[Elenco soci]


Papetti Alessandra

Ricercatore TD(B)


Università Politecnica delle Marche
a.papetti@staff.univpm.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 55934111500
Orcid: 0000-0002-1020-6075



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Brunzini A., Ciccarelli M., Sartini M., Menchi G., Papetti A., Germani M., A Novel Approach to Use Marker-Less Mixed Reality Applications with In-Motion Systems, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1401-1412, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Extended Reality (XR) technologies can be a valid tool for supporting operators with assembly instructions in real-time, directly superimposed on the product. A strategy to face dynamic effects, such as sudden environmental changes and objects in movement, still needs to be defined to implement effective XR applications in moving production lines. The physical environment must be tracked and recognized to determine the position and the orientation of digital content in space. This paper aims to address these open issues by proposing a Mixed Reality (MR) application to support workers in the wire harness process for the tractor’s drivelines production, which requires the product to be in motion. For this aim, the Microsoft Azure Spatial Anchors with Microsoft HoloLens 2 were adopted. The designed and developed MR application allows the operator to display, step-by-step, consecutive work instructions provided through textual indications, pictures, videos, and animations. Through the Azure Spatial Anchors, the digital content can be anchored over the driveline parts. By knowing the speed of the production line and the duration of each wiring task, a time-controlled application has been developed, to assure the visualization of the instruction in correspondence of the relative driveline elements, in the right time. The application has been tested on-field with expert operators. Despite the presence of some drawbacks related both to the driveline motion and technology, the operators’ feedback pointed out satisfactory and promising results since the application allowed them to reduce errors and forgetfulness.

Keywords: Azure Spatial Anchor | In-motion tracking | Industry 4.0 | Mixed Reality | Wire harness process

[2] Ciccarelli M., Papetti A., Cappelletti F., Brunzini A., Germani M., Combining World Class Manufacturing system and Industry 4.0 technologies to design ergonomic manufacturing equipment, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 16(1), 263-279, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In the era of the fourth industrial revolution, human has still a central role. Manufacturing industries have to deal with human sustainability in order to guarantee workers’ health and well-being. Several studies have proved the importance of ergonomics in workplace design and the benefits related to the adoption of the human-centered approach. The enabling technologies of Industry 4.0 are changing the role of the operator and can support him from a physical and cognitive point of view. On the other hand, companies are increasingly implementing lean philosophies, such as World Class Manufacturing, to maintain their competitiveness by reducing wastes and costs. However, the need arises for a comprehensive methodology to support the design of manufacturing equipment considering human factors by integrating Industry 4.0 technologies and World Class Manufacturing elements. It aims at improving both ergonomic and efficiency aspects of the workstation. The proposed methodology allows identifying and in-depth analyzing the problem, thus finding and implementing a solution that complies with all the requirements and constraints defined. Each step of the methodology can be strengthened by Industry 4.0 technologies. The methodology has been experimented in a real case study with a global company of agriculture and industrial vehicles, leading to the design and implementation of a new equipment. Relevant benefits in terms of ergonomics, efficiency, and process standardization have been achieved.

Keywords: Equipment design | Ergonomics | Human-centered manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Workplace organization pillar | World class manufacturing

[3] Ciccarelli M., Papetti A., Scoccia C., Menchi G., Mostarda L., Palmieri G., Germani M., A system to improve the physical ergonomics in Human-Robot Collaboration, Procedia Computer Science, 200, 689-698, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In the industry 4.0 era, pursuing social sustainability also means implementing a synergic collaboration between workers and robots. Indeed, robot behavior does not affect only worker safety, but it also influences his health and comfort. In this context, an important topic to be enhanced is the operator's physical monitoring aimed at reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Some research studies deal with the improvement of the worker's posture during human-robot collaboration; however, non-intrusive methods applicable in real industrial scenarios are lacking. To this ending, this paper proposes a system to avoid uncomfortable and unsafe postures based on workers' anthropometric characteristics, posture monitoring by inertial and visual systems, task requirements, and a real-time risk assessment by standard methodology. The system allows the optimization of the robot behavior in order to improve worker's well-being. Finally, the virtual simulation of a real case study is presented.

Keywords: human factors | human-robot collaboration | industry 4.0 | physical ergonomics

[4] Cappelletti F., Papetti A., Rossi M., Germani M., Smart strategies for household food waste management, Procedia Computer Science, 200, 887-895, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The total quantity of food waste in the European Union has been estimated at around 88 million tons per year. 53% of waste is thrown out by households; among this, up to 45,8% is avoidable and strictly related to users' awareness and behavior. In this context, the present research work aims to develop an integrated system able to reduce household food waste. It consists of a smart fridge able to track the stocks, a web application, and a set of services aimed at guiding the user in the food-related daily activities (proper food storage, purchase planning, etc.). Expiration date traceability and proper information management are the cornerstones of the proposed system. The system usability has been evaluated by a group of potential users; their feedback were also the basis of the environmental and economic analysis of the innovative system; the results show great potentialities in both fields.

Keywords: environmental sustainability | food waste | household waste | smart fridge

[5] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Messi D., Germani M., A comprehensive method to design and assess mixed reality simulations, Virtual Reality, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The scientific literature highlights how Mixed Reality (MR) simulations allow obtaining several benefits in healthcare education. Simulation-based training, boosted by MR, offers an exciting and immersive learning experience that helps health professionals to acquire knowledge and skills, without exposing patients to unnecessary risks. High engagement, informational overload, and unfamiliarity with virtual elements could expose students to cognitive overload and acute stress. The implementation of effective simulation design strategies able to preserve the psychological safety of learners and the investigation of the impacts and effects of simulations are two open challenges to be faced. In this context, the present study proposes a method to design a medical simulation and evaluate its effectiveness, with the final aim to achieve the learning outcomes and do not compromise the students' psychological safety. The method has been applied in the design and development of an MR application to simulate the rachicentesis procedure for diagnostic purposes in adults. The MR application has been tested by involving twenty students of the 6th year of Medicine and Surgery of Università Politecnica delle Marche. Multiple measurement techniques such as self-report, physiological indices, and observer ratings of performance, cognitive and emotional states of learners have been implemented to improve the rigour of the study. Also, a user-experience analysis has been accomplished to discriminate between two different devices: Vox Gear Plus® and Microsoft Hololens®. To compare the results with a reference, students performed the simulation also without using the MR application. The use of MR resulted in increased stress measured by physiological parameters without a high increase in perceived workload. It satisfies the objective to enhance the realism of the simulation without generating cognitive overload, which favours productive learning. The user experience (UX) has found greater benefits in involvement, immersion, and realism; however, it has emphasized the technological limitations of devices such as obstruction, loss of depth (Vox Gear Plus), and narrow FOV (Microsoft Hololens).

