[Elenco soci]


Tamburrino Francesco

Ricercatore TD(A)


Università degli Studi di Pisa
francesco.tamburrino@unipi.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 57192316209
Orcid: 0000-0001-9106-0663



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Aruanno B., Tamburrino F., Razionale A.V., Barone S., Bordegoni M., Automatic Algorithm to Design Bespoke Teeth Whitening Trays, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 20(1), 82-91, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: The growing attention of people to aesthetics has led to a greater demand for dental whitening treatments. Several solutions can be utilized to obtain the desired visual whiteness of teeth but, according to literature, at-home supervised treatments are the standard in dental bleaching. They require soft plastic trays to contain a whitening gel, with active chemical agents, and keep it in contact with the patient’s teeth. The fitting, comfort, and tightness of trays play a fundamental role in the treatment. Any gel leakage can compromise the effectiveness of the treatment and damage soft tissues. Commonly, the trays are ready-made or based on physical dental impressions and manually modified by the dental technician. These procedures have low repeatability and do not always ensure high accuracy. This work presents an automatic digital algorithm to design customized whitening trays. Starting from a digital scan acquisition of the patient’s dental arches, it generates the 3D models of the bespoke trays, in approximately two minutes per arch, ready to be produced by additive manufacturing and thermoforming technologies. The evaluation of the method involved 20 patients. The results emphasize that the custom trays were comfortable and ensured high levels of tightness and fitting.

Keywords: automatic product design | custom teeth trays | dental whitening | digital process

[2] Tamburrino F., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Effects of Coating Post-processing on Mechanical Properties of Strut-and-Node-Based SLA Lattice Structures, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 937-945, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Lattice structures play an increasingly crucial role in Additive Manufacturing (AM) to enhance the performance of parts for industrial and biomedical applications. Among AM technologies, VAT photopolymerization is one of the most suitable in producing shapes characterized by a good resolution and fine details as required for lattice structures. High stiffness and strength photoresins are commonly adopted when strut-and-node lattice structures, based on stretch-dominated unit cells, are printed. However, this choice can lead to brittle and sudden structural failures, undermining the use of these structures due to safety reasons. This work evaluates the effect of chemical post-processing on the deformation behavior and the tensile properties of SLA strut-and-node-based lattice structures. FCC (Face-Centered Cubic) lattice structures with two different layer heights were tested, and a highly deformable UV resin was used as a coating product. Results evidenced an increase in specimen elongation up to 64% for coated FCC lattice structures with respect to as printed samples. Chemical post-processing based on resin coating demonstrated to be an effective solution to get additively manufactured strut-and-node-based lattice structures characterized both by high strength and high strain.

Keywords: Coating post-processing | Lattice structures | Tensile properties | VAT photopolymerization

[3] Aruanno B., Barone S., Tamburrino F., Covarrubias Rodriguez M., Tintoretto Unveiled: Interactive Virtual Experience for Artworks, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1352-1363, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Conventionally, visitors of exhibitions cannot directly interact with artworks but remain mainly passive. This work presents a new way to discover paintings through an extended reality application with the aim of enhancing visitors’ engagement. The workflow consists of digitally recreating a painting. All its constitutive elements are contoured and then removed by the artwork. These elements will be unveiled by the visitors with gesture interaction. The discovery of each element is followed by additional information on the subject. The application also proposes an alternative experience where the user paints the components of the artwork with gestures. The hands’ position was tracked by the Leap Motion Controller, an optical sensor by Ultraleap. The process has been applied to one of the Tintoretto’s pieces of art: “L’Annunciazione del Doge Grimani”. The extended reality application has been experienced by over twenty thousand visitors at the dedicated exhibition. Numerous positive comments received from both visitors and guides are encouraging.

