[Elenco soci]

Baronio Gabriele

Professore Associato

Università degli Studi di Brescia

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 15749784200
Orcid: 0000-0002-8521-4555

Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Paderno D., Bodini I., Baronio G., Uberti S., Montesano L., Tonoli S., Pola A., Villa V., Design and Validation of a Block-on-Ring Test Bench, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 729-738, (2022). Abstract

According to the activities carried out within the Proof of Concept laboratory, a machine for block-on-ring wear tests was designed and realized. Consistent with the approach of the laboratory, the machine was developed with particular attention to the requirements of reliability, simplicity, as well as easy and fast production starting from existing devices integrated with ad-hoc made parts by the department equipment. The experimental campaign was performed according to ASTM G99 and ASTM G77. The results obtained on commercial pin-on-disc device and on the realized block-on-ring machine, showed a good agreement, validating the proposed solution. This appears particularly effective also based on an economic and technical comparison with commercial equipment complying with the same standard.

Keywords: Design and test | Design methods | Machine design

[2] Bodini I., Bannò M., Paderno D., Baronio G., Uberti S., Villa V., Students Creativity Assessment Through Gray’s “Forward Flow” Tool: A Preliminary Study, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 879-888, (2022). Abstract

The promotion of creativity in education is intended to address many of the political challenges and goals for the development of a country, but among all of them the role of creativity in technology and economics is seen as crucial in helping nations to achieve higher employment, better economic performance and to cope with global competition. This study, currently in its preliminary phase, aims to compare the creativity levels of first-year students at a medium-sized Italian university. The degree courses in Engineering Management, Mechanical Engineering, Law and Motor Sciences were analyzed. In this analysis, students’ creativity is measured with the “Forward Flow” test by Gray et al. This test implements a new metric that uses latent semantic analysis to measure the evolution of thoughts over time. Operationally, students are asked to produce a sequence of semantically related words from a given initial word. Latent semantic analysis calculates the semantic distance between words by examining the frequency with which they appear together in a very large collection of documents. Studies conducted on the test, found in the literature, reveal that Forward Flow can predict the creativity of college students. According to these studies, even that membership in real-world creative groups (e.g. professional actors or entrepreneurs) is statistically predicted by scores on the Forward Flow test, even when controlling for divergent thinking.

Keywords: Creativity | Engineering education

[3] Motyl B., Filippi S., Baronio G., Villa V., Reasoning About Technical Drawing Online Teaching During COVID-19, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 889-897, (2022). Abstract

This work is part of the historic collaboration between the design and methods research groups of the universities of Udine and Brescia. In particular, it presents the results of a survey on the perceptions of engineering students on the online teaching methods activated for the technical drawing courses during the COVID-19 pandemic. 111 students at the University of Udine participated in the survey and the results of the analysis of the responses showed that, in general, online teaching methods are not comparable to face-to-face ones; however, they have been appreciated as they allowed regular teaching during this critical period. Furthermore, opinions and scores from the new teaching methods were more than positive regarding both the availability of the recordings of the lessons and the introduction of generalized corrections of exercises. The authors planned to extend the survey also to the University of Brescia to collect further pieces of information in order to constantly improve this teaching paradigm.

Keywords: COVID-19 | Engineering education | Online teaching | Students survey | Technical drawing

[4] Bodini I., Baronio G., Paderno D., Villa V., Martinelli P., Frizza R., Balsamo A., Uberti S., Proposal for a Method for Advanced Search of Information and Standards in the Field of Geometrical Product Specification, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 269-276, (2022). Abstract

The Geometrical Product Specification (GPS) is one of the most powerful tools available to link the “perfect” geometrical world of the models to the imperfect world of manufactured parts and assemblies. GPS aims to be an unambiguous common language between designers, process engineers, and Coordinate Measuring Machines operators (CMM) in the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) environment. GPS standards are 150 and further 26 are under development. The need to have a tool to search through the standards, to optimize the work of the designer and to minimize the design, production and control costs is great. A database and the structure for a search engine, called GPS Navigator, has been studied and developed, and the requirements for the following coding phase have also been defined, in order to realize a powerful, efficient, fast, robust and rigorous tool to navigate through the GPS standards. Final aim of this tool is to help and guide the designer to quickly consult the correct standard or the most appropriate set of standards.

