settled using should cost data obtained from analytical cost models implemented in a cost estimation software. Then, the paper compares different parametric cost modelling techniques (artificial neural networks, deep learning, random forest and linear regression) to define the best one for industrial components. Such methods have been tested on 9 axial compressor discs, different in dimensions. Then, by considering other materials and batch sizes, it was possible to reach a training dataset of 90 records. From the analysis carried out in this work, it is possible to conclude that the machine learning techniques are a valid alternative to the traditional linear regression ones.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design costing | Early design phases | Machine learning

[30] Lozano R., Barreiro-Gen M., Pietikäinen J., Gago-Cortes C., Favi C., Jimenez Munguia M.T., Monus F., Simão J., Benayas J., Desha C., Bostanci S., Djekic I., Moneva J.M., Sáenz O., Awuzie B., Gladysz B., Adopting sustainability competence-based education in academic disciplines: Insights from 13 higher education institutions, Sustainable Development, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have been incorporating sustainability into education and curricula, where recent research has focussed on sustainability competences, pedagogical approaches, and how to connect them, generally on a single HEI. The process of integrating sustainability into education based on curricula assessment has been explained using adoption of innovations; and has the potential to explain the process of developing competences through pedagogical approaches. The aim of this paper is to investigate this process at academic discipline level. An online survey was developed to investigate teaching sustainability competences in 13 HEIs, from which 678 responses from educators were obtained. The competences and pedagogical approaches from the responses were ranked, and then the connections between the competences and pedagogical approaches per discipline were analysed using a correlations-based framework, from which three disciplines groups were created. The groups were categorised using diffusion of innovations theory, which indicated that some disciplines are more innovative than others in adopting sustainability competence-based teaching. The results are used to propose two frameworks to better understand the adoption of sustainability competence-based teaching: (a) the D-RAPID framework; and (b) the Disciplinary Multi-dimensional Sustainability Influence Change for Academia (D-MuSICA) memework. The adoption of sustainability competence-base education must expand from a single HEI perspective to a disciplinary collaborative one spanning many HEIs, where academic disciplines should learn from each other's insights and mistakes and provide students with more transdisciplinary skillsets to make societies more sustainable.

Keywords: academic disciplines | competences | education for sustainable development | educators | pedagogical approaches | teaching

[31] Rossi M., Favi C., Germani M., Omicioli M., Comparative life cycle assessment of refrigeration systems for food cooling: eco-design actions towards machines with natural refrigerants, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 14(6), 1623-1646, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Refrigeration applications is responsible for approximately 17% of the total electricity and around 8% of greenhouse gas emissions. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment between two refrigeration systems, the first operating with a traditional fluid and the second with a natural refrigerant. The analysis was performed in accordance with international standards ISO 14040/14044 and adopted the attributional life cycle assessment approach. The functional unit was: ‘the storage of meat products, at the temperature of 0°C for a lifetime of 10 years, in refrigerating cells of a medium city supermarket’. Three different scenarios were analysed to investigate the effect of the energy mix in relation to the use of the machines. Results highlight how the choice of the refrigerating fluid has a higher effect on the environmental performances of the machine with a reduction of approximately 10% in a whole life cycle. Scenario analysis shows how the use of such machines in different countries allows a significant reduction of environmental impacts mostly related to the use phase. Eco-design actions were listed and connected with environmental hot spots specifying the life cycle phases and the environmental indicators involved.

Keywords: ecodesign | Life Cycle Assessment | Refrigeration technology

[32] Formentini G., Cuiller C., Dereux P.E., Bouissiere F., Favi C., Impact assessment of design guidelines in the conceptual development of aircraft product architectures, Procedia CIRP, 100, 223-228, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The optimization of the assembly phase, in complex products, is a challenging phase and it need to be handled in the early phase of product development (i.e., conceptual design). Several methods have been developed to assess the assemblability of product at the conceptual design phase, however, the most critical aspect concerns the possibility to derive design guidelines starting from the results of assemblability analysis. In this context, the present work aims at defining a methodology able to retrieve design for assembly and installation guidelines starting from the analysis of a given product architecture at the conceptual design phase (loop-back of the design for assembly method). The developed method makes use of matrices and vectors to provide a list of design actions that affect the product assemblability including a ranking of their impacts on the final design. The methodology was used to retrieve and select design guidelines in the context of aircraft manufacturing. The case study (cabin equipping of commercial aircraft) provides interesting results in the identification and implementation of design guidelines to improve the aircraft architecture at the conceptual level.

Keywords: Aircraft | Conceptual design | Design for Assembly | Design Guidelines | Knowledge formalization | Product architecture

[33] Favi C., Mandolini M., Campi F., Germani M., A CAD-based design for manufacturing method for casted components, Procedia CIRP, 100, 235-240, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper proposes a method to couple manufacturing knowledge in the context of casting with 3D CAD modelling and design. The approach allows formalizing tacit into explicit design knowledge, for aiding engineers during the development of metal casted components. It is based on three main pillars: (i) identification of geometrical features (3D CAD features) and parameters that can cause an issue during the manufacturing process, (ii) definition of a numerical threshold for feature parameters that guarantee the feasibility of the casting process, and (iii) representation of design rules within a CAD system to support product design review. The method is considered the starting point for future developing a software tool (CAD tool plug-in), here just presented. Two case studies are reported with the aim to show the advantages of the proposed method and tool in the identification of manufacturing issues early in the product development process. Results highlight how the CAD-based tool is a useful assistant to avoid design problems related to the metal casting process.

Keywords: CAD | Design for casting | Design rules | DFMA | Embodiment design | Mechanical products

[34] Formentini G., Rodríguez N.B., Favi C., Marconi M., Challenging the engineering design process for the development of facial masks in the constraint of the COVID-19 pandemic, Procedia CIRP, 100, 660-665, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The most effective ways to mitigate the diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic are social distancing and the use of face masks as barrier to avoid droplets and to filtrate exhalations coming from infected subjects. Currently used face masks are products developed to be used by workers, both in health care and other contexts, where their use is limited in time and the disposal scenario is properly managed. Their use in a pandemic situation can be thus considered a remedial action due to the emergency. New masks or mask families are needed based on the desirable requirements retrieved by the analysis of the current worldwide situation and covering the gap observed in the market. The present paper aims to describe the complete product development process of a new facial mask (or mask family) for a daily use on a pandemic situation. It challenges the time constraint of the COVID-19 pandemic by adopting a four-step approach and concurrent development of the first phases (definition of requirements and functional derivation). The engineering design process allows to derive two different solutions able to fulfil all the requirements (demands and wishes) of final users, by assuring high ergonomic performance, as well as environmental, economic, and social sustainability.

Keywords: COVID-19 | Engineering design | facial mask | pandemic | product development process

[35] Favi C., Mandolini M., Campi F., Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Design for Manufacturing and Assembly: A Method for Rules Classification, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 354-359, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper provides a method to acquire, process, and represent DfMA rules to help designers and engineers in the development of mechanical products compliant with manufacturing and assembly technology. This research work wants to define a general method able to link DfMA design guidelines (knowledge engineering) with geometrical product features that are available by the investigation of the 3D model. Numerical parameters of design features are related to design guidelines for the identification of manufacturing and assembly issues within the analysis of the 3D model.

Keywords: Design rules | DfMA | Embodiment design | Knowledge formalization | Mechanical products

[36] Favi C., Marconi M., Rossi M., Cappelletti F., Product Eco-Design in the Era of Circular Economy: Experiences in the Design of Espresso Coffee Machines, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 194-199, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Product eco-design includes several methodologies aimed at supporting companies in the development of sustainable products. Currently, this theme is assuming an important role in both the academia and industry worlds due to the increasing attention to environmental problems and the need for a transition toward circular economy business/organizational models. In this context, the present paper focuses on the industrial sector of espresso coffee machines manufacturing which has several unexploited potentialities. The analysis of the sector specificity (internal and external contexts), as well as of the product lifecycle allowed to define an eco-design framework to guide companies involved in the design and production of espresso coffee machines. Effective eco-design strategies should include the combined use of specific methods, tools and metrics to manage all the most important lifecycle phases (beginning of life, middle of life, end of life) during the design activities in order to set preventive actions that avoid future potential environmental impacts. Only in this way, the environmental and economic benefits of the circular economy paradigm (e.g. remanufacturing/reuse of selected components) can be practically exploited in real industrial contexts. The presented case studies confirmed that the application of design for disassembly rules positively contributes to increase the product performances during maintenance and end of life, while a re-design oriented to component modularity could be a key strategy to pursue remanufacturing for boilers, a key and expensive component included in espresso coffee machines.

Keywords: Circular economy | Coffee machine | Product eco-design | Recycling | Remanufacturing

[37] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Cicconi P., Germani M., Raffaeli R., Parametric Cost Modelling for Investment Casting, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 386-392, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a parametric cost model for estimating the raw material cost of components realized employing the investment casting process. The model is built using sensitivity analysis and regression methods on data generated by an analytic cost model previously developed and validated by the same authors. This is the first attempt of developing a parametric cost model for investment casting based on activity-based costing. The proposed cost model accounts component volume, material density and material price. The error in estimating the raw material cost for components whose volume is within the common range of investment casting is around 11%.

Keywords: Cost estimating relationship | Cost estimation | Investment casting | Parametric cost modelling | Sensitivity analysis

[38] Formentini G., Favi C., Moroni F., Pirondi A., Engineering design in food-packaging industry: The case study of a tuna canning machine, Procedia CIRP, 100, 229-234, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Food packaging industry requires machines able to perform different tasks and carry out several functions. Machine modularization allows to feed customer's needs creating a set of equipment with different features and technology. Module derivation is particularly important at the conceptual phase where main decisions are taken and where the degree of freedom are higher, avoiding subsequent costly modification. This study aims at investigating the adoption of engineering design process for the development of a tuna canning machine, deriving main modules for a definition of a product platform. The possibility to have a modular framework in this type of products allows to satisfy constraints coming from different markets and applications (i.e., product quality, adaptability, upgradability, assemblability, compliance with standards where the machine is installed, etc.). Modules were derived based on state-of-art approaches used for product development (i.e., functional analysis, module derivation and morphological matrix) and two examples (i.e., Cutter and Compactor & Shaper modules) were detailed to explain the developed design solutions. Results highlight how different design options can be adopted to overcome several issues (i.e., assemblability, upgradability) and fulfill requirements of different markets (i.e., product quality and aesthetic).

Keywords: conceptual design | Food packaging machine | functional analysis | Industry 4.0 | modularity | morphological matrix | tuna canning machine

[39] Favi C., Moroni F., Lutey A.H.A., Rodríguez N.B., LCA of laser surface activation and traditional pre-treatments for adhesive bonding of engineering polymers, Procedia CIRP, 98, 541-546, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The use of engineering polymers for mechanical applications has seen increasing uptake due to properties such as low density, flexibility, ease of manufacturing and cost effectiveness. Despite these advantages, joining and assembly methods for these types of materials is still an open issue. Traditional assembly processes such as screw fastening and riveting are increasingly being replaced by new processes such as adhesive bonding. Engineering polymers, however, are difficult to bond using adhesives due to their low surface energy and low wettability. For this reason, surface chemical activation techniques with primers are often used. The utilization of various chemicals associated with such pre-treatments has a significant environmental impact. Within this context, the present paper aims to compare the environmental performance of four adhesive bonding pre-treatments: (i) mechanical (i.e., abrasion), (ii) chemical (i.e., primer), (iii) plasma and (iv) laser activation. The work was performed in three phases: (i) setup of the surface activation processes, (ii) mechanical characterization of bonded joints (static tests) and (iii) LCA analysis to evaluate and compare the different pre-treatments. The outcome of this study provides important insight into the development of laser and plasma technologies as sustainable surface activation methods for polymers through the creation of models correlating process parameters to the type of surface and joint strength.