Keywords: Cultural heritage | Exhibition | Extended reality | User interaction

[4] Tamburrino F., Aruanno B., Razionale A.V., Barone S., Martini M., Bordegoni M., A Digital Process for Manufacturing Customized Trays for Dental-Whitening Treatments, Processes, 10(7), (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: This study presents an alternative process for designing and manufacturing customized trays for dental-whitening treatments. The process is based on a digitized approach consisting of three main stages: design of a reference model, its manufacturing by AM, and thermoforming of the tray. The aim of the study was to develop a high-performance tray, able to guarantee comfort, safety, and efficacy for whitening treatments. To evaluate the patient’s experience, some tests under real operating conditions were performed. Twenty people carried out a nighttime treatment of 14 days. Each patient was asked to assess the overall level of satisfaction and the comfort of the tray and its ability to retain the gel. Tooth whitening was also determined according to the VITAPAN scale. All patients involved in the study were satisfied and provided positive feedback about comfort and tightness of the tray. At the end of the treatment, 15 out of 20 patients achieved shade A1 on the VITAPAN scale. The mean improvement in color shades was about 7. These results confirmed the great potential of the proposed dental tray. Its use was proven to guarantee a high level of quality, flexibility, and customization of dental-whitening treatments, improving comfort, safety, and efficacy.

Keywords: additive technologies | bespoke dental trays | custom design | dental engineering | digital manufacturing | esthetic dentistry | tooth whitening

[5] Neri P., Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., A Depth-Camera Based System for the Real-Time Scanning of Upper Limb Anatomy, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 245-255, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The 3D reconstruction of upper limb anatomy plays a significant role in many biomedical fields as ergonomics, motion rehabilitation, prosthesis design. Conventional manual measurements have been progressively replaced by 3D optical scanning in collecting and storing 3D anatomical data, thus increasing reliability and data accuracy, shortening, at the same time, the overall acquisition process. However, the real-time scanning of human body parts still represents a complex task since it is challenging to keep the arm in a stable position and avoid artifacts in the collected data. Also, optical undercut geometries often impair the 3D reconstruction’s completeness. In this paper, a compact and low-cost 3D scanning system has been developed by integrating three D415 Intel RealSense cameras. The three depth cameras have been assembled in a circular rig to define a lightweight handheld scanner capable of carrying out 3D data acquisition in different scenarios. The optical system has been validated through anthropometric measurements on different subjects.

Keywords: 3D scanning | D415 Intel realSense | Depth-camera | Upper limb anatomy

[6] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Effects of Coating Post-processing on the Compressive Properties of Strut-and-Node-Based FDM Lattice Structures, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 442-450, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Lattice structures have many outstanding properties, and their use in diversified industrial and biomedical fields is widely studied. The advent of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies has further pushed the design of these cellular structures allowing for the fabrication of complex trusses and tailored local geometries. However, geometrical defects introduced by the AM process into printed lattice structures significantly affect their mechanical properties. In this work, the effect of chemical post-processing on the compressive properties of FDM-PLA strut-and-node-based lattice structures is evaluated. A UV resin has been used as a coating film on samples fabricated using Simple Cubic (SC) and Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) unit cells. Results demonstrated a 65% increase in compressive strength for SC unit cells and a 12% increase for FCC unit cells with respect to as-printed samples. Resin coating demonstrated to represent an effective approach to minimize defects of strut-and-node-based lattice structures, thus enhancing mechanical properties.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Coating post-process | Compressive properties | Lattice structures

[7] Urquhart L.W.R., Tamburrino F., Wodehouse A., Neri P., Razionale A.V., Examination of Additively Manufactured Auxetic Components Using a Novel Testing Setup, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 451-461, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper reports upon the results of an initial test cycle using a bespoke testing rig designed expressly to examine additively manufactured auxetic components. Firstly, the key problems facing practical researchers in the field of auxetics is explored with the treatment of the boundary condition identified as a key issue. The testing setup that is then introduced utilises a novel method of part mounting and facilitates optical analysis and real-time force measurements. The study analyses three different auxetic structures (re-entrant, chiral, and semi-rigid), a set of samples of which were additively manufactured in TPU material. A range of parameters were varied across the three designs including interior geometry and wall thicknesses in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the setup for the examination of different structures. Several key results were distilled from the tests that were then further analysed through numerical modelling and discussed with respect to future testing. Our investigation shows a close alignment between the physical testing results and the simulations, indicating that the testing configuration is rigorous and may be used to explore the mechanical behaviour of more complex auxetic componentry.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Auxetics | Mechanical analysis | Simulation