Keywords: Advanced search criteria | Database | Design methods | Geometrical product specifications (GPS)

[5] Baronio G., Bodini I., Motyl B., Uberti S., Prototyping, testing, and redesign of a three-wheel trekking wheelchair for accessible tourism applications, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(20), (2021). Abstract

This work is part of the project called “Gölem project”, started in 2017, about special devices developed to enable the so-called Accessible Tourism. This project aims to design and develop a trekking wheelchair for people with impaired mobility. After an initial phase of design and prototyping, the testing phase has now begun. The objective is to validate several aspects of the design, concerning basic kinematics and dynamics, passenger comfort and physical effort of the carriers. This paper describes the development of qualitative tests for drivability and balance validation of this first prototype. At this stage, a list of features to be investigated was made, suitable trekking paths were chosen, and qualitative experimental field tests were performed. Then, the design of the prototype was modified according to these first experimental results, to improve the wheelchair characteristics. The prototype is now undergoing the modification phase, then further testing will be performed with the use of specific instrumental devices to evaluate the wheelchair itself and to perform the kinematic, dynamical, and comfort characterization.

Keywords: Accessible tourism | Assistive technologies | Design methods | Disabled people | Experimental testing | Hiking wheelchair | Trekking wheelchair | User-centered design

[6] Motyl B., Filippi S., Baronio G., Speranza D., Investigating Students’ Perception on the Outcomes of Technical Drawing University Courses, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 379-385, (2021). Abstract

This paper presents the results of a survey carried out with students enrolled in the first two years of the BS in Engineering at three Italian university locations. The study is part of a wider range of methods, tools and aids for the improvement of teaching and learning of technical drawing at university level developed by the University of Brescia, Udine, and Cassino and Southern Lazio. In particular, this work analyses the results of questionnaires related to the basic technical drawing outcomes, taking inspiration from previous research work in this field. What emerges is a positive picture that shows students’ interest in 3D CAD modeling topics such as part or assembly construction, but also their interest in more traditional subjects like sketching and dimensioning.

Keywords: CAD | Engineering education | Students’ surveys | Technical drawing

[7] Baronio G., Bodini I., Paderno D., Uberti S., Villa V., Objective Evaluation of Geometrical Product Specification/Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing Basic Skills, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 305-312, (2020). Abstract

The aim of this work is to study methods and criteria to objectively evaluate Geometrical Product Specification (GPS) and Geometrical Dimensioning and tolerances (GD&T) basic skills of engineering students. To do so, it is important to define who is the examiner, what is the topic of the exam, how to examine, when and why. In particular, for what concerns the topics, knowledge, competences, skills, concepts and abilities should be assessed. Basic knowledge is the easier topic to evaluate in an objective and reliable way, for example using closed-ended questions, but skills like creativity are difficult to measure. Following the principles of Bloom’s taxonomy, a technical drawing evaluation grid has been developed and used by the authors. The grid has eight learning levels, and target knowledge, competences, and skills have been defined for each learning level, then specific tests to verify the target for each level have been studied and developed. In this paper some examples of application of the grid are described and some preliminary results and considerations are reported. In particular, using an objective closed-ended question test, which rigorously assesses the basic levels of the grid, “residual” students decrease in number, and the students increase in number, the test is cost-effective.