Keywords: adhesive bonds | environmental impact | laser ablation | LCA | polymers | surface activation | sustainability

[40] Rodríguez N.B., Formentini G., Favi C., Marconi M., Environmental implication of personal protection equipment in the pandemic era: LCA comparison of face masks typologies, Procedia CIRP, 98, 306-311, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: In the present global health emergency, face masks play a key role in limiting the diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic, by acting as physical barriers to avoid droplets and filtrate exhalations coming from infected subjects. Since the most widespread devices are disposable products made of plastic materials, this means that relevant quantities of fossil resources will be consumed, and huge amounts of wastes will be generated. The present paper aims to compare the environmental performances of five different typologies of face masks (i.e. 3D printed reusable mask with filter, surgical mask, filtering face-piece masks-FFPs with and without valve, washable masks), considering an average Italian use scenario and the whole mask lifecycle: materials, manufacturing processes, use, sanitization, and disposal. The Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been used to assess the environmental impacts in terms of both ReCiPe midpoints and endpoints. Reusable masks and masks with interchangeable filters could potentially contribute to improve the environmental performances in all the considered impact and damage categories. Eco-design actions can be developed starting from the study results.

Keywords: COVID-19 | environmental analysis | face masks | life cycle assessment | personal protective equipment | waste reduction

[41] Cicconi P., Mandolini M., Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Metal additive manufacturing for the rapid prototyping of shaped parts: A case study, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 18(5), 1061-1079, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Many companies have been evaluating the feasibility and gain of using Additive Manufacturing in their own business. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to produce a shape with complex geometry in a reduced time. Therefore, Additive Manufacturing is often applied in rapid prototyping, which is an essential activity for the evaluation and testing of the design concepts. Even if the advantages and drawbacks of 3D printing are well known in the literature, there is still a lack of tools and methodologies to support a rapid techno-economic analysis for selecting the key manufacturing process between traditional machining tools and 3D printing. A case study on a 3D part of moderate complexity, a gas burner head, fabricated by additive manufacturing, using selective laser melting, has been described in this paper. This test case is focused on the context of rapid prototyping. The 3D part is a gas burner head which has to be printed for testing activity. The analysis focuses on the cost, time, and quality of the built part. An analytical approach has been proposed to calculate the cost of the 3D printing process. The analytical cost is related to the results of the numerical simulations to support the techno-economic analysis. The paper shows a method to compare additive manufacturing and traditional machining processes in rapid prototyping. However, the paper also shows a simulation activity to analyze with more details the 3D printing process in terms of part orientation and deformation of the build.

Keywords: 3D printing simulation | Additive manufacturing | Cost analysis | Metal printing | Rapid prototyping

[42] Campi F., Mandolini M., Favi C., Checcacci E., Germani M., An analytical cost estimation model for the design of axisymmetric components with open-die forging technology, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 110(7-8), 1869-1892, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Open-die forging is a manufacturing process commonly used for realising simple shaped components with high mechanical performances and limited capability in terms of production volume. To date, an analytical model for estimating the costs of components manufactured with this technology is still an open issue. The paper aims to define an analytical model for cost estimation of axisymmetric components manufactured by open-die forging technology. The model is grounded on the analysis of geometrical features available at the design stage providing a detailed cost breakdown in relation to all the process phases and the raw material. The model allows predicting product cost, linking geometrical features and cost items, to carry out design-to-cost actions oriented to the reduction of manufacturing cost. The model is mainly conceived for design engineers, cost engineers and buyers, respectively, for improving the product design, the manufacturing process and the supply chain. Cost model and related schemas for collecting equations and data are presented, including the approach for sizing the raw material and a set of rules for modelling the related cost. Finally, analytic equations for modelling the cost of the whole forging process (i.e. billet cutting, heating, pre-smoothing, smoothing, upsetting, max-shoulder cogging, necking and shoulders cogging) are reported. The cost model has been tested on eight cylindrical parts such as discs and shafts with different shapes, dimensions and materials. Two forge masters have been involved in the testing phase. The absolute average deviation between the actual and estimated costs is approximately 4% for raw material and 21% for the process. The absolute average deviation on the total cost (raw material and manufacturing process) is approximately 5%.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Cost model | Design features | Design-to-cost | Hot forging | Manufacturing parameters | Open-die forging

[43] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Germani M., Raffaeli R., A framework for analytical cost estimation of mechanical components based on manufacturing knowledge representation, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 107(3-4), 1131-1151, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a novel framework for manufacturing and cost-related knowledge formalization. This artefact allows industries to capitalize the knowledge of experienced practitioners in the field of manufacturing and assembly, so that it can be used by designers for quickly and analytically estimating the production costs of components during product development. The framework consists of the following: (i) a cost breakdown structure used for splitting out the manufacturing cost, (ii) a data model (cost routing) to collect the knowledge required to define a manufacturing process, (iii) a data model (cost model) for collecting the knowledge required to compute the manufacturing cost of each operation within a manufacturing process, and (iv) a workflow to define the manufacturing process. The proposed framework provides several advantages: (i) knowledge formalization of product manufacturing cost, (ii) knowledge sharing among design/engineering departments, and (iii) knowledge capitalization for decision-making process. The proposed framework is used to formalize the knowledge required for analytically estimating the manufacturing cost of open-die forged components. Results highlight that the framework addresses the most important requirements for a knowledge-based cost estimation system.

Keywords: Computer-aided process planning | Design to cost | Knowledge elicitation | Manufacturing cost estimation | Manufacturing knowledge | Product design

[44] Moroni F., Musiari F., Favi C., Effect of the surface morphology over the fatigue performance of metallic single lap-shear joints, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 97, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The effect provided by the state of the surface on the quality of the adhesion, as well as the sensitivity of the position of the locus of failure to the surface morphology, is known to be one of the most crucial issue to be addressed when evaluating the capability of the bonded joint to withstand any mechanical stress. Therefore, the need for the substrates to undergo a pre-treatment before being bonded is to be considered. In this work, different pre-treatments were selected to be applied over aluminum and stainless steel adherents’ surfaces with the goal to produce single lap joints to undergo cyclic loading until complete failure. In particular, the experimental campaign aimed to correlate the morphology generated by the different surface pre-treatment (laser ablation, grit blasting and simple degreasing) with the quality of the fatigue performance, measured as the number of cycles to failure. Result of this research shows that the surface morphology generated by the laser ablation was able to reduce or avoid interfacial failures, leading to an increase of the fatigue performances if compared with grit blasted and degreased joints.

Keywords: Aluminum | Fatigue | Steel | Surface treatment

[45] Giuseppe E.D., D'Orazio M., Du G., Favi C., Lasvaux S., Maracchini G., Padey P., A stochastic approach to LCA of internal insulation solutions for historic buildings, Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(4), (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Internal insulation is a typical renovation solution in historic buildings with valuable facades. However, it entails moisture-related risks, which affect the durability and life-cycle environmental performance. In this context, the EU project RIBuild developed a risk assessment method for both hygrothermal and life-cycle performance of internal insulation, to support decision-making. This paper presents the stochastic Life Cycle Assessment method developed, which couples the LCA model to a Monte-Carlo simulation, providing results expressed by probability distributions. It is applied to five insulation solutions, considering different uncertain input parameters and building heating scenarios. In addition, the influence of data variability and quality on the result is analyzed, by using input data from two sources: distributions derived from a generic Life Cycle Inventory database and "deterministic" data from Environmental Product Declarations. The outcomes highlight remarkable differences between the two datasets that lead to substantial variations on the systems performance ranking at the production stage. Looking at the life-cycle impact, the general trend of the output distributions is quite similar among simulation groups and insulation systems. Hence, while a ranking of the solutions based on a "deterministic" approach provides misleading information, the stochastic approach provides more realistic results in the context of decision-making.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | EPD | Historic building | Internal insulation | LCA | Monte-Carlo simulation | Uncertainty analysis

[46] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Cicconi P., Germani M., AN ANALYTICAL COST MODEL for INVESTMENT CASTING, Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN Conference, 1, 987-996, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Analytical cost estimation of investment casted products during design phase is a complex task since the quantity of parameters to be evaluated. So far, there is a short literature on such cost estimation models. This paper attempts to improve the cost model presented by Boothroyd and Dewhurst. Improvements (mainly focused on cluster assembly and investment, sintering and melting phases) were defined and verified in cooperation with two foundries. Tested on eight components, deviation between estimated and actual costs is around 14% for manual production lines and 6% for automatic ones.

Keywords: cost estimation | design costing | design for x (DfX) | investment casting | process modelling

[47] Formentini G., Favi C., Bouissiere F., Cuiller C., Dereux P.E., Guillaume R., Malchair C., EXTRAPOLATION of DESIGN GUIDELINES during the CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PHASE: A METHOD to SUPPORT PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE DESIGN, Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN Conference, 1, 857-866, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The work aims at the definition of a design methodology able to drive designers in the definition of product architectures, starting from rough information available at the conceptual design. The methodology identifies design guidelines useful for the development of product architectures optimized for a given target (i.e. assembly, cost). The methodology is based on domains which combine attributes related to a specific aspect of the target. The exploratory application of the methodology was performed to address the equipment installation of a civil aircraft for assembly/installation target.

Keywords: conceptual design | design guidelines | design methodology | optimisation | product architecture

[48] Mandolini M., Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., A decision-making approach for procuring custom-made machineries and components, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 6, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper wants to improve the procurement processes for custom-made machineries and components. Indeed, the current methods and software platforms adopted by industries for purchasing machineries do not consider value generated through the entire lifecycle. Furthermore, the purchasing process of custom-made components from external suppliers is often and still characterized by several negotiation activities. This paper wants to improve this context by proposing two approaches to fostering the procurement processes. The first objective is to define an approach for standardizing the method for configuring machineries to be supplied from suppliers and to establish an approach for estimating their costs. The most important benefits of such an approach consist of (i) machinery selection based on the Total Value of Ownership (TVO), and (ii) optimized suppliers' selection by strengthening relationships between customers and suppliers. The second objective is to define a method and a software platform for managing the procurement phase of custom-made components. The most important benefits of this approach consist of (i) the standardization of procurement policies for custom and standard components, and (ii) the faster budgeting process. Future work consists of defining a reference model for gathering primary data required for TVO computation and defining standard agreements between suppliers and customers.

Keywords: Multi-criteria decision making | Suppliers selection | Total Cost of Ownership | Total Value of Ownership

[49] Favi C., Marconi M., Mandolini M., Germani M., Big data analysis for the estimation of disassembly time and de-manufacturing activity, Procedia CIRP, 90, 617-622, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for disassembly is a key enabling strategy for the development of new business models based on the Industry 4.0 and circular economy paradigms. This paper attempts to define a method, based on Data Mining, for modelling disassembly data from large amount of records collected through the observation of de-manufacturing activities. The method allows to build a repository to characterize the disassembly time of joining elements (e.g. screws, nuts) considering different features and conditions. The approach was preliminary tested on a sample of 344 records for nuts disassembly retrieved by in-house tests. Disassembly time and corrective factors were assessed including the analysis of probability distribution function and standard deviation for each feature (i.e. disassembly tool).

Keywords: Big data analysis | Data mining | De-manufacturing | Design for disassembly | Disassembly time

[50] Favi C., Formentini G., Rodríguez N.B., Eco-design of cooking appliances based on food habits and diets, Procedia CIRP, 90, 372-376, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Energy efficiency standards in the context of cooking appliances are an important strategy to preserve electric energy consumption and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Although successful standards and labels have been launched in many countries, the implementation of eco-design directive does have not a unique structure, energy policy and consumers understanding. The aim of this study is to describe the environmental performance of cooking appliances in real use conditions derived by the analysis of food habits and diets in EU countries. The final goal is to link cooking performance and the environmental features (i.e. energy consumptions, emissions) in different cooking conditions. The work is structured in three phases: (i) definition of recipes based on food habits in EU countries, (ii) development of energy consumption tests for each recipe, and (iii) characterization of eco-design actions considering the diet specificity. The outcome of this study provides interesting insights in the development of sustainable products for different markets as well as the definition of dedicated eco-design initiatives.

