[Elenco soci]


Evangelista Alessandro

Ricercatore TD(A)


Politecnico di Bari
alessandro.evangelista@poliba.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 57210919214
Orcid: 0000-0003-2045-1768



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Laviola E., Gattullo M., Evangelista A., Fiorentino M., Uva A. E., In-situ or side-by-side? A user study on augmented reality maintenance instructions in blind areas, Computers in Industry, 144, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) has been effectively proposed as a tool to support workers in manual procedural tasks in industry, such as assembly and maintenance. It is very common for workers to deal with complete equipment in maintenance. Then, instructions may refer to components located in blind areas, i.e., visually occluded by part of the equipment. Displaying in-situ AR instructions in such blind areas requires handling occlusions; otherwise, side-by-side instructions can be exploited. In the literature, it is still unclear which solution better leverage workers’ performance in maintenance tasks accomplished in blind areas. Thus, we designed three AR presentation modes to convey maintenance instructions in a real machine: 3D in-situ rendered with X-ray technique; 3D side-by-side on a CAD model replicating the blind area; 2D side-by-side on a virtual mirror. We conducted a user study comparing these three presentation modes with a 2D drawing extracted from the original maintenance documentation of the machine. The performance of 42 participants was evaluated in terms of completion time, accuracy, and cognitive load. The results revealed that both in-situ and 3D side-by-side presentation modes perform better than 2D drawing. Specifically, the in-situ presentation mode outperforms the 3D side-by-side mode in terms of completion time. The side-by-side virtual mirror does not improve performance with respect to 2D drawing, then it needs to be redesigned for effective use in AR maintenance interfaces.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Blind area | Industrial operator support | Maintenance | Occlusion | Work instructions

[2] Laviola E., Gattullo M., Evangelista A., Displaying Augmented Reality Manuals in the Design Phase of the Product Lifecycle, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1316-1326, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Augmented Reality (AR) has been proved to be effective in maintenance operations in the industrial field. In a concurrent engineering approach, the authoring of AR manuals, to convey instructions to operators exploiting AR, must be done during the design phase of the product lifecycle. A reliable solution is needed to speed up the AR manual development process when the product is not physically available. We compared three solutions for displaying a demo version of an AR manual when the real product is not available, opting to replace it with its CAD model. Based on the user study results, the main features for each demo version were collected. The Augmented Reality (AR) solution allows to show the product that is not physically available in a real scale with the drawback of needing a physical printed marker. The Desktop Virtual Reality (DVR) prototype overcomes the problem of managing different devices and real-life locations, but without a real scale and a natural interaction. The Augmented Desktop Virtual Reality (ADVR) prototype allows to distinguish more easily the virtual elements of the true AR from those simulating the real product, but with a less natural interaction due to the use of a secondary screen. As a case study, we chose a compressor that a local company is going to produce with its AR manual. Although users overall preferred the AR demo version, the company chose the ADVR solution due to a better perception of what would be the result of the true AR application.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Prototyping | Task simulation | Work instructions

[3] Laera F., Evangelista A., Manghisi V., Foglia M., Fiorentino M., Role-Based Sailing Augmented Reality Interface: Three Proposals for Head-Mounted Display, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1305-1315, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: This work is part of a larger project aiming to develop a comprehensive Augmented Reality (AR) interface for recreative and professional nautical sailing navigation. Due to the complexity of the marine environment and the dynamism of the crew members on board, we propose to diversify the display of navigation information concerning the role, position and activity onboard. The interfaces are designed to be viewed by one or more crew members, solving the problem of everyone viewing the same data, and giving each one the information they need based on their role or position. The three novel proposals for sail-specific AR graphic interfaces are designed to be displayed on Head-Mounted Display HMD and each of them differs for the information stabilization: Screen-Stabilized, Body-Stabilized and Boat-Stabilized. Each interface is different from the others differentiated according to the type of navigation and the user who must use that information. These approaches have been prototyped and evaluated by a panel of experts in the field of sailing navigation and were able to showcase their potential for future evaluations in different scenarios.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Interface | Nautical | Sailing | Spatiality | User-based

