[Elenco soci]

Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Barsanti R., Systematic Design of Ancient Machines’ Models: Leonardo da Vinci’s Glider, Heritage, 5(3), 1593-1611, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: Virtual or physical models of ancient machines are often used for museum exhibitions, documentaries and/or cinematographic works. Especially for high-fidelity models, complex activities are required, which actually lead the different stakeholders involved in the process to “design” an artifact (the model). As with any design process, the design of models of ancient machines can also benefit from the support of structured methods that guide the designers from the early “ideas” to the final design. This paper proposes a systematic approach specifically tailored for the interpretation and design of ancient machines, where a methodological tool is provided to manage both idea-generation and information-gathering activities. The method was applied to the design of a model of the delta wing conceived by Leonardo da Vinci (i.e., the glider represented in the Codex Madrid 1, Folio 64r), allowing to analyze and obtain an embodiment of the machine with the required fidelity level, thought to be realized in real scale.

Keywords: ancient machines | CAD | delta wing | design methods | design process | glider | Leonardo da Vinci | museum models | systematic design | technological heritage

[2] Fiorineschi L., Conti L., Rossi G., Rotini F., Conceptual design of a small production plant for eco-friendly packaging, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to present the application of a tailored systematic engineering design procedure to the concept design of a small production plant for compostable packaging made by straw fibres and bioplastic. In particular, the obtained boxes are intended to be used for wine bottles. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic procedure has been adopted, which underpins on a comprehensive analysis of the design requirements and the function modelling of the process. By considering well-known models of the engineering design process, the work focuses on the early design stages that precede the embodiment design of the whole components of the plant. Findings: The followed design approach allowed to preliminarily evaluate different alternatives of the process from a functional point of view, thus allowing to identify the preferred conceptual process solution. Based on the identified functional sequence, a first evaluation of the potential productivity and the required human resources has been performed. Research limitations/implications: The procedure shown in this work has been applied only for the considered case of compostable packaging, and other applications are needed to optimize it. Nevertheless, the adopted systematic approach can be adapted for any context where it is necessary to conceive a new production plant for artefacts made by innovative materials. Originality/value: The work presented in this paper represents one of the few practical examples available in the literature where systematic conceptual design procedures are presented. More specifically, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the very first application of systematic design methods to compostable packaging production.

Keywords: Circular economy | Conceptual design | Design methods | Engineering design | Packaging | Upcycling

[3] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Carfagni M., Recent Findings About the Novelty Metric of Shah, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 705-711, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: The work presented in this paper aims at presenting the last findings about one of the most acknowledged and used novelty metrics in the field of engineering design. The a-posteriori novelty metric of Shah, Vargas-Hernandez and Smith is often considered in design research, but after two decades, there are still some critical issues to be solved. This paper highlights the issues identified in the last research works, by referring to the few published works that directly face the argument. It emerged that notwithstanding the presence of metric variants proposed by scholars, none of them is capable to overcome the problems. In particular, the assessment of set of ideas implementing heterogeneous numbers of attributes can lead to misleading results. In absence of a comprehensive solution, this paper provides a list of practical hints in order to allow the application of the metric (or the related variants) and ensuring the repeatability of the experiments.

Keywords: Creativity | Design | Novelty assessment | Originality | Unusualness

[4] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Carfagni M., The Problem-Solution Network for Systematic Conceptual Design: Lesson Learned, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 851-860, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: The need for innovative products led scholars to develop design methods to improve or at least to support creativity of designers. Among the different alternatives, the Problem Solution Network (PSN) was developed to solve some of the issues that characterize the German systematic approach for conceptual design. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss pros and cons of the use of the PSN for didactic purposes in an engineering design course. Both, feedback from students and teachers’ impressions, have been gathered in about ten years. The key information is then reported and discussed in this paper, highlighting that as for other academic design methods, the key problem still resides in motivating students to better understand the learned approach.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Creativity | Engineering education

[5] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Refined metric for a-posteriori novelty assessments, Journal of Engineering Design, 33(1), 39-63, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: The concept of novelty in terms of ‘uncommonness’ of ideas is one of the most considered in design studies. Accordingly, the metric developed by Shah, Vargas-Hernandez and Smith in 2003 (SNM) is still one of the most largely used. Nonetheless, it presents non-negligible and still unsolved problems when applied to realistic sets of ideas implementing heterogeneous numbers of attributes. This paper aims at identifying the roots of these problems and at proposing a refined assessment approach, capable to extend the applicability of SNM to any set of ideas. Generic boundary cases have been used to demonstrate the validity of the proposal, while its potential impact on the final novelty values has been estimated by assessing a real set of 100 ideas.

Keywords: Creativity | design | ideation effectiveness | novelty | uncommonness

[6] Pugi L., Frillici F. S., Cocci M., Rotini F., Delogu M., Berzi L., ..., Sacchetto M., A Sustainable Anphibious Platform for Geological Prospecting of Near Shore Marine Sites, 2022 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2022 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe, EEEIC / I and CPS Europe 2022, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: Development of blue economy involves the construction of marine infrastructures (harbors, marine wind farms, underwater data centers etc.) for which a precise knowledge of geological bottom properties is needed. Near shore and very near shore sites represent an important opportunity especially for closed basin with extended coast lines such as the Mediterranean basin or the Caspian one. For these activities conventional offshore drilling equipment is not well suited. For this reason, authors have developed a compact amphibious system to perform geognostic activities on near shore and very near shore sites, in this work authors focus their attention on the creation of a digital twin able to properly support system design.

Keywords: Geognostic | Hydraulic and Electro-Hydraulic System | Mechatronics | Near Shore Prospecting | Wireline Drilling

[7] Rotini F., Becattini N., Borgianni Y., Fiorineschi L., Editorial for the Special Issue “Requirements in Design Processes: Open Issues, Relevance and Implications”, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 12(19), (2022). Abstract

Abstract: Editorial for the Special Issue “Requirements in Design Processes: Open Issues, Relevance and Implications”

[8] Pugi L., Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Preliminary design investigation of a rrprr parallel manipulator with cardan joint and direct drive actuation, IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, AIM, 2021-July, 1207-1212, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Press Fit assembly of power electronic components is often performed with 3DOF machines which usually adopt a cartesian layout which is preferred to assure a stiff structure a precise control of high insertion forces. Parallel manipulators are often feasible as possible alternative solutions for this kind of application. In this work, authors investigate a parallel manipulator with cardan and prismatic joints. Proposed layout involves a relatively stiff and robust structure. Manipulator is supposed to be moved by direct-drive linear actuators. This choice is justified by the possibility of accurate control of heavy insertion losses simplifying or removing a large part of additional actuation and sensing systems that are normally installed on conventional machines.

[9] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Conti L., Rossi G., Adapted use of the triz system operator, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(14), (2021). Abstract

Abstract: The System Operator (SO), also known as Nine Boxes or Multiscreen, is classically used for analysing the undesired situation according to different perspectives. However, its logic can be suitably exploited also for other kinds of tasks. In such a context, this paper shows an alternative application of the SO. In particular, the new proposed SO approach allows us to formulate alternative problems, i.e., different from the central one, although referring to the same problem-solving task. By applying the proposed procedure to a real case study, this paper shows that the tool can be used for problem analysis and formulation purposes, aimed at better clarifying the problem-solving task. The case study concerns a preliminary set of experiments performed to evaluate the possibility of obtaining angular shapes by bending tiles made by a specific compostable composite material. The suggestions obtained using the proposed SO approach allowed us to find potentially valid solutions, thus paving the way for further validation tests. In particular, tests are still needed to validate the actual potentialities of the proposed SO. Additionally, further and more comprehensive tests are required to validate the solutions inferred in this study concerning the compostable tiles.