Keywords: Cooking appliances | Ecodesign | Food habits | Product development | Sustainability

[51] Mandolini M., Favi C., Campi F., Raffaeli R., A Knowledge Formalization Approach for Manufacturing Cost Estimation, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 279-290, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Target pricing is a methodology to develop competitive products by determining the target price from market analyses. To guarantee the right profit margin, target cost is a direct consequence of target price. In this situation, the manufacturing cost estimation at the design phase becomes an essential task. The paper presents a framework for collecting knowledge required for estimating manufacturing cost of components. The framework consists of: (i) a cost breakdown structure used for splitting manufacturing costs, (ii) a data model for collecting that knowledge required for defining manufacturing processes, (iii) a data model for the collecting that knowledge required for computing the manufacturing cost of each operation within a manufacturing process and (iv) a workflow for analytically estimating cost of components. The framework has been mainly conceived for managing components realized through forming and shaping processes. The result presented in this paper guarantee the following benefits: (i) knowledge elicitation on product manufacturing cost, (ii) knowledge sharing among design/engineering departments, and (iii) knowledge capitalization for decision-making process.

Keywords: Design for manufacturing | Design to Cost | Knowledge management | Manufacturing cost estimation

[52] Favi C., Formentini G., Bouissiere F., Cuiller C., Dereux P.E., Malchair C., Design for Assembly in the Conceptual Development of Aircraft Systems, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 268-278, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Conceptual design for assembly and installation is a key enabler for the improvement and development of an aircraft and related components. This work attempts to define a design for assembly methodology suitable for the evaluation and architecture design of aircraft systems in the preliminary phases of product development (conceptual design). Three main aspects are covered within this work: (i) the definition of a design framework, (ii) the characterization of suitable parameters driving the assessment and development of product architectures, and (iii) the formalization of internal knowledge for that purpose. The proposed approach has been tested in the assessment and development of an aircraft nose section with positive outcomes in terms of knowledge formalization and robustness of results in relation with the issues retrieved by the analysis of the assembly line. Future works will focus on the methodology optimization including automatic data input and mathematical models refinement.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design for assembly | Installation | Knowledge formalization

[53] Landi D., Rossi M., Favi C., Brunzini A., Germani M., A virtual design approach to simulate the hob energy performance, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 17(5), 1101-1115, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Eco-design strategies aim to integrate environmental considerations into product design and development. Several regulations, directives and standards have been issued on this topic during last years. In particular, European Directive (2009/125/EC) establishes the eco-design requirements related to domestic and commercial kitchen appliances (e.g. cookers, hobs, grills). The present paper focuses on the virtual product eco-design of domestic induction heating cookers, which are becoming one of the leading cooking systems due to their advantages, e.g. energy efficiency, rapid heating, cleanliness, and user safety. The adoption of numerical analysis tools for the simulation of cooktops use phase, based on thermodynamic modelling, allows to provide useful information regarding the performance of cooking system at each phase of cooking. The paper provides a progress beyond the state-of-art on thermodynamic models for induction hob simulation considering interaction between the cooktop and the pot in the work environment. The goal of the paper is therefore to propose a methodology able to support designers in evaluating heating performances of induction cooking appliances, early in the design phases, through a virtual and multi-physical product model. Thermodynamic performances are determined by measuring several parameters and reproducing the energy consumption test by the mean of a virtual prototyping tool. Results highlight how the proposed model is adherent with the real tests following a specific standard in this sector with a maximum deviation of 3.2% considering the different cooking pot sizes.

Keywords: Design methodology | Eco-design strategies | Virtual Prototyping

[54] Marconi M., Favi C., Eco-design teaching initiative within a manufacturing company based on LCA analysis of company product portfolio, Journal of Cleaner Production, 242, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Eco-design is the integration of environmental considerations within product design and development. Eco-design represents an important innovation driver for companies; however, well-known barriers limit the diffusion of this design paradigm in the industrial world. Amongst these, lack of eco-knowledge is correlated to the adopted eco-design teaching methods. Previous experience has highlighted that traditional teaching methods such as university lectures or refresher courses are not an effective means for disseminating eco-design knowledge in the industrial world. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel eco-design teaching method based on a transformative strategy for promoting eco-design and facilitating the learning process. This approach, tested in collaboration with an Italian manufacturing firm, is considered the first attempt to implement a repeatable eco-design teaching approach that can be scaled up in different industrial contexts. Several company departments, including management, marketing and commercial affairs, design and engineering, and a testing laboratory were involved in the training program. Technical results show that company employees were able to autonomously implement re-design solutions and improve the environmental performance of a coffee machine upon completion of the course. The quantitative evaluation of formative outcomes through assessment before and after the course highlights a significant increase in the awareness of personnel and knowledge relating to eco-design.

Keywords: Eco-design | Eco-knowledge | Life cycle assessment | Product portfolio | Teaching

[55] Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Comparative life cycle assessment of metal arc welding technologies by using engineering design documentation, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 24(12), 2140-2172, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Purpose: The paper aims to analyze and compare the environmental performances of metal arc welding technologies: gas metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), submerged arc welding (SAW), and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW). Welding is considered one of the most energy-intensive processes in manufacturing. This study was performed in accordance with the international standard ISO 14040/14044 by using attributional life cycle assessment (aLCA). Methods: The functional unit is defined as the “the development of 1 metre of welding seam (qualified by ASME section IX requirements) to join 25 millimetres thick of metal plates made in carbon steel material and considering a V-bevel configuration.” Different configurations of base/filler materials and standardized bevel geometries have been analyzed as welding scenarios. The inventory considers all inputs (e.g., electric energy and filler material) and outputs (e.g., fume emissions and slags) involved in each welding process. A framework for data collection starting from available project documentation is presented as an innovative solution for the inventory phase. The impact assessment includes the human health, resources (midpoints/endpoint), and ecosystems (endpoint) categories from the ReCiPe (H) and cumulative energy demand (CED) methods. Results and discussion: This study reveals a notable dominance in terms of the environmental burdens of GTAW and SMAW processes, as they present higher impacts in most of the impact categories. SMAW is the most energy-consuming process, and this aspect is reflected in the environmental performance. Conversely, GMAW presents the least environmental load, accounting for less than one third compared with GTAW in terms of the CED indicator and performing very well in terms of the ReCiPe endpoint indicator. Via analysis of different scenarios, the main outcomes are the following: (i) the use of V bevels significantly increases the environmental load when the metal plate thickness increases and (ii) the use of specific materials such as Inconel alloy exacerbates the environmental concerns associated with welding processes. Conclusions: The use of project documentation allows robust analysis of welding activity. Sensitivity analysis shows how the range of values for specific parameters (e.g., volts and amps) affects each technology in a different manner. Indeed, those ranges have a limited impact on the result accuracy (up to 20%) for more automatized welding processes (e.g., GMAW, SAW, and FCAW), in which only a small number of parameters are set by the operator, and the operator skills are less influential on the quality of the weld.

Keywords: Environmental impacts | LCA | LCI | Metal arc welding | Welding technologies

[56] Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Mandolini M., A data framework for environmental assessment of metal arc welding processes and welded structures during the design phase, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 105(1-4), 967-993, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Welding is a widely used technology that allows the joining of thick metal plates for the development of large structures (e.g. piping, tanks, vessels). Many industries are intensively using welding for manufacturing and assembly activities. Sustainability assessment of welded structures is currently performed with misleading information in terms of data heterogeneity (nature) and quality (source). The data required to carry out a robust environmental analysis are spread among different documents and become available only when the project is finalized. This paper aims to define a data framework for a life cycle inventory of metal arc welding processes to preventively assess the environmental performances of different processes for comparison and decision-making analysis. The framework is presented as innovative solutions for life cycle inventory that provide (i) a common data structure (model), (ii) necessary data (input/output), and (iii) physical allocation/placement of data (project design documents). This study was performed in accordance with the international standard organization ISO 14040/14044 by using an attributional life cycle assessment (aLCA). Two structures (an oil and gas riser and a ship hull) were investigated considering the same functional unit: the manufacturing, use, and disposal of a welded structure able to guarantee the engineering requirements (according to a specific standard) in terms of strain, stress, and corrosion allowance over the expected lifetime of 20 years. In both cases, the share of welding process in respect to an overall product/structure life cycle impact assessment is strictly dependant on the project design choice and can be negligible for high-corrosion-resistance materials (e.g., Inconel alloy). On the other hand, the use of traditional metals (e.g., carbon steel) allows a large decrease of the environmental load, and the influence of the welding process becomes significant in a life cycle perspective.

Keywords: Data framework | Design documents | Eco-design | LCA | LCI | Metal arc welding

[57] Musiari F., Moroni F., Favi C., Pirondi A., Durability assessment of laser treated aluminium bonded joints, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 93, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Structural adhesives are widely used in industrial applications dealing with the problem of assembly and bonding. Despite the several advantages brought by this technique, one of the main issue is represented by the need of the surface to be mechanically and/or chemically treated with the aim to make it suitable for the adhesive deposition. Previous works demonstrate how the surface treatment by laser ablation seems to enhance the joint strength with respect to the untreated material. In particular, the effect of pulsed Yb-laser ablated aluminium surfaces over the mode I energy release rate of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens was investigated and a significant growth of the fracture toughness compared with the untreated and the grit blasted joints was observed. In this work, an investigation concerning the durability of the mechanical properties of aluminium joints treated with several representative parameters configurations was conduced. These setting configurations were used in an experimental campaign with the aim of verifying their suitability varying the type of the test (fatigue tests) and the environmental conditioning of the specimens (quasi-static tests after ageing cycles). Concerning the fatigue behavior, the ranking of the laser parameters configuration according to the increase of toughness with respect the degreased and the grit blasted samples seemed quite consistent with the results obtained in the quasi-static test campaign. When an accelerated ageing cycle in control of temperature and relative humidity was applied, a general lowering of toughness affected every tested specimen. This effect was however more marked in the grit blasted sample than in the laser treated ones. Therefore, a relative improvement of the mechanical performance when using some laser ablation configurations instead of the grit blasting, under the same conditions, when the adhesively bonded joints were aimed to undergo some critical environmental exposure, was recorded.

Keywords: B. Surface treatment | C. Fracture mechanics | D. Aging | D. Fatigue

[58] Mandolini M., Marconi M., Rossi M., Favi C., Germani M., A standard data model for life cycle analysis of industrial products: A support for eco-design initiatives, Computers in Industry, 109, 31-44, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The eco-design of industrial products is a complex task that requires a high level of expertise in environmental science and a very large amount of data about the product under development. Product data for eco-design are not limited to geometrical and technical aspects; they also include information related to the product life cycle. The present paper aims to define a life cycle standard data model (LCSDM) that manages and shares life cycle information along the product development process. The LCSDM is defined as a common and structured framework for data collection in comparative evaluations. The need of a “standard” data model emerges in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA), mainly due to the subjectivity related to the life cycle inventory phase. The standard structure of the LCSDM facilitates the interoperability of eco-design software tools by creating a common framework for the implementation of eco-design initiatives inside product manufacturing companies. The LCSDM is a data structure that is able to represent the relationships among parts and assemblies. Each part or assembly is defined by a set of nodes that characterize the life cycle phases (e.g., Material, Manufacturing, Use, End-of-life, and Transport). A list of attributes is identified according to the environmental features that describe the product life cycle. The LCSDM structure is implemented in an encoding document for data sharing through a generic software language (e.g., XML – eXtensible Markup Language). The implementation of the proposed LCSDM in the design department of a manufacturing company using an eco-design software platform leads to the following benefits: (i) the fulfilment of the LCSDM (XML file) along the product development process, (ii) the use of a unique standard for data sharing among the several eco-design software tools, and (iii) the creation of a robust framework for life cycle assessment. The main drawback of the proposed LCSDM is related to the initial effort required to set up the design software platform (which consists of both standard and eco-design tools) to be able to read, fill, store and share the LCSDM.