Keywords: Augmented reality | Cognitive load | Medical education | Mixed reality | Simulation | Stress

[6] Papetti A., Ciccarelli M., Brunzini A., Germani M., Investigating the Application of Augmented Reality to Support Wire Harness Activities, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 116-124, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In the industrial context, the wire harness represents a process with a high degree of manual work and significant customizability of final products. To reduce the workers’ mental demand, the augmented reality (AR) can be an effective tool. The existing industrial applications mainly focus on manual assembly assistance, but few solutions have been developed for the wire harness. This paper tries to enhance such a process by supporting operators with an AR application that shows the work instructions and allows reducing their cognitive workload. The main goals are to propose a user-friendly and versatile tool and carry out a structured and complete evaluation of the user experience. Two experimental sessions were conducted in the laboratory by simulating the wire harness assembly and quality inspection. The use of the AR application is efficient and effective especially when instructions far from the workstation are considered as a reference.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Hololens 2 | Human-centered manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Wire harness assembly

[7] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Grassetti F., Moroncini G., Germani M., The effect of systemic sclerosis on use of mobile touchscreen interfaces: Design guidelines and physio-rehabilitation, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 87, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Disability conditions characterized by hand dysfunction are particularly relevant for the use of touchscreen technology. This work investigates the effects of hand impairment produced by systemic sclerosis (SSc) on touchscreen interaction. It aims to fulfil a dual objective: to provide guidelines to design inclusive interfaces and interaction modalities for SSc patients and to design a hand physio-rehabilitation based on a touchscreen application. Eighty patients participated in the observational study and, accordingly, eighty subjects without impairments were recruited as a control cohort. A specific touchscreen application has been designed and developed including three gestures: tap, drag and drop, and pinch-to-zoom. The work allowed identifying the interface features that significantly influence the performance and, consequently, the design rules for the physio-rehabilitation application.

Keywords: Hand impairment | Human-computer interaction | Inclusive design | Interface design | Systemic sclerosis | User-centred design

[8] Ciccarelli M., Papetti A., Germani M., Leone A., Rescio G., Human work sustainability tool, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 62, 76-86, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The work environment influences workers’ well-being and contributes to the growth of personal experiences. In fact, working in an unhealthy workplace can cause stress, frustration, and anxiety. Therefore, companies have to deal with the workers’ well-being in the work environment, making the management of human factors a crucial aspect. In this context, the introduction of Industry 4.0 technologies can support workplace monitoring and improvement. Some researchers propose structured methods that consider several ergonomic domains together; however, it is necessary to create platforms that support data collection, elaboration, and correlation in an integrated way. Accordingly, this paper presents a tool that supports the monitoring of operators’ activities, the data analysis, and the implementation of corrective actions to make the workplace socially sustainable. Preliminary tests were conducted to assess the functionality of the tool architecture and two use cases are presented. They focus on posture analysis and stress detection by inertial sensors and unsupervised machine learning algorithms, respectively.

Keywords: Human factors | Human-centered manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Stress detection | Unsupervised learning | Worker well-being

[9] Rossi M., Papetti A., Germani M., A comparison of different waste collection methods: Environmental impacts and occupational risks, Journal of Cleaner Production, 368, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Municipal waste management, especially in developed countries, has a significant impact on the environment and humans that need to be quantified and mitigated. This study aims to investigate and compare the environmental impact and occupational risks of the following three municipal waste collection methods in Italy: street bins, door-to-door collection, and a smart bins system. Six waste categories (paper, plastics, glass, metal, organic materials, and residual waste) are analysed. Environmental performances are calculated by the life cycle assessment (LCA) and material and flow analysis (MFA) methodologies. The ergonomic analysis is based on direct observation of municipal waste collectors and the application of standard assessment methods as RULA, NIOSH, and Snook Ciriello. Results: show that the smart bins collection method is environmentally more effective in all the impact categories considered, thanks to the better quality of collected waste. The residual waste flow directed to landfills has a lower value in the case of smart bins (36.63%) in comparison with door-to-door (52.90%) and street bins (89.56%). The use of smart bins allows higher environmental benefits, passing for the Climate Change impact category from −2.80E+01 kg of CO2eq. of the door-to-door system and −2.74E+01 kg of CO2eq. of street bins to −7.13E+01 kg of CO2eq. of smart bins. Regarding the transport phase, the smart bins system determines a reduction of the impact of about 60% if compared with the door-to-door system for all the impact categories considered. On the other hand, acceptable occupational risks result in street and smart waste collection methods, while poor ergonomics conditions are observed during the door-to-door collection. Containers lifting and emptying are the most critical tasks.

Keywords: Ergonomics | Life cycle assessment | Occupational risks | Sustainability | Waste collection

[10] Scoccia C., Menchi G., Ciccarelli M., Forlini M., Papetti A., Adaptive Real-Time Gesture Recognition in a Dynamic Scenario for Human-Robot Collaborative Applications, Mechanisms and Machine Science, 122 MMS, 637-644, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the enabling technologies of Industry 4.0 is represented by collaborative robotics. The basis of its success lies in the increase in safety, productivity and flexibility but above all in the improvement of the employees working conditions, as well as their well-being. Human Robot Collaboration (HRC) applications are increasing due to the ease of communication between robots and humans. To this aim, this paper presents a vision based hand gesture recognition to help humans manage the workstation operations. An application with three levels of access has been proposed to guarantee an appropriate level of user friendliness. The system provides both hardware and software support for real-time gesture recognition. The developed system was tested using a standard webcam and applied to a case study to control the tasks performed by UR10e. Thanks to its fast and on point recognition, it can be used as a real-time gesture image recognition system.

[11] Ciccarelli M., Corradini F., Germani M., Menchi G., Mostarda L., Papetti A., Piangerelli M., SPECTRE: a deep learning network for posture recognition in manufacturing, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a very impactful problem, both socially and economically, in the manufacturing sector. To control their effect, standardised methods and technologies for ergonomic assessment have been developed. The main technologies used are inertial sensors and vision-based systems. The former are accurate and reliable, but invasive and not affordable for many companies. The latter use machine learning algorithms to detect human pose and assess ergonomic risks. In this paper, using data collecting by reproducing the working environment in LUBE, the major Italian kitchen manufacturer, we propose SPECTRE (Sensor-independent Parallel dEep ConvoluTional leaRning nEtwork): a fully sensor-independent learning model based on convolutional networks to classify postures in the workplace. This system assesses ergonomic risks in major body segments through Deep Learning with a minimal impact. SPECTRE’s performance is evaluated using established metrics for imbalanced data (precision, recall, F1-score and area under the precision-recall curve). Overall, SPECTRE shows good performance and, thanks to an agnostic explainable machine learning method, is able to extrapolate which patterns are significant in the input.

Keywords: Computer vision | Deep learning | Ergonomic risks | Human-centered manufacturing | Posture recognition | Work-related musculoskeletal disorders

[12] Papetti A., Ciccarelli M., Scoccia C., Palmieri G., Germani M., A human-oriented design process for collaborative robotics, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: The potential of collaborative robotics often does not materialize in an efficient design of the human-robot collaboration. Technology-oriented approaches are no longer enough in the Industry 4.0 era. This work proposes a set of methods to support manufacturing engineers in the human-oriented design process of integrated production systems to obtain satisfactory performance in the mass customization paradigm, without impacting the safety and health of workers. It founds the design criteria definition on five main pillars (safety, ergonomics, effectiveness, flexibility, and costs), favors the consideration of different design alternatives, and leads their selection. The dynamic impact of the design choices on the various elements of the system prevails over the static design constraints. The method has been experimented in collaboration with the major kitchen manufacturer in Italy, which introduced a collaborative robotics cell in the drawers’ assembly line. It resulted in a more balanced production line (10% more), a verified risk minimization (RULA score reduced from 5 to 3 and OCRA score from 13.30 to 5.70), and a greater allocation of operators to high added value activities.

