[Elenco soci]


Carulli Marina

Ricercatore TD(B)


Politecnico di Milano
marina.carulli@polimi.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 55165093300
Orcid: 0000-0003-2101-5474



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Rossoni M., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Colombo G., Prototyping of an Olfactory Display supported by CFD Simulations, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 20(1), 174-189, (2023). Abstract
X

Abstract: Olfactory Displays are devices used to generate and deliver scented air that is eventually smelled by the users. As the literature reports, their development and evaluation mostly rely on experimental activities based on a “trial-and-error” approach, which prevents a comparative analysis of designed solutions and their technical performances, thus leading to prototypes with low potential to become future products. In this paper, an innovative framework embedding Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for designing, prototyping and testing new Olfactory Displays is proposed. After presenting the framework, the paper illustrates the settings for a multi-phase CFD analysis based on Discrete Particles Modeling for simulating olfactory displays. The design of a new wearable olfactory display is presented, detailing all the steps of the framework. A first architecture is devised, and an initial set of simplified 2D multi-phase CFD simulations has been used to propose possible improvements. A new design has been developed, and a 3D CFD simulation has been run to predict its performance. A set of experiments has been conducted to test the real prototypes and compare the performance with the one predicted by the simulations. The experimental results are in good accordance with the simulations, which have proven their effectiveness in improving the design of the olfactory displays.

Keywords: CFD | Olfactory Display DOI: https://doi.org/ | Rapid Prototyping | Virtual and Physical Prototyping

[2] Carulli M., Generosi A., Bordegoni M., Mengoni M., Design of XR Applications for Museums, Including Technology Maximising Visitors’ Experience, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1460-1470, (2023). Abstract
X

Abstract: eXtended Reality (XR) technology can enhance the visitors’ experience of museums. Due to the variety of XR technologies available that differ in performance, quality of the experience they provide, and cost, it is helpful to refer to the evaluation of the various technologies performed through user studies to select the most suitable ones. This paper presents a set of empirical studies on XR application for museums to select the appropriate technologies to meet visitors’ expectations and maximise the willingness of repeating and recommending the experience. They provide valuable insights for developing Virtual Museum applications increasing the level of presence and experience economy.

Keywords: Extended reality | Multisensory experience | Sense of smell | User experience | Virtual museum

[3] Spadoni E., Porro S., Bordegoni M., Arosio I., Barbalini L., Carulli M., Augmented Reality to Engage Visitors of Science Museums through Interactive Experiences, Heritage, 5(3), 1370-1394, (2022). Abstract
X

Abstract: In the last years, interactive exhibitions based on digital technologies have become widely common, thanks to their flexibility and effectiveness in engaging visitors and creating memorable experiences. One of the topics in which digital technologies can be particularly effective is the communication of abstract concepts that are difficult for the human mind to imagine. An emblematic example is the astronomy discipline, which requires us to imagine and understand phenomena far away from our everyday life. In this paper, the authors present a research project, MARSS, in which digital technologies are used effectively to enhance the Users’ Experience of the Museo Astronomico di Brera located in Milan. Specifically, the MARSS project aims at designing and developing a new digital journey inside the museum to allow different categories of visitors to enjoy the exhibition in an engaging and interactive way. The paper presents the design and development phases of the experience and its evaluation with users. The results of the evaluation indicate that the digital interactive experience is appreciated by users and is successful in translating the content of high scientific value into more engaging and easily understandable elements.

Keywords: augmented reality | cultural heritage | extended reality | interactive exhibitions | science museums | user experience

[4] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Spadoni E., Multisensory Virtual Reality for Delivering Training Content to Machinery Operators, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 22(3), (2022). Abstract
X

Abstract: The issue of training operators in the use of machinery is topical in the industrial field and in many other contexts, such as university laboratories. Training is about learning how to use machinery properly and safely. Beyond the possibility of studying manuals to learn how to use a machine, operators typically learn through on-The-job training. Indeed, learning by doing is in general more effective, tasks done practically are remembered more easily, and the training is more motivating and less tiresome. On the other hand, this training method has several negative factors. In particular, safety may be a major issue in some training situations. An approach that may contribute overcoming negative factors is using Virtual Reality and digital simulation techniques for operators training. The research work presented in this paper concerns the development of a multisensory virtual reality application for training operators to properly use machinery and personal protective equipment (PPE). The context selected for the study is a university laboratory hosting manufacturing machinery. The application allows user to navigate the laboratory, to approach a machine and learn about how to operate it, and also to use proper PPE while operating a machine. Specifically, the paper describes the design and implementation of the application and presents the results of preliminary testing sessions.

[5] Porro S., Spadoni E., Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Design of an Intrinsically Motivating AR Experience for Environmental Awareness, Proceedings of the Design Society, 2, 1679-1688, (2022). Abstract
X

Abstract: Augmented Reality seems a promising tool to provide engaging and effective educational experiences, thanks to its potentiality in stimulating intrinsic motivation, that could influence the learning process and the attitude of the users towards behaviours. This paper presents the Resized Plastic Augmented Reality learning experience, designed on the basis of Dunleavy's framework to provide a systemic overview of the microplastics issue to allow users to understand its mechanisms, educate them about their role in the system and help them to connect this information to their everyday actions.

Keywords: augmented reality (AR) | digital learning | sustainability | user experience

[6] Lorusso M., Rossoni M., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Colombo G., A virtual reality application for 3D sketching in conceptual design, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 19(2), 256-268, (2022). Abstract
X

Abstract: The development of Virtual Reality in a wide range of field, including engineering related applications, has pushed towards the investigation of novel solutions that are able to take advantage of such new possibilities, while possibly trying to seamlessly integrate them within currently established workflows. Regarding conceptual sketching, which commonly represents one of the first activities taking place across Product Design development work-flows, there are examples of applications that allow to shift from the 2D layout of traditional drawing to a fully immersive 3D environment where the user is able to produce strokes in space by means of a set of natural gestures. Despite sounding extremely intuitive, this kind of approach also comes with potential issues: the lack of a supportive surface onto which the user can rely on to produce strokes with a high degree of precision while not feeling tired after prolonged sessions can be problematic. Based on these premises, a new hybrid approach is proposed: the user is still immersed in the Virtual Environment, but is able to make use of a traditional tablet device which lays on a physical desk in order to produce visible strokes in Virtual Reality, while having the possibility to simultaneously manipulate the position and the orientation of the scene thanks to a hand tracking device to break into the third dimen-sion. As designed, the application supports the generation of simple line strokes and few basic commands, but a thorough testing session is still needed to validate the solution and investigate on the necessary improvements.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Product design | Virtual reality

[7] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Spadoni E., Applications virtually augmenting real experiences for behavioral change, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 19(1), 176-190, (2022). Abstract
X