[8] Cucinotta F., Mancini D., Sfravara F., Tamburrino F., The effect of longitudinal rails on an air cavity stepped planing hull, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 9(5), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The use of ventilated hulls is rapidly expanding. However, experimental and numerical analyses are still very limited, particularly for high-speed vessels and for stepped planing hulls. In this work, the authors present a comparison between towing tank tests and CFD analyses carried out on a single-stepped planing hull provided with forced ventilation on the bottom. The boat has identical geometries to those presented by the authors in other works, but with the addition of longitudinal rails. In particular, the study addresses the effect of the rails on the bottom of the hull, in terms of drag, and the wetted surface assessment. The computational methodology is based on URANS equation with multiphase models for high-resolution interface capture between air and water. The tests have been performed varying seven velocities and six airflow rates and the no-air injection condition. Compared to flat-bottomed hulls, a higher incidence of numerical ventilation and air–water mixing effects was observed. At the same time, no major differences were noted in terms of the ability to drag the flow aft at low speeds. Results in terms of drag reduction, wetted surface, and its shape are discussed.

Keywords: Air cavity ships | Computational fluid dynamics | Hull design | Hull ventilation | Stepped planing hull

[9] Tamburrino F., Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Post-processing treatments to enhance additively manufactured polymeric parts: a review, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 16(2), 218-251, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The potential of additive manufacturing to produce optimised and customized polymeric parts is often impaired by poor surface finish, low mechanical properties, and insufficient dimensional accuracy. Post-processing treatments are usually adopted to address these issues. Scientific community and industrial actors are engaged in the development and use of post-processing to enhance the performance and widen the range of application of polymeric components manufactured by additive technologies. The present work aims to provide an exhaustive classification and discussion of the post-processing treatments, as well as an extensive literature review of the approaches proposed within the scientific community. A holistic view of post-processing is provided, including a discussion of the benefits associated with each technique as well as its side effects. This work is intended to support the selection of the most appropriate post-processing by considering multiple aspects such as the material, part geometry, processing time, costs, and treatment specificity.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | polymers | post-processing treatments

[10] Graziosi S., Cannazza F., Vedani M., Ratti A., Tamburrino F., Bordegoni M., Design and testing of an innovative 3D-printed metal-composite junction, Additive Manufacturing, 36, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper describes an innovative 3D-printed beam-based lightweight structure that is used to increase the adhesion strength of metal-composite joints without damaging the composite fibers. It is conceived as the interface between the two parts to be joined: by filling the voids of this structure with resin, a mechanical interlocking effect can be generated to enhance the mechanical properties of the junction. A dedicated design workflow was defined to explore different types of 3D beam-based structures, starting from the analysis of the main failure modes of this type of junction. Tensile tests were performed on both polymeric and metal samples to validate the effectiveness of this interlocking strategy. Results demonstrated an increase in the adhesion strength relative to standard adhesive joints. A possible practical implementation is also discussed: a new type of insert is presented for application in metal-to-polymer composite joints. Finally, such a beam-based joining approach also represents an innovative application in the field of design for additive manufacturing.

Keywords: 00-01 | 99-00 | Design for additive manufacturing | Lattice structures | Material extrusion | Metal-composite junctions | Powder bed fusion

[11] Paoli A., Neri P., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Barone S., Sensor architectures and technologies for upper limb 3d surface reconstruction: A review, Sensors (Switzerland), 20(22), 1-33, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: 3D digital models of the upper limb anatomy represent the starting point for the design process of bespoke devices, such as orthoses and prostheses, which can be modeled on the actual patient’s anatomy by using CAD (Computer Aided Design) tools. The ongoing research on optical scanning methodologies has allowed the development of technologies that allow the surface reconstruction of the upper limb anatomy through procedures characterized by minimum discomfort for the patient. However, the 3D optical scanning of upper limbs is a complex task that requires solving problematic aspects, such as the difficulty of keeping the hand in a stable position and the presence of artefacts due to involuntary movements. Scientific literature, indeed, investigated different approaches in this regard by either integrating commercial devices, to create customized sensor architectures, or by developing innovative 3D acquisition techniques. The present work is aimed at presenting an overview of the state of the art of optical technologies and sensor architectures for the surface acquisition of upper limb anatomies. The review analyzes the working principles at the basis of existing devices and proposes a categorization of the approaches based on handling, pre/post-processing effort, and potentialities in real-time scanning. An in-depth analysis of strengths and weaknesses of the approaches proposed by the research community is also provided to give valuable support in selecting the most appropriate solution for the specific application to be addressed.