Keywords: collaborative robots | ergonomics | human-centered manufacturing | Human-robot collaboration | manufacturing systems design

[13] Marconi M., Menghi R., Papetti A., Pietroni G., Germani M., An interactive resource value mapping tool to support the reduction of inefficiencies in smart manufacturing processes, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(2-3), 211-224, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: As nearly one third of global energy demand and CO2 emissions are attributable to manufacturing activities, the reduction of energy/resource consumption in the industrial sector is increasingly crucial. Therefore, research and innovation for the factories of the future is not only a matter of developing and integrating new technologies, but also a challenge to make manufacturing less dependent on energy and managed in an optimized way. This requires considering the efficiency of resource exploitation according to a systematic approach. To this aim, the present paper proposes a resource-saving tool, called Resource Value Mapping (RVM), and describes its application in a smart multinational company that produces electromechanical components for the automotive industry. The RVM tool is composed by three main modules that jointly allow the involved stakeholders to collaborate toward the optimization of the plant management: the Cloud data center that represents the repository of the collected real-time and offline data, the Analytics module that is responsible for data elaboration with the aim of calculating a set of key performance indicators useful to identify process inefficiencies, and the Web-based platform that represents the user interface of the tool. The case study demonstrated how such a tool allows (1) mapping the energy/resource flows to multiple levels (machine, line, plant), (2) characterizing them to identify the most critical activities that do not generate value and (3) supporting multiple stakeholders (plant manager, energy manger, operators) in the management of resource anomalies and definition of a more sustainable action plan.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Industrial case study | Plant management | Resource-saving tool | Sustainable manufacturing

[14] Papetti A., Ciccarelli M., Brunzini A., Germani M., Design of ergonomic manufacturing equipment by a human-centered methodology, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 107-111, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Even in the era of the fourth industrial revolution, companies should necessarily deal with human sustainability, with the aim of improving workers’ health and safety and enhancing their skills. Several studies have faced this issue by proposing approaches or framework to boost the consideration of human factors in the workstation design and support ergonomic evaluations. However, the need arises for a methodology that collects and systematizes existing methods and tools in order to create workplaces that fit to human needs. For this aim, this paper proposes a structured methodology that supports the design and engineering of manufacturing equipment in order to improve workstations in terms of ergonomics and efficiency. It allows identifying a problem, solving it and carrying out a complete and objective evaluation from different perspectives. The methodology has been experimented in a real case study in collaboration with a global manufacturer of agriculture and industrial vehicles. Significant benefits in terms of productivity, process standardization and human factors have been achieved.

Keywords: Equipment design | Ergonomics | Human-centered manufacturing | Workplace organization pillar | World class manufacturing

[15] Papetti A., Ciccarelli M., Scoccia C., Germani M., A multi-criteria method to design the collaboration between humans and robots, Procedia CIRP, 104, 939-944, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The human-robot synergy is a key pillar of the smart factory of the future, aiming at high performance in a risk-free environment. Analyzing the main research themes in this field, a need for design criteria balancing emerges. Safety, ergonomics, productivity, and flexibility are the main requirements to be properly considered and combined. The paper proposes a method to fulfill this goal when designing the collaboration between humans and robots. It also exploits emerging technologies for real-time mapping of the workspace and operations management able to facilitate and simulate this interaction. Opportunities and benefits are presented through a real case study.

Keywords: Collaborative robots | Ergonomics | Human-robot collaboration | Industry 4.0 | Workstation design

[16] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Germani M., Adrario E., Mixed reality in medical simulation: A comprehensive design methodology, Proceedings of the Design Society, 1, 2107-2116, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: In the medical education field, the use of highly sophisticated simulators and extended reality (XR) simulations allow training complex procedures and acquiring new knowledge and attitudes. XR is considered useful for the enhancement of healthcare education; however, several issues need further research. The main aim of this study is to define a comprehensive method to design and optimize every kind of simulator and simulation, integrating all the relevant elements concerning the scenario design and prototype development. A complete framework for the design of any kind of advanced clinical simulation is proposed and it has been applied to realize a mixed reality (MR) prototype for the simulation of the rachicentesis. The purpose of the MR application is to immerse the trainee in a more realistic environment and to put him/her under pressure during the simulation, as in real practice. The application was tested with two different devices: the headset Vox Gear Plus for smartphone and the Microsoft Hololens. Eighteen students of the 6th year of Medicine and Surgery Course were enrolled in the study. Results show the comparison of user experience related to the two different devices and simulation performance using the Hololens.

Keywords: Design methodology | Education | Medical Simulation | Mixed Reality | Training

[17] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Germani M., Barbadoro P., Messi D., Adrario E., Mixed Reality Simulation for Medical Training: How It Affects Learners' Cognitive State, Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 264, 339-347, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: A mixed reality (MR) system, by providing visual, auditory, and haptic feedback to the learner, can offer a high level of immersion and realism, especially in the healthcare context. In medical training through MR simulations, it is particularly important to avoid mental overload, discomfort, fatigue, and stress, to guarantee productive learning. The present work proposes a systematic assessment of stress, cognitive load, and performance (through subjective and objective measures) of students during an MR simulation for the rachicentesis procedure. A specific application has been developed to enhance the sense of realism, by showing, over the skill trainer, a digital patient that responds with auditory and visual feedback, based on the learner’s interaction. A sample of 18 students has been enrolled in the pilot study. Preliminary results suggest the effectiveness of the proposed MR application using Hololens: high performances are achieved, and the cognitive conditions are well balanced.

Keywords: Cognitive load | Medical simulation | Mixed reality | Performance | Stress

[18] Rossi M., Papetti A., Marconi M., Germani M., Life cycle assessment of a leather shoe supply chain, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 14(4), 686-703, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The fashion industry is responsible for a significant contribution to environmental pressure in the European Union. The present study aims to quantify the environmental impacts of a leather shoe production chain and identify the most criticalities in terms of companies, processes, and materials. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the impacts related to the production of a pair of classic man leather shoes. Slaughtering and tanning resulted in the less environmentally sustainable stages for almost all the analysed impact categories, except water resource depletion and ozone layer depletion. Such outcomes are mainly due to the high distance from animals’ skin suppliers to slaughterhouses and tanneries, the use of lorries transport, and the large use of unsustainable chemicals to treat the leather. Going downstream, the main hot spot refers to the use of cotton during upper manufacturing and shoe assembly and finishing. Three alternative realistic production scenarios were simulated to find the best sustainable mix. They focused on alternative means of transport, the substitution of cotton, and green purchasing of upper and lining. An environmental impact reduction of about 30% can be obtained if all the suggested scenarios are implemented.