[4] Manghisi V.M., Evangelista A., Rossano V., Giliberti C., Mariconte R., Diano M., Galasso V., Uva A.E., Immersive Virtual Reality as a Training Tool for Safety Working Procedure in Confined Spaces, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1340-1351, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Confined spaces cause fatal and serious injuries that tragically recur with similar dynamics every year. A survey carried out on the Italian territory by the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work on the years from 2001 to 2019 shows that a total of 184 accidents occurred in confined spaces mostly because workers were poorly informed and trained, the risk assessment lacking, and that the provisions of the law were not respected. Often fatal events affect those involved in the primary incident and those who intervene in an attempt to assist. Consequently, it is necessary to apply a proper training process and extend it to all those involved in operations both inside and next to confined spaces. Traditionally, the training approach consists of classroom lectures and simulations in real environments. However, real simulation scenarios are costly and time-consuming as real scenarios training simulations require expensive purpose-built physical simulators. To overcome these limitations, we designed and implemented an Immersive Virtual Reality based platform to support and enforce the traditional confined space safety training approach. Finally, we defined an experimental validation procedure.

Keywords: Confined spaces | Immersive Virtual Reality | Safety training | Usability | Work safety

[5] Gattullo M., Laviola E., Boccaccio A., Evangelista A., Fiorentino M., Manghisi V.M., Uva A.E., Design of a Mixed Reality Application for STEM Distance Education Laboratories, Computers, 11(4), (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In this work, we propose a Mixed Reality (MR) application to support laboratory lectures in STEM distance education. It was designed following a methodology extendable to diverse STEM laboratory lectures. We formulated this methodology considering the main issues found in the literature that limit MR’s use in education. Thus, the main design features of the resulting MR application are students’ and teachers’ involvement, use of not distracting graphics, integration of traditional didactic material, and easy scalability to new learning activities. In this work, we present how we applied the design methodology and used the framework for the case study of an engineering course to support students in understanding drawings of complex machines without being physically in the laboratory. We finally evaluated the usability and cognitive load of the implemented MR application through two user studies, involving, respectively, 48 and 36 students. The results reveal that the usability of our application is “excellent” (mean SUS score 84.7), and it is not influenced by familiarity with Mixed Reality and distance education tools. Furthermore, the cognitive load is medium (mean NASA TLX score below 29) for all four learning tasks that students can accomplish through the MR application.

Keywords: augmented and virtual reality | distance education and online learning | improving classroom teaching | mixed reality | mobile learning

[6] Gattullo M., Evangelista A., Uva A.E., Fiorentino M., Gabbard J.L., What, How, and Why are Visual Assets Used in Industrial Augmented Reality? A Systematic Review and Classification in Maintenance, Assembly, and Training (From 1997 to 2019), IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 28(2), 1443-1456, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Industrial Augmented Reality (iAR) has demonstrated its advantages to communicate technical information in the fields of maintenance, assembly, and training. However, literature is scattered among different visual assets (i.e., AR visual user interface elements associated with a real scene). In this work, we present a systematic literature review of visual assets used in these industrial fields. We searched five databases, initially finding 1757 papers. Then, we selected 122 iAR papers from 1997 to 2019 and extracted 348 visual assets. We propose a classification for visual assets according to (i) what is displayed, (ii) how it conveys information (frame of reference, color coding, animation), and, (iii) why it is used. Our review shows that product models, text and auxiliary models are, in order, the most common, with each most often used to support operating, checking and locating tasks respectively. Other visual assets are scarcely used. Product and auxiliary models are commonly rendered world-fixed, color coding is not used as often as expected, while animations are limited to product and auxiliary model. This survey provides a snapshot of over 20 years of literature in iAR, useful to understand established practices to orientate in iAR interface design and to present future research directions.