Abstract: Design for Sustainability is a research area based on a multidisciplinary approach, which has become increasingly important in recent years. Among the several approaches to Design for Sustainability emerged in the past decades, great attention is paid to the “Design for sustainable behavior” approach, used to design products that can impact on users' behaviors, through embedded smart technologies, e.g., Internet of Things (IoT). In fact, IoT systems are able to "dialogue" with the users, supporting the identification of any misbehavior, and suggesting more sustainable ones. The authors identified the opportunity to design and develop AR interactive applications aiming to generate awareness about the impact of humans on Earth, make people reason about how they can directly contribute to limit the expansion of this problem and induce their behavioral change. The applications are meant to engage users in an active process of exploring and discovering informative contents and to foster them to elaborate a personal and critical vision and change their bad habits. Specifically, this paper presents two case studies about the design and development of Augmented Reality applications and IoT products to be used for supporting users towards more conscious food consumption in their daily life, in order to reduce food waste.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Design for behavioral change | Design for sustainable behavior | Food waste

[8] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Spadoni E., A Framework for Developing XR Applications Including Multiple Sensorial Media, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 13446 LNCS, 271-286, (2022). Abstract
X

Abstract: eXtended Reality applications include multiple sensorial media to increase the quality of the User Experience. In addition to traditional media, video, and sound, two other senses are typically integrated: touch and smell. The development of applications that integrate multiple sensorial media requires a framework for properly managing their activation and synchronization. The paper describes a framework for the development of eXtended Reality mulsemedia applications and presents some applications based on the integration of smells developed using the framework.

Keywords: Users experiences | extended reality

[9] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Spadoni E., Multisensory VR for delivering training content to machinery operators, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2, (2021). Abstract
X

Abstract: The issue of training operators in the use of machinery is topical in the industrial field and in many other contexts, such as university laboratories. Training is about learning how to use machinery properly and safely. Beyond the possibility of studying manuals to learn how to use a machine, operators typically learn through on-the-job training. Indeed, learning by doing is in general more effective, tasks done practically are remembered more easily, and the training is more motivating and less tiresome. On the other hand, this training method has several negative factors. In particular, safety may be a major issue in some training situations. An approach that may contribute overcoming negative factors is using Virtual Reality and digital simulations techniques for operators training. The research work presented in this paper concerns the development of a multisensory Virtual Reality environment for training operators to properly use machinery and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The context selected for the study is a university laboratory hosting manufacturing machinery. It has been developed an application that allows user to navigate the laboratory, to approach a machine and learn about how to operate it and also what PPE to use while operating. Specifically, the paper describes the design and implementation of the application.

Keywords: Multisensory interaction | Virtual reality | Virtual training

[10] Bellani P., Carulli M., Caruso G., Gestural interfaces to support the sketching activities of designers, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2, (2021). Abstract
X

Abstract: The several loops characterizing the design process used to slow down the development of new projects. Since the 70s, the design process has changed due to the new technologies and tools related to Computer-Aided Design software and Virtual Reality applications that make almost the whole process digital. However, the concept phase of the design process is still based on traditional approaches, while digital tools are poor exploited. In this phase, designers need tools that allow them to rapidly save and freeze their ideas, such as sketching on paper, which is not integrated in the digital-based process. The paper presents a new gestural interface to give designers more support by introducing an effective device for 3D modelling to improve and speed up the conceptual design process. We designed a set of gestures to allow people from different background to 3D model their ideas in a natural way. A testing session with 17 participants allowed us to verify if the proposed interaction was intuitive or not. At the end of the tests, all participants succeeded in the 3D modelling of a simple shape (a column) by only using air gestures in a relatively short amount of time exactly how they expected it to be built, confirming the proposed interaction.

Keywords: Design process | Gesture recognition

[11] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Spadoni E., Support users towards more conscious food consumption habits: A case study, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 2801-2810, (2021). Abstract
X

Abstract: Design for Sustainability is a research area based on a multidisciplinary approach, which has become increasingly important in recent years. Great attention is paid to the design of products that can impact on users' behaviours, through embedded smart technologies, e.g. Internet of Things (IoT). In fact, IoT systems are able to "dialogue" with the users, supporting the identification of any misbehaviour, and suggesting more sustainable ones. This paper presents a research aiming at supporting users towards more conscious food consumption in their daily life to reduce food waste. As a case study, it has been developed an interactive system in which chicken eggs are used as main communication element. Indeed, the environmental footprint of the egg industry is very heavy, and eggs are one of the main wasted food. The interactive system consists of a physical product, an eggs tray, integrating sensors and actuators for handling the interaction with users. It is accompanied by an interactive application for monitoring eggs consumption, displaying eggs waste statistics, and an Augmented Reality part for children, aimed to improve their awareness about food waste and the impact on their food habits through an "edutainment" approach.

Keywords: Industrial design | Sustainability | Virtual reality

[12] Huang S., Carulli M., Hekkert P., Schifferstein R.N.J., Bordegoni M., DESIGNING PRODUCT METAPHOR to PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOUR: A PROPOSED METHOD, Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN Conference, 1, 1921-1930, (2020). Abstract
X

Abstract: Within the scope of Design for Sustainable Behaviour, the connection between behavioural change strategies and design idea generation has received limited attention. This paper highlights metaphorical thinking in product design to stimulate sustainable behaviour. In particular, the current study proposes a metaphor-based design method to guide designers on how to associate product features with behavioural and experiential cues through metaphors. We next report two design cases to evaluate this method. In the end, the shortcomings of current research and future developments are also discussed.

Keywords: design methodology | ecodesign | human behaviour | product design | sustainable design

[13] Rossoni M., Bolzan P., Colombo G., Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Survey of digital tools for the generation of ideas, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 9, (2020). Abstract
X

Abstract: During the concept phase of the industrial design process drawings are used to represent designer’s ideas. More specifically, the designer’s goal is to put the characteristics of ideas on paper so that they can later act as pivotal points in the development of a project. Sketching is also the ideal tool to continue developing an idea: because it is imprecise, the sketch guarantees a high degree of freedom, allowing for changes to made and new ideas to be added. Another possibility is to translate ideas into sketches on computer tools. This approach can allow the designer to use the created 3D model as the basis for further developing ideas. At the present moment, however, this type of solution is not extensively used by designers during the concept phase. Some researchers have identified technical problems as the reason why these instruments have been unsuccessful on the market, while for others this is related to systems still too rigid to be adapted to the often-diverse needs of designers. The research presented in this position paper aims at analyzing what has so far been understood with respect to the process of generating ideas, their initial representation in the concept phase and the tools that have been developed so far to support this phase. Consequently, a discussion on these themes and some hypotheses from which develop new research lines will be presented.