Keywords: Bloom’s taxonomy | Engineering education | Engineering students evaluation | GPS/GD&T | Technical drawing

[8] Moty B., Baronio G., Speranza D., Filippi S., TDT-L0 a Test-Based Method for Assessing Students’ Prior Knowledge in Engineering Graphic Courses, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 454-463, (2020). Abstract

Since students attending basic engineering courses are numerous and show different background regarding high school, experience, skills and attitudes, it has become important for educators to assess the level of their prior knowledge. In Italy, in order to access university engineering courses (BS degree level), students usually must take an entrance test; it assesses their knowledge about basic subjects such as mathematics, physics and chemistry, as well as their logical and linguistic skills. However, this test does not refer to technical subjects, e.g., the technical drawing. The two university research units of Udine and Brescia collaborate in developing the Technical Drawing Test-Level 0 (TDT-L0), a test-based method to assess students’ prior knowledge about basic engineering graphics topics like axonometric and orthographic projections, sectional views, basic dimensioning standards, etc. This paper describes the definition of the test contents - the selection of the questions to ask to the students - as well as the way to analyze the collected information and exploit the results to improve the learning and teaching experience of both students and educators. An adoption of the TDT-L0 at the University of Udine is reported as first validation.

Keywords: Engineering education | Prior knowledge assessment | Technical drawing | Test

[9] Baronio G., Bodini I., Copeta A., Dassa L., Grassi B., Metraglia R., Motyl B., Paderno D., Uberti S., Villa V., Integrated approach to the innovation of technical drawing teaching methods, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 705-713, (2019). Abstract

Motivations for the research activity on teaching methods could be listed as: Institutional duty; reduction of evaluation costs; establishing convenient relationships between teaching, research and publications; developing educational programs for non-academic learners; consolidating learning outcomes. Teaching is the most commonly recognized mission of university, and evaluation has a cost in terms of time and resources, both precious: At least a portion of the exam, the one concerning factual knowledge, may be done in economies of scale. The most of basic technical drawing teachers works with very large classes and faces the dilemma of choosing what to sacrifice among teaching quality, research projects, earning opportunities, personal interests, etc. A possible partial solution to such a dilemma is to work on projects aimed at teaching innovation, so to create convenient relationships between teaching, research and publications. A further consequence of lowering the cost of evaluation would be to make cost effective a more tests and, consequently, to achieve less temporary learning. Not just simple notions but also skills and abilities. In this paper the authors presents a structured synthesis of teaching innovation experiences of a ten-year span. Over time, they were divided into four integrated directions: definition of prerequisites, expected outcome evaluation grids; authentic assessment methods; teaching and learning tools.

Keywords: Design methods | Engineering education | Learning techniques | Technical drawing

[10] Villa V., Motyl B., Paderno D., Baronio G., TDEG based framework and tools for innovation in teaching technical drawing: The example of LaMoo project, Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 26(5), 1293-1305, (2018). Abstract

This work presents the development of an integrated framework and related tools for innovation and improvement in the teaching of Technical Drawing. This framework is based on the “Technical Drawing Evaluation Grid—TDEG.” This grid is currently used, by the authors, for the definition and the development of different kinds of tools for supporting both teaching and learning and for the evaluation of Technical Drawing and engineering graphics topics knowledge in general. In particular, this paper focuses on the problems related to knowledge evaluation and assessment of Technical Drawing using online tests. Then, the LaMoo project which is a tool under development for the structured construction of questions for online tests in Moodle environment is presented.

Keywords: assessment methods | engineering education | Moodle test | teaching methods | technical drawing

[11] Piana E.A., Uberti S., Copeta A., Motyl B., Baronio G., An integrated acoustic–mechanical development method for off-road motorcycle silencers: from design to sound quality test, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(3), 1139-1153, (2018). Abstract

Vehicle noise is one of the main sources of complaints because it is widespread and active in almost all environments, from urban areas to rural context. The present work aims to describe a practical procedure to design silencers for off-road motorcycles so that, once produced, they are lightweight, do not affect the engine performances and cut noise emissions to a sustainable limit. The required noise reduction, usually around 35–40 dB, can be achieved only by carefully designing the exhaust system. The first part of the paper provides the theoretical background of noise propagation in ducts, describes the main attenuation devices as tools the designer can use in the development process and outlines the workflow. In the second part, a case study of silencer optimization is presented: the noise emitted by a real off-road motorcycle is characterized and, once the sound pressure level and the mass flow generated by the engine are known, a silencer fulfilling noise attenuation, size and pressure drop requirements is designed, 3D-modeled and rendered. The outcome of the acoustic design process can be used to perform virtual sound quality tests, which can be of interest for manufacturers to catch the attention of passionate users.