Keywords: Body scanner | Depth cameras | Handheld scanner | Stationary scanner | Structured light scanning | Upper limb 3D scanning

[12] Tamburrino F., D’Antò V., Bucci R., Alessandri-Bonetti G., Barone S., Razionale A.V., Mechanical properties of thermoplastic polymers for aligner manufacturing: In vitro study, Dentistry Journal, 8(2), (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The use of metal-free thermoplastic materials plays a key role in the orthodontic digital workflow due to the increasing demand for clear aligner treatments. Three thermoplastic polymers commonly used to fabricate clear aligners, namely Duran®, Biolon® and Zendura®, were investigated to evaluate the effect of thermoforming (T.), storage in artificial saliva (S.A.S.) and their combination on their mechanical properties. Elastic modulus and yield stress of the specimens were characterized. Each material was characterized for each condition through tensile tests (ISO527-1). The results showed that thermoforming does not lead to a significant decrease in yield stress, except for Zendura® that showed about a 30% decrease. An increase of the elastic modulus of Duran® and Zendura®, instead, was observed after thermoforming. The same increase was noticed for the yield stress of Duran®. For S.A.S. specimens, the elastic modulus generally decreases compared to supplier condition (A.S.) and simply thermoformed material. A decrease of yield stress, instead, is significant for Zendura®. The results demonstrated that the impact of the operating conditions on the mechanical properties can vary according to the specific polymer. To design reliable and effective orthodontic treatments, the materials should be selected after their mechanical properties are characterized in the simulated intraoral environment.

Keywords: Mechanical properties | Orthodontic aligners | Simulated oral environment | Thermoplastic polymers

[13] Barone S., Neri P., Orsi S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Two coatings that enhance mechanical properties of fused filament-fabricated carbon-fiber reinforced composites, Additive Manufacturing, 32, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Moisture absorption degrades the mechanical properties of polymeric parts that are 3D-printed by fused filament fabrication (FFF). This limitation is particularly significant for short fiber-reinforced polymers because the mechanical enhancement obtained by the fiber reinforcement can be compromised by the plasticizing effect introduced by water absorption. Therefore, the present work investigates the effects of two different coatings, a UV cured acrylate resin and an acrylic varnish, on the moisture absorption of FFF 3D-printed samples consisting of polyamide reinforced by short carbon fibers. Water content (CI) and open porosity (OP) were estimated through water absorption tests in distilled water for 2, 24, and 168 h, and after reconditioning. The coating effects were evaluated by conducting tensile tests to compare the Young's modulus, yield stress, and ultimate stress of the coated and uncoated specimens. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of CI and OP with both the acrylic and UV resin coatings, as well as considerable enhancements of these samples’ mechanical properties. Stress-strain curves evidenced a strain reduction after water immersion, which can be ascribed to a greater stability against different moisture conditions. These findings indicate the significant potential of the proposed coating processes to extend the use of FFF 3D-printed composite materials to a broader range of applications.