[14] Spadoni E., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Virtual reality to improve the user experience of traditional museums, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 9, (2020). Abstract
X

Abstract: Museums have been subjected to important changes in the approach they use to involve visitors. Among the other trends, storytelling and interactive exhibitions are two of the most used approaches used to make exhibitions more interesting for users. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality methods can be effectively used in the context of a museum exhibition to support both storytelling and interaction. The primary objective of the use of these technologies is to make the visit of museums much more engaging, and suitable for different types of visitors. Among the several museums that are moving in this direction, there is the Museo Astronomico di Brera. The museum mainly consists of a corridor, hosting instruments used by astronomers, and the Cupola Schiaparelli, which is an observatory dome. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to develop an interactive Virtual Reality application to be used for improving the users’ experience of visits to the Museo Astronomico di Brera. Specifically, the paper presents a VR application to virtually visit the Dome. Preliminary tests have been carried out for evaluating the users' sense of presence in the VR environment. An analysis of the collected data is presented in the paper.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Museum exhibitions | User Experience | Virtual Reality

[15] Messina M.J., Teves S., Scurati G.W., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Development of virtual reality training scenario for avalanche rescue, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 9, (2020). Abstract
X

Abstract: As the popularity of winter outdoor sports is increasing, a growing number of users are engaging in activities in uncontrolled terrain, thus training for avalanche rescue is more important than ever. Traditional training takes place through workshops and in field sessions, presenting limitations to the training availability, since they require time, organization and specific weather conditions. This is problematic since the use of transceivers to locate buried individuals is not trivial and requires practice. Virtual Reality (VR) training has shown to be effective in several fields, especially in the context of hazardous conditions and emergencies, which require decision making under time pressure and management of complex tools in uncontrolled or unsafe environments. Examples include disaster medicine, military operations, and other fields in which actions must be performed precisely in short time frame. In this work, we present the development of an immersive VR system for avalanche rescue training as a complementary tool to the traditional techniques in order to prepare the trainee for field training sessions. We discuss the definition of the system requirements, the design and implementation of the tool, and considerations regarding hardware and software. Finally, we discuss possible limitations and future development.

Keywords: Avalanche Rescue Training | Virtual Reality

[16] Gardoni F., Mojetta F., Sorrentino C., Etzi R., Gallace A., Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Raising awareness about the consequences of human activities on natural environments through multisensory augmented reality: Amazon rainforest and coral reef interactive experiences, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 18(4), 815-830, (2020). Abstract
X

Abstract: Cultural and educational institutions have been subjected to important changes in the approach they use to involve the public in the last years. For example, museums are more and more playing a pedagogical role, referring not only to exhibitions of pieces of art, but also to exhibitions concerning current topics in cultural and social affairs. Storytelling and interaction are two of the most popular methods used to make exhibitions more interesting for the visitors, and many works have demonstrated that Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality technologies can be effectively used to support these approaches in the context of museum exhibitions. This paper presents a research work aimed to design and develop an interactive multisensory AR application (based on sight, hearing, and olfaction senses), which can be used for improving the users' engagement in exhibitions and generate awareness about the dramatic outcomes of pollution on the environment. Specifically, the paper describes a case study of multisensory Augmented Reality interactive experiences concerning the negative effects of human activities on natural environments.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Multisensory Perception | User Experience

[17] Belloli S., Porro S., Virk V.S., Etzi R., Gallace A., Bordegoni M., Carulli M., The kandinsky experience: A multisensory augmented reality application for cultural heritage, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 18(4), 799-814, (2020). Abstract
X

Abstract: Kandinsky-Experience Book is a multisensory Augmented Reality experience that involves sight, hearing and smell senses and aims at improving the users’ engagement in the Kandinsky’s artworks. Specifically, the aim of the application is to augment the experience of the user creating a journey throughout Kandinsky's work by using an AR application for smartphones integrated with audio and olfactory stimuli, in order to allow him/her to be more immersed in the piece of art. The research project has been inspired by the synesthetic approach of the abstract painter to the theory and the perception of art in his books. Starting from the artist’s considerations about the relationship between different sensorial stimuli in works of art, we decided to amplify some of his theories suggesting a connection between the main pictorial elements and some corresponding olfactory stimuli, grounding our hypotheses on the content of papers concerning the crossmodal synesthetic correspondences between olfactory stimuli and other sensorial modalities. Thanks to the simultaneous presentation of the specifically developed AR contents and the olfactory stimuli, the users’ feelings and emotions during the experience are amplified as a result of the sensory integration. Moreover, by using AR technology and olfactory devices to stimulate visual and olfactory perceptual channels we aimed at increasing the generation of longer-lasting memories in the users' mind.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Cultural Heritage | Multisensory Perception | User Experience

[18] Scurati G.W., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Sustainable behaviour: A framework for the design of products for behaviour change, Emotional Engineering, Vol. 8: Emotion in the Emerging World, 65-83, (2020). Abstract
X

Abstract: The increasing concern for sustainability-related issues leads to the rise of new fields in design research, dedicated to limit the negative impact of human activities on the environment and society. After addressing issues related to production, efficiency, recyclability and disassembly, designers start to recognize their responsibility in guiding users to behave in a more responsible and sustainable way. For this reason, designing products to support users’ behaviour change is becoming one of the most popular trends in design research at the moment. To achieve the desired results design for behaviour change, and in particular, Design for Sustainable Behaviour exploits a variety of approaches. In this Chapter, we explore the use of Design for Sustainable Behaviour techniques through a literature review of theories and case studies. Then, we defined a framework which describes the use of multisensory stimuli as elements to support different phases of interaction during the user experience with an interactive product. We relate this framework to previous works and then we discuss two case studies.

[19] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Multisensory Augmented Reality Experiences for Cultural Heritage Exhibitions, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 140-151, (2020). Abstract
X

Abstract: Human beings interact with the external world through the perception that they get by touching, looking at, listening to, tasting and smelling it. Even if this exploration is essential to identify opportunities and dangers, today it is also used to investigate, understand and enjoy objects that surround us and to use them to manage our life, have fun, increase our knowledge, relax, etc. To date, interaction is based primarily on sight, on hearing and on touch. Very little interaction, however, is based on smell, a sense considered very difficult to manage and to use for creating more pleasant and effective experiences. Yet, olfactory stimuli can make the interaction between users and objects more engaging and effective on sub-conscious levels and long-term memory. This can be particular relevant for museums, which are subjected to important changes in the way they use to involve visitors in their exhibitions. This work presents two case studies of olfactory experiences integrated in applications for cultural heritage purposes, and effectively used to enhance the user interaction and experience.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Interactive exhibitions | Multisensory experiences

[20] Micaroni L., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Gallace A., Bordegoni M., An olfactory display to study the integration of vision and olfaction in a virtual reality environment, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 19(3), (2019). Abstract
X

Abstract: The paper describes the design of an innovative virtual reality (VR) system, based on a combination of an olfactory display and a visual display, to be used for investigating the directionality of the sense of olfaction. In particular, the design of an experimental setup to understand and determine to what extent the sense of olfaction is directional and whether there is prevalence of the sense of vision over the one of smell when determining the direction of an odor, is described. The experimental setup is based on low-cost VR technologies. In particular, the system is based on a custom directional olfactory display (OD), a head mounted display (HMD) to deliver both visual and olfactory cues, and an input device to register subjects' answers. The paper reports the design of the olfactory interface as well as its integration with the overall system.