Keywords: Acoustic design | Design methods | Mechanical design | Off-road motorcycle silencer | Virtual modeling | Virtual sound testing

[12] Volonghi P., Baronio G., Signoroni A., 3D scanning and geometry processing techniques for customised hand orthotics: an experimental assessment, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 13(2), 105-116, (2018). Abstract

In the field of rehabilitation, the 3D scanning of body parts can be considered a crucial starting point for subsequent 3D model design of customised devices, especially when additive manufacturing techniques are involved in their production. This study experimentally evaluates and identifies appropriate procedures to acquire and process 3D anatomic images of the hand, including fingers, for the design of customised orthoses. Hand scanning is a complex activity and requires solutions capable of solving problematic aspects, such as the difficulty in maintaining the hand in a steady position and the presence of motion artefacts due to involuntary movements. We addressed such issues by considering the use of two different kinds of optical scanning device. The acquisition process has been initially defined based on healthy subjects and then extended to patients affected by pathologies that compromise upper limb functionality. Quality anatomical models were produced thanks to the application of advanced geometry processing technologies for the automated alignment of multiple scans and the removal of artefacts due to involuntary movements. As a result, with distinctive pros and cons, both the proposed combinations of scanning procedures and dedicated geometry processing evidenced their suitability in producing complete and accurate enough 3D models to be exploited for the subsequent design and production of customised hand orthoses in a typical reverse engineering pipeline.

Keywords: 3D hand scanning | 3D optical scanners | geometry processing | hand orthotics | medical device customisation | reverse engineering

[13] Uberti S., Copeta A., Baronio G., Motyl B., An eco-innovation and technical contaminated approach for designing a low environmental impact off-road motorcycle, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(1), 281-295, (2018). Abstract

What does it make some sports such as off-road motorcycle to be perceived as non-environmentally-friendly? Are the activities themselves or the actual and/or traditional way of their fulfillment? How is it possible to make them more environmentally sustainable without giving up the fun? This paper aims to give an answer to these questions, analyzing the case of off-road motorcycling. It is clear that some of negative consequences of such sport are due to the bad behavior and scarce ecological awareness of its practitioners, while it is often neglected that other aspects are related to the present characteristics of its means: the motorcycles. The present work, starting with the analyses of the environmental damages related to this sport, tries to give an answer focusing on the technical aspects of actual motorcycles that can be related to such damages. In particular, the authors propose the application of an integrated eco-innovation and technical contaminated approach for the design and development of a new concept of off-road motorcycle to meet the requirements of low environmental impact and light weight of the vehicle, while maintaining the pleasure of riding in the nature.

Keywords: Eco-innovation | Environmental impact | LCA | Off-road motorcycle | Rear suspensions | Terramechanics

[14] Baronio G., Copeta A., Motyl B., Uberti S., Gölem project: Concept and design of a trekking/hiking wheelchair, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9(11), (2017). Abstract

This work concerns the growing interest in accessible tourism and describes the early stages of development of Gölem project. In particular, it takes into account accompanying activities of disabled people in mountain areas. Although literature and market analysis highlight the presence of different technical solutions used for the movement of disabled persons on rough terrains, there are only a couple of solutions based on the help of guides: Joëlette© and TrailRider©. Even if the use of these devices is generally satisfactory, our analysis has highlighted the presence of some limitations such as the difficulty of maintaining the lateral balance of the devices (which involves a considerable physical effort for the guides) and their reduced comfort for the passenger. This article describes the activities developed within the Gölem project. Its main goals are to design and to test an improved model of trekking/hiking wheelchair taking into account passengers comfort and better functionality of the device. At this moment, the design and modeling phases with the definition of dynamic parameters and of the suspension system of the device have been completed. The prototype implementation phase is in progress. Future activities will provide validation and field testing of the new solution with users.