Keywords: Multiscreen | Packaging | Problem solving | System Operator | TRIZ

[10] Allotta B., Fiorineschi L., Papini S., Pugi L., Rotini F., Rindi A., Redesigning the cycloidal drive for innovative applications in machines for smart construction yards, World Journal of Engineering, 18(2), 302-315, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to carry out an investigation of design approaches that should be used for the design of unconventional, innovative transmission system for construction yards to privilege a smooth behaviour efficiency, and the use of innovative production techniques. Results are quite surprising, as with a proper method it is possible to demonstrate that a cycloidal drive with Wolfrom topology should be an interesting solution for the proposed application. Design/methodology/approach: With a functional approach, also considering materials and specifications related to the investigated application, it is possible to demonstrate that possible optimal solutions should be quite different respect to the ones that can be suggested with a conventional approach. In particular for proposed applications constraints related to encumbrances, the choice of new material has led to the innovative unconventional choice of a Wolfrom cycloidal speed reducer. Findings: Provided solution is innovative respect current state of the art for machine currently used in construction yards: in terms of adopted transmission layout; in terms of chosen materials, resulting in an innovative solution. Research limitations/implications: Current research has strong implications on the adoption of polimeric materials for the construction of reliable transmission for harsh industrial environment as the proposed case study (concrete mixer for construction yard). Originality/value: Proposed transmission system is absolutely original and innovative respect current state of art also considering proposed materials and consequently production methods. This is an example of transmission designed to be built with polymeric materials by optimizing chosen topology respect to chosen material.

Keywords: Construction yards | Cycloidal | Cycloidal drive | Harmonic drive | Mechatronics | Polymeric gears | Smart construction yards | Wolfrom drive

[11] Borgianni Y., Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., The process for individuating TRIZ Inventive Principles: Deterministic, stochastic or domain-oriented?, Design Science, 7, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Although TRIZ is widely acknowledged as a powerful aid to improve efficacy and efficiency of the creative design process, practitioners diffusedly experience difficulties in the selection of the most suitable tool. Such an issue represents a severe limitation in consideration of the large number of tools TRIZ offers. Here, Inventive Principles (IPs) are acknowledged as the most popular TRIZ technique, and their conjointly use with the Contradiction Matrix makes the selection of the appropriate IP a sufficiently supported task. However, the reliability of the Contradiction Matrix is often questioned and an agreement on a solid and reliable procedure for the selection of IPs is far from being reached. In such a context, the paper investigates the recurrence of IPs to solve contradictions, with reference to a classification framework that takes into consideration the nature of the problem to be solved and the technical-scientific domain it belongs to. The outcomes of the analysis reveal that leveraged IPs are considerably related with the technical-scientific domain and the nature of the problem to be solved. The found relationships are worth delving into and translating into selection guidelines.

Keywords: Creativity | Design process | Inventive principles | Problem-solving | TRIZ

[12] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Integrated Use of TRIZ Tools in Systematic Conceptual Design, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 635 IFIP, 414-425, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Among the design methods available in literature, the German approach based on Functional Decomposition and Morphology (FDM) is one of the most taught in academia. However, notwithstanding the academic success, some scholars argued that such a method lacks a comprehensive support to the generation of innovative solutions. Due to its inventive potentialities, TRIZ has been often addressed as a potential aid to improve FDM even though the two approaches are characterized by non-negligible differences. An alternative to FDM has been recently proposed, which overcomes some FDM flaws and integrates the potentialities of TRIZ. It is based on the formulation of the design tasks in terms of problems and solutions. The new approach is called “Problem-Solution-Network” (PSN), where the main graphical tool is a hierarchical network of problems and solutions, whose construction follows a set of specific rules. The objective of this paper is to show the potentialities of the PSN-TRIZ integration. The paper presents a literature review of the background related to the integration of FDM and TRIZ, the main features and constructs of PSN and its integration with TRIZ tools to show how the approach works.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design | Engineering design | Problem solving | TRIZ

[13] Fiorineschi L., Bacci T., Frillici F.S.S., Cubeda S., Volpe Y., Rotini F., Carfagni M., Facchini B., Non-reactive test rig for combustor-turbine interaction studies in industrial gas turbines, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to present the design of a particular non-reactive test rig for combustion swirlers and first stage turbine nozzles. The test rig is required for important experimental activities aimed at the optimization of a specific class of gas turbines. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-disciplinary team performed the design process by following a tailored design approach, which has been developed for the specific case. The design outcomes allowed to build a fully functional test rig to be introduced in a test cell and then to perform preliminary experiments about the fluid dynamic behaviour of the turbine elements. Findings: The followed design approach allowed to efficiently perform the task, by supporting the information exchange among the different subjects involved in both the conceptual and the embodiment design of the test rig. Additionally, the performed experiments allowed to achieve a final configuration that makes the test rig a valuable test case for combustor-turbine interaction studies. Research limitations/implications: The study described in this paper is focused on the design of a specific test rig, used for first validation tests. However, the achieved results (both in terms of design and test) constitutes the underpinning of the in-depth investigations to be performed in the next steps of the experimental campaign. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present paper is the first one that comprehensively describes the design activity of an experimental test rig for turbine application, also providing indications about the specific methodological procedure used to manage the process.

Keywords: Embodiment design | Fluid engineering | Fluid modelling | Mechanical design | Systematic design | Test rig design

[14] Fiorineschi L., Pugi L., Rotini F., New mechanism for press-fit processes: preliminary analysis, World Journal of Engineering, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative solution for press-fit technology processes, which could improve the precision of the positioning movements and the stiffness of the structural elements. Design/methodology/approach: A concept is presented and the related kinematics is described. Then, preliminary embodiment evaluations have been performed in terms of kinematics, force control and load distribution on the main structural elements. Findings: Thanks to the additional leg, the proposed solution allows a preload that is capable of compensating the backlash of joints. The particular structure with four extendible legs and eight cardan joints ensures the parallelism between the ground and the plate holding the end effector, without any need of additional controls. However, it implies that the legs are not subjected to pure tension–compression stresses. Research limitations/implications: This work is focused on the conceptual phase of the design process, with only preliminary embodiment analysis that paves the way for subsequent and more detailed design steps. Especially concerning the actual stiffness of the system, comprehensive evaluations could be performed only after the identification of the particular parts/devices used to implement the main functional elements. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research work that comprehensively describes and analyzes the considered kinematics, within a real industrial application context.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Mechatronics | Parallel mechanism | Press-fit technology | Three DOFs

[15] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Novelty metrics in engineering design, Journal of Engineering Design, 32(11), 590-620, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: In the field of design, novelty is widely acknowledged as a key parameter for creativity assessments. Accordingly, scholars have proposed several definitions, metrics and procedures to assess novelty for different purposes. Although the availability of many alternatives allows researchers to perform in-depth investigations, it makes the orientation among the available combinations of novelty concepts, types and metrics quite hard. In such a manifold context, the aim of this work is to map the literature about novelty assessment in engineering design. To this purpose, a systematic literature review has been performed on the Scopus database to identify a relevant set of contributions through specific search strategies and skimming processes. A map of novelty metrics has been obtained, which shows that most of them belong to the uncommonness type, while others need further investigations. The obtained results are intended to support scholars in browsing the different metrics, when selecting the most suited for their specific research objectives.

Keywords: creativity assessment | design | Novelty | originality | uncommonness

[16] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Rossi G., Conti L., Innovative process and technology for the production of wood mulch, Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 52(1), (2021). Abstract

Abstract: Plant nurseries usually control weed growth with N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine treatment. Some studies have suggested potential impacts of this treatment on both the environment and users. A possible ecological alternative is the use of ground wood particles for mulching. However, the production of the required wood particles for use in potted plants is challenging. In this article, the classical chipping and sieving process is compared with a new proposed process involving chipping and refining phases. The two processes were applied to wood logs (spruce) from the forests of the Tosco-Emiliano Apennine. The tests were performed over a week using the machinery available at the Mo.To.R.E. (Montagna Toscana Ricerca Energie) consortium. Although the results achieved were based on preliminary evaluations, they indicated the potential superiority of the new process in terms of both economic and ecological efficiency. These findings can pave the way to the development of optimized processes aimed at a significant reduction in the use of chemical herbicides for weed control.