Keywords: Fused filament fabrication | Material extrusion | Mechanical properties enhancement | Moisture absorption | Short fiber-reinforced polymers

[14] Barone S., Neri P., Orsi S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Properties Enhancement of Carbon PA 3D-Printed Parts by Post-processing Coating-Based Treatments, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 837-847, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) has become one of the most attractive Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques, due to the advantages in the production of complex shapes with a wide range of materials and low investment costs. The thermoplastic polymers used for FDM technology are characterized by low mechanical properties if compared to those of composites and metals. This issue is usually overcome by reinforcing the thermoplastic polymer with chopped fibres or particles. Moreover, a second issue arises, which is represented by the water absorption with a relevant impact on mechanical properties and dimensional stability of printed models. In this paper, an experimental study is presented with the aim at evaluating the water absorption influence on mechanical properties of Carbon PA (Polyamide matrix reinforced with Carbon Fiber at 20%) specimens fabricated with the FDM technique. Two post-processing treatments, based on the use of acrylic spray and photosensitive resin, have been also proposed to improve the behaviour of Carbon PA printed parts. Results of water absorption tests and tensile tests demonstrated a significant improvement in terms of weight stability and mechanical properties by adopting the proposed post-processing treatments.

Keywords: Carbon fiber | Coating treatment | Fused Deposition Modeling | Mechanical characterization | Water absorption

[15] Tamburrino F., Graziosi S., Bordegoni M., The influence of slicing parameters on the multi-material adhesion mechanisms of FDM printed parts: an exploratory study, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 14(4), 316-332, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The potentiality of the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process for multi-material printing has not yet been thoroughly explored in the literature. That is a limitation considering the wide diffusion of dual extruders printers and the possibility of increasing the number of these extruders. An exploratory study, based on tensile tests and performed on double-material butt-joined bars, was thus conceived; the aim was to explore how the adhesion strength between 3 pairs of filaments (TPU-PLA, PLA-CPE, CPE-TPU) is influenced by the material printing order, the type of slicing pattern used for the layers at the interface, and the infill density of the layers below the interface. Results confirm the effectiveness of mechanical interlocking strategies in increasing the adhesion strength even when thermodynamic and diffusion mechanisms of adhesion are not robust enough. Besides, thermal aspects also demonstrated to play a relevant role in influencing the performance of the interface.

Keywords: design for additive manufacturing | fused deposition modelling (FDM) | multi-material adhesion | Multi-material printing | slicing parameters

[16] Mangiarotti M., Ferrise F., Graziosi S., Tamburrino F., Bordegoni M., A Wearable Device to Detect in Real-Time Bimanual Gestures of Basketball Players during Training Sessions, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 19(1), (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper describes the design of a wearable and wireless system that allows the real-time identification of some gestures performed by basketball players. This system is specifically designed as a support for coaches to track the activity of two or more players simultaneously. Each wearable device is composed of two separate units, positioned on the wrists of the user, connected to a personal computer (PC) via Bluetooth. Each unit comprises a triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope, a microcontroller, installed on a TinyDuino platform, and a battery. The concept of activity recognition chain is investigated and used as a reference for the gesture recognition process. A sliding window allows the system to extract relevant features from the incoming data streams: mean values, standard deviations, maximum values, minimum values, energy, and correlations between homologous axes are calculated to identify and differentiate the performed actions. Machine learning algorithms are implemented to handle the recognition phase.

[17] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Development of a DLP 3D printer for orthodontic applications, Procedia Manufacturing, 38, 1017-1025, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have allowed a widespread diffusion of their use in different fields. 3D printing is becoming commonplace for biomedical applications requiring the custom fabrication of prostheses and appliances fitting patient-specific anatomies. In this work, the feasibility of a vat photopolymerization technology, based on Digital Light Processing (DLP), has been investigated for the manufacturing of polymeric orthodontic appliances. A custom DLP 3D printer has been developed by exploiting an off-the-shelf digital projector, with the aim at studying the influence of printing parameters on the surface roughness. The feasibility of using Dental LT Clear resin, a biocompatible photopolymer specifically designed for SLA technology, has been finally verified.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Custom DLP 3D printer | Orthodontic appliances

[18] Leonardi F., Graziosi S., Casati R., Tamburrino F., Bordegoni M., Additive manufacturing of heterogeneous lattice structures: An experimental exploration, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 669-678, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: 3D printed heterogeneous lattice structures are beam-and-node based structures characterised by a variable geometry. This variability is obtained starting from a periodic structure and modifying the relative density of the unit cells or by combining unit cells having different shapes. While several consolidated design approaches are described to implement the first approach, there are still computational issues to be addressed to combine different cells properly. In this paper, we describe a preliminary experimental study focused on exploring the design issues to be addressed as well as the advantages that this second type of heterogeneous structures could provide. The Three-Point-Bending test was used to compare the behaviour of different types of heterogeneous structures printed using the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology. Results demonstrated that the possibility of combining multiple unit cells represents a valid strategy for performing a more effective tuning of the material distribution within the design space. However, further studies are necessary to explore the behaviour of these structures and develop guidelines for helping designers in exploiting their potential.