Keywords: Accessible tourism | Comfort design | Disabled people | Mountain | Suspension system design | Trekking/hiking wheelchair

[15] Baronio G., Volonghi P., Signoroni A., Concept and design of a 3D printed support to assist hand scanning for the realization of customized orthosis, Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, 2017, (2017). Abstract

In the rehabilitation field, the use of additive manufacturing techniques to realize customized orthoses is increasingly widespread. Obtaining a 3D model for the 3D printing phase can be done following different methodologies. We consider the creation of personalized upper limb orthoses, also including fingers, starting from the acquisition of the hand geometry through accurate 3D scanning. However, hand scanning procedure presents differences between healthy subjects and patients affected by pathologies that compromise upper limb functionality. In this work, we present the concept and design of a 3D printed support to assist hand scanning of such patients. The device, realized with FDM additive manufacturing techniques in ABS material, allows palmar acquisitions, and its design and test are motivated by the following needs: (1) immobilizing the hand of patients during the palmar scanning to reduce involuntary movements affecting the scanning quality and (2) keeping hands open and in a correct position, especially to contrast the high degree of hypertonicity of spastic subjects. The resulting device can be used indifferently for the right and the left hand; it is provided in four-dimensional sizes and may be also suitable as a palmar support for the acquisition of the dorsal side of the hand.

[16] Motyl B., Baronio G., Uberti S., Speranza D., Filippi S., How will Change the Future Engineers’ Skills in the Industry 4.0 Framework? A Questionnaire Survey, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1501-1509, (2017). Abstract

Industry 4.0 represents one of the most challenging themes for engineering design and also for engineering education. At this moment there are few studies in the field of engineering teaching that aim to investigate how the educational needs of students and of the industrial workforce are changing. On this basis, this research would like to investigate which are the necessary skills and expertise young engineers require to be ready for the Industry 4.0 framework. In particular, a questionnaire was developed to analyze this situation. It has been administered to students enrolled in the first and second year of the engineering undergraduate degrees held in three Italian universities: Brescia, Udine and Cassino. During two different academics years, a total of 463 students participated to the survey. The questions were aimed to investigate some key issues of Industry 4.0, and the students’ digital belief and behaviors at their entrance in the university education system. The collected answers provided a picture of the actual situation in these three universities with some relevant considerations about engineering education. So, the fundamental question that authors want to answer is “Are the Italian engineering students effectively ready for Industry 4.0 or do we still work on it?”

Keywords: digital skills | Engineering Education | Industry 4.0 | questionnaire | student skills

[17] Speranza D., Baronio G., Motyl B., Filippi S., Villa V., Best practices in teaching technical drawing: Experiences of collaboration in three Italian universities, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 905-914, (2017). Abstract

This work present some best practice cases in teaching technical drawing done by three Italian Universit ies: Brescia, Udine, and Cassino and Southern Lazio. The intention to innovate and improve the basic technical drawing courses offered by these three Universities started in 2014. The objective of this collaboration was the development of some tools to help the students in understanding the fundamental concepts of technical drawing. The first tool developed, in order of time, was the Technical Drawing Evaluation Grid – TDEG. Starting fro m this tool, other learning aids were developed for the undergraduate engineering st u-dents. Some of them are: an online test for students’ self-assessment of technical drawing knowledge; a questionnaire to collect students’ opinions on different technical drawing and engineering design topics; a method for the improvement of students’ motivation to study; and a self-learning tool for teaching manufacturing dimensioning. The preliminary results of these different practices are presented and discussed in the following, posing the basis of the definition of some best practice methods that can be used for the improvement of the teaching and learning of technical drawing basic concepts for engineering students.