Keywords: Augmented reality | industry | reviews | user interfaces | visualization

[7] Manghisi V.M., Evangelista A., Uva A.E., A Virtual Reality Approach for Assisting Sustainable Human-Centered Ergonomic Design: The ErgoVR tool, Procedia Computer Science, 200, 1338-1346, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Industry 4.0 is characterized by great potential for innovation impacting the operator's role, increasingly engaged in smart activities of a decision-making nature. In such a working scenario, operators' working conditions can be effectively improved by applying a user-centered collaborative design approach. To this end, we developed a Virtual Reality-based multiplayer tool exploiting low-cost body tracking technology to evaluate ergonomic postural risk. The tool allows evaluating both in real-time and off-line the ergonomic postural risk according to the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment metrics. By applying this approach, a twofold advantage can be achieved. On the one hand, ergonomic experts can have an immersive three-dimensional visualization of postures even in off-line observations. On the other hand, it is possible to evaluate the ergonomics of workstations in the design phase by having the operator work on virtual mock-ups of workstations, thus allowing a sustainable approach to user-centered collaborative design.

Keywords: Collaborative design | Ergonomics | Kinect V2 | RULA | User-centered | Virtual Reality

[8] Manghisi V.M., Evangelista A., Boccaccio A., Gattullo M., Fiorentino M., Semisa D., Latorre V., Uva A.E., Cinematic Virtual Reality as a Rehabilitative Tool in Subjects Affected by Schizophrenia, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 149-156, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Although Virtual Reality Social Skills Training has proven its effectiveness in treating psychiatric disorders, this VR application field is still under-researched for two main reasons. The first one is the unavailability of low-cost VR technologies with sufficient computational capacity needed to render realistic Virtual Environments. The second one consists of the need for specialized VR application developers, usually far from the mental health research field. The recent diffusion of low-cost stereoscopic viewers and the introduction of easy and fast VR content authoring systems, such as Cinematic Virtual Reality (CVR), allow overcoming these limitations. CVR makes it possible to capture real scenes through 360 cameras, augment them with additional virtual objects, and finally immerse the user in these synthetic but highly immersive environments. We present the design and the features of the Entellect360 prototype -an innovative tool supporting the rehabilitation process of subjects affected by schizophrenia. It exploits CVR technology to create Virtual Environments aimed at the rehabilitation of psychiatric patients. The Entellect360 features allow for rehabilitation sessions and patient-performance data-collection even under conditions of social distancing. We also explain the experimental protocol and the validation procedure the prototype will undergo to assess its effectiveness.

Keywords: 360-degree virtual reality | Cognitive rehabilitation | Human-computer interaction | Mental health | Social skills training

[9] Evangelista A., Manghisi V.M., Laera F., Gattullo M., Uva A.E., Fiorentino M., CompassbAR: A Technique for Visualizing Out-of-View Objects in a Mixed Reality Environment, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 141-148, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The introduction of the new generation of Head Mounted Displays (HMD) makes users’ experiences in Mixed Reality (MR) environments more engaging. However, these devices still have a limited field of view, which negatively affects the spatial localization process of virtual objects in the 3D environment. The literature presents several visualization techniques to address this issue, but they currently have several drawbacks, such as visual clutter, occlusion of the real scene, high user workload, and there is still no visualization technique that solves such issues definitively. Therefore, inspired by the gaming industry, we present CompassbAR a visualization technique for out-of-view objects. CompassbAR encodes the position of all out-of-view objects surrounding the user, in a 2D bar positioned at the top of the field of view. In addition, we propose a validation procedure and metrics that aim to evaluate the ability of the CompassbAR visualization technique to guide users towards the out-of-view objects.