Keywords: environmental impact | footwear industry | Leather shoe supply chain | Life Cycle Assessment

[19] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Formenti L., Luciani A., Messi D., Adrario E., Barbadoro P., Cognitive Load and Stress Assessment of Medical High-Fidelity Simulations for Emergency Management, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 1206 AISC, 343-350, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: High-fidelity medical simulations refer to the use of computerized mannequins that simulate real-life scenarios. It is important to avoid stress and cognitive overload of students in order to ensure a productive learning. This study concerns the identification and assessment of events related to intrinsic cognitive loads (ICL), extraneous cognitive loads (ECL) and stress episodes through the analysis of physiological parameters. 170 students were enrolled in the study. Analysed heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) were acquired through Empatica E4 wristband. Cognitive load assessment was performed by evaluating peaks in HR, associable with ICL or ECL through video analysis. The stressful events were assessed considering EDA in relation to HR, according to Russell’s circumplex plan. Results show good achievements in students’ performance and an ICL increment and an ECL decrement during simulation repetition. The stressful conditions increase with the increasing difficulty of the simulations.

Keywords: Cognitive load | Human factor | Medical simulation | Stress | Training

[20] Leone A., Rescio G., Siciliano P., Papetti A., Brunzini A., Germani M., Multi sensors platform for stress monitoring of workers in smart manufacturing context, I2MTC 2020 - International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Proceedings, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: In factories of the future, advanced automation systems (e.g., cobots, exoskeletons, cyber physical systems) will reduce the physical effort of workers and compensate their limitations as well as ensure more flexibility, agility, and competitiveness. However, the activities of the operator 4.0 will entail an increased share of complex cognitive tasks. Therefore, monitoring the mental load will be increasingly important to ensure work environments that promote healthy life and wellbeing for all at all ages. For this aim, this paper proposes a framework to analyze heart rate, galvanic skin response and electrooculogram signals in order to extract features able to detect an excessive stress or cognitive load. Two wearable devices are used: Empatica E4 wristband and J!NS MEME electrooculography glasses. The proposed framework has been experimented through a laboratory test focused on LEGO brick-based simulations of manufacturing activities.

Keywords: Electrodermal activity | Electrooculogram | Heart rate | Physiological measurements | Stress monitoring | Wearable sensors

[21] Papetti A., Gregori F., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A method to improve workers' well-being toward human-centered connected factories, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 7(5), 630-643, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most actual and consistent drivers for the industry is sustainability, which includes three main pillars: environment, economics, and society. While numerous methods for environmental and economic sustainability assessment have been proposed, social sustainability assessment is still lacking in structured methods and tools, although human has always played a key role. Moreover, technological development is pushing the industrial world toward a new paradigm, the “Industry 4.0,” which embeds topics such as data digitalization, cyber-physical systems, and machine learning. It entails significant changes in human resources management, without reducing their importance. Humans were part of the manufacturing system from the first industrial revolution, and no automation or digitalization can be possible without humans. The industry can no longer underestimate the reasonable application of human factors and ergonomics principles to the workplace. For this purpose, the paper provides a novel transdisciplinary engineering method to measure and promote social sustainability on production sites. It exploits Internet of Things technology to support the (re)design of manufacturing processes and plants toward human-centered connected factories. To improve the workers' well-being has positive effects on their health, satisfaction, and performance. The method has been implemented in a real industrial case study within the footwear industry. The sole finishing process has been analyzed from different perspectives to solve ergonomics-related problems and implement effective improvement strategies.

Keywords: Human factors | Human-centered connected factories | Industry 4.0 | Manufacturing ergonomics | Social sustainability

[22] Rossi M., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., An augmented reality system for operator training in the footwear sector, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 18(4), 692-703, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This study presents an augmented reality-based system for the training of assembly line operators in the context of the high-end footwear industry. The proposed multi-layer software architecture, in combination with the AR viewer (Microsoft HoloLens™), guides operators of the shoe assembly/finishing line during the offline training activities. An evaluation protocol has been defined and preliminary experimentation of the system have been conducted in an Italian company that produces classic and luxury leather shoes.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Footwear Industry | Manufacturing | Operator Training

[23] Moroncini G., Brunzini A., Papetti A., Filippini E., Maurizi V., Cesaretti G., Gesuita R., Gabrielli A., Germani M., Development of the optimal touchscreen interface for patients with scleroderma, Journal of Scleroderma and Related Disorders, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Impaired hand function is a major contributor to overall disability and reduced health-related quality of life in scleroderma patients. A relevant issue concerns interaction of scleroderma subjects with touchscreen interfaces. This study aims at investigating this problem assessing scleroderma patients’ performance with a novel, aptly designed, touchscreen application in order to identify critical items of touchscreen technology which may impair or facilitate the use by scleroderma subjects. Eighty scleroderma patients performed this novel application including three games, each of which tested a different gesture: tapping, dragging/dropping, and pinching-to-zoom. Eighty healthy subjects without hand impairments were recruited as controls. Scleroderma patients performed worse than healthy users in each game, and statistically significant negatively impacting items were identified. In the second phase of the study, the 10 worst touchscreen performers within the scleroderma cohort were recruited for a physio-rehabilitation trial based on the daily use at home of a modified version of the software application downloaded into the personal devices of patients. The results of this study allow introduction of guidelines to design accessible touchscreen interfaces for subjects with scleroderma and suggest that touchscreen technology may be included in self-administered physio-rehabilitation programs for scleroderma hand.

Keywords: hand | hand disability | hand rehabilitation | Scleroderma | SSc | systemic sclerosis | touchscreen | touchscreen application | touchscreen device | touchscreen interface

[24] Papetti A., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A framework to promote social sustainability in industry 4.0, International Journal of Agile Systems and Management, 13(3), 233-257, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Industrial process digitalisation is pervading numerous areas of production system, including sustainability. The study presents a method to affirm how the social sustainability of a company also passes through the protection of the welfare of the worker and describes a case study focused on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The method considers different aspects including the characteristics of the worker/s, the working context, and the content of the work activity. According to the objectives of social sustainability in the factory environment multifactorial variables related to the workers wellbeing have been defined. IoT system and ad-hoc questionnaires can be used to collect such variables. Following the proposed method, the results of the case study offer many in-depth insights, from the objective analysis of personal characteristics to the organisation of work, and from the application of international standards to the evaluation of psychological parameters.

Keywords: Ergonomics | Human factors | Human-centred manufacturing | Industry 4.0 | Internet of things | IoT | Social sustainability | User-centred workplace | Worker wellbeing

[25] Menghi R., Rossi M., Papetti A., Germani M., A methodology for energy efficiency redesign of smart production systems, Procedia CIRP, 91, 319-324, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: In the recent years, many methodologies and tools to support the energy efficiency re-design of production systems have been developed, however, they do not investigate the real-time manufacturing process. In this paper, a methodology for energy efficiency re-design of production systems in a context of smart manufacturing is proposed. The continuous production-machine data collection with operator feedbacks enables the creation of a knowledge-based repository that provides useful support during the design of manufacturing systems. A case study in an automotive sector company has allowed to implement the methodology and to assess its effectiveness.