Keywords: Best practices | Collaboration | Teaching & learning tools | Technical drawing

[18] Baronio G., Motyl B., Paderno D., Technical Drawing Learning Tool-Level 2: An interactive self-learning tool for teaching manufacturing dimensioning, Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 24(4), 519-528, (2016). Abstract

This work presents an interactive self-learning tool named Technical Drawing Learning Tool-Level 2—TDLT-L2—for teaching manufacturing dimensioning to engineering students. The tool was designed for the students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor in Management and Mechanical Engineering of the Universities of Brescia and Udine. It consists of a simple interactive tool, based on video and drawing animations, aimed at demonstrating the connection between real and simple machining processes and workpiece dimensions on technical drawing. TDLT-L2 is currently available in two versions: as a standalone application for Windows or Android based operating systems and as a set of interactive PDF documents. It was conceived as the first module of a package of tools that will be developed, based on the learning levels proposed in the Technical Drawing Evaluation Grid—TDEG. A preliminary evaluation of TDLT-L2 effectiveness was done involving the Management and Mechanical engineering students of Udine in some dimensioning exercises. The statistically considerations done on the obtained results confirmed the validity of the tool as a self-learning instrument with an average increase of marks of about 8.8%. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 24:519–528, 2016; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/cae; DOI 10.1002/cae.21728.

Keywords: engineering education | manufacturing dimensioning | multimedia application | self-learning tool | technical drawing

[19] Baronio G., Harran S., Signoroni A., A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process, Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, 2016, (2016). Abstract

The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

[20] Metraglia R., Villa V., Baronio G., Adamini R., High school graphics experience influencing the self-efficacy of first-year engineering students in an introductory engineering graphics course, Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 79(3), 16-30, (2015). Abstract

Today's students enter engineering colleges with different technical backgrounds and prior graphics experience. This may due to their high school of provenience, which can be technical or non-technical. The prior experience affects students' ability in learning and hence their motivation and self-efficacy beliefs. This study intended to evaluate the role of prior high school graphics experience in first-year engineering students' self-efficacy beliefs in an introductory engineering graphics course. It also intended to evaluate the relationship between such freshmen's self-efficacy beliefs and their performance. Two assessment instruments were used in this study. The first is the eight-item Course Interest Survey (CIS) Confidence subscale, which was used to assess self-efficacy beliefs. The second is a multiple choice questionnaire designed on the course topics, which was used to assess performance. Ninety-nine students of the University of Brescia (Italy) participated in the experiment. Significant differences in selfefficacy were found between engineering freshmen from the technical high school versus engineering freshmen from the non-technical high school. A significant relationship between self-efficacy and performance was found only for engineering freshmen from the technical high school.

[21] Metraglia R., Baronio G., Villa V., Issues in learning engineering graphics fundamentals: Shall we blame cad?, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 10(DS 80-10), 31-40, (2015). Abstract

Several studies report that many novice engineers result to be skilled in CAD but poor in knowledge of the basics, visualization and spatial skills and ability in freehand sketching. There is a debate on if such lack of fundamentals dues or not to the increasing role of CAD and the decreasing role of manual drawing in the basic courses of engineering graphics. This study aimed to investigate the issues related to the use of CAD and manual drawing in teaching engineering graphics fundamentals by a review of the literature of the Engineering Design Graphics Journal and the International Journal of Technology and Design Education from 2000 to date. It was found that current students: have a lower initial level of knowledge and experience; have little chance to develop sketching and visualization skills if trained only by CAD; and their assessment usually focuses more on CAD skills than on the knowledge of the basics. Solutions proposed to such issues are: introductory courses of manual drawing at college and high schools; assessment of students' initial skills; and tests more focused on the knowledge of the rules and basics of engineering graphics language.