Keywords: Glyphosate | Nursery innovation | Plant nursery | Potted plants | Wood chips

[17] Carfagni M., Fiorineschi L., Furferi R., Governi L., Rotini F., Usefulness of prototypes in conceptual design: students’ view, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 14(4), 1305-1319, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Planning prototyping strategies for conceptual design purposes is a crucial activity, which needs a clear understanding of the potentialities of the different typologies of prototype. Therefore, to prepare future designers, it is very important to provide the required information in design-related academic courses. However, prototypes and prototyping activities are often taught in specific courses with a major emphasis on the underpinning technologies, but with limited attention on design implications, especially about the fuzzy-front-end of the design process. The work presented in this paper aims at investigating about how students perceive the usefulness of prototypes during conceptual design activities, in order to provide first indications about the gap to be filled. To this purpose, two classes of students participated to an experimental session, and were asked to perform a conceptual design task individually. Subsequently, they participated to an on-line survey developed to gather information about the perceived usefulness of prototypes, in relation to the performed conceptual design activity. Several findings have been obtained from this work, but maybe the most impacting one concerns the different consideration that the two samples of students had about the fidelity of prototypes. Indeed, differently from what recently highlighted in current literature, it emerged that engineering students preferred low-fidelity prototypes. However, other unexpected evidences have been found, which highlight that at least for the considered institution, students still lack a comprehensive understanding of the design-related potentialities of prototypes.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | CAD | Design | Design education | Engineering education | Prototyping

[18] Fiorineschi L., Barsanti R., Cascini G., Rotini F., Application of systematic design methods to cultural heritage preservation, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 949(1), (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The preservation of cultural heritage often involves the design of systems with different purposes, as for example the devices for extraction of data from inaccessible locations and/or demonstrative models. For the latter, when the starting information about the model to be designed is incomplete, the task is not trivial, and different interpretations of the system can lead to different design outcomes. Moreover, other requirements concerning size, materials and interactivity, make this a real engineering design task, where actors with conflicting needs can be involved. Accordingly, to ensure a comprehensive fulfilment of the task, it is possible to follow engineering systematic design approaches that, even if originally developed for the development of industrial systems, can be conveniently used for different fields of application. More specifically, these design methods ensure the design of cost-effective solutions by reducing the useless and costly design iterations that often characterize non-structured procedures. In particular, the present paper shows the application of systematic methods for the interpretation, the design and the development of realistic physical models from some of the Leonardo da Vinci’s machines, for the Museo Leonardiano of Vinci (Italy). The followed approach allowed to efficiently gather the starting list of design requirements, and to engage a successful interaction among the designers, the historians, the museum staff and the architect involved in the showroom design. The key points of the systematic design methodology are presented in this paper, together with some applicative examples from the Da Vinci’s models. Other possible application of systematic design approaches are also presented, with the aim of showing some representative examples were the Engineering design and problem-solving methods can support the preservation of cultural heritage.

[19] Fiorineschi L., Papini S., Pugi L., Rindi A., Rotini F., Systematic design of a new gearbox for concrete mixers, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 18(6), 2017-2042, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify an innovative solution for the power transmission gearbox of concrete mixers, according to the specifications provided by the company. Design/methodology/approach: A tailored systematic design approach (inspired to the German systematic framework) has been adopted to comprehensively gather the company specifications and perform in-depth design space explorations. Subsequently, an iterative embodiment design approach has been followed to identify the size of the components for the preferred concept, by using acknowledged mechanical design procedures and finite element analysis tools. Findings: An innovative cycloidal gearbox has been developed, by merging the kinematics underpinning the classical cycloidal drives and the Wolfrom planetary gearbox. The resulting concept provides high reduction rates with a very high overload capacity. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of the studies is the absence of in-depth evaluations usually performed in the detail design phase. However, this limitation is a direct consequence of the company specifications, which only asked to find a preferred concept and to perform preliminary evaluations. Accordingly, the subsequent design optimization are intended to be performed by the company’s staff. Originality/value: The present paper shows an original design approach, opportunely tailored to the design of innovative gearboxes. It can be conveniently adapted and reused by designers involved in similar tasks. Moreover, the designed cycloidal gearbox paves the way for important innovations in the field of concrete mixers, allowing to design more robust and compact devices.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Cycloidal drive | Design methods | Innovation | Machine/mechanism design

[20] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Subjectivity of novelty metrics based on idea decomposition, International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, 8(4), 223-239, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The novelty metric suggested by Shah and colleagues is one of the most widespread among the suggestions made by scholars, and it is based on the subjective identification of attributes and/or functions underpinning analyzed ideas. If not correctly managed, this subjectivity can lead to non-negligible ambiguity of assessments, which could potentially invalidate the research results. Several variants to this metric have been proposed in the last two decades, with some of them claiming to have improved the original metric. However, the related benefits and drawbacks are still unclear, especially in terms of subjectivity. The aim of this study is to estimate the potential misalignment between research teams that independently perform the assessment of the same set of ideas. To this purpose, the considered metrics have been applied to a set of 100 ideas by utilizing the assessment results from three independent evaluators. It was revealed that the obtained novelty scores can be extremely different owing to the plethora of different possible interpretations of the analyzed ideas. Accordingly, the results highlight that for the same set of ideas, very different novelty assessment rationales can be followed by the evaluators.

Keywords: creativity | infrequency | Novelty | novelty assessment | subjectivity

[21] Borgianni Y., Maccioni L., Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Forms of stimuli and their effects on idea generation in terms of creativity metrics and non-obviousness, International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, 8(3), 147-164, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Idea generation is acknowledged to benefit from intentionally administered stimuli or designers’ processes that include the search for external sources of inspiration. Text-based and graphic forms of stimuli are the most leveraged in design literature, but it has not been yet demonstrated which form is most effective for boosting creativity. This is due to the fact that previous studies have employed many varying conditions which do not allow for comparisons to be made. The present paper presents an experiment in which three groups of 27 participants were asked to generate new ideas for new-borns’ outfits. To perform the task, the participants first considered five stimuli presented to them in one of the forms depending on which group the participants had been assigned to, i.e. textual, pictorial or combined (juxtaposition of the two). The stimuli were intended to share the semantic content, thus limiting potential bias due to different meanings. The outcomes of the experiment were evaluated in terms of creativity and non-obviousness. The presence of a pictorial dimension resulted in a significant increase in terms of rarity and non-obviousness of ideas, but did not affect quality, originality or quantity. The limited overlap among ideas emerging from the three forms suggests the potential value of developing design tools for idea generation that mix multiple forms of stimuli.

Keywords: analogical reasoning | creativity evaluation | Idea generation | inspiration

[22] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Challenging COVID-19 with creativity: Supporting design space exploration for emergency ventilators, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 10(14), (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The high concentration and rapid increase in lung diseases caused by COVID-19 has suddenly led medical staff to face a lack of ventilators in emergency situations. In this context, many enthusiasts and/or designers all over the world have started to think about low cost and open-source solutions for emergency ventilators, with the aim of providing concrete aid. In a small amount of time, many different solutions have been proposed, most of which are based on the automatic compression of the auxiliary manual breathing unit (AMBU) bag. In particular, many different designs have been conceived for the AMBU compression mechanism, which contains the most critical parts to be designed. Here arises the aim of this work, i.e., to propose a methodological approach to support the creativity of designers involved in inventing increasingly sustainable and reliable low-cost compression mechanisms for AMBU-based ventilators. Accordingly, a conceptual framework is proposed, capable of collecting existing ideas and organizing the underpinning concepts, to provide stimuli for new idea generation and to keep track of (and possibly to share) the explored design space. Illustrative examples are provided in order to show how the proposal can be used in practice. In particular, a set of currently available solutions is schematically shown through the proposed graphical tools, and the generation of new illustrative solutions is presented. Additionally, it is shown how to represent further ideas (e.g., those coming from other teams) in the framework.