Keywords: Data-exchange | Eco-design | Environmental analysis | Inter-operability | Life cycle inventory | Product life cycle

[59] Landi D., Consolini A., Germani M., Favi C., Comparative life cycle assessment of electric and gas ovens in the Italian context: An environmental and technical evaluation, Journal of Cleaner Production, 221, 189-201, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper aims to analyse and compare the environmental and technical performances of two domestic oven technologies (one powered by natural gas and one by electric energy) considering the Italian context, such as Italian social and food habits. These household appliances are subject to energy labelling and are the most diffused cooking systems along with hobs. This study was performed in accordance with the international standards ISO 14040/14044 and adopted the attributional LCA approach. The analysis is related to the functional unit “the baking of food, considering the Italian context and a lifetime of 10 years”. The analysis includes all phases of the life cycle except for maintenance and transport, which were considered negligible for this analysis. The materials and manufacturing phases necessary for the production of the two ovens were considered in the analysis, and the data were provided by the ovens’ manufacturers. The products’ use phase was considered through the measurement of resources (both natural gas and electric energy) consumed during the cooking simulation by experimental tests that simulated a heating cycle of a standard load represented by a brick. The product end-of-life phase was considered in accordance with the current regulations and statistical data in this sector. The EcoInvent database was used as a reference for background data. The ReCiPe life cycle impact assessment method was used for the assessment of the environmental impact categories. This study shows the dominance, in terms of the environmental impact, of the electric oven with respect to the gas oven in every indicator considered in the analysis. In particular, the electric oven accounts has an approx. 3 times greater impact than the gas oven on the climate change, freshwater ecotoxicity and marine ecotoxicity impact categories, while for the ozone depletion, fossil depletion metal depletion and natural land transformation categories, the results are similar, with a slight dominance of the electric oven (approx. 2–5%). This finding is related to the use phase and results from the different energy carriers used and the time required for cooking in the two cases. Indeed, the nature of the energy carrier for the electric oven and the time required for cooking (based on the energy efficiency test) is longer compared to those of the gas oven. This result, which is clearly in favour of the gas oven in the Italian context, leads to the conclusion that the main contribution to the environmental load of the electric oven is the Italian electricity grid mix, which is mainly based on non-renewable sources. Therefore, this analysis depends on the geographic area of interest, and the results can significantly change if different contexts are analysed.

Keywords: Cooking appliances | Electric oven | Environmental impacts | Gas oven | LCA | LCI

[60] Marconi M., Germani M., Mandolini M., Favi C., Applying data mining technique to disassembly sequence planning: a method to assess effective disassembly time of industrial products, International Journal of Production Research, 57(2), 599-623, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for end-of-life and design for disassembly are enabling design strategies for the implementation of business models based on the circular economy paradigm. The paper presents a method for calculating the effective disassembly sequence and time for industrial products. Five steps support designers in defining liaisons and related properties and precedence among components with the aim to calculate the best disassembly sequence and time. The effective disassembly time is computed considering the actual conditions of a product and its components (e.g. deformation, rust and wear) using corrective factors. This aspect represents the main contribution to the state of the art in the field of design for disassembly. The corrective factors are derived from a specific data mining process, based on the observation of real de-manufacturing activities. The proposed approach has been used for calculating the disassembly times of target components in a washing machine and in a coffee machine. The case studies highlight the method reliability of both: definition of time-effective disassembly sequences and assessment of effective disassembly times. In particular, a comparison of experimental tests shows a maximum deviation of −6% for the electric motor of the washing machine and −3% for the water pump of the coffee machine.

Keywords: data mining | de-manufacturing | design for disassembly | disassembly planning | estimated disassembly time | target disassembly

[61] Rossi M., Favi C., Russo A.C., Germani M., An eco-knowledge tool to support eco-design implementation inside design departments, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 3151-3160, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: In last years, an increasing attention on environmental matters is registered. Companies face environmental matters to increase the environmental performances of their products, forced by numerous legislations, normative and protocols and induced to the growing attention of consumers toward environmentally friendly products. However, observing the industrial context, it emerges there are several barriers for implementation of eco-design strategies inside design departments. The paper presents a tool which aims at both providing a basic guide on environmental sustainability issues and favouring the knowledge sharing among the different actors of the product design process. The core of the tool is a repository in which company materials, organized and collected in different forms, are collected. The repository contains several parts: training, guidelines, knowledge and milestone, accordingly to the type, structure and form of materials stored. The eco-design tool functions, structure, and workflow are presented and then preliminary test cases are described.

Keywords: Design engineering | Ecodesign | Sustainability

[62] Bouissiere F., Cuiller C., Dereux P.E., Malchair C., Favi C., Formentini G., Conceptual design for assembly in aerospace industry: A method to assess manufacturing and assembly aspects of product architectures, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 2961-2970, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, the air transport market has quickly grown, creating new civil aircrafts demand, challenging the actual production rate of aerospace industries. The bottleneck of the current civil aircrafts production rate lies in the capability of the manufacturing and assembly facilities in relation to the aircrafts architecture design. The aim of this work is to develop a methodology and a related mathematical model that can be used at the conceptual design phase for the assessment of criticalities related to the product assemblability. The methodology allows to recognize modules and/or interfaces which are mostly affecting the assembly time providing a design tool for the comparison and evaluation of product architecture alternatives. A preliminary application has been done on the nose-fuselage of a civil aircraft for passenger transport. The test case provides interesting outcome in the identification of modules and module interfaces which are strongly affecting the assembly phase and required a re-arrangement (new architecture design) for the process improvement.

Keywords: Aerospace industry | Assembly | Conceptual design | Design for X (DfX) | Product architecture | Product manufacturing

[63] Favi C., Campi F., Mandolini M., Martinelli I., Germani M., Conceptual cost estimation of multistage Axial Compressor modules, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 14, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Development of product architectures is a fundamental task in the conceptual design of complex products such as axial compressor of gas turbines. The definition of cost-effective architectures results from the introduction of conceptual cost estimation models aiming at the assessment of economical performances of different modules. Conceptual cost estimation means the product cost assessment in conceptual design phase. These models vary based on the technical and geometrical features of the defined product modules as well as to the specific manufacturing processes. The paper aims to describe the approach for early design cost estimation of Axial Compressor modules. The approach includes the design workflow and the required steps to build product architectures driven by cost indicator. The main limitation overtaken by the adoption of the proposed approach is the needs of a design tool able to characterize cost-effective design solution and to guide designer in product definition with the right level of confidence. The axial compressor product has been analyzed to retrieve different architectures and a case study of a rotor disc module is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in the development of conceptual cost models starting from preliminary design information.

Keywords: Axial Compressor | Conceptual Costing | Conceptual Design | Product Architecture | Product Module

[64] Mandolini M., Favi C., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A should costing approach for manufacturing companies, International Journal of Agile Systems and Management, 12(4), 382-406, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most important drivers for developing competitive products is cost. However, scientific and industrial communities are missing an effective cost management framework (including a solid method and a reliable tool) for supporting the product development process, from the initial design phases to procurement. For this reason, the paper presents a holistic ‘should costing’ methodology able to foster collaboration on cost-oriented solutions among company’s departments. The ‘should costing’ methodology and the related tool enable a systematic review of cost evolution, focusing on the opportunities to reduce costs, from the conceptual design stage through the overall production stages. In addition, the paper presents requirements for efficient implementation of a should-cost tool considering enterprise software solutions already available in manufacturing companies. A couple of companies (product manufacturers) adopted the recommended ‘should costing’ framework and quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the deployment process are presented as results. The benefits related with the adoption of the proposed should costing approach in relation with the traditional product development process is presented as well.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Design to cost | PDP | Product design | Product development process | Should costing | Suppliers selection

[65] Campi F., Favi C., Mandolini M., Germani M., Using design geometrical features to develop an analytical cost estimation method for axisymmetric components in open-die forging, Procedia CIRP, 84, 656-661, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Hot forging is an industrial process where a metal piece is formed through a series of dies which permanently change the shape of the part. Open-die forging is a particular type of hot forging in which the used dies are generally flat and the part to be formed has a simple shape. Manufacturing cost estimation is a well-debated topic, especially for traditional manufacturing technologies. However, only few models are available in scientific literature for the open-die forging process. This lack is due to the complexity of the process, characterized by a low level of automation and a high degree of expertise required to develop the process. The paper proposes an analytical model for the cost estimation of axisymmetric components realized using open die-forging. The model uses as input the geometrical features of the part (e.g. dimensions, shape, material and tolerances), and gives as output: (i) the time required for the process development, (ii) the amount of material needed for the part processing and, (iii) the forging machine size/type, from the cutting of the billet to the piece deformation. Two cylindrical discs have been analysed for validating the proposed cost estimation model. The case studies show that the cost models give an accurate result in terms of cost breakdown, allowing the designer a quick calculation of process costs.

Keywords: Analytical cost model | Cost estimation | Design features | Hot forging | Open-die forging

[66] Landi D., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Favi C., Environmental and economic evaluation of the sheet metal stamping process using alternative lubricants, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials (e.g. stainless steel) or forming in tribologically difficult conditions (e.g. ironing, punching, deep drawing) require the use of environmentally hazardous lubricants, such as chlorinated paraffin oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes an environmental and economic evaluation of two alternative sheet metal stamping processes. The forming of a sheet metal component for boiler burners has been taken as case study for the analyses. In particular, two different lubricants (standard mineral versus polymer matrix-based lubricant) have been tested and compared. However, the differences among the two processes involves not only the lubrication phase, but also the electric energy consumption during the stamping and degreasing, as well as the typology of solvent (perchloroethylene versus water). Results obtained with the economic analysis show that the use of the alternative lubricant leads to a 16% reduction of the total manufacturing cost, mainly due to the optimization of the degreasing. Concerning environmental results, instead, no relevant differences can be observed for almost all the considered impact categories (ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint), since the optimized phases are not the most critical ones.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Degreasing | Life cycle assessment | Lubricants | Sheet metal stamping

[67] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Germani M., Manufacturing processes re-engineering for cost reduction: The investment casting case study, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The production cost is one of the most important drivers for product competitiveness. For increasing profits, a manufacturing process re-engineering is mandatory. This practice passes through systematic procedures for process selection, cost estimation and results analysis. This paper presents a method for evaluating different manufacturing alternatives for cost reduction. This method, composed of eight steps (most of them retrieved from the scientific literature), permits engineers to consider important aspects, such as the choice of cost estimation tools, the collection of data related to production processes, the impact related to the introduction of new production processes and the interpretation of results. Authors adopted such method for evaluating economic benefits of introducing a new manufacturing technology (i.e. investment casting) for three components of a food packaging machine. The adoption of the proposed method leads to compare investment casting vs. machining. The paper presents a detailed discussion of the economic benefits (return on investment, cash flows and manufacturing cost breakdown) related to the introduction of the investment casting technology.