Keywords: Head-mounted display | Mixed Reality | Visualization techniques

[10] Laviola E., Gattullo M., Boccaccio A., Evangelista A., Fiorentino M., Manghisi V.M., Uva A.E., Mixed Reality in STEM Didactics: Case Study of Assembly Drawings of Complex Machines, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 157-164, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Mixed Reality (MR) could help students in the understanding of complex concepts as well as increase their motivation in the learning process. In this work, our aim is to propose a MR application for the support of engineering students in the understanding of assembly drawings of complex machines. We presented the application of our design methodology for this case study. Then, based on the results of a user study with a sample of students, we tried to improve the usability and the user experience of the MR application, proposing an updated version. The usability of the revised application was in the range “good-excellent” (mean SUS score 77.0). We also presented the lessons learned in this case study, that can be a starting point for a renewal of consolidated didactic processes aiming at future application of MR in other STEM courses.

Keywords: Augmented and virtual reality | Distance education and online learning | Improving classroom teaching | Mixed Reality | Mobile learning

[11] Laera F., Manghisi V. M., Evangelista A., Uva A. E., Foglia M. M., Fiorentino M., Evaluating an augmented reality interface for sailing navigation: a comparative study with a immersive virtual reality simulator, Virtual Reality, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Sailing navigation is an activity that requires acquiring and processing information from the surrounding environment. The advancement of technology has enabled sailboats to have an increasing number of onboard sensors that make sailing more user-friendly. However, data provided by these sensors are still visualized on 2D digital displays that imitate traditional analog interfaces. Although these displays are strategically placed on the sailboat, the user needs to divert attention from the primary navigation task to look at them, thus spending a significant amount of cognitive resources. AR-based technologies have the potential to overcome these limitations by displaying information registered in the real environment, but there are no studies in the literature for validating the effectiveness of this technology in the field of sailing. Thus, we designed a head-mounted display AR-based interface to assist users in monitoring wind data to avoid user diversion from the primary task of sailing. We conducted a user study involving 45 participants in an Immersive Virtual Reality simulated environment. We collected objective and subjective measures to compare the AR-based interface with a traditional data visualization system. The AR-based interface outperformed the traditional data visualization system regarding reaction time, cognitive load, system usability, and user experience.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Cognitive load | Human–computer interaction | Nautical | Sailing | User study

[12] Laera F., Fiorentino M., Evangelista A., Boccaccio A., Manghisi V.M., Gabbard J., Gattullo M., Uva A.E., Foglia M.M., Augmented reality for maritime navigation data visualisation: A systematic review, issues and perspectives, Journal of Navigation, 74(5), 1073-1090, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This study investigates the use of augmented reality technology (AR) in the field of maritime navigation and how researchers and designers have addressed AR data visualisation. The paper presents a systematic review analysing the publication type, the AR device, which information elements are visualised and how, the validation method and technological readiness. Eleven AR maritime solutions identified from scientific papers are studied and discussed in relation to previous navigation tools. It is found that primitive information such as course, compass degrees, boat speed and geographic coordinates continue to be fundamental information to be represented even with AR maritime solutions.

Keywords: augmented reality | data visualisation | human-computer interaction | maritime

[13] Fiorentino M., Laera F., Evangelista A., Boccaccio A., Manghisi V.M., Gattullo M., Uva A.E., Gabbard J.L., Foglia M.M., Sailing data visualization in augmented reality: Systematic review, issues, and perspectives, Marine Technology Society Journal, 55(2), 64-80, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Today’s sailing visualization instruments struggle to cope with the increasing number of onboard sensors, automation, artificial intelligence, and the high dy-namism of the crew. Current solutions scatter multiple displays all over the boat, both inside and outside, potentially reducing usability and increasing costs. This work presents a systematic review of augmented reality (AR) as an integral solution for sailing data visualization, which revealed four scientific papers and eight commercial products. We analyzed the publication type, the AR hardware, what and how information is presented using AR, the validation method (if present), and the technological readiness. We defined the technical requirements needed for the AR device for sailing and distinguished a first generation of commercial solutions based on head-up displays from a second one based on proper augmentation with stereo head-mounted displays. The displayed information elements are limited in number and are commonly 2-D graphics (e.g., text and symbols) with a screen-relative frame of reference (as opposed to body-or world-relative). The most visu-alized elements are heading (10) followed by wind direction (8), boat speed (7) compass (7), and wind speed (7). We also found that most of the solutions lack critical evaluation. We conclude that AR has the potential to integrate sailing data from different systems and to improve accessibility, situation awareness, and safety for a large group of users. However, the main limitations are the lack of AR head-mounted displays suitable or adaptable for sailing conditions, an extensive exploration of 3-D interface elements, and an adequate number of usability studies in the scientific literature.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Data visualization | Human-computer interaction | Nautical instruments | Sailing