Keywords: Conceptual design | COVID-19 | Creativity | Engineering design | Ventilators

[23] Fiorineschi L., Becattini N., Borgianni Y., Rotini F., Testing a new structured tool for supporting requirements' formulation and decomposition, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 10(9), (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The definition of a comprehensive initial set of engineering requirements is crucial to an effective and successful design process. To support engineering designers in this non-trivial task, well-acknowledged requirement checklists are available in literature, but their actual support is arguable. Indeed, engineering design tasks involve multifunctional systems, characterized by a complex map of requirements affecting different functions. Aiming at improving the support provided by common checklists, this paper proposes a structured tool capable of allocating different requirements to specific functions, and to discern between design wishes and demands. A first experiment of the tool enabled the extraction of useful information for future developments targeting the enhancement of the tool's efficacy. Indeed, although some advantages have been observed in terms of the number of proposed requirements, the presence of multiple functions led users (engineering students in this work) to useless repetitions of the same requirement. In addition, the use of the proposed tool resulted in increased perceived effort, which has been measured through the NASA Task Load Index method. These limitations constitute the starting point for planning future research and the mentioned enhancements, beyond representing a warning for scholars involved in systematizing the extraction and management of design requirements. Moreover, thanks to the robustness of the scientific approach used in this work, similar experiments can be repeated to obtain data with a more general validity, especially from industry.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design specification | Engineering design | Product planning | Requirements

[24] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Impact of missing attributes on the novelty metric of Shah et al., Research in Engineering Design, 31(2), 221-234, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The a posteriori novelty metric proposed in 2003 by Shah and colleagues is still one of the most widely used in design research, constituting the reference for many experiments on creativity and effectiveness of ideation. However, recent research highlights that in the presence of ideas implementing different numbers of attributes, some non-negligible problems arise. The objective of this paper is to estimate the potential errors that can be committed when applying the metric of Shah et al. in these situations. The investigation has been performed by relying on a high number of randomly generated virtual sets of ideas. The results obtained revealed that the problem of “missing attributes”, if not opportunely faced, leads the considered metric to misleading novelty scores.

Keywords: Creativity | Novelty | Novelty assessment | Uncommonness | Virtual ideas

[25] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Orienting through the variety of novelty metrics, International Journal of Design Sciences and Technology, 24(1), 83-101, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Assessing creativity of generated ideas is of crucial importance for both design research and early detection of potential innovations. By the identification of the most acknowledged novelty metrics used for creativity-related assessments in the field of engineering design, this paper aims at providing crucial information to orient through the variety of alternatives. A systematic literature review is performed by relying on the Scopus search engine, and a search strategy based on both practical and quality-related screening procedures. The work is focused on the engineering design literature, and the identified contributions are classified in terms of both creativity and novelty concepts. A set of 140 papers has been reviewed, where a subset of 37 mentioned or proposed novelty metrics has been considered. The metrics have been mapped in terms of creativity types, novelty concepts and metric types. Although it is possible to find comprehensive reviews about creativity concepts and related metrics, contributions focused on novelty metrics are currently lacking. This is the first contribution that focuses on a wide set of novelty concepts and related metrics, by mapping them to support metric selection.

Keywords: Creativity | Creativity assessment | Innovation | Newness | Novelty | Novelty assessment | Originality | Uncommonness | Unexpectedness | Unusualness

[26] Cubeda S., Bacci T., Mazzei L., Salvadori S., Facchini B., Fiorineschi L., Volpe Y., Design of a non-reactive warm rig with real lean-premix combustor swirlers and film-cooled first stage nozzles, Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, 7A-2020, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Modern industrial gas turbines typically employ lean-premix combustors, which can limit pollutant emissions thanks to premixed flames, while sustaining high turbine inlet temperatures that increase the single-cycle thermal efficiency. As such, gas-turbine first stage nozzles can be characterized by a highly-swirled and temperature-distorted inlet flow field. However, due to several sources of uncertainty during the design phase, wide safety margins are commonly adopted, having a direct impact on engine performance and efficiency. Therefore, aiming at increasing the knowledge on combustor-turbine interaction and improving standard design practices, a nonreactive test rig composed of real hardware was assembled at the University of Florence, Italy. The rig, accommodating three lean-premix swirlers within a combustion chamber and two first stage film-cooled nozzles of a Baker Hughes heavy-duty gas turbine, is operated in similitude conditions. The rig has been designed to reproduce the real engine periodic flow field on the central vane channel, also allowing for measurements far enough from the lateral walls. The periodicity condition on the central sector was achieved by the proper design of both the angular profile and pitch value of the tailboards with respect to the vanes, which was carried out in a preliminary phase via a Design of Experiments procedure. In addition, circular ducts needed to be installed at the injectors outlet section to preserve the non-reactive swirling flow down to the nozzles' inlet plane. The combustor-turbine interface section has been experimentally characterized in nominal operating conditions as per the temperature, velocity and pressure fields by means of a five-hole pressure probe provided with a thermocouple, installed on an automatic traverse system. To study the evolution of the combustor outlet flow through the vanes and its interaction with the film-cooling flow, such measurements have been replicated also downstream of the vanes'trailing edge. This work allowed for designing and providing preliminary data on a combustor simulator capable of equipping and testing real hardware film-cooled nozzles of a heavy-duty gas turbine. Ultimately, the activity sets the basis for an extensive test campaign aimed at characterizing the metal temperature, film effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient at realistic aerothermal conditions. In addition, and by leveraging experimental data, this activity paves the way for a detailed validation of current design practices as well as more advanced numerical methodologies such as Scale-Adaptive Simulations of the integrated combustor-turbine domain.

Keywords: CFD | Combustor | Experiments | Gas turbine | Interaction | LES | PSP | RANS | Swirling flow | Turbine

[27] Rossi G., Conti L., Fiorineschi L., Marvasi M., Monti M., Rotini F., Togni M., Barbari M., A new eco-friendly packaging material made of straw and bioplastic, Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 51(4), 185-191, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Packaging waste is cause for serious concern. Each year hun-dreds of millions of tons of packaging are produced, therefore solutions that drastically reduce their environmental impact are urgently needed. While the recycling of metal, wood, paper and cardboard packaging has been significantly improved, an efficient recycling or disposal of some plastics is not yet feasible. The European Union implemented various regulations concerning packaging and packaging waste and set some relevant short to medium-term targets for recycling and disposal rates. Over the last decade, the global trend of the eco-sustainable packaging market is heading in the same direction. The aim of this research is to develop an innovative and sustainable composite material for the production of tertiary packaging based on the combination of nat-ural fibres and biodegradable biopolymers. In particular, the experimental application entailed the creation of prototypes con-sisting of a material made of straw and biodegradable plastic Mater-Bi® which is named NeoPalea. The new material was pro-totyped to verify its physical characteristics and to determine its potential use to replace current not-biodegradable packaging. The results show a good match with the characteristics of current poly-mers, suggesting that this material can be used as a potential sub-stitute in packaging applications.

Keywords: Bio-packaging | Biodegradable | Bioplastic | Circular economy | Composting | Recycling | Straw

[28] Allotta B., Fiorineschi L., Maccioni L., Papini S., Pugi L., Rindi A., Rotini F., Design of a wolfrom cycloidal gearbox made with polymeric materials for mass production on smart construction yards, International Journal of Mechanics and Control, 21(2), 129-142, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Object of this work is the design of a speed reducer which introduces two distinctive innovations: adoption of a Wolfrom layout and adoption of polymeric materials. This solution is innovative respect to current literature also for proposed application, concrete mixes and other machines for construction yards. In this work, features of proposed solution are critically compared with pre-existing ones demonstrating its potential industrial interest for applications constrained by cost limitations and exposition to severe environmental conditions. A preliminary design is then performed on benchmark case study also introducing finite element modelling of contact conditions of proposed polymeric gears. Results are quite promising and more generally adequate to demonstrate feasibility and potential utility of proposed solution.