Keywords: Computer aided design (CAD) | Design education | Design learning | Engineering drawing | Pedagogy

[22] Luciano V., Sardini E., Serpelloni M., Baronio G., An energy harvesting converter to power sensorized total human knee prosthesis, Measurement Science and Technology, 25(2), (2014). Abstract

Monitoring the internal loads acting in a total knee prosthesis (TKP) is fundamental aspect to improve their design. One of the main benefits of this improvement is the longer duration of the tibial inserts. In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvesting system, which is implantable in a TKP, is presented. This is conceived for powering a future implantable system that is able to monitor the loads (and, possibly, other parameters) that could influence the working conditions of a TKP in real-time. The energy harvesting system (EHS) is composed of two series of NdFeB magnets, positioned into each condyle, and a coil that is placed in a pin of the tibial insert and connected to an implantable power management circuit. The magnetic flux variation and the induced voltage are generated by the knee's motion. A TKP prototype has been realized in order to reproduce the knee mechanics and to test the EHS performance. In the present work, the experimental results are obtained by adopting a resistive load of 2.2 kω, in order to simulate a real implanted autonomous system with a current consumption of 850 μA and voltage of 2 V. The tests showed that, after 7 to 30 s of walking with a gait cycle frequency of about 1.0 Hz, the EHS can generate an energy of about 70 μJ, guaranteeing a voltage between 2 and 1.4 V every 7.6 s. With this prototype we can verify that it is possible to power for 16 ms a circuit having a power consumption of 1.7 mW every 7.6 s. The proposed generator is a viable solution to power an implanted electronic system that is conceived for measuring and transmitting the TKP load parameters. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Keywords: autonomous device | electromagnetic generator | energy harvesting | implantable sensor | knee prosthesis

[23] Baronio G., Luciano V., Sardini E., Serpelloni M., Design considerations of an electromechanical generator implanted in human total knee prosthesis, International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems, 6(3), 270-284, (2013). Abstract

The energy generation inside the human body represents a crucial aspect for powering implantable measuring circuits. In this work, a system for the electromagnetic energy harvesting, implantable in a total knee prosthesis (TKP) and capable of generating electricity from the knee movement, is presented. The energy harvesting system (EHS) is composed of two series of NdFeB magnets, located on each condyle, and a coil placed in a pivot of the tibial tray. The operating principles, design considerations and performed simulations are shown. Simulation results demonstrate that it is possible to generate an alternating voltage of maximum 600 mV. The proposed generator eliminates the batteries inside the human body and the use of techniques for the inductive power supply. The structural changes with respect to commercial prosthesis are minimal. Furthermore, the proposed energy harvester allows to generate electricity without changing or hindering the patient natural movement. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Keywords: Electromechanical generator | Human energy harvesting | TKP | Total knee prosthesis

[24] Luciano V., Sardini E., Serpelloni M., Baronio G., Analysis of an electromechanical generator implanted in a human total knee prosthesis, 2012 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, SAS 2012 - Proceedings, 166-170, (2012). Abstract

This paper describes a miniaturized electromechanical generator, integrable in a human total knee prosthesis, in which the mechanical energy, related to the knee joint movement, is converted into electrical energy. This device has been conceived in order to power an autonomous sensor system, integrated into the prosthesis, able to monitor the loads on the articular surfaces and to transmit those outside the body. © 2012 IEEE.

Keywords: biomechatronics | biomedical devices | electromechanical generator | human energy harvesting | knee prosthesis | system health

[25] Metraglia R., Baronio G., Villa V., Learning levels in technical drawing education: Proposal for an assessment grid based on the european qualifications framework (EQF), ICED 11 - 18th International Conference on Engineering Design - Impacting Society Through Engineering Design, 8, 161-172, (2011). Abstract

For several years the European Commission for Education and Training has been trying to build a translation device to make comparable national qualifications, aiming to promote workers and learners' mobility within EU and to facilitate their lifelong learning. A basis to achieve this goal is to use common assessment grids to certify skills and abilities. The abilities in Technical Drawing seen as a working tool and as a language of communication, despite the existence of a certification, the ECDL CAD, for the ability to use the computer to draw, are not assessed. This paper highlights the consequences of the lack of skills certification in Technical Drawing, with particular reference to the authors' experiences in corporate and academic contexts. Then, the paper introduces a proposal for an assessment grid for the evaluation of Technical Drawing learning levels, based on the European Qualifications Framework (EQF), with separate learning outcomes for knowledge, skills and competences. Finally, it's shown an example of Europass Certificate Supplement, with reference to the proposed grid to certify the learning outcomes of a Technical Drawing course taught in our Faculty. Copyright © 2002-2012 The Design Society. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Certification | European Qualifications Framework | Evaluation grid | Lifelong learning | Technical drawing