[14] Laer F., Manghisi V.M., Evangelista A., Foglia M.M., Fiorentino M., Augmented Reality Interface for Sailing Navigation: A User Study for Wind Representation, Proceedings - 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality Adjunct, ISMAR-Adjunct 2021, 260-265, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper presents a novel Augmented Reality (AR) interface for Head Mounted Display HMD, specifically for sailing navigation. Compared to literature and the commercial solutions available, the novelty is to use boat-referenced 3D graphics. It allows representing wind direction and intensity, heading with monochrome green elements. Furthermore, we carried out a user validation study. We implemented a virtual simulator including a sailboat, the marine environment (i.e., sea, sky, marine traffic, and sounds), and the presented interface as AR overlay. We evaluated the effectiveness of the wind representation of the AR interface through an online questionnaire based on a video simulation and asking the user to imagine it as the result of an AR visualization. We defined one test scenario with wind variations and a distracting element (i.e., a crossing vessel). 75 sailors (59% experts, with more than 50 sailing days per year) participated in the questionnaire, and most of them (63%) considered the video effective at simulating the AR interface. In addition, 75% are ready to wear an AR device during sailing. Also, the usability (SUS questionnaire) and the user experience (UEQ) results provided positive results.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Human-computer interaction | Nautical | Sailing | user test

[15] Gattullo M., Dammacco L., Ruospo F., Evangelista A., Fiorentino M., Schmitt J., Uva A.E., Design preferences on Industrial Augmented Reality: A survey with potential technical writers, Adjunct Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR-Adjunct 2020, 172-177, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The research presented in this contribution aims to investigate user preferences about how to convey information in Industrial Augmented Reality (IAR) interfaces to the user. Our interest is focused on the opinion of potential technical writers of IAR documentation for assembly or maintenance operations. Authoring of IAR interfaces imply a choice among various visual assets, that is influenced by the information type and the AR display used. There are no specific standards in the literature to follow and it is challenging to extract guidelines from the literature. This study gathers preferences of 105 selected users that have knowledge about IAR issues, graphical user interfaces (GUI) designing, and assembly/maintenance procedures. The results of this survey show a great preference for 3D CAD models of components (product model) for almost all the information types. However, some alternative visual assets have also been proposed, such as video and auxiliary models. Contrary to common practices in industry, text was the least preferred visual asset. The insights from this research can help other IAR technical writers in the authoring of their interfaces.

Keywords: Graphic Interface | Industrial Augmented Reality | Manual Assembly | Visual Asset

[16] Laera F., Foglia M.M., Evangelista A., Boccaccio A., Gattullo M., Manghisi V.M., Gabbard J.L., Uva A.E., Fiorentino M., Towards Sailing supported by Augmented Reality: Motivation, Methodology and Perspectives, Adjunct Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR-Adjunct 2020, 269-274, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Sailing is a multidisciplinary activity that requires years to master. Recently this sustainable sport is becoming even harder due to the increasing number of onboard sensors, automation, artificial intelligence, and the high performances obtainable with modern vessels and sail designs. Augmented Reality technology (AR) has the potential to assist sailors of all ages and experience level and improve confidence, accessibility, situation awareness, and safety. This work presents our ongoing research and methodology for developing AR assisted sailing. We started with the problem definition followed by a state of the art using a systematic review. Secondly, we elicited the main task and variables using an online questionnaire with experts. Third, we extracted the main variables and conceptualized some visual interfaces using 3 different approaches. As final phase, we designed and implemented a user test platform using a VR headset to simulate AR in different marine scenarios. For a real deployment, we witness the lack of available AR devices, so we are developing one specific headset dedicated to this task. We also envision the possible redesign of the entire boat as a consequence of the introduction of AR technology.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Human Computer Interaction | Nautical | Sailing | Yacht