Keywords: Energy efficiency design | knowledge management | manufacturing systems | smart manufacturing

[26] Papetti A., Rossi M., Menghi R., Germani M., Human-centered design for improving the workplace in the footwear sector, Procedia CIRP, 91, 295-300, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Especially in the footwear sector, the transition from the mass production to the mass customization increasingly requires Industry 4.0 solutions that do not reduce the human contribution to production processes but facilitate and value it to increase the job satisfaction. In this context, this paper proposes a method to (re)design the workplace according to a multiperspective ergonomic assessment. It efficaciously combines the analysis of physiological and environmental parameters by Internet-of-Things, the ergonomics risks identification by experts and the subjective evaluation of workers well-being. The method has been experimented in an Italian factory that produces customized shoes for the luxury market.

Keywords: Artisanal production | Ergonomics | Human-centered manufacturing | Workplace

[27] Menghi R., Domizio G.D., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., An energy assessment method for SMEs: Case study of an Italian mechanical workshop, Procedia Manufacturing, 43, 56-63, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, climate change requires companies to reduce their energy consumption and make their production systems more efficient. However, the complexity of the methodologies, the lack of transparency or high efforts (personnel/time) make this challenge especially difficult for SMEs. In this context, the present paper proposes a workflow to supports SMEs in a lean energy analysis. Through the implementation of several methodologies, a comprehensive assessment of energy consumption was carried out. The application to a real case study allowed to identify energy inefficiencies and to evaluate the energy saving and performance improvement actions.

Keywords: Energy efficiency assessment | Lean analysis | Manufacturing systems | SME

[28] Papetti A., Scafà M., Brunzini A., Mandolini M., Multiperspective Ergonomic Assessment Approach for Human Centered Workplace Design, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 675-685, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The transition toward smaller lot sizes in production requires the design of highly flexible processes where person and automation systems work together in a synergistic, safe and efficient manner. The new role of the operator requires researchers to study methods and tools able to evaluate the workers performance in order to maximize the comfort and quality of work. The virtual prototyping and simulation systems become fundamental to be able to design adequate production solutions, but before the tools it is necessary to study methods able to represent and consider the characteristics of the operators in the Industry 4.0-oriented factory environment appropriately. In this context, this paper proposes a method to assess the well-being of operators from different perspectives and, consequently, design operator-centered workstations. The first objective is preparatory in order to be able to fine-tune the second one, in a continuous improvement perspective. The approach has been successfully tested in collaboration with a food company.

Keywords: Ergonomics | Human-Centered Manufacturing | Operator 4.0

[29] Marconi M., Papetti A., Rossi M., Di Domizio G., Improving the Shoes Customization Process Through a Digitally-Enabled Framework, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 317-328, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Product customization is largely considered one of the most important competitive factors in several industrial sectors, including high-end footwear. However, in this sector, products are generally manufactured through manual and artisanal operations, processes are not standardized and repeatable, and the personal skills of expert operators play a leading role. The objective of the present paper is to propose a workflow enabled by a framework including several technologies (computer aided design tool, augmented reality systems, traceability infrastructure), to support industrial companies of the high-end footwear sector during the different phases of shoes customization (from configuration to delivery). All these technologies jointly contribute to innovate the shoes customization process by increasing the flexibility of internal processes, improving the ability of companies to answer to specific requirements thanks to the direct involvement of customers, maximizing the efficiency of data sharing, making the organizational, design, production and management processes more efficient and repeatable, and reducing the customer response time.

Keywords: Customization framework | Customization process | Shoes configuration

[30] Rossi M., Marconi M., Menghi R., Papetti A., A Knowledge Repository to Support Ecodesign Implementation in Manufacturing Companies, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 651-661, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: In last years, increasing attention on environmental matters is registered and companies are forced by legislations, normative and protocols to increase the environmental performances of their products. Observing the industrial context, it emerges there are several barriers for an effective implementation of eco-design strategies inside design departments. The paper presents a knowledge repository tool, which aims at both, providing a basic guide on environmental sustainability issues and favoring knowledge sharing among design departments. The tool is mainly based on a structured repository in which company materials, organized in different forms, are collected. The repository contains training section, well-organized guidelines, company specific knowledge and milestone. The implementation of the tool in two industrial companies is presented and results of usability and tool effectiveness discussed.

Keywords: Company knowledge | Environmental sustainability | Knowledge sharing

[31] Scafà M., Serrani E.B., Papetti A., Brunzini A., Germani M., Assessment of Students’ cognitive conditions in medical simulation training: A review study, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 958, 224-233, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Although performance measures are strongly used in the field of medical education to evaluate skills of trainees and medical students, the assessment of their cognitive state is relatively “uncommon”. This fact is disadvantageous if we consider the introduction of technologies as physical medical simulators and augmented/virtual reality devices, which may represent an improvement in the students’ immersion in the simulated scenario or, conversely, a potential risk of a serious information overload. Therefore, a precise assessment of the cognitive conditions is an essential element of the design process of a medical training session. This study aims to provide the current state in literature on the assessment of cognitive state during medical simulation training sessions. It provides critical insights on the validity and reliability of current metrics and helps in the selection of measurements tools when applied in simulation-based training contexts.

Keywords: Cognitive conditions | Human factors – stress and workload | Medical simulation | Training

[32] Brunzini A., Papetti A., Serrani E.B., Scafà M., Germani M., How to Improve Medical Simulation Training: A New Methodology Based on Ergonomic Evaluation, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 963, 145-155, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: An adequate medical education is the key driver of healthcare quality improvement. Technological innovations have led to consistent improvement in learning outcomes but the systematic measurement of students performance and cognitive workload need further research. The aim of this paper is to propose an innovative method for the Design and Development of new advanced learning models, to be used in the training of medical students, which includes also the analysis of students performance and cognitive ergonomics. A web-based survey, on team simulation training and technology role, has been administered to 180 medical students. On the basis of this analysis, a list of guidelines for the design of medical education training has been proposed.

Keywords: Advanced learning technologies - cognitive ergonomics | Augmented reality | Instructional design | Medical simulations | Mental workload | Training

[33] Menghi R., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., Energy efficiency of manufacturing systems: A review of energy assessment methods and tools, Journal of Cleaner Production, 240, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Industrial manufacturing is the largest end-use sector in terms of both final energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions (more than 30% of the total); its increase is rapidly altering the world climate. The need to mitigate the environmental impacts of manufacturing processes makes energy efficiency a key success factor for sustainable production. Accordingly, the scientific community's interest in energy management has grown considerably, resulting in several literature reviews on energy modelling and production systems analysis, emissions calculation, sustainability tools and benchmarking techniques. However, a comprehensive analysis of methods and tools aimed at improving energy awareness and assessing their effects on energy efficiency is lacking. To address this gap, this paper undertakes a systematic literature review of energy assessment methods and tools. From the 1367 papers retrieved by searching scientific literature databases, 64 scientific articles met the inclusion criteria and were analysed in detail. The study aims to provide scholars with a picture of the current state of scientific research and to identify the scientific works that could help industry practitioners in energy management. Following the ISO 50001 framework, the methods and tools were divided into three main groups (i.e. energy analysis, energy evaluation and energy-saving measures methods) and the specific findings relating to each group were synthesized. Finally, the paper addresses unresolved issues and challenges and makes suggestions for future research directions.