[26] Luciano V., Sardini E., Serpelloni M., Baronio G., Analysis of electrical generator for power harvesting from human movements, BIODEVICES 2011 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 194-198, (2011). Abstract

In this paper various architectures of electromagnetic harvesting devices, realized in the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Brescia, is reported, estimating their usability for biomedical applications. Furthermore, this paper shows a first attempt of a new electromagnetic generator architecture. The proposed system is modelled and simulated showing promising results.

Keywords: Biomedical devices | Eletromechanical generator | Human energy harvesting

[27] Uberti S., Baronio G., Cambiaghi D., Study & design of a special test bench for hydrostatic spindle housings, 11th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2010, 1729-1740, (2010). Abstract

This paper deals with the study, design, manufacturing & testing of a particular scientific instrument, functional to investigate hydrostatic bushing behaviour under various experimental conditions. Job was conducted in concurrence with one of the leading companies in rotary transfer machines business. Machining is performed by hydrostatic unit, in which spindle assembly is contained in a sliding tube supported by a set of hydrostatic bushings. In this paper we will detail the design of a "research & test" bench whose aim is to help in developing new hydrostatic bushing systems.

Keywords: Design | Hydrostatic | Spindle | Test bench

[28] Zanola P., Benedetti D., Bontempi E., Villa V., Baronio G., Tosti M., Roberti R., Depero L.E., Residual stress measurement of gold artefacts by Debye ring analysis, Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie, Supplement, 1(23), 61-66, (2006). Abstract

In the case of precious and rare art manufacts, usually bearing complex geometry, the conventional X-ray Diffraction technique can be very difficult or even impossible to be applied. On the contrary by means of microbeam small area can be analysed and the microstructure of differently treated surfaces can be investigated. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) detectors have been developed for laboratory X-ray diffractometers. Thus, nowadays it is possible to collect high quality diffraction data of a significant part of the diffraction cones during the exposure time and the structure and microstructure of small surface area can be assessed. Moreover, by the analysis of the diffraction cones distortion, the residual and/or applied stresses can be measured. In the present work the structure, microstructure, and residual stress present in representative gold artefacts are discussed mainly on the basis of bidimensional X-ray microdiffraction (μXRD2) and microfluorescence (μXRF). A gold ring has been analysed before and after deformation and the distribution of residual stress measured along the circumference has been compared with the stress analysis results from FEM simulation. © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.

Keywords: Gold | Jewellery | Microstructure | Residual stress | XRD 2

[29] Zanola P., Benedetti D., Bontempi E., Villa V., Baronio G., Tosti M., Roberti R., Depero L.E., Residual stress measurement of gold artefacts by Debye ring analysis, Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie, 221(SUPPL. 23), 61-66, (2006). Abstract

In the case of precious and rare art manufacts, usually bearing complex geometry, the conventional X-ray Diffraction technique can be very difficult or even impossible to be applied. On the contrary by means of microbeam small area can be analysed and the microstructure of differently treated surfaces can be investigated. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) detectors have been developed for laboratory X-ray diffractometers. Thus, nowadays it is possible to collect high quality diffraction data of a significant part of the diffraction cones during the exposure time and the structure and microstructure of small surface area can be assessed. Moreover, by the analysis of the diffraction cones distortion, the residual and/or applied stresses can be measured. In the present work the structure, microstructure, and residual stress present in representative gold artefacts are discussed mainly on the basis of bidimensional X-ray microdiffraction (μXRD2) and microfluorescence (μXRF). A gold ring has been analysed before and after deformation and the distribution of residual stress measured along the circumference has been compared with the stress analysis results from FEM simulation. © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.

Keywords: Gold | Jewellery | Microstructure | Residual stress | XRD 2