[17] Evangelista A., Ardito L., Boccaccio A., Fiorentino M., Messeni Petruzzelli A., Uva A.E., Unveiling the technological trends of augmented reality: A patent analysis, Computers in Industry, 118, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper investigates the Augmented Reality (AR) technology with a novel approach based on patent research. We searched the USPTO for AR-related granted patents in the period 1993–2018, we selected and manually browse a total of 2,373, we classified them in five key technological classes i.e., display device, tracking, user interaction, application, and system, and we finally analyzed the results. The main contribution of this paper is the investigation of the technological trends, with outcomes that can be useful for researchers and developers for technical steering, but also for policymakers, managers and entrepreneurs for technology scouting and forecasting. Our study found that AR technological development has especially increased in the last decade. In particular, we evidenced a remarkable steady of 82 % annual growth rate of the number of granted patents after 2012. From geographical distribution, we found that North America is the leader (68 %); Asia (18 %) and Europe (13 %) are lagging behind despite dedicated Industry 4.0 policies actuated by the governments. Another nontrivial result is the incoherency between the owners of a high quantity of patents and those highly impacting. In fact, only Microsoft Corporation and Amazon Technologies are at the same time in the top 10 of the most patent-intensive organizations and the top 10 of highly impacting organizations. Moreover, the majority of the patents are owned by companies, albeit some of the highly impacting ones come from universities or research centers. These findings provide theoretical, managerial, and policy implications for future research activities in the AR domain.

Keywords: Application | AR systems | Augmented reality | Display device | Geographical distribution | Holograms | Human-machine interaction | Immersive technologies | Industry 4.0 | Interactive technologies | Patent analysis | Presence | Review | Technological innovation | Technological trend | Technology forecasting | Technology scouting | Tracking | User interaction | Visual overlay

[18] Gattullo M., Evangelista A., Manghisi V.M., Uva A.E., Fiorentino M., Boccaccio A., Ruta M., Gabbard J.L., Towards next generation technical documentation in augmented reality using a context-aware information manager, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 10(3), (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Technical documentation is evolving from static contents presented on paper or via digital publishing to real-time on-demand contents displayed via virtual and augmented reality (AR) devices. However, how best to provide personalized and context-relevant presentation of technical information is still an open field of research. In particular, the systems described in the literature can manage a limited number of modalities to convey technical information, and do not consider the 'people' factor. Then, in this work, we present a Context-Aware Technical Information Management (CATIM) system, that dynamically manages (1) what information as well as (2) how information is presented in an augmented reality interface. The system was successfully implemented, and we made a first evaluation in the real industrial scenario of the maintenance of a hydraulic valve. We also measured the time performance of the system, and results revealed that CATIM performs fast enough to support interactive AR.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Context-aware | Human-centered design | Human-computer interaction | Industrial | Information manager | Maintenance | Technical documentation

[19] Manghisi V.M., Uva A.E., Fiorentino M., Gattullo M., Boccaccio A., Evangelista A., Automatic ergonomic postural risk monitoring on the factory shopfloor -The Ergosentinel tool, Procedia Manufacturing, 42, 97-103, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The enabling technologies of the Industry 4.0 program can support the smart factory of the future to face the challenges related to their sustainable growth. In particular, given the progressive ageing of the population, it is mandatory to develop systems able to preserve operators' wellbeing and to prevent the incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. By exploiting a recently introduced low-cost sensor we developed and validated a reliable prototype for automatic assessment of ergonomic postural risk in the factory shopfloor. Encouraged by the results of the validation process, we enhanced the prototype functionalities. The tool will serve both as a monitoring system for the evaluation of postural risk and a training system for increasing operators' awareness. In this paper, we describe the design of the prototype and the enhanced functionalities of the final version, - the ErgoSentinel.