Keywords: Concurrent engineering | Design for manufacturing | Design to cost | Investment casting | Product design

[68] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., An analytic hierarchy method for anticipating the selection of the supplying strategy at the design stage, Dyna (Spain), 94(3), 161-167, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The selection of cost-efficient supplying strategy is a process that involves different aspects, most of them linked with the design phase. Usually, this activity is performed at the procurement stage and does not engage designers and engineers who have drawn up the quality and cost characteristics of products. The paper presents a simplified analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for the concurrent evaluation of economic and quality factors of different supplying strategies. The goal of the AHP is to provide a tangible tool for designers and engineers for comparing supplying alternatives early in the design process. The hierarchy approach is used to organize objectives, criteria and alternatives according to priorities. A complex assembly of a machine tool has been analysed as a case study and four different suppliers with different features have been investigated using the AHP. Results highlight that, even if the lowest production cost can be obtained with Far East suppliers, considering quality criteria, national or local suppliers turn out to be the more appropriate and robust choice. The sensitivity analysis is beneficial to understand the level of confidence associated with the selection of one supplier in comparison with the other supplying strategies.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process | Manufacturing Strategy | Product Design | Supplier Selection | Vendor Rating

[69] Favi C., Campi F., Mandolini M., Germani M., Using engineering documentation to create a data framework for life cycle inventory of welded structures, Procedia CIRP, 80, 358-363, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Welding is considered an energy-intensive manufacturing system and it represents one of the most impacting construction process. The paper aims to define a structured data framework for life cycle inventory of a welding process starting from engineering and design documentation. The use of design documentation allows to perform robust LCA analysis which permits to compare the environmental performances of the most widely used welding technologies early in the design process. The necessary information to fill the data framework can be retrieved by available documentation developed in the preliminary design phase allowing to anticipate the life cycle analysis before the construction phase. A ship hull structure designed to be manufactured by the use of GMAW and GTAW welding processes has been analyzed as case study. The use of data framework facilitates the inventory phase creating a consistent and robust inventory for LCA.

Keywords: Data framework | Documentation | LCA | LCI | Welding technologies

[70] Favi C., Marconi M., Germani M., Teaching eco-design by using LCA analysis of company's product portfolio: The case study of an Italian manufacturing firm, Procedia CIRP, 80, 452-457, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Eco-design is a design paradigm aiming to the development of sustainable products. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is considered an eco-design tool able to assess the product environmental performances through a life cycle perspective. However, LCA shows some limitations in industry's daily practice and cannot be considered a standard for implementing eco-design. The paper aims to describe the implementation of a novel eco-design teaching approach involving company's employees from different technical departments. LCA analysis of company's product portfolio allowed to create a specific eco-knowledge, used to train designers and engineers on this subject for the implementation of eco-design actions during the development of new products (espresso coffee machine). Results highlighted relevant learning outcomes and significant improvements in terms of environmental sustainability of a new product design.

Keywords: Eco-design | Eco-knowledge | LCA | Teaching

[71] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Raffaeli R., An analytical cost estimation approach for generic sheet metal 3D models, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(5), 936-950, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper defines a systematic workflow for production cost estimation of sheet metal stamped components. The approach represents a solution toward the adoption of Design to Cost methods during early product design. It consists in a sequence of steps that, starting from a 3D CAD model with annotations (material, roughness and tolerances) and production information (batch and production volume) leads to the manufacturing cost through an analytic cost breakdown (raw material, stamping and accessory processes, setup and tooling). The calculation process mainly consists in a first step where geometric algorithms calculate the sheet metal blank (dimensions, shape, thickness) and specific product features (e.g. flanges, louvers, embossing, etc.). The following steps allow to calculate the raw material, the stamping process and the process-related parameters, which are the manufacturing cost drivers (e.g. press, stamping rate/sequence/force and die dimensions/weight). The manufacturing cost is the sum of the previous calculated items. Testing the approach for three different components, the average absolute deviation measured between the estimated and actual cost was less than 10% and such a result looks promising for adopting this method for evaluating alternative design solutions.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Design to cost | Feature recognition | Sheet metal stamping

[72] Favi C., Marconi M., Germani M., Mandolini M., A design for disassembly tool oriented to mechatronic product de-manufacturing and recycling, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 39, 62-79, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The easy disassembly of certain product components is a prerequisite to guarantee an efficient recovery of parts and materials. This is one of the first step in the implementation of circular economy business models. Design for Disassembly (DfD) is a particular target design methodology supporting engineers in developing industrial products that can be easily disassembled into single components. The paper presents a method and a software tool for quantitatively assessing the disassemblability and recyclability of mechatronic products. The time-based method has been implemented in a software tool, called LeanDfD, which calculates the best disassembly sequences of target components considering disassembly precedencies, liaisons among components, and specific properties to model the real condition of the product at its End-of-Life (EoL). A dedicated repository has been developed to store and classify standard times and corrective factors of each disassembly liaison and operation. This knowledge feeds the two LeanDfD tool modules: (i) product disassemblability module, which allows to carry out the time-based analysis and to improve the disassemblability performance of target components, and (ii) product recyclability module, which estimates the quantities of materials that could be potentially recycled at the product EoL. The LeanDfD tool functionalities have been defined starting from the means of the user stories and the developed tool framework, data structure, databases and use scenarios are described. A group of designers/engineers used the tool during a re-design project of a washing machine, considering the disassemblability as the main driver. The case study highlights how the proposed DfD method and tool are able to support the implementation of re-design actions for improving product de-manufacturability and EoL performance. The LeanDfD features aid engineers in making a quick and robust assessment of their design choices by considering quantitative disassemblability and recyclability metrics.

Keywords: Design for disassembly tool | Disassembly sequence planning | Disassembly time | Recyclability

[73] Favi C., Moroni F., Manieri S., Germani M., Marconi M., Virtual reality-enhanced configuration design of customized workplaces: A case study of ship bridge system, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(2), 345-357, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper proposes a design method for the configuration of customized workplaces supported by the use of VR tool. The method allows to consider end-users anthropological features and configuration aspects related to the workplace (e.g. equipment). The adoption of VR technology allows supporting the configuration process, engaging end-users in the final customization. A yachts’ ship bridge console is proposed as a case study and a VR-enhanced configuration tool has been developed for the equipment configuration. The adoption of this tool in this specific field shows different advantages such as efficiency in configuration and time saving for the development of workplaces design alternatives. Another benefit of this approach is the automatic generation of an associated BoM and its management through PLM tools.

Keywords: Anthropological aspects | Configuration | Design | Ergonomics | Ship bridge system | VR

[74] Favi C., Di Giuseppe E., D'Orazio M., Rossi M., Germani M., Building retrofit measures and design: A probabilistic approach for LCA, Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(10), (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Green building design and architecture have become widespread tenets in the development of sustainable buildings. In this context, the use of sustainable materials and the awareness of resource/energy consumption are strategic aspects to consider for the improvement of building performances. This paper presents a new and structured approach to address uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to support the decision-making process in building renovation. This "probabilistic" approach to LCA allows for the obtaining of results expressed as ranges of environmental impacts and for alternative solutions, offering an idea of the meaning of input parameters' uncertainties and their influence on the result. The approach includes (i) the assessment of inputs' uncertainties (represented by Probability Density Functions-PDF); (ii) the data sampling; and (iii) the uncertainty propagation (Monte Carlo method). Variance decomposition techniques have been used to sample inputs' PDFs and assess their impact on the LCA result distribution (sensitivity analysis). The methodology application is illustrated through a case study where three building retrofit measures were assessed. Results provide an insight about the uncertainties of LCA indicators in terms of climate change and nonrenewable energy. The input parameters related to the use phase are confirmed as the most influential in building LCA.

Keywords: Building retrofit | Inputs' uncertainties | Monte Carlo | Probabilistic LCA | Sensitivity analysis

[75] Marconi M., Germani M., Favi C., Raffaeli R., CAD feature recognition as a means to prevent ergonomics issues during manual assembly tasks, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 15(5), 734-746, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Feature-based modeling and feature recognition algorithm are state of the art technologies, mainly used to favor the integration and exchange of data between design and manufacturing phases. This paper aims to investigate the possibility to extend the use of the feature recognition as a means for the prevention of ergonomics issues during the manual assembly phase, such as Work-related Musculo-Skeletal Disorders (WMSDs). Starting from the features analysis of a 3D product model, the proposed five steps method allows preventively identifying potential ergonomics issues. The main novelty of this study is related to the correlation between design tools, product virtual representations (e.g. 3D models), assembly and ergonomics aspects. Results obtained with two case studies, a cooker hood and a tool-holder carousel, confirm the usefulness of the proposed method in helping designers to prevent potential ergonomics issues for operators involved in the assembly phase.

Keywords: Ergonomics | Feature recognition | Manual assembly | Virtual product model | Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders

[76] Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Manieri S., Using design information to create a data framework and tool for life cycle analysis of complex maritime vessels, Journal of Cleaner Production, 192, 887-905, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Maritime vessels are complex products with long service lives and high costs of construction, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing. The definition of a consistent and repeatable life cycle model among vessel types is still an open question, and the development of such a model can be helpful for the implementation of decision-making strategies and design choices. The present paper aims to introduce a life cycle model and a data framework in the early phases of shipbuilding design, supporting the decision-making process of material selection, manufacturing and assembly processes, maintenance and service, use and end-of-life. The model provides a common structure for life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA), including an approach to retrieve and collect all data necessary for the analysis starting from the available project documentation and design models. Three luxury yachts with different features were analysed using the proposed model, and a software tool that embeds the developed data framework was developed. The results provided by the tool are in line with the same analyses carried out with dedicated LCA and LCCA tools (maximum deviation of 6.3% for climate change indicators). Other important advantages are (i) the time saved for the inventory phase, (ii) compliance with existing life cycle standards (e.g., ISO 14040), and (iii) the possibility to make comparisons and a benchmarking analysis.

Keywords: Data framework | Design | LCA | LCCA | Life cycle model | Maritime vessel

[77] Favi C., Germani M., Landi D., Mengarelli M., Rossi M., Comparative life cycle assessment of cooking appliances in Italian kitchens, Journal of Cleaner Production, 186, 430-449, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper aims to analyse and compare the environmental performances of the most widely used cooking appliances (the induction hob vs. the gas hob) considering a typical Italian scenario in terms of food, family and social habits. Cooking appliances are subject to energy labelling, and they represent the most impacting system inside households. This study was performed in accordance with the international standard, ISO 14040/14044, by using an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (aLCA). The functional unit is defined as the “preparation of a complete homemade meal (lunch) for 20 years consumed by a four-member family in Italy”. This study shows the dominance, in terms of environmental impact, of the induction hob with respect to the gas hob for most of the selected midpoint indicators. In particular, the induction hob accounts for more than 60% of the climate change and ozone depletion impact categories and more than 70% of the metal depletion category. The same trend is also noticed in the end-point categories (human health, ecosystem qualities and resources) and for the Cumulative Energy Demand indicator. Based on the experimental evidence of this work, the use phase is the most important due to the different energy carriers (natural gas vs. electrical energy). This finding is the result of the nature of the energy carrier (the electricity grid mix) in the Italian scenario, which is mainly based on non-renewable sources. In addition, concerning the production phase of the two appliances, the induction hob shows a relevant dominance in terms of the human toxicity and metal depletion impact categories due to the use of rare metals and coppers in the cooktop part manufacturing. The outcomes obtained from this study may be used by household manufacturers to improve the performance and design solutions of their appliances as well as by end users in their selection of cooking technologies.

Keywords: Cooking appliances | Energy consumption | Environmental impact assessment | Food cooking | Life cycle assessment

[78] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Implementation of a software platform to support an eco-design methodology within a manufacturing firm, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 11(2), 79-96, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper aims to explore the implementation of an eco-design methodology and the related software platform (G.EN.ESI–Green ENgineering dESIgn) within technical departments of a manufacturing firm. The G.EN.ESI eco-design methodology is based on the life cycle thinking concept and the software platform is conceived as a set of inter-operable software tools able to efficiently exchange data among them and with the traditional design systems (i.e. CAD, PDM and PLM). A multinational company, designing and producing household appliances, adopted the proposed methodology and related software platform for redesigning two cooker hood models with the aim to improve their environmental performances. Design and engineering departments evaluated the methodology and platform impact on the product development process, as well as the platform inter-operability with traditional design tools. The results indicate that methodology and software platform satisfy the requirements of the enterprise in terms of: (i) degree of expertise and training requirement on this subject, (ii) low impact in a consolidated design process and, (ii) good level of inter-operability among heterogeneous tools. However, the testing results highlight the necessity of a further platform optimisations in terms of software integration (single workbench made by integrated software tools with the same graphical user interface).