Keywords: Energy assessment tools and methods | Energy efficiency | Industry | Manufacturing processes | Systematic literature review

[34] Menghi R., Papetti A., Germani M., Product Service Platform to improve care systems for elderly living at home, Health Policy and Technology, 8(4), 393-401, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Background: Population aging is inducing governments to redesign their healthcare models. One policy measure aimed at reducing healthcare expenditures and improving services is to encourage people to age-in-place. Scientific research has been trying to find ICT-enabled solutions to the growing problem of elderly home care. However, such research is often technology-oriented and neglects the end-user perspective. It does not consider the real needs of older people and all stakeholders involved in their healthcare. Method: A user-centered design approach was adopted with the involvement of older people, experts dealing with the aging population, and the whole stakeholders’ chain. Through surveys, focus groups, and brainstorming sessions, it was possible to determine the main features of the product service platform. Results: Starting from a large-scale survey of elderly people living in Italy, this paper presents the requirements and the architecture of a product service platform aimed at improving the independence and elderly quality of life. This work proposes an elderly-centered platform that works as an aggregation point of an articulated social health system, provides multiple tailored services, and optimizes the use of local resources. Conclusions: The involvement of the end-user and all the stakeholders allowed for the consideration of different perspectives and the creation of a value network that aggregates existing services, resources, and information with new opportunities to achieve common benefits. This work provides guidelines on how to develop this type of platform by exploiting the potential of each stakeholder without creating new barriers. Technology, caregivers, and society are combined synergistically to provide tailored services able to satisfy specific users’ needs.

Keywords: Aging in place | Community-based eldercare | Healthcare information technology | Product service platform | Smart environments

[35] Rossi M., Papetti A., Marconi M., Germani M., A multi-criteria index to support ecodesign implementation in manufacturing products: benefits and limits in real case studies, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 12(6), 376-389, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The growing attention to environmental sustainability is not reflected in the effective implementation of ecodesign principles in the industrial context. The main barriers are related to the propensity of companies to optimise only specific aspects directly affected by legislation and to the higher priority given to other drivers such as performance, cost and aesthetics. The present paper faces this issue by proposing an approach to support designers to concurrently deal with environmental, economic and technical performance in all the key phases of the product development process (selection of drivers, evaluation of design alternatives, preservation, sharing and reuse of knowledge, etc.). The approach is grounded on a multi-criteria index, called Product Impact Index (PII), which allows weighting different drivers, verifying the satisfaction of the company’s goals, and comparing different design solutions. The method has been successfully applied in two case studies to support the redesign of a cooker hood and a freestanding cooker. Results confirmed its usefulness and effectiveness in overcoming the common barriers to ecodesign implementation in the industrial context.

Keywords: ecodesign | engineering design for sustainable development | knowledge management | Multi criteria index | sustainability

[36] Papetti A., Menghi R., Di Domizio G., Germani M., Marconi M., Resources value mapping: A method to assess the resource efficiency of manufacturing systems, Applied Energy, 249, 326-342, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The assessment and monitoring of energy and resource efficiency is an essential activity toward the implementation of sustainable manufacturing practices. Existing energy/resource assessment methods and tools are not based on a comprehensive approach, lack on the use of specific key performance indicators, are dedicated to expert stakeholders and do not provide useful suggestions for improving production systems. This paper proposes an innovative method, called Resources Value Mapping that aims to map and classify activities and related energy/resource consumptions according to lean philosophy principles (value-added, non value-added, waste). A user-friendly map and two efficiency indicators (Cost Index and Muda Index) are proposed to quantitatively support the identification of criticalities related to activities, processes, lines, plants, etc., and to successively guide the decision-making process during the improvement strategies implementation. The method has been used to analyze a manufacturing plant that produces cooking appliances. The case study demonstrated the applicability of the method in real industrial contexts and its effectiveness in identifying the energy/resource flows (electricity and compressed air), departments (sheet department) and lines (mechanical and hydraulic presses) for which the waste and non value-added consumptions are prominent. The analysis highlighted that less of 20% of the resources consumed during the process creates value, offering wide margins for improvement. Finally, it aided the definition of an action plan leading to relevant reduction of resource consumptions, economic savings and environmental benefits.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Key performance indicators | Lean manufacturing | Resources Value Mapping | Sustainable manufacturing

[37] Gulla F., Brunzini A.M., Papetti A., Germani M., Re-design of the Household Appliance UI to make it an Adaptive System, 2019 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Consumer Technologies, ISCT 2019, 63-67, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Everyday life is increasingly rich in man-machine interactions and new challenges in user interface design arise. In particular, it emerges the need of adaptable solutions that learn from the user's behavior to improve their experience. In this context, the paper aims to redesign an existing UI to make it an Adaptive System. The introduction of an adaptive module allows finding the optimal interface features combination based on the user profile and previously interactions. The experimentation results demonstrate the adaptability and versatility of the proposed application by evaluating the user satisfaction and the perceived adaptability with respect to the native application.

Keywords: adaptive interfaces | household appliances | usability | user-centered

[38] Gullà F., Menghi R., Papetti A., Carulli M., Bordegoni M., Gaggioli A., Germani M., Prototyping adaptive systems in smart environments using virtual reality, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 13(2), 597-616, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Smart environment is a key challenge for current ICT research: it is one of the solutions that can enhance people’s quality of life and enable users with impairment to live independently. Over the years, scientific research has proposed several solutions to help and improve the capabilities of its occupants, but they are often developed for a specific context (e.g. particular disease or impairment). These systems do not adapt to the real needs of users with different profiles, and neglect that the user’s requirements may evolve over time. This research work aims to develop a new adaptive smart system able to support users (with and without disabilities) in performing daily tasks by recognizing their preferences and actions and adapting the system feedback consequently. With the aim to develop an easy, efficient and usable adaptive smart system, the final users have been involved in the whole design and development process. The system was validated through a virtual reality system allowing the user interaction evaluation and helping the usability improvement.

Keywords: Adaptive and adaptable user interface | Bayesian network | ICT | Smart environment | User-centered design | Virtual reality system

[39] Marconi M., Papetti A., Scafà M., Rossi M., Germani M., An innovative framework for managing the customization of tailor-made shoes, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 3821-3830, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Product customization aims to consider individual customers preferences in the design of new products, in order to directly involve them in the product development process and to maximize their satisfaction. It can be considered a key competitive factor and a "hot topic" in several industrial sectors, including luxury apparel goods and high-end footwear products. However, currently the design and manufacturing of customized shoes are carried out through artisanal and non-standardized processes, based on the individual expertise of operators. The objective of this study is to define an innovative framework to support the different processes affected by customization. This framework is enabled by different digital technologies, as CAD-based tools, virtual/augmented reality systems, etc., opportunely integrated in the product development process. The main benefits related to the framework implementation in real industrial contexts are an increase of flexibility, the repeatability of processes, a higher efficiency in information exchange, a more effective involvement of final customers, and, as a consequence, the reduction of time to market and production costs for tailor-made shoes.