[21] Gullà F., Menghi R., Papetti A., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Gaggioli A., Germani M., Prototyping adaptive systems in smart environments using virtual reality, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 13(2), 597-616, (2019). Abstract
X

Abstract: Smart environment is a key challenge for current ICT research: it is one of the solutions that can enhance people’s quality of life and enable users with impairment to live independently. Over the years, scientific research has proposed several solutions to help and improve the capabilities of its occupants, but they are often developed for a specific context (e.g. particular disease or impairment). These systems do not adapt to the real needs of users with different profiles, and neglect that the user’s requirements may evolve over time. This research work aims to develop a new adaptive smart system able to support users (with and without disabilities) in performing daily tasks by recognizing their preferences and actions and adapting the system feedback consequently. With the aim to develop an easy, efficient and usable adaptive smart system, the final users have been involved in the whole design and development process. The system was validated through a virtual reality system allowing the user interaction evaluation and helping the usability improvement.

Keywords: Adaptive and adaptable user interface | Bayesian network | ICT | Smart environment | User-centered design | Virtual reality system

[22] Gelsomini M., Cosentino G., Spitale M., Gianotti M., Fisicaro D., Leonardi G., Riccardi F., Piselli A., Beccaluva E., Bonadies B., Terlizzi L.D., Zinzone M., Alberti S., Rebourg C., Carulli M., Garzotto F., Arquilla V., Bisson M., Curto B.D., Bordegoni M., Magika, a multisensory environment for play, education and inclusion, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, (2019). Abstract
X

Abstract: Magika is an interactive Multisensory Environment that enables new forms of playful interventions for children, especially those with Special Education Needs. Designed in cooperation with more than 30 specialists at local care centers and primary schools, Magika integrates digital worlds projected on the wall and the floor with a gamut of "smart" physical objects (toys, ambient lights, materials, and various connected appliances) to enable tactile, auditory, visual, and olfactory stimuli. The room is connected with an interface for educators that enables them to: control the level of stimuli and their progression; define and share a countless number of game-based learning activities; customize such activities to the evolving needs of each child. This paper describes Magika and discusses its potential benefits for play, education and inclusion.

Keywords: Children | Education | Inclusion | Multisensory Environments | Play | Special Education Needs

[23] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Bader S., Wearable Olfactory Display for Museum Exhibitions, ISOEN 2019 - 18th International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose, Proceedings, (2019). Abstract
X

Abstract: The use of odors in different areas, such as marketing, entertainment, wellbeing, and arts is nowadays calling increasing attention. Various types of olfactory displays to integrate into Virtual Reality applications have been proposed in recent years. Actually, several characteristics of the sense of smell and of odors still remain not fully understood, and the development of olfactory displays presents a high level of complexity. Therefore, new strategies for the development of more reliable and effective olfactory displays are required.This paper presents a wearable olfactory display, based on solid fragrances, to integrate into multisensory applications for museum exhibitions. The motivation is that the use of odors can be particularly effective for improving the users' involvement, comprehension and experience of art exhibitions. The paper also describes the experimental setup for the evaluation of the display.

Keywords: Multisensory Application | Olfactory Display | Virtual Reality

[24] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Bernecich F., Spadoni E., Bolzan P., A multisensory virtual reality system for astronauts' entertainment and relaxation, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1, (2019). Abstract
X

Abstract: A research area of interest is that one concerning the design of solutions for improving the life conditions of users in extreme environmental situations. An example is the spacecraft environment, where astronauts are subject to particular conditions, due to the extreme environment. The isolated and confined environment influences behaviors and perceptions. This situation can impact both on astronauts’ moods, cause states of depression, and impact on their performance in working activities. A spacecraft can be the Space Station orbiting the Earth, or future means of transportation used for travelling to other planets. In both cases the space should be designed so as to offer the best possible living and working conditions to the astronauts. The research presented in this paper aims at designing and developing a multisensory VR system for the entertainment and the relaxation of astronauts. The use of VR technology allows us to overcome physical and psychological boundaries of the confined space, which is typical in a spacecraft environment. The sense of smell, which is more linked to visceral emotions than the other senses and can affect various aspects of humans’ physiological and psychological conditions, is used to improve astronauts’ productivity and concentration, and also to relieve their stress and anxiety.

Keywords: Entertainment | Multisensory environment | Relaxation | Scents simulation | Virtual Reality

[25] Etzi R., Huang S., Scurati G.W., Lyu S., Ferrise F., Gallace A., Gaggioli A., Chirico A., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Using virtual reality to test human-robot interaction during a collaborative task, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1, (2019). Abstract
X

Abstract: The use of collaborative robots in the manufacturing industry has widely spread in the last decade. In order to be efficient, the human-robot collaboration needs to be properly designed by also taking into account the operator’s psychophysiological reactions. Virtual Reality can be used as a tool to simulate human-robot collaboration in a safe and cheap way. Here, we present a virtual collaborative platform in which the human operator and a simulated robot coordinate their actions to accomplish a simple assembly task. In this study, the robot moved slowly or more quickly in order to assess the effect of its velocity on the human's responses. Ten participants tested this application by using an Oculus Rift head-mounted display; ARTracking cameras and a Kinect system were used to track the operator's right arm movements and hand gestures respectively. Performance, user experience, and physiological responses were recorded. The results showed that while humans’ performances and evaluations varied as a function of the robot’s velocity, no differences were found in the physiological responses. Taken together, these data highlight the relevance of the kinematic aspects of robot’s motion within a human-robot collaboration and provide valuable insights to further develop our virtual human-machine interactive platform.

Keywords: Human-robot collaboration | Stress | Virtual reality | Workload

[26] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Improving multisensory user experience through olfactory stimuli, Emotional Engineering, Vol.7: The Age of Communication, 201-231, (2019). Abstract
X

Abstract: More and more modern digital applications allow users to make experiences that elicit their senses. More traditional applications allow users to make visual and sound experiences. Recently, the sense of touch has been introduced to enrich the users’ experiences with digital worlds. The sense of smell is equally important for enriching and making the experiences engaging, but has been mostly neglected so far, mostly because of the limited knowledge about olfaction and of olfactory technologies. This chapter presents a methodology for the development of applications including multisensory user experiences based also on the sense of olfaction. The methodology has been used and tested for the development of applications in various sectors, which are reported in the chapter.

[27] Carulli M., Tosin A., Previtali F., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Simulating a virtual journey on italian alps through a multisensory mixed reality environment, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(4), 755-765, (2019). Abstract
X

Abstract: Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality technologies are more and more getting attention from tourism researchers and professionals, because of their recognized potential to support marketing activities. The paper describes the development of a multisensory environment thought for a travel agency, which combines visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory stimuli. The idea is to develop an experience able to provide a virtual preview of the desired holiday destination, resulting in both an attractive experience for the customer and an effective way to increase sales. A case study about the multisensory experience of a walk on Italian Alps has been developed. The multisensory experience is based on a video streaming, recorded in the real environment, synchronously matched with a haptic interface. The haptic interface is made up of a pair of slippers provided with actuators, and also an actuator positioned on the customer trunk, used to reproduce the feeling of a snowball hit. Moreover, an olfactory display is also used to provide pine smell during the walk. During the experience, the user is sitting on a yoga ball, whose inclination allows him/her to start and stop the multisensory virtual experience.