Keywords: Construction Yards | Cycloidal Drive | Harmonic Drive | Mechatronics | Wolfrom Drive

[29] Cascini G., Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Impact of Design Representations on Creativity of Design Outcomes, Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science, 23(2), 31-60, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Designers usually spend non-negligible efforts in performing comprehensive design space explorations, but important information exchanged in conceptual design sessions is often lost, even about the rationale behind the preferred solutions. As a part of a broader investigation concerning the impact of knowledge coming from previously performed design tasks, this paper describes an experiment aimed at assessing the impact on the design outcomes of two representations used to share existing design information. In particular, the authors compared a function structure, together with a morphological chart, against a hierarchically organized tree of problems and solutions. The design experiment has been performed with a sample composed by 35 engineering students, which have been opportunely subdivided in three groups. The experiment has been structured in three phases and the acknowledged literature metrics for assessing idea generation effectiveness have been applied to assess the design outcomes produced by students. Obtained results show that providing information with the two investigated representations leads to potential advantages in terms of Variety of devised concepts. Moreover, additional analysis of the results highlight that the considered representations lead to different idea-generation paths.

Keywords: Conceptual design | creativity | design information | design methods | engineering design

[30] Frillici F.S., Fiorineschi L., Furferi R., Rotini F., Adoption of Additive Technologies by Florence Industries: Designing a Survey Session, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 827-836, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Although the wide diffusion and technological development of Additive Technologies, it is still unclear to what extent the related potentialities are actually exploited. The work described in this paper aims at developing an on-line survey to be administered to industrial practitioners from different types of firm to elicit the information required to better understand the role of additive technologies and/or prototypes. In particular, we developed a preliminary version of the survey, and tested it with a limited sample of academic participants. The followed procedure, which includes the administration of a NASA Task Load Index questionnaire to participants, allowed to rapidly receive important feedbacks to support the development of a robust survey. Once administered to the expected final participants, the survey is expected to provide information about which are the main technologies used by different industrial sectors, how firms currently select 3D printers, and how they are currently used for design purposes.

Keywords: 3D printing | Additive Manufacturing | Prototypes | Survey

[31] Fiorineschi L., Cascini G., Rotini F., Tonarelli A., Versatile grinder technology for the production of wood biofuels, Fuel Processing Technology, 197, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The exploitation of wood biomass for thermal energy production often represents an effective complementary source to petroleum, especially where there is the availability of extended forests. Focusing the attention on household plants, the wood pellet currently constitutes a widespread biofuel, which however is characterized by non-negligible production costs. Wood microchips constitute a recently developed alternative, which compensates its inferior characteristics by an easier production process. To obtain these biofuels, the particle size reduction is crucial, because it sensibly influences the power consumption of the drying processes, as well as the raw material supply strategies. In this context, this paper presents an innovative grinding technology, which can be exploited to produce wood particle sizes for both wood pellets and microchips production. In particular, the prototype of the grinder and the experimental plant are shown, which have been used for performing preliminary biofuel production tests. The main design characteristics of the prototype are provided, together with preliminary experimental results that provide first evidences about the potentialities of the proposed wood grinding technology.

Keywords: Biofuel | Grinding | Microchips | Wood drying | Wood grinder | Wood pellet

[32] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., A-Posteriori Novelty Metrics Based on Idea Decomposition, International Journal of Design Sciences and Technology, 23(2), 187-209, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Novelty assessment procedures based on a-posteriori rationales are often used to extract useful information about creativity and/or idea generation effectiveness. In this context, the metric proposed by Shah and colleagues in 2003 (SNM), is one of the most used in design research. However, scholars highlighted some non-negligible flaws and also possible variants have been proposed, claimed to improve the original version. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic literature review about the SNM variants, in order to verify whether the acknowledged flaws of the metric have been overcome or not. As a result, this paper highlights that the problems affecting the original SNM version have not been comprehensively resolved, and the different variants proposed in literature can even present some additional flaws. Accordingly, a comprehensive list of pros and cons of the reviewed metrics has been reported, thus providing fundamental information to support accurate metric selection.

Keywords: Creativity | Idea infrequency | Idea uncommonness | Novelty | Novelty assessment

[33] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Patent classification as stimulus for inspiring new applications of existing knowledge, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 1813-1822, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: This paper aims to provide suggestions for the identification of potential new applications for the existing knowledge. A method is presented for extracting information about a product or technology, processing the international patent database (IPD) and extracting useful hints for potential new applications. The approach uses the Cooperative Patent Classification as stimulus for inspiring new potential fields towards which export existing product or technologies. Although some limits inevitably affect the approach, relevant directions for future developments have been inferred for a more comprehensive exploitation of both the firm internal knowledge and the suggestions provided by the international patent database. The achieved results can support firms in expanding market opportunities for their products or technologies.

Keywords: Creativity | Innovation | New product development

[34] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Unveiling the multiple and complex faces of fidelity, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 1723-1732, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Fidelity is one of the most important parameters to consider when dealing with prototypes, which affect the related costs and performances. Current literature contributions often rely on generic definitions of Fidelity based on the concept of closeness. However, the review performed in this paper revealed that Fidelity is a more complex concept, which considers (at least) eight main dimensions, mutually interrelated, and potentially characterized by many other potential sub-dimensions. The identified set has been applied to an industrial case study were a real engineering prototype has been assessed in terms of Fidelity. In particular, the case study application shows how the different dimensions can be interrelated each other. Furthermore, some important research hints have been highlighted in this paper, where the identified set of Fidelity dimensions paves the way for the related future activities.

Keywords: Case study | Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) | Design practice | Fidelity | Prototyping

[35] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Orienting through the variants of the Shah's A-posteriori novelty metric, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 2317-2326, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Different variants of a-posteriori novelty metrics can be found in the literature. Indeed, such a kind of assessment procedures is often used to extract useful information about creativity and/or idea generation effectiveness. In particular, the metric proposed by Shah et al. in 2003, is one of the most used and discussed in the literature. However, scholars highlighted some flaws for this metric, and some variants have been proposed to overcome them. This paper argues about the variants proposed for the a-posteriori metric of Shah et al., and proposes a selection framework to support researchers in selecting the most suited for their experimental needs. The proposed selection framework also highlights important research hints, which could pave the way for future activities. More specifically, it is still necessary to support the identification of the best-suited abstraction framework to assign weights to attributes, and the assignment of weights should be better supported as well. Moreover, this paper highlights the presence of “uncommonness of key attributes”, which needs to be investigated for experimental cases where ideas missing some key attributes are present.

Keywords: Creativity | Design theory | Evaluation | Nevelty Assessment | Novelty Metrics

[36] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., A preliminary proposal towards unambiguous definitions for modular interfaces and interactions, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 2941-2950, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Modularity is acknowledged to provide benefits across the whole product lifecycle. Accordingly, many literature contributions can be found about modularization methods, metrics and definitions. In particular, recent studies focused on the development of heuristic principles for exploiting modularity early in the design process. However, to design modules it is necessary to define their mutual interactions, the related interfaces and their production strategies. Concerning interfaces and interactions, this paper highlights that current definitions are often ambiguous and overlapping each other. Therefore, extracting univocal information about interfaces and interactions of existent modular products could be difficult. This could hinder the identification of comprehensive heuristic design guidelines, about how to design modules from a structural point of view. This paper proposes a new set of interface and interaction definitions, which allows to overcome the flaw observed for current ones. The proposed set and the classical one have been applied on 110 products identified on the web, showing that the new definitions allow to extract more reliable information.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Early design phases | Modular design | Modularity | Product architecture

[37] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Teaching and learning design methods: Facing the related issues with TRIZ, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 589-598, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Design methods are claimed to support designers but, although they are largely taught in academia, their industrial uptake is still lacking. Many reasons have been identified about this flaw and some potential suggestions have been proposed and discussed in literature to overcome the problem. However, a further evidence is that although many students learn such methods from years, they partially or totally abandon the learned methods in their professional careers. This could partially explain the gap between academic and industrial diffusion of design methods. Literature provides suggestions for improving the learning experience of students but different didactical contexts may need more tailored solutions. The work shown in this paper exploits the problem solving potentialities of the TRIZ toolset to provide hints for improving a course focused on teaching a systematic conceptual design method. A set of suggestions has been obtained together some guidelines for applying the considered TRIZ tools to other didactical contexts.