Keywords: Design for X (DfX) | Design process | Integrated product development

[40] Vita A., Castorani V., Mandolini M., Papetti A., Germani M., Cost and temperature homogeneity optimization of the heating system for composite materials air press molding, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 16(6), 1084-1097, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Due to their high strength to weight ratio, composites materials have been historically used in high performance applications. Nowadays, they are no longer considered elitist materials due to the decrease of manufacturing costs reached thanks to innovative process processes such as Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) or pre-preg molding. The latter is suitable for structural parts, but its use is limited to simple geometry components without undercuts due to the rigid counter mold. Thus, a method called Air Press Molding (APM) has been developed. It exploits an inflatable counter mold to compact the laminate on the mold. This paper presents a Multi-Objective optimization approach for minimizing cost and temperature inhomogeneity of the heating system of the APM process. By using Genetic Algorithms and the Response Surface Methodology, the authors redesigned a 1250 [kg] aluminum mold, reaching a cost saving of 15 % and reducing the temperature variance of 77 %.

Keywords: Composite materials | Mold heating | Multi-Objective optimization | OOA processes

[41] Di Domizio G., Menghi R., Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., A method for lean energy assessment of manufacturing systems, Procedia CIRP, 81, 1447-1452, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Manufacturing systems are among the main consumers of energy. Several methods and tools have been developed to support companies toward energy efficiency. However, they generally require high computational effort, onerous measurement campaigns or complex models. In this paper, a method to perform a lean energy assessment starting from the asset characteristics is proposed. It is based on a set of corrective factors that consider both technical and productive aspects. The final goal is to overcome the lack of precise data needed to identify hotspots from the energy point of view. A real industrial case study allows implementing the method and demonstrating its usefulness.

Keywords: Energy assessment | Lean phylosophy | Manufacturing systems

[42] Scafà M., Papetti A., Brunzini A., Germani M., How to improve worker’s well-being and company performance: A method to identify effective corrective actions, Procedia CIRP, 81, 162-167, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: In manufacturing context, social dimension is often neglected. With Industry 4.0, companies focus more on technologies and data. However, human continues to play a key role in cyber-physical systems and company growth. This work proposes a method to help the company to evaluate workers’ experience and identify the optimal solution to improve workers’ well-being and company performance. It starts from personalized social analysis within a production plant to identify ergonomics problems and intelligently suggest effective corrective actions. The latter are selected achieving the best trade-off between social, economic and productive aspects. Three case studies are proposed to validate the method.

Keywords: Human factors | Industry 4.0 | Manufacturing systems | Social sustainability

[43] Papetti A., Cavalieri L., Ceccacci S., Gullà F., Germani M., A structured and user-friendly method to conduct an all-round evaluation of Smart Products, Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, 11(2), 113-133, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The Internet of Things market is rapidly increasing and offers a wide variety of Smart Products (SPs) apparently similar but with different potentialities that the average user fails to perceive. In order to reduce purchase risks, consumers rely on online product reviews, which do not often reflect the effective quality of the products. For this aim, this paper proposes a systematic method to objectively evaluate SPs in a comprehensive way to support the consumer in choosing the product that most satisfies his/her needs. It has been implemented on three different SPs categories: body scales, blood pressure monitors, and activity trackers.

Keywords: customer satisfaction | Internet of Things | products reviews | smart products ratings | systematic evaluation method

[44] Papetti A., Marilungo E., Menghi R., Cavalieri L., Carbonari S., Germani M., A Novel Model for Improving the Social Healthcare of the Italian Older People. Step 1: Sample Analysis, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 540, 329-339, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The present research paper would propose a novel social healthcare model for Italian older people, having carried out an in-deep analysis of the current scenario. In fact, studying older people over 75 who live in the inner areas of the Marche region has allowed acquiring the knowledge of their main needs and characteristics. This paper aims to study such the sample considering that nowadays the society trend is characterized by an increasing number of older people in comparison with previous decades. Then, the improvement of the current social healthcare model becomes an important challenge, trying to support older people in being more autonomous and less isolated, escaping from the potential related depression. According to the survey results, the services that a novel social healthcare model should provide are suggested.

[45] Papetti A., Marconi M., Rossi M., Germani M., Web-based platform for eco-sustainable supply chain management, Sustainable Production and Consumption, 17, 215-228, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The increasing focus on environmental practices has led academia and industry to address eco-sustainability in different ways. Recent improvements to supply chain management (SCM) have also included environmental sustainability as a key factor, in addition to common drivers such as risk, supply quality, and cost. Although several eco-sustainable SCM approaches have been proposed, often those solutions remain too theoretical and difficult to implement. This paper contributes to this research topic by proposing a web-based platform capable of tracing suppliers and related processes along the entire product supply chain (SC). This platform is a powerful decision-making tool for improving overall SC environmental sustainability. A structured methodology is defined and implemented that can efficiently model complex SCs, share data between actors, and measure its environmental sustainability. To demonstrate the platform applicability and validate its effectiveness in industrial settings, a case study of industrial partners involved in the production of leather shoes is provided.

Keywords: Environmental sustainability | Supply chain management (SCM) | Supply chain traceability | Web-based platform

[46] Gullà F., Papetti A., Menghi R., Germani M., A method to make an existing system adaptive, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10901 LNCS, 91-101, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The Adaptive systems are becoming essential into our daily life, thanks to the fast improvement of computing technology and the deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Despite many efforts have been made to improve adaptive systems design methods they remain very heterogeneous and mostly limited to each domain of application. Moreover, the most of existing adaptive applications propose specific approaches for the development of new systems, without considering the opportunity to convert existing smart systems into adaptive systems. To overcome this limitation, this paper introduces an approach able to support the designers in adapting an already existing system. To this purpose, a new design method, consisting of the three following steps, has been developed: (1) context analysis; (2) adaptive module design; and (3) system re-design. The described approach is applied, as an example, to a Wi-Fi system for the control and management of household appliances developed by a large Italian company.

Keywords: Adaptive interface | Adaptive system | IoT | Methodology | Smart environment | Universal design

[47] Papetti A., Gregori F., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Iot to enable social sustainability in manufacturing systems, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 7, 53-62, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: One of the most actual and consistent driver for industry is sustainability. This topic opens at different problems according to the three sustainability pillars: environment, economic, and social. Regarding the last one, there is a lack for methodologies and tools. Moreover, industries are crossing today a crucial transition in terms of technologies. The so called fourth industrial revolution is ongoing. This is a second challenge for industries that needs to be competitive reducing their time to market integrating new technologies on their production sites. From these perspectives, this work is aimed at highlighting the role of the humans under the Industry 4.0 paradigm. A new transdisciplinary engineering method to favour the sustainable manufacturing is provided. It allows designing a connected environment (IoT framework) aimed at measuring and promoting social sustainability on production sites. The work also remarks the relationship between social sustainability and productivity. Indeed, optimizing the human works permits to improve the quality of the working conditions while improving efficiency of the production system. The case study was performed at an Italian sole producer. The goal of the analysis was to improve and innovate the finishing area of the plant from a social point of view with the perspective of digital manufacturing. An IoT framework has been installed, without affecting the productivity, and the work of 2 operators has been compared in order to identify common problems and define a synergy strategy.