Keywords: BoM: Bill of Material | CAD: Computer-Aided Design | CAE: Computer-Assisted Engineering | CAS: Computer-Aided Software | CBR: Case Base Reasoning | CREER: Cluster Research, Excellence in Ecodesign &amp; Recycling | DB: Database | DfD: Design for Disassembly | DfEE: Design for Energy Efficiency | Eco-design methodology | eco-design software platform | EDIMS: EcoDesign Integration Method for SMEs | EoL: End of Life | EPD: Environmental Product Declaration | FMEA: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis | G.EN.ESI: Green ENgineering dESIgn | GUI: Graphic User Interface | interoperability evaluation | LCA: Life Cycle Assessment | LCC: Life Cycle Costing | LCT: Life Cycle Thinking | LE: Large Enterprises | LED: Light Emission Diode | PDM: Product Data Management | PDP: Product development Process | PLM: Product Life cycle Management | PMMA: Poly Methyl Methacrylate | product environmental sustainability | R&amp;D: Research and Development | REACH: Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals | RoHS: Restriction of Hazardous Substances | SME: Small and Medium Enterprises | WEEE: Waste od Electric and Electronic Equipment | XML: Extensible Markup Language

[79] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Development of complex products and production strategies using a multi-objective conceptual design approach, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 95(1-4), 1281-1291, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Conceptual design is a fundamental phase for developing optimal product configurations. During conceptual design, the degree of freedom in engineering choices can propose optimal solutions in terms of assembly, manufacturing, cost and material selection. Nevertheless, in current industrial practices, each aspect is analysed independently and a guided decision-making approach based on multi-objective criteria is missing. Multi-objective analysis is a way of combining each production aspect with the aim of choosing the best design option. The goal of this research work is to define a multi-objective design approach for the determination of optimal and feasible design options during the conceptual design phase. The approach is based on the concept of functional basis, module heuristics for defining product modules and the theory of multi-criteria decision-making for mathematical assessment of the best design option. The novelty of this approach lies in making the design process, currently based on company know-how and experience, systematic. A complex product (i.e. tool-holder carousel of a computer numerical control machine tool) is the case study used to assess the economic sustainability of different design options and to validate the proposed design workflow in a real manufacturing context. Different product modules have been re-designed and prototyped for comparing the assemblability, manufacturability and cost of the design solutions.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design for manufacturing assembly | Design to cost | Multi-criteria decision making | Multi-objective design

[80] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Time-based disassembly method: how to assess the best disassembly sequence and time of target components in complex products, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 95(1-4), 409-430, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Circular economy (CE) is a new business model that is pressing manufacturing companies to think about closed loop scenarios for materials and products. Design for End-of-Life (DfEoL) and Design for Disassembly (DfD) are key enabling methods for the effective application of this model. The paper presents a time-based method for the calculation of disassembly sequences, adopting basic theories and techniques in this topic and integrating new concepts for the assessment of the disassembly time. The method consists of five steps and starts from the documentations (e.g., CAD model) generally available early in the product development process. The first three steps encompass the product analysis by including (i) the definition of target components from the general assembly, (ii) the analyses of the virtual model, and (iii) the assessment of the so-called level matrix, which is based on the concept of disassembly levels and liaisons characterization among components. The last two steps allow for the assessment of the time-based disassembly sequence by including (iv) the analysis of feasible sequences and (v) the generation of the best disassembly sequence for target components. The method mainly overcomes two issues highlighted in the literature regarding the reliability of the disassemblability analysis using a time-based approach and the quality of results accounting for the real condition of the product at the time of disassembly. The calculation of the effective disassembly time is grounded on a specific repository developed to gather knowledge about the disassembly tasks and related disassembly time. This is the main contribution and novelty of the proposed approach. By using the proposed method, different target components of a washing machine are analysed with the aim of demonstrating the robustness of the method and its consistency in the estimation of disassembly time. A maximum deviation of 10% between the estimated and measured disassembly times is noticed.

Keywords: De-manufacturing | Design for disassembly | Disassembly sequence planning | Disassembly time calculation | Level matrix | Target disassembly

[81] Mandolini M., Favi C., Germani M., Should costing: A holistic approach from the product design to procurement, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 7, 619-630, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most important driver for the development of competitive products is the cost. Despite most of the companies are focusing at the procurement stage (strategic sourcing) to reduce the cost of a product, around 80% of the final cost is determined at the design stage. Several software tools are currently available for Design to Cost. On the other side, “should cost” software tools allow to support the procurement phase. However, scienitific and industrial communities are missing an holistic “should costing” framework (method and tool) that accompany the product development process from design until procurement. To overcome this limitation, the paper presents a holistic “should costing” approach that integrates “should cost” and Design to Cost methodologies, covering design, engineering and procurement stages. Since dedicated software tools for “should costing” are required for the right implementation of this methodology, the paper describes stakeholders’ requirements for a benchmarking of such tools. The proposed “should costing” frameworjk has been adopted by a couple of companies (product manufacturers), describing their background, deployment process and achieved results. The manuscript ends with a list of the most important benefits of this approach.

Keywords: Design to Cost | Procurement | Should Costing | Suppliers selection

[82] Marconi M., Gregori F., Germani M., Papetti A., Favi C., An approach to favor industrial symbiosis: The case of waste electrical and electronic equipment, Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 502-509, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Waste management, in particular waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), currently represents an important issue for the modern society. A transition toward circular economy and industrial symbiosis models is needed to mitigate the environmental problem and recover value from end of life (EoL) materials/products. This study aims to define an approach and a platform, dedicated to the WEEE sector, to favor the creation of industrial symbiosis opportunities. Through this structured approach, demand of virgin materials and components, and supply of EoL products are linked to find potential collaborations. In this way, EoL components/materials could be reused in different applications, thus closed-loop lifecycles can be created through industrial symbiosis. A case study focused on the reuse of plastics from electrical cables is shown to demonstrate that in the WEEE sector the implementation of industrial symbiosis models can lead to win-win scenarios for all the involved stakeholders.

Keywords: closed-loop scenarios | End of life platform | industrial symbiosis approach

[83] Russo A.C., Rossi M., Landi D., Germani M., Favi C., Virtual Eco-design: How to Use Virtual Prototyping to Develop Energy-labelling Compliant Products, Procedia CIRP, 69, 668-673, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper defines a framework called virtual eco-design aiming to support designers and engineers in the development of sustainable energy-related products. Virtual prototyping is used to perform energy consumption tests according with ecodesign and energy label regulations. The goal is to build a knowledge-based repository in which virtual tests are stored and classified to create eco-knowledge. Induction hob has been analysed to verify the applicability of the approach and the integration in a traditional product development process. Results highlight how the proposed methodology increases company eco-knowledge providing a tangible support in the definition of energy-label compliant products.

Keywords: eco-design | eco-knowledge | energy labelling | energy-related products | virtual prototyping

[84] Russo A.C., Rossi M., Germani M., Favi C., Energy Label Directive: Current Limitations and Guidelines for the Improvement, Procedia CIRP, 69, 674-679, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Energy label is an important strategy to save energy in the household appliances sector. There are many publications related to standards and labels but little information about their potentialities and limits. Although successful standards and labels have been launched in many Countries, their implementation does not have a unique structure, the same energy policy framework and citizens awareness. This study aims to perform an analysis of principal aspects related to Energy Label framework to understand its main potentialities and limitations. Possible strategies to overcome these limits and suggestions to increase its effectiveness are also proposed.

Keywords: eco-design | Energy label | household appliances | standards

[85] Favi C., Germani M., Campi F., Mandolini M., Manieri S., Marconi M., Vita A., Life Cycle Model and Metrics in Shipbuilding: How to Use them in the Preliminary Design Phases, Procedia CIRP, 69, 523-528, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Maritime vessels are complex products with long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing. The paper aims to introduce a specific life cycle model and related metrics in shipbuilding design, supporting decision-making processes of material selection, manufacturing/assembly practices, maintenance, use, etc. The model provides a common structure for life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) including the way to retrieve and to collect necessary data for the analysis starting from the available project documentation and design models. Different design configurations (materials, welding methods, etc.) for hull and hatches of a luxury yacht have been analysed using the proposed model.

Keywords: design | LCA | LCCA | maritime vessels | shipbuilding

[86] Favi C., Germani M., Luzi A., Mandolini M., Marconi M., A design for EoL approach and metrics to favour closed-loop scenarios for products, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 10(3), 136-146, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Recently, environmentally conscious design and extended producer responsibility have become key aspects for companies that need to develop products that are sustainable along their whole life cycle. Design for End of Life (EoL) is a strategy that aims to reduce landfill waste through the implementation of closed-loop product life cycles. It is important to consider disassembly and EoL scenario management as early as the design phase. For these reasons, this paper presents an approach to help designers in the evaluation and subsequent improvement in product EoL performance. The method is based on four innovative EoL indices that compare different EoL scenarios for each product component. In this way, the designer can modify the product structure or the liaisons to maximise the reuse and remanufacture of components as well as material recycling. The presented case studies confirm the validity of the approach in helping designers during the redesign phase of goods and products to reduce the quantity of materials and industrial wastes sent to landfill.

Keywords: closed-loop scenarios | Design for EoL | EoL indices | EoL management

[87] Favi C., Germani M., Gregori F., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Rossi M., Environmental sustainability awareness in product design practices: A survey of Italian companies, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the attitude and the awareness of environmental sustainability issues within diverse Italian industrial companies. A survey has involved a balanced sample of companies operating in different industrial sectors. Considering the survey's results it can be concluded that: (i) environmental sustainability is an opportunity and a current market requirement, (ii) environmental sustainability is not formalized, since specific methods and tools are not used in technical departments, and (iii) environmental decisions are mainly made by specific key figures (i.e. energy/environmental manager). This analysis can be considered as a useful starting point for the framework formalization of eco-design approaches and tools able to bring eco-design principles into the work of technical departments with the aim to foster the future development of green and sustainable products and services.

[88] Favi C., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Gregori F., Manieri S., Vita A., A life cycle model to assess costs and environmental impacts of different maritime vessel typologies, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing. Making a consistent lifecycle model among the different vessel typologies, repeatable with the same level of detail and comparable for the implementation of decision-making strategies, remains an open question. This paper aims to define a suitable lifecycle model in the context of maritime vessels to cope with the current limitations of ad-hoc and fragmented methods. The model considers the main aspects involved in the vessel lifecycle such as building materials, manufacturing and assembly, maintenance/service, operational activities, use, etc. The model provides a common structure for the lifecycle assessment (LCA) and lifecycle cost analysis (LCCA) including the way to retrieve and to collect the data necessary for the analysis starting from the available project documentation and the design models. The method is flexible and it is able to cover a large variety of maritime vessel typologies. As example, a luxury yacht has been analysed using the developed method, demonstrating the applicability of the proposed model in one of the most critical vessel typology.

[89] Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., Favi C., Lifecycle tools as a support for the eco-design innovation of domestic appliances, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The goal of sustainable development through the product innovation is a global challenge that Academia and Industries are addressing. The regulatory pressure and the growing demand of eco-friendly products by consumers are two of its main drivers, especially in the household appliances sector. For this aim, manufactures need to change the design approach in order to extend the boundaries of the benchmark analysis of possible innovations: (i) multi-objective criteria should be taken into account such as the environmental issues, costs, technical performances, etc., and (ii) a life cycle thinking has to be adopted to consider long terms benefits or impacts. However, the literature highlights the lack of structured methods able to support the R&D activity according to these perspectives. For this aim, the present paper provides a systematic approach, which exploits lifecycle and innovation tools to effectively support designers in the development of sustainable solutions in a long term perspective. The proposed approach has been applied in real case study to increase the energy efficiency of a domestic refrigerator. In particular, the insulation module has been redesigned by comparing several alternatives in terms of environmental performances and costs over the product lifespan to effectively evaluate the consistency of the developed eco-innovations.