Keywords: Multisensory simulation | User experience | Virtual prototyping | Virtual tourism

[28] Ugur Yavuz S., Bordegoni M., Carulli M., A design practice on communicating emotions through sensory signals, Concurrent Engineering Research and Applications, 26(2), 147-156, (2018). Abstract
X

Abstract: Emotional expression is an important human behavior, which enriches communication. Sensory organs play crucial role in emotional perception. Today, communication is mostly done via digital mediators, which dominantly address vision excluding other senses; therefore, communication becomes less affective. Wearable technology provides an intimate and continuous interaction with sensory organs. Hence, this technology can be used in order to make distant communication more affective by enabling multi-sensory interaction. This article presents a user-centered design practice on wearable products that simulate sensorial feedbacks (tactile, visual, and auditory) to express basic emotions. Three prototypes that transmit emotional messages were designed, built, and tested to observe user behavior. This article discusses how user experience obtained through the user test can be taken further to design new communication products, which can find solutions for different user needs.

Keywords: design practice | emotion | multi-sensory interaction | sensory perception | wearable technology

[29] Barone S., Carulli M., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., An omnidirectional vision sensor based on a spherical mirror catadioptric system, Sensors (Switzerland), 18(2), (2018). Abstract
X

Abstract: The combination of mirrors and lenses, which defines a catadioptric sensor, is widely used in the computer vision field. The definition of a catadioptric sensors is based on three main features: hardware setup, projection modelling and calibration process. In this paper, a complete description of these aspects is given for an omnidirectional sensor based on a spherical mirror. The projection model of a catadioptric system can be described by the forward projection task (FP, from 3D scene point to 2D pixel coordinates) and backward projection task (BP, from 2D coordinates to 3D direction of the incident light). The forward projection of non-central catadioptric vision systems, typically obtained by using curved mirrors, is usually modelled by using a central approximation and/or by adopting iterative approaches. In this paper, an analytical closed-form solution to compute both forward and backward projection for a non-central catadioptric system with a spherical mirror is presented. In particular, the forward projection is reduced to a 4th order polynomial by determining the reflection point on the mirror surface through the intersection between a sphere and an ellipse. A matrix format of the implemented models, suitable for fast point clouds handling, is also described. A robust calibration procedure is also proposed and applied to calibrate a catadioptric sensor by determining the mirror radius and center with respect to the camera.

Keywords: Backward projection model | Catadioptric sensor | Computer vision | Forward projection model | Spherical mirror

[30] Micaroni L., Carulli M., Ferrise F., Bordegoni M., Gallace A., Design of a directional olfactory display to study the integration of vision and olfaction, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2018, (2018). Abstract
X

Abstract: This research aims to design and develop an innovative system, based on an olfactory display, to be used for investigating the directionality of the sense of olfaction. In particular, the design of an experimental setup to understand and determine to what extent the sense of olfaction is directional and whether there is prevalence of the sense of vision over the one of smell when determining the direction of an odor, is described. The experimental setup is based on low cost Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. In particular, the system is based on a custom directional olfactory display, an Oculus Rift Head Mounted Display (HMD) to deliver both visual and olfactory cues and an input device to register subjects’ answers. The VR environment is developed in Unity3D. The paper describes the design of the olfactory interface as well as its integration with the overall system. Finally the results of the initial testing are reported in the paper.

[31] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Gallace A., Gustafsson M., Pfuhl T., Simulating multisensory wine tasting experience, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 5, 2177-2186, (2018). Abstract
X

Abstract: In this paper, we present the development of an application that allows us to simulate the multisensory experience of tasting a glass of wine. To this end, technologies for the sense of touch, sight, hearing, and smell have been integrated, creating an interactive multi-sensory experience. The user, after picking up a glass, activates an application in which he is guided by a virtual sommelier to make a tasting, and he is able to perceive the multi-sensory experience of the wine tasting experience. The paper describes the application and its potential use in marketing.

Keywords: Multisensory product experience | User experience | Virtual reality (VR)

[32] Terracciano A., Dima M., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Mapping Memory Routes: A multisensory interface for sensorial urbanism and critical heritage studies, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, Part F127655, 353-356, (2017). Abstract
X

Abstract: This demonstration offers the opportunity to explore a multisensory digital interface as part of the wider research project 'Mapping Memory Routes: Eliciting Culturally Diverse Memes for Digital Archives'. The interface is conceived as a tool for capturing memes rooted in the rich intangible heritage of culturally diverse communities in London, opening up a space for intercultural exchange to be used in meaningful urban design. Based on a model developed by artist and researcher Alda Terracciano for her multisensory installation 'Streets of...7 cities in 7 minutes', the interface is used to explore new design methods to elicit cultural memories through the use of multisensory technology. The tool aims to stimulate collective curatorial practices aimed at democratising decision-making processes in critical heritage studies and urban planning.

Keywords: Community curation | Critical heritage studies | Design research | Multisensory interface design | Sensorial mapping | Sensorial urbanism | Urban planning

[33] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Shi Y., Ruscio D., Investigating the effects of odour integration in reading and learning experiences, Interaction Design and Architecture(s), 2017(32), 104-125, (2017). Abstract
X

Abstract: Books are the tools used for reading novels and stories, but also for educational purposes. Conventional books have undergone a radical transformation in recent years due to the use of new technologies. However, even today the technological devices used for reading e-books are still poorly exploited, despite the fact that they represent a fundamental tool to make the reading experience more immersive by using a complete multisensory approach. In this perspective, one sense that represents an important element of human perception is the sense of smell. Consequently, authors make the hypothesis that the introduction of odours during reading sessions could increase the user experience and the learning performances. In order to demonstrate these hypotheses, the authors have defined and carried out several experimental testing sessions. The analysis of the collected data proved that the introduction of odour does not disturb the reader during reading activities but, on the contrary, can actually make the experience more immersive. Similarly, odours do not disturb studying activities, but they can instead increase the level of concentration and people's learning performance.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Multisensory environment | Olfactory technologies | User experience

[34] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Bianchini M., Bolzan P., Maffei S., A novel educational model based on "knowing how to do" paradigm implemented in an academic makerspace, Interaction Design and Architecture(s), 7-29, (2017). Abstract
X

Abstract: The design discipline is faced with radical changes related to new technologies and to an increasingly globalized world with more and more competitive markets. These factors are profoundly influencing methods and processes of design, and the knowledge and skills related to the designer's role. Consequently, the design educational models are radically changing. Today, one of the most impacting evolutions is related to rapid prototyping techniques, which are bringing design practice closer to the auto-production. This emerging trend cannot be anymore supported with traditional didactic approaches, but it is necessary to create spaces for allowing students to learn, design and experiment in a shared way. This paper presents the Polifactory Lab at Politecnico di Milano, an innovative makerspace established with the aim of creating a new research and teaching space. In this paper, the authors present the Polifactory Lab, its theoretical purposes, and some examples of didactic activities carried out in the lab.