Keywords: Creativity | Design education | Design learning | Design methods

[38] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Three-dimensional approach for assessing uncommonness of ideas, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 229-238, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: A posteriori novelty metrics are often used in design research, in order to extract important information about creativity. However, different assessment approaches can be found in the literature, each of them with related pros and cons. In particular, weighted uncommonness, overall uncommonness and uncommonness across groups are the three main families of a-posteriori novelty metrics identified in this paper. Each of the considered literature metrics can provide specific types of information about the uncommonness of ideas, but in certain experimental circumstances, it could be difficult to rapidly identify the best-suited approach. This paper proposes an integrated procedure where the advantages offered by the three families of metrics can be applied concurrently. A generic case study is used for a first application of the proposal, and the obtained results show that a more comprehensive set of information about a-posteriori novelty can be extracted. In particular, novelty data from the three families of metrics are extracted in a single assessment process.

Keywords: Creativity | Design theory | Evaluation | Novelty Assessment | Novelty Metrics

[39] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Linking design problems and modular solutions, International Journal of Product Development, 23(1), 15-41, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Designing products implies to deal with a series of issues affecting their entire life cycle, which are often solved by exploiting the benefits offered by modular architectures. Nevertheless, although several studies have been performed on this argument, understanding 'when' and 'how' to adopt modularity still remains a non-trivial task, especially in the early design stages. Indeed, different modularity types can be found in literature, but it is unclear whether they can be linked to specific categories of design problems or not. Attempting to fill this gap, the paper proposes an investigation strategy to highlight the relationship between modular solutions and design problems. An illustrative application of the proposal on a sample of products is presented together with the achieved results. They show that the proposed investigation approach potentially allows to highlight preferred modular solutions for specific problem categories. Moreover, a new set of unambiguous definitions of the modularity types is presented to clearly identify interfaces and interactions among modules.

Keywords: Engineering design | Modular design | Modularity | Problem solving | Product architecture

[40] Carfagni M., Fiorineschi L., Furferi R., Governi L., Rotini F., The role of additive technologies in the prototyping issues of design, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 24(7), 1101-1116, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to argue about the involvement of additive technologies (ATs) in the prototyping issues of designing. More precisely, it reviews the literature contributions focused on the different perspectives of prototyping activities for design purposes, searching for both available knowledge and research needs concerning the correct exploitation of ATs. Design/methodology/approach: A two-step literature review has been performed. In the first step, general information has been retrieved about prototyping issues related to design. In the second step, the literature searches were focused on retrieving more detailed information about ATs, concerning each of the main issues identified in the previous step. Extracted information has been analyzed and discussed for understanding the actual coverage of the arguments and for identifying possible research needs. Findings: Four generally valid prototyping issues have been identified in the first step of the literature review. For each of them, available information and current lacks have been identified and discussed about the involvement of AT, allowing to extract six different research hints for future works. Originality/value: This is the first literature review concerning AT-focused contributions that cover the complex and inter-disciplinary issues characterizing prototyping activities in design contexts.

Keywords: Additive technologies | Design | Engineering | Engineering design | Prototyping | Rapid prototyping

[41] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Gregori G., Rotini F., Stimulating idea generation for new product applications, International Journal of Innovation Science, 10(4), 454-474, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to provide suggestions for the identification of potential new applications for the existing products and/or technologies. Design/methodology/approach: A nine-step method has been developed for extracting information about a product or technology, processing the international patent database (IPD) and extracting useful hints for potential new applications. An academic case study has been used to perform the first application of the proposal. Findings: A novel approach for processing IPD aimed at supporting the identification of new opportunities for exploiting existing products/technologies. The case study application shows that the proposal allows to extract potentially useful and non-obvious suggestions for new product applications. Research limitations/implications: Although some limits inevitably affect this preliminary version of the proposal, important hints for future developments have been inferred for a more comprehensive exploitation of both the firm internal knowledge and the suggestions provided by the international patent database. Practical implications: The achieved results can support firms in expanding market opportunities for their products or technologies. Originality/value: The proposed approach offers a new structured path for stimulating idea generation for new product applications, by exploiting product information and the cooperative patent classification.

Keywords: Idea generation | Innovation | Patent analysis | Patents | Patents and inventions | Product innovation

[42] Fiorineschi L., Abstraction framework to support students in learning creative conceptual design, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 16(4), 616-636, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Purpose: Learning systematic conceptual design approaches could be difficult for students who are asked to adapt their intuitive design rationale to more abstract and divergent thinking styles. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual design approach with a well-defined reference framework and procedure to help students to gradually move toward concreteness and to explore the design space. Design/methodology/approach: The so-called problem–solution network approach has been taken as a reference and upgraded with a specific framework to manage abstraction levels. A first didactical application of the proposal is described, and specific feedbacks from students have been collected by means of an anonymous survey. Findings: Despite the limited course time allotted for the argument, students’ feedbacks revealed that the proposed abstraction framework is useful to learn systematic conceptual design and to support the understanding of creative design thinking. Research limitations/implications: The proposal has been applied on a single class of MS engineering students in a course where only a part of the available time was allotted to conceptual design activities. However, the received positive feedbacks are encouraging and allow pushing toward more comprehensive applications and investigations. Originality/value: The proposal shown in this paper uses acknowledged concepts of abstraction and function to propose a new integrated framework to manage abstraction levels in problem solving activities. The framework has been implemented in a very recent conceptual design approach based on problem–solution co-evolution, which has been proposed to overcome the flaws ascribed to classical function-based methods.

Keywords: Abstraction | Design education | Design strategies

[43] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Tomassini M., Exploiting TRIZ Tools for enhancing systematic conceptual design activities, Journal of Engineering Design, 29(6), 259-290, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Systematic design methods are widely diffused in academia, representing a standard in many engineering courses. Nevertheless, some flaws related to the conceptual design phase have been ascribed to these methods, especially concerning a non-comprehensive support to innovation. However, literature acknowledges several creativity-enhancing tools that can be conveniently combined with systematic design methods. In particular, many scholars refer to TRIZ, i.e. the well-known Russian problem-solving theory. Moreover, recent literature contributions propose some alternatives to the classical Functional Decomposition and Morphology (FDM), claiming to overcome some of the related flaws. One of them is the Problem Solution Network (PSN) approach, i.e. a systematic conceptual design method strongly based on a problem-solution co-evolutionary logic. In this context, our work aims at combining the potentialities of TRIZ with the benefits claimed for the PSN, by proposing a comprehensive integration procedure. Accordingly, this paper reports a detailed description of the proposal, where TRIZ tools are exploited to support problem solving within the PSN approach. Furthermore, an application is also reported where an industrial case study is presented to argue about possible potentialities and lacks of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Conceptual design | design methods | engineering design | problem solving techniques | TRIZ

[44] Cascini G., Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Investigating on the re-use of conceptual design representations, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 3, 1009-1020, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Systematic conceptual design approaches foresee the realization of abstract representations, according to their specific formalisms and rationales. Therefore, even if not explicitly conceived for this purpose, they implicitly allow to store information about the explored design space. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the re-use of the recalled representation is unclear, especially if reused by designers not comprehensively learned about the original method. This paper shows an experimental investigation on this argument, where a sample of thirty-five MS engineering students is involved.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design creativity | Design knowledge | Design representations | Engineering design

[45] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Issues related to missing attributes in aposteriori novelty assessments, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 3, 1067-1078, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Novelty assessment is a fundamental activity for creativity evaluation of ideas or concepts. Accordingly, literature acknowledges a variety of suitable metrics, among which some "a-posteriori" versions are often used for assessing idea generated in experimental sessions. We observed that when in presence of tasks requiring multiple functions, the application of the metric becomes problematic. In this paper, we argue about the recalled issue, providing detailed suggestions for a correct "a-posteriori" novelty assessment of ideas generated from tasks with multiple required functions.