[90] Favi C., Meo I., Di Giuseppe E., Iannaccone M., D'Orazio M., Germani M., Towards a probabilistic approach in LCA of building retrofit measures, Energy Procedia, 134, 394-403, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper proposes an approach of sensitivity analysis for LCA of building retrofit measures aiming to establish the impact of input data uncertainties on the output variance. The approach includes the quantification of data input uncertainties in terms of their Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs), their sampling and the uncertainty propagation through Monte Carlo (MC) methods. A sensitivity analysis through Variance based decomposition (Sobol' method) techniques are used to point out the key parameters uncertainties that mostly affect the LCA results distributions. The paper presents a building case-study where the MC-based uncertainty and sensitivity analysis method is applied considering different design options (XPS and Cork internal insulation measures) and different scenarios for the assessment of the building energy need (use phase). Results obtained highlight that the differences on the Climate change environmental impact between the two design options is quite limited (about 12%) and this is mainly due to the use phase which is the more relevant input parameter on the overall result. Concerning the Sensitivity Analysis, when the building energy need is considered as a "deterministic" input in the LCA assessment, the unitary impacts of the design options materials uncertainties are the most influential parameters. On the other hands, when the building energy need is represented by a PDF, the quantity of energy carrier consumed and its unitary environmental impact are the most influential parameters on the output variance. .

Keywords: Internal insulation | MonteCarlo simulation | Probabilistic LCA | Sensitivity analysis

[91] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Analytical Cost Estimation Model in High Pressure Die Casting, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 526-535, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The present paper aims at the definition of an analytical model for the cost estimation of the High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) process. The model is based on two main pillars: (i) knowledge formalization and (ii) cost estimation algorithms. The novelty of this approach is the link between the analytical model (algorithms) and the geometrical features of the product under development. The relationship between geometrical features and cost items gives an accurate result in terms of cost breakdown, supporting designers for the application of Design-to-Cost rules in HPDC sector.

Keywords: analytical cost model | cost estimation | High Pressure Die Casting | knowledge formalization

[92] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., A 4M Approach for a Comprehensive Analysis and Improvement of Manual Assembly Lines, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1510-1518, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Design for Assembly (DfA) is a well-known technique that supports in the reduction of manufacturing costs. Traditional DfA methods are generally focused on the product design lacking of a holistic view. The proposed 4 M approach takes into account all the most important aspects involved in the manual assembly: Method, Machine, Man and Material. The final goal is to provide a means for the concurrent improvement of the product design, the workstation ergonomics, and the assembly tasks. Results obtained with the electric spindle motor case study confirmed the usefulness of the approach in optimizing the manual assembly.

Keywords: 4M approach | Design for assembly | Machine | Man | Material | Method

[93] Marconi M., Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Mengarelli M., A Collaborative End of Life platform to Favour the Reuse of Electronic Components, Procedia CIRP, 61, 166-171, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Electronics plays an essential role in many products and this leads to a larger production of e-wastes, currently recovered through impactful recycling processes. This paper proposes a web-based platform to implement reuse scenarios for electronic components. The objective is to create a structured portal where all the stakeholders can collaborate to extend the components lifespan and implement new circular business models. The final goal is to "close the gap" between the beginning and the end of life. The case study (industrial application) shows relevant benefits for the involved electronics manufacturer both in terms of environmental impact and economic savings.

Keywords: Collaborative platform | Decsion support system | Electronics reuse | EoL mangement

[94] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., A Software Tool for the Analysis and Management of Resource Consumptions and Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing Plants, Procedia CIRP, 61, 341-346, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper presents a lifecycle approach and the related software tool for the analysis and management of resource consumptions and environmental impacts of manufacturing plants. The approach, based on the industrial metabolism model, takes into account all the production and assembly aspects. The tool is able to assess the optimum working conditions for the minimization of resource consumptions (e.g. electricity) or environmental emissions (e.g. CO2). It provides a tangible support to guide decision-making strategies to move manufacturing towards sustainability. A manufacturing plant has been analysed for the model validation and the management of production scenarios, optimizing environmental and energy loads.

Keywords: Environmnetal impacts optimization | Plant lifecycle management | Resource consumption optimization | Software tool | Sustainable production

[95] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Multi-objective conceptual design: An approach to make cost-efficient the design for manufacturing and assembly in the development of complex products, Advances on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Manufacturing, 63-71, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Conceptual design is a central phase for the generation of the best product configurations. The design freedom suggests optimal solutions in terms of assembly, manufacturing, cost and material selection but a guided decision making approach based on multi-objective criteria is missing. The goal of this approach is to define a framework and a detailed approach for the definition of feasible design options and for the selection of the best one considering the combination of several production constrains and attributes. The approach is grounded on the concept of functional basis and the module heuristics used for the definition of product modules and the theory of Multi Criteria Decision Making approach (MCDM) for a mathematical assessment of the best design option. A complex product (tool-holder carousel of a machine tool) is used as a case study to validate the approach. Product modules have been re-designed and prototyped to efficiently assess the gain in terms of assembly time, manufacturability and costs.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design for manufacturing and assembly | Design to cost | Making | Multi criteria decision | Multi-objective design

[96] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Multi-objective conceptual design: An approach to make cost-efficient the design for manufacturing and assembly in the development of complex products, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 63-70, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Conceptual design is a central phase for the generation of the best product configurations. The design freedom suggests optimal solutions in terms of assembly, manufacturing, cost and material selection but a guided decision making approach based on multi-objective criteria is missing. The goal of this approach is to define a framework and a detailed approach for the definition of feasible design options and for the selection of the best one considering the combination of several production constrains and attributes. The approach is grounded on the concept of functional basis and the module heuristics used for the definition of product modules and the theory of Multi Criteria Decision Making approach (MCDM) for a mathematical assessment of the best design option. A complex product (tool-holder carousel of a machine tool) is used as a case study to validate the approach. Product modules have been re-designed and prototyped to efficiently assess the gain in terms of assembly time, manufacturability and costs.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design for manufacturing and assembly | Design to cost | Multi criteria decision making | Multi-objective design

[97] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Disassembly knowledge classification and potential application: A preliminary analysis on a washing machine, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Circular economy is largely recognized as the univocal economic model that guarantees a long-term sustainability, decoupling the economic growth and the finite resources consumption. As a prerequisite, it requires to realize product closed-loop lifecycles. However, the management of the EoL phase during the design process is a complex task, due to the fact that it is the most far away phase, in terms of time, from the moment of the product conception. For this reason, usually, manufacturers and EoL stakeholders do not actively collaborate in optimizing the product lifecycle performances. This paper wants to overcome this lack proposing a method to formalize, collect and classify the EoL knowledge. The main outcome is a structured database containing positive and negative knowledge about best practices and disassembly problems faced during dismantling activities. The knowledge classification rules are based both on product characteristics (e.g. product families, target components, assembly methods, etc.) and on other more general aspects (e.g. motivations of the disassembly, handling difficulties, etc.). Through the sharing of this knowledge, the gap between design departments and EoL stakeholders can be reduced with the aim to improve EoL performances and the overall resource efficiency. This work is focused on an out-of-service washing machine case study. The product has been manually disassembled by expert operators, observing and rating the significant problems. Their interpretation has allowed to create a set of specific design guidelines, organized according to the defined rules. The classified knowledge has been used by non-expert designers (undergraduate students) as a tool to guide the redesign activities. Different design solutions (e.g. homogenization of screws, reduction of component number, etc.) have been implemented to configure a new washing machine version, improved from the disassemblability point of view. The obtained results have confirmed the usefulness of the disassembly knowledge sharing in supporting Design for EoL activities and, furthermore, in non-skilled operators training. In conclusion, this research work contributes to the state of the art linking stakeholders involved in the Beginning of Life (BoL) with stakeholders responsible of the EoL management. Furthermore, the proposed work leads to relevant improvements in product lifecycle performances. The proposed knowledge database represents the needed resource to effectively extend the producer responsibility and to close the current gap between manufacturers and dismantlers.

[98] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., A Multi-objective Design Approach to Include Material, Manufacturing and Assembly Costs in the Early Design Phase, Procedia CIRP, 52, 251-256, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Conceptual design is a crucial activity in the product development process. The design freedom must consider a trade-off analysis among several aspects such as assembly, manufacturing, and costs. The goal of this approach is to define a multi-objective design approach for the determination of feasible design options. The approach is grounded on the concept of functional basis for the analysis of product modules and the theory of Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approach for the assessment of the best design option. A complex product (tool-holder carousel of a machine tool) is used as a case study to validate the approach.

Keywords: complex products | Conceptual design | design for assembly | multi-objective design

[99] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Design for Manufacturing and Assembly vs. Design to Cost: Toward a Multi-objective Approach for Decision-making Strategies during Conceptual Design of Complex Products, Procedia CIRP, 50, 275-280, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Design-for-Assembly (DfA) and Conceptual DfA criteria are used in the generation of cost-effective assembly sequences for complex products. The design freedom suggests optimal solutions in the assembly time minimization problem regardless costs and issues about materials and manufacturing processes selection. The goal of this approach is to investigate how the application of the conceptual DfA affects the material and manufacturing costs (Design-to-Cost). A complex product (tool-holder carousel of a CNC machine) is used as a case study. The outcome is an approach to support designers and engineers in the re-design process for the product development and cost reduction.

Keywords: Conceptual Design for Assembly | Design to Cost | Manufacturability | tool-holder carousel

[100] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Includes Knowledge of Dismantling Centers in the Early Design Phase: A Knowledge-based Design for Disassembly Approach, Procedia CIRP, 48, 401-406, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, a large number of goods (e.g. appliances and electronic products) must be treated in dismantling centers after the conclusion of their lifecycle. Selective disassembly is necessary to accomplish environmental directives and to increase their sustainability. Dismantling centers developed internal non-standardized procedures to remove dangerous components and to minimize disassembly costs. The proposed approach aims to create a collection of the disassembly knowledge coming from dismantling centers as a repository for design actions oriented to End-of-Life. The final goal is to define a knowledge-based Design for Disassembly approach to support companies in designing products with improved disassemblability and maintainability.

Keywords: Design for disassembly | Disassembly Knowledge | Dismantling center

[101] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., PLANTLCA: A Lifecycle Approach to Map and Characterize Resource Consumptions and Environmental Impacts of Manufacturing Plants, Procedia CIRP, 48, 146-151, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper presents a lifecycle approach applied to the whole factory plant to characterize primary resource consumptions and environmental impacts for the different processes. The method is based on specific environmental models, defined for each process of a manufacturing plant. The goal is to provide a tangible support to guide decision-making strategies in order to move manufacturing towards sustainability. A case study of a washing machine factory plant has been analyzed to highlight the critical working areas in terms of environmental and energy loads and to support the identification of the corrective actions to increase the overall sustainability.