Keywords: Design educational models | Innovation in education | Makerspace | Rapid prototyping

[35] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Rapid prototyping products mapping live-data streams into tangible user interfaces, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 9(DS87-9), 199-208, (2017). Abstract
X

Abstract: The very rapid evolution of digital technologies and the "Internet of Things" phenomenon are today some of the most important issues that product designers have to face. Consequently, today designers need to understand and manage these new technologies in order to exploit their potential into innovative products. Therefore, it is recommendable that designers focus their activities on the design of the meaning and on the user interaction of products, in order to create smart products that are easy-to-use and enjoyable. In order to address all these issues, the authors set up an experimental workshop in which students with different backgrounds in design-related disciplines were asked to collaborate to the design of a domestic product that allows new tangible interaction with live-data streams. In addition, students were asked to develop the functioning prototype of their design solution, by using rapid prototyping and physical computing techniques. The students were able to develop working prototypes of products that are capable of communicating information derived from real-time data streams. Some of the most representative results of this workshop are presented in the paper.

Keywords: 3D printing | Design education | User centred design

[36] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Shi Y., Demonstrating the effectiveness of olfactory stimuli on drivers’ attention, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 65, 513-523, (2017). Abstract
X

Abstract: More than one million people die per year on world’s road. Researches have identified drivers’ cognitive aspects as the major cause of human errors in 80% of crash events. Driver-Assistance Systems (DAS) have been developed to detect data about vehicle, environment and driver, and to communicate information usually through the senses of vision and hearing. But, the growth of in-vehicle devices increases the visual and auditory demand of the driver. This research aims at investigating whether olfactory stimuli can be used to elicit drivers’ cognitive aspects. An experimental framework has been set up, and testing sessions have been organised. The analysis of the data collected from tests shows that olfactory stimuli are more effective in increasing some subjects’ physiological parameters than the auditory ones. Therefore, smells may be used as a DAS, for increasing drivers’ attention.

Keywords: Driver-assistance systems | Drivers’ attention | Olfactory stimuli

[37] Carulli M., Vitali A., Caruso G., Bordegoni M., Rizzi C., Cugini U., ICT technology for innovating the garment design process in fashion industry, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 65, 525-535, (2017). Abstract
X

Abstract: The Italian fashion industry is nowadays subject to radical transformation; therefore, it needs to remain competitive and, at the same time, innovate itself, in order to strengthen its position in the global market. An important opportunity of innovation can be the introduction of ICT technologies in the garment design process, which today is based on traditional methods and tools. Moreover, this innovation could be particularly important for online sales, in order to reduce the customers’ doubts during purchasing. The research presented in this paper describes a framework for designing clothes as realistic 3D digital models and for allowing customers to evaluate the designed clothes by using realistic virtual mannequins of their bodies instead of the standard ones. A case study will be presented in the paper. The obtained results show that the framework can innovate the traditional garment design process and it could have a huge impact on fashion industry and customers behaviours.

Keywords: Body scanning | Cloth simulation | Design process | Motion capture | Virtual prototype

[38] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Evaluating Industrial Products in an Innovative Visual-Olfactory Environment, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 16(3), (2016). Abstract
X

Abstract: The sense of smell has a great importance in our daily life. Recently, smells have been used for marketing purposes for improving the people's mood and for communicating information about products as household cleaners and food. However, the scent design discipline can be used for creating a "scent identity" of these products not traditionally associated to a specific smell, in order to communicate their features to customers. In the area of virtual reality (VR), several researches concerned the integration of smells in virtual environments. The research questions addressed in this paper concern if virtual prototypes (VP), including smell simulation, can be used for evaluating products as effectively as studies performed in real environments, and also if smells can enhance the users' sense of presence in virtual environments. For this purpose, a VR experimental framework including a prototype of a wearable olfactory display (wOD) has been set up, and experimental tests have been carried out.

[39] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Integrating Scents Simulation in Virtual Reality Multisensory Environment for Industrial Products Evaluation, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 13(3), 320-328, (2016). Abstract
X

Abstract: The sense of smell has a great importance in our daily life. In recent years, scents have been used for marketing purposes for improving the person's mood and of communicating information about products as household cleaners and food. However, scents can be also used for any kind of products to communicate their features to customers. In the area of Virtual Reality several researches have focused on integrating scents in virtual environments. The research questions addressed in this work concern if scents can contribute to increase the users’ sense of presence in the virtual environment, and also if Virtual Prototypes, including the sense of smell, can be used for evaluating products as effectively as studies performed in real environments. For this purpose, a Virtual Reality experimental framework including a prototype of a Wearable Olfactory Display has been set up, and experimental tests have been performed.

Keywords: Multisensory environment | olfactory display | product evaluation

[40] Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Shi Y., Investigating the use of smell in vehicle-driver interaction, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1A-2016, (2016). Abstract
X

Abstract: Every year approximately more than one million people die on world's road. Human factors are the largest contributing factors to the traffic crashes and fatality, and recent researches have identified drivers' cognitive aspect as the major cause of human errors in 80% of crash events. Thus, the development of countermeasures to manage drivers' cognitive aspect is an important challenge to address. Driver-Assistance Systems have been developed and integrated into vehicles to acquire data about the environment and the driver, and to communicate information to the driver, usually via the senses of vision and hearing. Unfortunately, these senses are already subjected to high demands, and the visual and auditory stimuli can be underestimate or considered as annoying. However, other sensory channels could be used to elicit the drivers' cognitive aspect. In particular, smell can impact on various aspects of humans' psychological state, such as people's attention level, and can induce activation states in people. The research presented in this paper aims at investigating whether olfactory stimuli, instead of auditory ones, can be used to influence the cognitive aspect of the drivers. For this purpose, an experimental framework has been set up and experimental testing sessions have been performed. The experimental framework is a multisensory environment consisting of an active stereo-projector and a screen used for displaying a video that reproduces a very monotonous car trip, a seating-buck for simulating the car environment, a wearable Olfactory Display, in-ear earphones and the BioGraph Infiniti system for acquiring the subjects' physiological data. The analysis of the data collected in the testing sessions shows that, in comparison to the relaxation state, olfactory stimuli are effective in increasing subjects' attention level more than the auditory ones.

[41] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Visual-olfactory immersive environment for product evaluation, 2015 IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, VR 2015 - Proceedings, 161-162, (2015). Abstract
X

Abstract: Today smells are used for communicating information about products as household cleaners and food. However, smells can be also applied to any kind of products. Several researches have focused on integrating smells in virtual environments. The research questions addressed in this work concern whether Virtual Prototypes, including the sense of smell, can be used for evaluating products as effectively as studies performed in real environments, and whether smells can increase the users' sense of presence in the virtual environment. For this purpose, an experimental framework including a wearable olfactory display has been developed, and experimental tests have been performed.