Keywords: Design creativity | Design evaluation | Evaluation | Novelty | Novelty assessment

[46] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., A-posteriori novelty assessments for sequential design sessions, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 3, 1079-1090, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Among the various novelty metrics available in literature, those developed by Shah and Vargas- Hernandez are frequently used for academic purposes. More precisely, their "a-posteriori" version is often used for assessing ideation effectiveness of idea generation methods. We observed that when in presence of sequential idea generation sessions of the same task, the application of the recalled metric could lead to misleading results. In this paper, we argue about this problem, and we also provide useful suggestions for a correct "a-posteriori" assessment for sequential idea generation sessions.

Keywords: Design creativity | Design evaluation | Evaluation | Novelty | Novelty assessment

[47] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Supporting systematic conceptual design with triz, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 3, 1091-1102, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Most acknowledged systematic conceptual design (SCD) methods are based on Functional Decomposition and Morphology (FDM). However, since some of the observed FDM flaws concern a non-comprehensive support to creativity, some scholars attempted to fill this gap by integrating FDM with the TRIZ body of knowledge. Unfortunately, non-negligible issues arise in these cases, hindering a comprehensive exploitation of TRIZ in SCD. This paper proposes an alternative way for exploiting the TRIZ potentialities within SCD, and three academic application examples are reported to show how the proposal works.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design methods | Engineering design | Problem solving | TRIZ

[48] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Enhancing functional decomposition and morphology with TRIZ: Literature review, Computers in Industry, 94, 1-15, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: One of most acknowledged approaches for conceptual design is the so-called “Functional Decomposition and Morphology” (FDM), which provides a systematic framework for transforming a set of technical requirements in a product concept. However, as observed by some scholars, this particular procedure acknowledges some flaws, also concerning a non-comprehensive support in generating creative ideas. Accordingly, literature suggests to combine creativity-enhancer tools or methods with the FDM process. The TRIZ base of knowledge appears to be one of the viable options, as shown in the fragmental indications reported in well-acknowledged design textbooks. Accordingly, other contributions can be found in literature, which are focused on more structured ways for enhancing FDM approaches with TRIZ. In such a context, the objectives of this paper is to collect the literature contributions focused on the TRIZ-FDM integration, with the aim of providing a first comprehensive classification and discussing about observable differences and lacks.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design methodology | Design methods | Engineering design | Functional decomposition | Problem solving | Systematic design | TRIZ

[49] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Rissone P., A new conceptual design approach for overcoming the flaws of functional decomposition and morphology, Journal of Engineering Design, 27(7), 438-468, (2016). Abstract

Abstract: Some scholars have recently criticised functional decomposition and morphology (FDM) approaches despite their wide diffusion in academia. More precisely, several research projects demonstrated that such methods suffer from poor diffusion in industry because of some deficiencies. This paper, which focuses on evidence that is addressed by the literature, refers to a new conceptual design approach that can overcome the flaws of FDM. More specifically, this paper presents the fundamental logic and the main tools that constitute the groundings of the proposal. Analogies and differences with respect to the classical methodology are examined by means of a literature case study, while two academic studies are briefly introduced to show other peculiarities of the suggested proposal. The same case study applications are later used to highlight the current shortcomings of the new approach and to formulate possible future developments.

Keywords: Conceptual design | information gathering | problem decomposition | problem–solution coevolution | PSN

[50] Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Fiorineschi L., Re-design the design task through TRIZ tools, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, DS 84, 201-210, (2016).
[51] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Rissone P., Conceiving modular solutions in early conceptual design activities, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 7(DS 80-07), 63-72, (2015). Abstract

Abstract: Literature acknowledges modular architectures to give rise to a series of positive effects, and advantages given by considering modularity early in the design process have also been inferred. As a matter of the fact, many attempts have been made to develop modularization methods and tools. However such methods mainly support redesign tasks focused on modifying the architecture of an existing solution, i.e. operate only after, at least, a preliminary conceptual design process. Anyway, it is well acknowledged that product success is strongly influenced by the quality of the underlying concept. Such an observation leaded the authors of this paper towards a research activity aimed at the development of new design tools, for supporting the designer in facing modularity issues during the conceptual design phase. In particular, the present paper shows some preliminary results concerning the development of a new design approach capable of taking into account modularity issues since early concept generation activities.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design methods | Modularity | Product architecture

[52] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rissone P., Cascini G., Product Architecture definition: Evaluating the potentiality of TRIZ tools, Procedia Engineering, 131, 359-371, (2015). Abstract

Abstract: Product Architecture definition plays more and more a crucial role for enhancing product customizability, easing after-sale management and reducing manufacturing costs. Despite major efforts have been dedicated to the development of methods and tools supporting Product Architecture definition for "Adaptive Design" tasks, no real means are available while addressing more radical innovation activities. The paper proposes a critical overview of TRIZ models and tools to evaluate their potential integration into a comprehensive methodology for Product Architecture definition. A comparison with the three major modularity methods is performed with the aim to establish how TRIZ can be located thereupon to current state of the art of Product Architecture management. An academic case study is discussed, in order to show how the OTSM Network of Problems approach can bring a significant contribution in that sense.

Keywords: Modularity | Original Design | Product Architecture | TRIZ

[53] Frillici F.S., Fiorineschi L., Cascini G., Linking TRIZ to conceptual design engineering approaches, Procedia Engineering, 131, 1031-1040, (2015). Abstract

Abstract: During the last decades, product design has yielded several interest by scholars, leading to a great amount of contributions concerning design methodology. Some of them, beyond modeling the whole design process, propose their model of the early design activities devoted to the development of the product concept, i.e. The conceptual design phase. These design approaches are widely diffused in academia. However, some uncertainties appear in literature, concerning their efficacy in performing innovative design. This observation forms the basis of this work, which aims at improving classical design processes by integrating their procedure with the TRIZ base of knowledge. To achieve such an objective, authors' approach consists in considering generally valid steps of the conceptual design process, and then in identifying most suitable TRIZ tools for each of them. A structured list of suggestions concerning the proposed integration is finally presented, together with an explanatory case study application of the proposed improvements.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Design methods | Design models | TRIZ

[54] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rissone P., A comparison of Classical TRIZ and OTSM-TRIZ in dealing with complex problems, Procedia Engineering, 131, 86-94, (2015). Abstract

Abstract: A comparison between Classical TRIZ and OTSM-TRIZ is presented in order to evaluate differences in using either method when facing complex problems. The case study considered for this purpose is the development of a new type of Gondola for stratospheric ballooning, in which OTSM-TRIZ has been used in order to manage the complexity of the system. Considerations regarding methodologies have been then expressed and grouped into three topics of comparison, in which main differences between the assessed approaches have been listed and explained, identifying OTSM-TRIZ as a valid tool in facing complex problems.