Keywords: Industrial metabolism | Life Cycle Assessment | Plant lifecycle

[102] Raffaeli R., Favi C., Mandorli F., Virtual prototyping in the design process of optimized mould gating system for high pressure die casting, Engineering Computations (Swansea, Wales), 32(1), 102-128, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: Purpose-High pressure die casting is a widely used industrial process to manufacture complex-shaped products in light alloys. Virtual prototyping techniques, especially numeric-based simulations of the casting process, allow the die filling process to be evaluated and help faster optimization of the gating system, which is the most critical element of the mould. The purpose of this paper is to present a four step approach to design optimal moulds taking advantage of the simulation tools. Design/methodology/approach-No formalized method to design an optimal gating system is available yet and the majority of the studies aim to optimize existing geometries or to choose from alternative solutions. Rather than optimizing the geometries of predefined designs by running attempt trials, the proposed approach defines a procedure to position cavities, gating systems and, finally, to determine the whole mould geometry. Findings-The approach is demonstrated through three different industrial applications. The design of a six-cavity mould for gas cooking burners is reported at first. Then, two test cases, a cup and a radiator, are reported for showing different arrangements of the gating system. The reached quality of the mould design has been assessed using metallographic analyses of the casts. Originality/value-The design of a mould is strictly correlated to its product and mainly based on a trial-and-error approach. Numerical simulations offer a powerful and not expensive way to study the effectiveness of different die designs and filling processes. The paper proposes a structured approach for the definition of the gating system. It ultimately leads to improvements in both product quality and process productivity, including more effective control of the die filling and die thermal performance.

Keywords: Gating system | High pressure die casting | Numerical simulation | Paper type Research paper | Shape optimization

[103] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., An integrated approach and it platform to optimise electric motor engineering and design, International Journal of Information Technology and Management, 13(2-3), 134-153, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Electric motors are one of the most common electrical components. The design phase is the most important stage in which 'green' customised solutions can be ideated, evaluated and optimised. Different aspects have to be concurrently addressed to achieve a high quality product in a short time to market. The present paper describes an innovative approach and software platform to configure and simulate customised electric motors. A key feature of the platform is a knowledge-based system that aims to standardise the design process. The platform integrates different software tools to support the development and verification of several design aspects, such as energy efficiency, manufacturing costs and environmental impacts. It also provides a collaborative area to support collaboration along the whole supply chain. Different case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of the platform application in supporting designers in the creation of innovative products. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Keywords: Collaborative design | Cost estimation | Eco-design | Electric motors | Energy efficiency | Integrated approach | IT platform | Knowledge-based system | LCA | Life cycle assessment | Optimisation

[104] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Favi C., Service innovation in household appliances: An industrial case study, Advanced Concurrent Engineering, 583-594, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Service-oriented management is becoming increasingly popular to create new business infrastructures able to self-organize tangible and intangible manufacturing assets in a distributed and interoperable way. The final scope is to manage not simply the Product but also Services along the value chain. This paper presents an interesting case study about a great modern challenge: The implementation of such a service-oriented approach and the shift from PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) to SLM (Service Lifecycle Management). It describes business requirements elicitation towards the creation of an SLM-based ecosystem in collaboration with an Italian company leader in household appliances. The case study focuses on washing machines, analyses the traditional product use and a new service-oriented scenario and defines a list of requirements to be implemented for the creation of the future SLM-based ecosystem. © Springer-Verlag London 2013.

Keywords: Ecosystem collaboration | SLM (Service Lifecycle Management) | SSME (service science management and engineering) | Virtual factories

[105] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Promoting and managing end-of-life closed-loop scenarios of products using a design for disassembly evaluation tool, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 3(PARTS A AND B), 1339-1348, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, environmentally conscious design has become a fundamental approach for industries which have to consider the variable environment during the design process. Waste management is one of the most important aspects to be handled, to reduce the disposal in landfills and to encourage the sustainable 3R approach: Reuse, Recycling and Remanufacturing. Product disassembly is an essential phase of the product lifecycle, necessary to evaluate the End-of-Life (EoL) strategies and to reduce environmental impact. In order to minimize the impact on production and costs it is very important to consider EoL scenarios during the embodiment design phase, when designer's decisions influence product structure. Design for Disassembly (DFD) is a powerful method to reduce disassembly time and costs. However, there are no useful tools which provide guidelines to improve the product disassemblability or promote specific EoL scenarios. For these reasons this paper describes an innovative Design for Disassembly approach and related tool to support designers in product disassemblability evaluation. The tool has the scope to manage EoL scenarios for industrial waste in the early design phases and to share metadata with the traditional design tools. Disassembly costs is one of the most important parameters during the evaluation of EoL scenarios. Six indices are presented to evaluate the economic and environmental feasibility of the EoL strategies. The calculation of the six indices permits alternative EoL scenarios to be compared and encourage the recyclability, reusability or re-manufacturability of a product. These evaluations can be used to foster a particular EoL scenario, as early on as in the design process. The preliminary analysis on mechatronic products underline the utility of the software tool and indices. Product re-design, realized using this approach, shows a relevant decrease in environmental impacts and disassembly costs. As a consequence, the new product has a relevant percentage of components with a closed-loop lifecycle. © 2012 by ASME.

[106] Favi C., Germani M., Mengoni M., Correlation law between functions and environmental impact for smart products, ASME 2012 11th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, ESDA 2012, 3, 813-822, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Smart products are becoming more present in everyday life. They are prevalent in different markets such as electronic devices, cars and household appliances. One important dimension of product smartness is "multi- functionality". When choosing a product, the consumer takes into account subjective and objective purchase drivers. Price, brand, aesthetics, environmental impact and functionalities represent an important set of these. In this context the work are interested in correlating two drivers: functions and eco-sustainability. Generally, this last characteristic should be maximized taking into consideration a correct balance with product functionalities. The aim of this work is to investigate this correlation. It can be measured by a suitable correspondence in order to determine a quantitative law. This relationship can be useful to the designers to determine the product features during the product design phase, but it can be also used by consumers to compare similar products. This paper reports the problem domain, approach for correlation law definition and, finally, the experimental analysis of product functions vs. environmental sustainability. Two case studies in the household appliances sector will exemplify the proposed analysis. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

Keywords: Environmental impact | Functions | Product design | Product evaluation

[107] Favi C., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A lifecycle design approach to analyze the eco-sustainability of industrial products and product-service systems, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, DS 70, 879-888, (2012).
[108] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Favi C., Shift from PLM to SLM: A method to support business requirements elicitation for service innovation, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 388 AICT, 111-123, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: PLM is a widely recognized approach to reduce time to market, increase process efficiency and control product lifecycle. However, service-oriented management is becoming increasingly popular to create new business infrastructures able to self-organize tangible and intangible manufacturing assets in a distributed and interoperable way [1]. The final scope is to manage not simply the Product but also Services along the value chain. The great modern challenge is the implementation of such a service-oriented approach and the shift from PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) to SLM (Service Lifecycle Management). This paper proposes a structured method to define a TO-BE service-oriented scenario and elicit business requirements towards the creation of an SLM-based ecosystem. A case study is developed in collaboration with an Italian company leader in household appliances. It focuses on washing machine, investigates AS-IS and TO-BE business scenarios by adopting Functional Analysis and Business Use Cases (BUC), and then defines the necessary business requirements to implement a service-based approach and create the future SLM ecosystem. © 2012 International Federation for Information Processing.

Keywords: Ecosystem Collaboration | SLM (Service Lifecycle Management) | SSME (Service Science, Management and Engineering) | Virtual Factories

[109] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., Innovative software platform for eco-design of efficient electric motors, Journal of Cleaner Production, 37, 125-134, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Electric motors are one of the most common electrical components used both in industrial and household applications. In order to reduce world energy consumption and environmental impact, electric motors need to be improved in terms of efficiency and eco-sustainability. For this reason it is necessary to improve environmental consciousness, favouring the application of eco-design guidelines in the design phase, which is the most important stage where "green" solutions can be rapidly ideated, evaluated and optimized. Different aspects have to be concurrently considered in order to achieve a high quality product in a short time to market. In this context, the present paper describes an innovative web-based software platform to configure and simulate customized energy efficient electric motors. The core of the platform is a knowledge-based system which aims to standardize the design process according to the rules which represent the company know-how and best practices. The platform integrates different software tools to support the development from conceptual design to detailed design, and from the configuration of design solutions up to environmental impact assessment and manufacturing cost evaluation. It also provides a collaborative area in order to improve the collaboration among remote users involved in the design process, thanks to the sharing of important design data and models. The presented practical case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the platform application. The achieved results demonstrate the improvement of the configured solutions in comparison with the traditional adopted motors. The new motors exhibit both a considerable increase in energy efficiency and at the same time relevant improvement in product sustainability combined with acceptable production costs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Collaborative design | Eco-design | Electric motors | Energy efficiency | Knowledge-based system

[110] Favi C., Germani M., A method to optimize assemblability of industrial product in early design phase: From product architecture to assembly sequence, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 6(3), 155-169, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: The development of modular products is diffused in modern production due to the achievable flexibility and to the required product personalization. Modular products can maximize the efficiency of productive processes if they are structured to be easily configurable during the assembly phase. In this context the present work proposes an approach to optimize the product's modular architecture aimed to improve manual assemblability. The goal of this method is to assess the product assembly sequence during the early design stage. In particular it improves the conceptual design for assembly approach by taking into account the role of different flows in the modular product structure and the types of interface between modules. A case study regarding the household appliance field is reported and it allows the method results to be shown and to highlight advantages and drawbacks. A relevant improvement in terms of the reduction of assembly time is obtained. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords: Conceptual design for assembly | Interface connection | Product architecture

[111] Favi C., Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., LeanDfd: A design for disassembly approach to evaluate the feasibility of different End-of-Life scenarios for industrial products, Leveraging Technology for a Sustainable World - Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 215-220, (2012). Abstract
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Abstract: Product disassembly is an important phase of the product lifecycle. It occurs to minimize the maintenance time and evaluate the End-of-Life (EoL) strategies, for example component reuse/recycling. These scenarios should be considered during the design process when decisions influence product architecture/structure. In this context, the present work describes an approach to support the designer's evaluation of disassemblability by using the 3D CAD model structure and suitable key indices related to product features. A software system allows the product model to be analyzed and evaluates the disassemblability degree. An experimental case study facilitates the approach demonstration and highlights product performance.

Keywords: Design for disassembly | End-of-Life | Industrial products

[112] Favi C., Germani M., Marconi M., Mengoni M., Tirabassi A., EROD: New collaborative design platform for developing energy efficient electric motors, 2011 IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference, IEMDC 2011, 59-64, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years International and Communitarian directives have focused their attention on the problem of energy consumption. In this context electric motors play a key role and designers must improve products considering this direction. This paper presents an innovative platform, called EROD (Energy Reduction Oriented Design), which consists of multiple software modules with different functionalities to support the whole design process of electric motors. The goal of EROD platform is to achieve energy efficient and sustainable electric motors and related devices. The platform facilitates knowledge and data sharing among design team members, it arranges the workflow activities and finally it promotes collaborative design sessions. All functionalities are implemented within the same web-based platform. This guarantees interoperability among different tools and leads up to significant reduction of development time due to the elimination of errors and iterations. The platform was tested to design five innovative electric motors for industrial and household applications. Results show that the new developed motors improve current solutions in terms of energy efficiency and environmental impact during use. © 2011 IEEE.

Keywords: collaborative design | efficiency | electric motors | environmental impact | optimization

[113] Morbidoni A., Favi C., Germani M., CAD-integrated LCA tool: Comparison with dedicated LCA software and guidelines for the improvement, Glocalized Solutions for Sustainability in Manufacturing - Proceedings of the 18th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 569-574, (2011). Abstract
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Abstract: CAD-integrated LCA tools are developed in order to support SLCA (Simplified Life Cycle Assessment) method and they could be used as eco-design tools in the design phase. Nevertheless they are still a long way from being accurate and properly usable. The present work aims at demonstrating this assumption in concrete terms by focusing the attention on the mechanical field. A comparison analysis between CAD-integrated LCA tools and dedicated LCA tools has been proposed in order to determine the main causes of error and to propose guidelines for improvement. An approach based on these guidelines is presented and preliminarily evaluated.

Keywords: CAD | Eco-design | Life Cycle Assessment