Keywords: 3D printing | Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) | Heterogeneous lattice structures | Lightweight design

[19] Tamburrino F., Graziosi S., Bordegoni M., The design process of additively manufactured mesoscale lattice structures: A review, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 18(4), (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: This review focuses on the design process of additively manufactured mesoscale lattice structures (MSLSs). They are arrays of three-dimensional (3D) printed trussed unit cells, whose dimensions span from 0.1 to 10.0 mm. This study intends to detail the phases of the MSLSs design process (with a particular focus on MSLSs whose unit cells are made up of a network of struts and nodes), proposing an integrated and holistic view of it, which is currently lacking in the literature. It aims at guiding designers' decisions with respect to the settled functional requirements and the manufacturing constraints. It also aims to provide an overview for software developers and researchers concerning the design approaches and strategies currently available. A further objective of this review is to stimulate researchers in exploring new MSLSs functionalities, consciously considering the impact of each design phase on the whole process, and on the manufactured product.

Keywords: additive manufacturing | design for additive manufacturing | design process | mesoscale lattice structures | multifunctional lattice structures

[20] Aversa R., Parcesepe D., Petrescu R.V.V., Chen G., Petrescu F.I.T., Tamburrino F., Apicella A., Glassy amorphous metal injection molded induced morphological defects, American Journal of Applied Sciences, 13(12), 1476-1482, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Melt rheology in injection molded metastable supercooled liquid metal of Zr44-Ti11-Cu10-Ni10-Be25 alloy may induce selective crystallizations. High mobility Be, Cu and Ni atoms have been observed to differently crystallize in bulk metal glassy supercooled liquids. Here, we analyze the result of morphological microscopic observation conduct on Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) with composition of a commercial liquid metal alloy (LM001B). The injection molded plate has been supplied by “Liquid Metals Technologies Inc, Ca USA” and manufactured using an Engel injection molding machine operating at 1050-1100°C; the observed sample then has been cut by water jet. FEI Scios Dual-Beam has carried out the microscopic observation. Particularly, through a cross section, we observe the presence of crystalline phases on the short-range order. We investigate the presence of short-range order clusters, their distribution and the effect that they could cause on the alloys’ behaviors and properties.

Keywords: Bulk glass metals | Chemorheological model | Cold crystallization | Rheology | Segregation

[21] Aversa R., Tamburrino F., Petrescu R.V.V., Petrescu F.I.T., Artur M., Chen G., Apicella A., Biomechanically inspired shape memory effect machines driven by muscle like acting NiTi alloys, American Journal of Applied Sciences, 13(11), 1264-1271, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The research shows a bioinspired approach to be adopted to design of systems based on Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), a class of Smart Materials that has in common with muscles the capability to react to an impulse (thermal for SMAs) with a contraction. The biomechanically inspired machine that is discussed in the paper refers to the antagonistic muscles pairs, which belongs to the Skeletal Muscles and are normally arranged in opposition so that as one group of muscles contract another group relaxes or lengthens. The study proposes a model, a solution not only to design a specific application, but also to provide an approach to be used for a wide range of adaptive applications (switchable windows, smart shadow systems, parking and urban shelters, etc.), where the shape changes in response to different external stimuli. The use of antagonist pairs mechanism provides a solution for better optimized systems based on SMAs where the main and proven advantages are: Easier and faster change of shape, lower need of energy for system operation, lower cost for SMA training and no problem of overheating.

Keywords: Centrifugal pipe | Chemo-rheology | Glass reinforced plastics | Process control | Smart factory