Keywords: Gondola | Inventive problem solving | LDB | OTSM-TRIZ | TRIZ

[55] Cascini G., Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rissone P., Techno-economic classification of contradictions and related strategies of solution, Procedia Engineering, 131, 757-766, (2015). Abstract

Abstract: One of the most important objectives of modern product development is the fulfillment of the requirements derived from stakeholder/customer needs. For this reason, modern design processes start from an accurate definition of those final product features able to satisfy a given set of customer needs. However, it is well acknowledged that, during a common design process, it is often possible to find requirements conflicting with each other. Thus the choice of a successful design strategy is critical. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility to find a rule suitable to indicate the best side of the contradiction to process in order to solve technical problems, also usable by engineers with limited experience with TRIZ. The analysis has been formerly operated on well-known solved problems belonging to Classical TRIZ literature; the emerging evidences have been further checked on a set of case studies from the authors' industrial experience.

Keywords: ARIZ | Contradictions | Design process | Design requirements

[56] Barbari M., Cavalli A., Fiorineschi L., Monti M., Togni M., Innovative connection in wooden trusses, Construction and Building Materials, 66, 654-663, (2014). Abstract

Abstract: An innovation of the traditional timber truss is proposed, designed, built and tested. It is an original joining system to connect the top-chord and the tie-beam. The joint studied enables prolonging the rafter over the linkage with the tie, so as to form overhanging eaves. The behaviour of the connection under loads was analysed either by considerations relating to the possible limit states and by means of Finite Elements Analysis (FEA). In accordance with the design which was theoretically analysed, a prototype was made and it was subjected to loading tests that gave positive results. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Finite Elements Analysis | Load-carrying tests | Mechanical performance | Overhanging eave | Steel connection | Timber truss

[57] Fiorineschi L., Rissone P., Rotini F., Modularization vs. innovation, International Journal of Innovation Science, 6(1), 29-42, (2014). Abstract

Abstract: This paper argues the relationship between modularity and product innovation. The work is based on the assumption that in order to become an innovation, a novel product has to be successfully diffused into the marketplace. Modularity can give rise to a series of parameters related to commercial success; however, there is not a well-defined relationship between modularity and product innovativeness. The aim of the paper is to analyse the logic of the most acknowledged modularization methods in-order to understand how they can really influence product success, and then, part of product innovativeness.

[58] Fiorineschi L., Rissone P., Rotini F., Investigating on the rise of modularity during the conceptual design phase, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 2014-January, 811-820, (2014).
[59] Fiorineschi L., Boscaleri A., Rissone P., Baldi M., Requirements versus constraints in designing stratospheric platforms for heavy multi-user payloads: The Large-Scale Polarization Explorer (LSPE) experiment, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 721 SP, 217-224, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: In considering the design activities of a stratospheric gondola for a multiuser experiment, the exchange of information between the structural designer and the various teams involved may be a critical issue. In fact, only part of the information is available at the beginning of the project, thus necessitating the use of a trial-and-error approach that leads to results which involve considerable expenditure. For small-and medium-size experiments, the problem of the exchange of information from the mechanical designer's point of view can easily be solved by using a pre-built gondola supplied by a hypothetical launch consortium. This is what we proposed as the "Strato-Bus" approach at the ESA Symposium 2009. Furthermore, in 2011 we also introduced a possible solution of a multi-user gondola design: a shared design for many combinations of experiments, the total weight of which is just below the maximum lift capacity of the balloon produced by several dedicated manufactories. But when the characteristics of the instrumentation make the use of a pre-built platform impossible, the problem of exchanging information arises once again, and this is what we have experienced in the case of the Large-Scale Polarization Explorer (LSPE) experiment. The design activities of the LSPE gondola are used here in order to introduce a "systematic approach" that is capable of saving both time and money for each team involved in the overall project.

[60] Aiola S., Amico G., Battaglia P., Battistelli E., Baù A., De Bernardis P., Bersanelli M., Boscaleri A., Cavaliere F., Coppolecchia A., Cruciani A., Cuttaia F., D'Addabbo G., D'Alessandro , De Gregori S., Del Torto F., De Petris M., Fiorineschi L., Franceschet C., Franceschi E., Gervasi M., Goldie D., Gregorio A., Haynes V., Krachmalnicoff N., Lamagna L., Maffei B., Maino D., Masi S., Mennella A., Wah N.M., Morgante G., Nati F., Pagano L., Passerini A., Peverini O., Piacentini F., Piccirillo L., Pisano G., Ricciardi S., Rissone P., Romeo G., Salatino M., Sandri M., Schillaci A., Stringhetti L., Tartari A., Tascone R., Terenzi L., Tomasi M., Tommasi E., Villa F., Virone G., Withington S., Zacchei A., Zannoni M., The Large-Scale Polarization Explorer (LSPE), Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 8446, (2012). Abstract

Abstract: The LSPE is a balloon-borne mission aimed at measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at large angular scales, and in particular to constrain the curl component of CMB polarization (B-modes) produced by tensor perturbations generated during cosmic inflation, in the very early universe. Its primary target is to improve the limit on the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations amplitudes down to r = 0.03, at 99.7% confidence. A second target is to produce wide maps of foreground polarization generated in our Galaxy by synchrotron emission and interstellar dust emission. These will be important to map Galactic magnetic fields and to study the properties of ionized gas and of diffuse interstellar dust in our Galaxy. The mission is optimized for large angular scales, with coarse angular resolution (around 1.5 degrees FWHM), and wide sky coverage (25% of the sky). The payload will fly in a circumpolar long duration balloon mission during the polar night. Using the Earth as a giant solar shield, the instrument will spin in azimuth, observing a large fraction of the northern sky. The payload will host two instruments. An array of coherent polarimeters using cryogenic HEMT amplifiers will survey the sky at 43 and 90 GHz. An array of bolometric polarimeters, using large throughput multi-mode bolometers and rotating Half Wave Plates (HWP), will survey the same sky region in three bands at 95, 145 and 245 GHz. The wide frequency coverage will allow optimal control of the polarized foregrounds, with comparable angular resolution at all frequencies. © 2012 SPIE.

Keywords: Bolometer | Cosmic microwave backgorund | Polarimeter | Polarization | Radiometer | Stratospheric balloons

[61] Boscaleri A., Fiorineschi L., Rissone P., Baldi M., Zannoni M., A new approach in designing of stratospheric platforms aimed at multi-user LDB flights, European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 700 SP, 593-598, (2011). Abstract

Abstract: Thanks to the high latitude of the location the new scenario of the Svalbard Islands as well as that of the already operative Swedish launch base is very close to becoming a principal launching site for Long Duration Ballooning (LDB) arctic campaigns. LDB flights, rather than mid latitude flights that last several hours have become a suitable framework for all efforts to create low cost campaigns. The scientific world, which uses balloons to record measurements beyond the atmosphere, needs both frequently scheduled campaigns and an optimized organization capable of reducing flight costs. It is obvious that a reducing of general costs means keeping in mind, during all design phases, versatility and the standardization of common facilities such as gondola frame as well as the protection of the solar panels upon landing etc. The multi-user payload is certainly the first step for reducing launch costs. Each balloon is launched as much as possible when its payload hosts a number of experiments that weight just a little less than its maximum lifting capacity, apart from the necessary their mutual compatibility. A second step, concerns the optimization of the gondola frame design. It must manufacture gondolas easy to assemble, transport and as well as be easy to modify in shape in order to host a different combination of a given number of experiments, once these have been selected by a scientific authority for the same balloon. The new concept in designing platform which takes advantage of special mechanical elements that are capable both of jointing different beam lengths and of distributing tensile or compression stress only is proposed. The gondola can be assembled simply by only cutting structural aluminum beams into different lengths. Differences between traditional rigid structures and the new concept of construction are pointed out, as a reduction in the total weight and as an easy way to balance the gondola almost without adding extra weight. An example of how the new mechanical joint works and how its behavior closely approximates to the theoretical one is also demonstrated. The study is devoted to design the platform of one of the next balloon experiments (funded by ASI): The Large Scale Polarization Explorer (LSPE).