Keywords: Ergonomics | I4.0 | Kinect® V2 | Postural risk assessment | RULA | Sustainable work

[20] Gattullo M., Scurati G.W., Evangelista A., Ferrise F., Fiorentino M., Uva A.E., Informing the Use of Visual Assets in Industrial Augmented Reality, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 106-117, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Augmented Reality is considered one of the most promising technologies for Industry 4.0. Augmented Reality allows to display the needed information at the right time and to locate it in the desired space, superimposing it to the real world. In this way, it could simplify the work of industrial operators in a variety of tasks, from planning and commissioning to assembly and maintenance. Despite the growing research interest and efforts for the development of Augmented Reality applications and technologies for the industrial domain, Augmented Reality is still rarely used in real industrial procedures, often remaining at a conceptual level. In fact, developers fail to completely answer the actual needs of industries and workers because of a lack of knowledge of the context and the absence of guidelines to drive the design and development of Augmented Reality applications. One of the open issues is the choice of the proper visualization methods to display technical information in Augmented Reality, which is not trivial. Both the paper-based documentation, based on text and illustrations, and digital documentation, including CAD models and image or video-based tutorials, present different criticalities when adapted to the Augmented Reality technology. Other visual material has been developed specifically to be used in Augmented Reality, but it is difficult to use because of a lack of standards which are instead present for the former paper-based and digital documentation. In this work, we categorize and compare different Augmented Reality visual assets, illustrating their advantages and disadvantages and providing directions for future research.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Graphical User Interface | Industry 4.0 | Technical documentation

[21] Gattullo M., Dalena V., Evangelista A., Uva A.E., Fiorentino M., Boccaccio A., Ruta M., Gabbard J.L., A context-aware technical information manager for presentation in augmented reality, 26th IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces, VR 2019 - Proceedings, 939-940, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Technical information presentation is evolving from static contents presented on paper or via digital publishing to real-time context-aware contents displayed via virtual and augmented reality devices. We present a Context-Aware Technical Information Management system (CATIM), that dynamically manages (1) what information as well as (2) how information is presented in an augmented reality interface. CATIM acquires context data about activity, operator, and environment, and then based on these data, proposes a dynamic augmented reality output tailored to the current context. The system was successfully implemented and preliminarily evaluated in a case study regarding the maintenance of a hydraulic valve.

Keywords: Aware information | Context | Industrial augmented reality | Technical information manager

[22] Gattullo M., Evangelista A., Uva A.E., Fiorentino M., Boccaccio A., Manghisi V.M., Exploiting Augmented Reality to Enhance Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams for Information Retrieval Tasks in Industry 4.0 Maintenance, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 11883 LNCS, 170-180, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: In this work, we present an Augmented Reality (AR) application for handheld devices that support operators in information retrieval tasks in maintenance procedures in the context of Industry 4.0. Indeed, using AR allows the integration of knowledge-based information, traditionally used by operators and mainly provided in the form of technical drawings, and data available from sensors on the equipment. This approach is suggested by companies, especially Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, that want a gradual introduction of Industry 4.0 technologies within their established practices. We implemented a prototype of the application for the case study of a milling plant. The application augments on a Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) of the plant some virtual interactive graphics (hotspots) referenced to specific components drawn. Component data are retrieved, through a user interface, directly from the factory database and displayed on the screen. We evaluated the application through a user study aimed at comparing the AR application with the current practice, based on paper documentation, for an information retrieval task within a maintenance procedure. Results of the study revealed that AR is effective for this task in terms of task time reduction and usability. The AR application was tested both with a tablet and a smartphone, but results revealed that using tablet does not improve user performance in terms of task time, error rate, and usability.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Industry 4.0 | Information retrieval | Maintenance | User evaluation