Keywords: Olfactory Display | Presence | Virtual Reality | Wearable Device

[42] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Evaluating industrial products in an innovative visual-olfactory environment, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2015, (2015). Abstract
X

Abstract: The sense of smell has a great importance in our daily life. In recent years, smells have been used for marketing purposes with the aim of improving the person's mood and of communicating information about products as household cleaners and food. However, the scent design discipline can be also applied to any kind of products to communicate their features to customers. In the area of Virtual Reality several researches have focused on integrating smells in virtual environments. The research questions addressed in this work concern whether Virtual Prototypes, including the sense of smell, can be used for evaluating products as effectively as studies performed in real environments, and also whether smells can contribute to increase the users' sense of presence in the virtual environment. For this purpose, a Virtual Reality experimental framework including a prototype of a wearable olfactory display has been set up, and experimental tests have been performed.

[43] Yavuz S.U., Bordegoni M., Carulli M., A design practice on communicating emotions through visual, tactile and auditory simulations, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 34, 279-289, (2015). Abstract
X

Abstract: Emotional expression is an important human behaviour, which enriches communication. Sensory organs play crucial role in emotional perception. Today communication is mostly done via digital mediators, which dominantly address to vision excluding the other senses; therefore, communication becomes less affective. Wearable technology can appeal to sensory organs from very close distance due to its intimate interaction with human body. Hence, this technology can be used in order to make distant communication more affective by enabling multisensory interaction. This paper represents a user-centred design practice on wearable products that simulate sensorial feedbacks (tactile, visual and auditory) to express basic emotions. Three prototypes that transmit emotional messages were designed, built and tested to observe user behaviour. This paper discusses how user experience obtained through the user test can be taken further to design new communication products.

Keywords: Design practice | Emotion | Sensory perception | Wearable technology

[44] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., Weibin D., A methodology for the analysis of the influence of odours on the users’ evaluation of industrial products, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, 35, 397-407, (2015). Abstract
X

Abstract: The sense of smell has a great importance in our daily living: today pleasant odors are used to elicit positive emotions in users. In the marketing area, a lot of works have been done concerning the use of odors for communicating information for products as household cleaners and foods. In the area of Virtual Reality (VR) several researches have focused in presenting odors in virtual environments. The introduction of odors simulation in virtual environment could represent an easy and flexible tool for evaluating industrial products characteristics. This research work aims at evaluating in which way odors can influence the users’ evaluation of products and if studies on the influence of odors on the users’ evaluation of products in a VR environment and in a real environment can be comparable. For this purpose, an experimental framework has been defined, a wearable olfactory display has been developed and experimental testing sessions have been performed.

Keywords: Multisensory interaction | Olfactory display | Product evaluation | User experience

[45] Caruso G., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Augmented Reality System for the Visualization and Interaction with 3D Digital Models in a Wide Environment, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 12(1), 86-95, (2015). Abstract
X

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a new interactive Augmented Reality (AR) system, which has been conceived to allow a user to freely interact with virtual objects integrated in a real environment without the need to wear cumbersome equipment. The AR system has been developed by integrating the Fog Screen display technology, stereoscopic visualization and the Microsoft Kinect. The user can select and manage the position of virtual objects visualized on the Fog Screen display by using directly his/her hands. A specific software application has been developed to perform evaluation testing sessions with users. The aim of the testing sessions was to verify the influence of issues related to tracking, visualization and interaction modalities on the overall usability of the AR ‘system. The collected experimental results demonstrate the easiness of use and the effectiveness of the new interactive AR system and highlight the features preferred by the users.

Keywords: augmented reality | design review | gesture-based interface

[46] Caruso G., Re G.M., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Novel Augmented Reality system for Contract Design Sector, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 11(4), 389-398, (2014). Abstract
X

Abstract: This paper presents a novel transportable and cost-effective Augmented Reality system developed to support interior design activities in the contract design sector. The main functioning principles and technical information about its implementation are provided to show how this system allows overcoming some of the issues related to the use of the Augmented Reality in interior design activities. The effectiveness of this system is verified through two different testing sessions based on a case study, which relates to the contract design sector. The testing sessions involved many interior designers with the intent of demonstrating the possibility of integrating this Augmented Reality system in the "everyday" interior design practice in the specific context of the contract design. © 2014 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: augmented reality | interior design | virtual prototyping

[47] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., An approach for capturing the Voice of the Customer based on Virtual Prototyping, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 24(5), 887-903, (2013). Abstract
X

Abstract: The need for companies to improve their competitiveness may lead to innovation and the reconceptualization of traditional products and processes, with companies making an effort to enhance product elements related to functionality, attractiveness, technology and sustainability, and implementing mass-customisation concepts. Mass-customised products are developed to satisfy specific customer needs, in line with increasing demand for product variety and customisation. The analysis of what customers really want, capturing the Voice of the Customer (VOC), is one of the strategies used to establish effective product development processes. Using a VOC survey, it is possible to transform customer needs into the functional and psychological requirements of the product. This paper presents a methodology based on Virtual Reality (VR) technologies to support the capturing of the VOC in regard to the visual, haptic and auditory characteristics of products. This method can be applied to the beginning of the product development process, to allow companies to deduce from the data the requirements of new industrial customised products. A flexible and interactive Virtual Prototype (VP) of a product category is then developed as a product platform in a draft version by designers and configured according to customer needs, using an immersive VR environment. This method, based on the use of VP, reduces the number of physical prototypes that need to be manufactured during the product development process, thus reducing overall costs. In addition, the VP based method supports the mass-customisation process of products through the real-time integration and collection of data for product configuration preferences, involving as many users as possible representative of the target users of the new products. To demonstrate this process a case study concerning the development of the VP for a washing machine, a summary of test sessions with users and results are presented. Specifically, the results presented in this paper are related to improvements in capturing the VOC and reductions in Virtual Prototyping cost and time. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Keywords: Product customisation | Virtual Prototyping | Voice of the Customer

[48] Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Cugini U., An integrated framework to support design &engineering education, International Journal of Engineering Education, 29(2), 291-303, (2013). Abstract
X

Abstract: The current particular critical moment for the Western industry, and the introduction of information technologies have profoundly changed the product development process. One of the most important modifications occurred is the integration of the two traditional fields of product design and product engineering into the new concept of industrial Design &Engineering. The consequent shift and the extension of the designer's area of expertise concerning the product development process have led to amplify his typical knowledge: both more and more technical knowledge, and also knowledge more focused on conceptual issues and creativity. This trend is fostered by the intensive use of computer systems and also by various Design &Engineering courses, where it has been possible to experimentally observe the difficulty for students to learn the necessary body of knowledge and to manage a wider product development process. However, the multidisciplinary approach to the product development process and to the related education issues are still based on tools and methods developed for a specific kind of user, or usually used in an unarranged way. The research presented in this paper aims at defining the guidelines for developing an integrated framework to support the Design &Engineering education and the multidisciplinary design process based on a structured integration of knowledge and tools currently used by the two main areas of reference. The paper presents the guidelines for the integrated framework and the experimental activities used for the framework validation. These activities have allowed the authors to check the framework usability during team design activities and also to verify its effectiveness in improving students' learning capabilities. Some elements derived from the analysis of the experimental data demonstrate that both students and professional designers can use the framework to assist them throughout the design process and that the knowledge learning related to the project is fostered. © 2013 TEMPUS Publications.

Keywords: Design & engineering Design process | Design education | Multidisciplinary design

[49] Bordegoni M., Ugur S., Carulli M., When technology has invisible hands - Designing wearable technologies for haptic communication of emotions, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2(PARTS A AND B), 581-589, (2012). Abstract
X

Abstract: In face-To-face communication, touch can establish intimacy, and therefore the presence of tactile stimulation can enhance the interpersonal relationships. While human-human interaction has been shifting from face-To-face physical conversations to electronically mediated form of communication, current technologies are not able to provide a multimodal sensorial experience that can support haptic interaction besides visual and auditory. Within the haptic research fields, affective haptics explore emotional interaction and perception mediated via touch that is simulated by technology. Besides, wearable technology and tangible interfaces can be employed as a solution to bridge the gap between the digital and physical worlds by making the body fully engaged with the interaction. This paper presents findings of a design practice that explores the avenues of affective tactile interaction through wearable technology, which can artificially produce tactile stimulations as medium for instant communication between two people. The findings are presented by the light of theoretical background, observations and analysis of the design practice. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

[50] Ugur S., Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Can wearable technology enhance emotional intimacy? An experimental design research, 8th International Conference on Design and Emotion: Out of Control - Proceedings, (2012). Abstract
X

Abstract: Emotion is an intangible fact that is woven into interpersonal relationships in order to sustain social bonds with more understanding, trust and intimacy. Today, people are in an era of digitally mediated HHI (Human-to-Human Interaction), which is transforming the traditional way of communication and social dynamics. In order to increase the affective level of communication, research areas, such as affective haptics and wearable technology have emerged to find more affective interaction avenues and convey human emotions through technology in a more physical way. This paper presents a survey and a design practice that aim to explore how wearable technology can enhance emotional intimacy by introducing new ways for expressing emotions. The analysis of this study is addressed on the privacy issue of emotional expression through wearable technology and intimacy of emphatic communication through these agents.

Keywords: Design practice | Emotion | Interaction | Intimacy | Wearable technology

[51] Uǧur S., Mangiarotti R., Bordegoni M., Carulli M., Wensveen S.A.G., Duncker I.L., An experimental research project: Wearable technology for embodiment of emotions, DPPI'11 - Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces, Proceedings, (2011). Abstract
X

Abstract: Clothing is the most intimate artefact that interacts with both body and society. Over the past quarter century, with the introduction of new technologies, people are experiencing unprevented changes in their behaviours and way of living. Technology is becoming a large part of daily life and its unchecked influence has many emotional consequences, many of which are overlooked. The aim of this research is integrating textiles with new technologies to create garments that provide new social interactions and avenues for emotional expression. The experimental project has been done to explore new possible interaction scenarios through wearable technologies by turning an intangible phenomenon, emotion, to a tangible artefact. The paper refers to the research question: 'How can an intangible fact, which is known as existing but doesn't have a physical matter, emotion, be embodied and transmitted through technology?' by means of a theoretical study on wearable technologies and its role in emotional communication, following with an experimental project carried out as both virtual and real prototypes. This paper not only focuses on the prototyping process, but also addresses the user experience during the interaction by various user perception tests. © 2011 ACM.

Keywords: emotion | intangible | mediation | social interaction | wearable technologies

[52] Ugur S., Bordegoni M., Wensveen S.G.A., Mangiarotti R., Carulli M., Embodiment of emotions through wearable technology, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2(PARTS A AND B), 839-847, (2011). Abstract
X

Abstract: Due to the huge impact of communication technologies, the meaning of social existence is changing towards the use of electronic devices as extensions of senses. While technology is becoming intimate, reaching farther into user's lives than ever before, wearable technology has emerged as a new research field where technology is worn to provide a sensory interface. Through the integration of technology and garments, the research aims to discover new ways of creating wearables that provide new avenues for emotional expression and social interaction. Emotional embodiment through Wearable Technology can strengthen social bonds through a paradigm of increased emotional expression, understanding, and trust. To verify this hypothesis, a set of dynamic garments has been built by developing both virtual and real prototypes and performing user tests. This paper addresses to new scenarios of sensing, interacting, and interpreting emotions through Wearable Technology and its' effects on the user's perception. © 2011 by ASME.

[53] Carulli M., Cugini U., An integrated framework to support multidisciplinary design processes, Proceedings of NordDesign 2010, the 8th International NordDesign Conference, 323-332, (2010). Abstract
X

Abstract: The evolution from machines to systems and from objects to products has profoundly affected the meaning of the term "design" as the "role" of designers, and the new concept of industrial design&engineering, which combines the two more traditional fields of industrial design and engineering design, has taken place. While till now the shift and the extension of the industrial designer's area of expertise has affected his typical activities usually in an unarranged manner, the research presented in this paper aims at defining the guidelines for developing an innovative framework to support the design process carried out by a new designer, based on a structured integration of knowledge and tools currently used by the two main areas of reference (industrial design and industrial engineering). The paper presents the guidelines for the innovative framework, the experimental activities to qualitatively test it and some important remarks on its use by designers, both students and professional ones.

Keywords: Design process | Design&engineering | Multidisciplinary design

[54] Rovida E., Bertoni M., Carulli M., About the use of TRIZ for product-service development, DS 58-1: Proceedings of ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, 1, 133-144, (2009). Abstract
X

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to understand how the Theory of Inventor's Problem Solving (TRIZ) may be applied in the development of product-service combinations. The authors have analyzed TRIZ modules and tools under a PSS (Product Service System) perspective to extract some principles of particular interest for their development. Basing on the outcomes of such investigation, the authors propose a framework for the use of TRIZ-based tools in product-service design.

Keywords: Product-Service Systems | TRIZ

[55] Selva S., Carulli M., A multidisciplinary approach within design and engineering course - The Politecnico di Milano case study, DS 43: Proceedings of E and PDE 2007, the 9th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, 135-140, (2007). Abstract
X

Abstract: The findings emphasized by this paper are posited on the multidisciplinary design teaching, in particular about a method used within the Politecnico di Milano, Facoltà del Design, Inter-Faculty MSc Degree Course in Design & Engineering (D&E). The new awareness of the importance of knowledge of the years when the Faculty of Design was born, was one of the crucial elements of the productive system, together with the reassessment of business organization [7], [14]. Consequently, the University was forced to reconsider knowledge conveyance, that doubted the potentiality of the "deductive method" and considered the new "inductive method" [4], [11]. The paper will further describe the new Inter-Faculty MSc Degree Course in Design & Engineering, that was born in 2004, with the idea to form designers able to solve technical problems of medium-high complexity products/projects. The MSc Course in D&E is the only Design Course at the Politecnico di Milano structured including the participation of students and teachers from3 faculties (Engineer Industrial Process Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Design) and for that the students have to attend a specific educational ground to uniform their knowledge [9], [12]. The heart of D&E course, as the other Design faculty courses teaching structure, is the Industrial Design Studio based on the idea of "learning by doing" [6]. In this case the Design Studio is structured to help students to manage the resources of different knowledge typologies, this peculiarity will be described by analysing the aforesaid idea.

Keywords: Design engineering | Multidisciplinary teaching | Teaching processes