Keywords: Digital manufacturing | Human factors | Industry 4.0 | Social sustainability | Sustainable manufacturing

[48] Scafà M., Carbonari S., Papetti A., Rossi M., Germani M., A new method for Product Service System: The case of urban waste management, Procedia CIRP, 73, 67-72, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The growing attention on environmental and social sustainability issues is pushing companies to move towards new business models. In this context, PSS (Product Service System) seems to be one of the most suitable model to foster the transition to sustainable economic models. The PSS is composed of a mix of tangible products and intangible services. The method proposed in this paper supports the PSS design. The objective of this work is to integrate careful assessment of economic, environmental and social sustainability supporting the transition towards new business models and strategic company decision-making. The method is then validated through a case study on the management of urban waste.

Keywords: Environmental Sustainability | Product-Service System | PSS method | Social Sustainability

[49] Menghi R., Papetti A., Carbonari S., Germani M., Designing a product service platform for older people: From needs to requirements, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10898 LNCS, 23-34, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Helping older people to remain in their homes and to be more autonomous and less isolated, escaping from the potential related depression, is a global challenge. To support people ‘age in place’, the paper proposes a specific data collection to establish the possible requirements of a novel Product Service Platform for wellbeing and health of older people. The study of a community of older people over 75 who live in their homes has allowed acquiring the knowledge of their main needs and characteristics. Two focus groups with experts dealing with the ageing population were then set up to define: (a) how to design an IT artifact that meets end-users needs and (b) the services that a Product Service Platform should provide.

Keywords: Elderly | Healthcare | Product service platform | Smart environments | Survey

[50] Gregori F., Papetti A., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Improving a production site from a social point of view: An IoT infrastructure to monitor workers condition, Procedia CIRP, 72, 886-891, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: In the context of Industry 4.0, this paper focuses on integration of workers in the digitalized factory. It proposes a method to design an IoT infrastructure and acquire human-related data from a production site in order to improve workers wellbeing and overall productivity. The method permits to identify bottlenecks and criticalities from a social point of view, focusing on the human performance, and define corrective actions at different levels (operations, plant layout or shift management). A case study was developed in collaboration with an Italian sole producer to validate the method and the related data acquisition system.

Keywords: Industry 4.0 | IoT | social sustainability

[51] Marconi M., Gregori F., Germani M., Papetti A., Favi C., An approach to favor industrial symbiosis: The case of waste electrical and electronic equipment, Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 502-509, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: Waste management, in particular waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), currently represents an important issue for the modern society. A transition toward circular economy and industrial symbiosis models is needed to mitigate the environmental problem and recover value from end of life (EoL) materials/products. This study aims to define an approach and a platform, dedicated to the WEEE sector, to favor the creation of industrial symbiosis opportunities. Through this structured approach, demand of virgin materials and components, and supply of EoL products are linked to find potential collaborations. In this way, EoL components/materials could be reused in different applications, thus closed-loop lifecycles can be created through industrial symbiosis. A case study focused on the reuse of plastics from electrical cables is shown to demonstrate that in the WEEE sector the implementation of industrial symbiosis models can lead to win-win scenarios for all the involved stakeholders.

Keywords: closed-loop scenarios | End of life platform | industrial symbiosis approach

[52] Menghi R., Ceccacci S., Papetti A., Marconi M., Germani M., A method to estimate the total VOC emission of furniture products, Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 486-493, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: In the last decade, the environmental sustainability has become an important issue that drives more and more the consumer decisions. Consequently, industrial companies are called to meet the growing demand for more sustainable products. Especially in the furniture sector, customers pay serious attention to the emissions that negatively affect human health and so they request products with low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. This represents a big challenge because it requires the strictly control of each component provided by all the supply chain actors through expensive laboratory tests. For this aim, the present paper proposes a method to estimate the total VOCs emissions of furniture products starting from the characteristics of all semi-finished products (e.g., geometric features, product composition, process information and functionality) and through the definition of an appropriate impact scale based on historical data. It allows making the supply chain (SC) more sustainable, limiting costly chamber tests.

Keywords: Furniture products | Indoor air quality | Product declaration | Sustainable Manufacturing | VOC emissions

[53] Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Germani M., Traceability as a means to investigate supply chain sustainability: The real case of a leather shoe supply chain, International Journal of Production Research, 55(22), 6638-6652, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: In recent years, the growing attention to environmental challenges has shown that these issues are becoming of more and more interest to both research and industry. Companies are expected to ensure their products are fully traceable and more sustainable, which requires the involvement of all of the actors in the production network. According to this aim, this study proposes a structured approach that uses the traditional traceability concept as a means to identify the main information needed to assess environmental impacts along the whole supply chain (SC). The proposed approach is composed of four main steps: (i) SC modelling to identify all stakeholders and their inter-relations, (ii) data sharing to collect all relevant data, (iii) data elaboration to calculate performance at different levels of detail and (iv) result interpretation to optimise the SC. The distributed implementation of the approach at different SC steps represents a useful means to practically realise a sustainable SC management. A case study involving a leather shoe SC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in identifying criticalities, supporting the selection of the most appropriate suppliers and correctly setting a management strategy towards the optimisation of internal and external traceability and environmental sustainability performances.

Keywords: Collaborative network | Environmental sustainability | Sustainable supply chain | Sustainable supply chain management | Traceability

[54] Favi C., Germani M., Gregori F., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Rossi M., Environmental sustainability awareness in product design practices: A survey of Italian companies, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the attitude and the awareness of environmental sustainability issues within diverse Italian industrial companies. A survey has involved a balanced sample of companies operating in different industrial sectors. Considering the survey's results it can be concluded that: (i) environmental sustainability is an opportunity and a current market requirement, (ii) environmental sustainability is not formalized, since specific methods and tools are not used in technical departments, and (iii) environmental decisions are mainly made by specific key figures (i.e. energy/environmental manager). This analysis can be considered as a useful starting point for the framework formalization of eco-design approaches and tools able to bring eco-design principles into the work of technical departments with the aim to foster the future development of green and sustainable products and services.

[55] Papetti A., Germani M., Marconi M., Favi C., Lifecycle tools as a support for the eco-design innovation of domestic appliances, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The goal of sustainable development through the product innovation is a global challenge that Academia and Industries are addressing. The regulatory pressure and the growing demand of eco-friendly products by consumers are two of its main drivers, especially in the household appliances sector. For this aim, manufactures need to change the design approach in order to extend the boundaries of the benchmark analysis of possible innovations: (i) multi-objective criteria should be taken into account such as the environmental issues, costs, technical performances, etc., and (ii) a life cycle thinking has to be adopted to consider long terms benefits or impacts. However, the literature highlights the lack of structured methods able to support the R&D activity according to these perspectives. For this aim, the present paper provides a systematic approach, which exploits lifecycle and innovation tools to effectively support designers in the development of sustainable solutions in a long term perspective. The proposed approach has been applied in real case study to increase the energy efficiency of a domestic refrigerator. In particular, the insulation module has been redesigned by comparing several alternatives in terms of environmental performances and costs over the product lifespan to effectively evaluate the consistency of the developed eco-innovations.

[56] Meo I., Papetti A., Gregori F., Germani M., Optimization of Energy Efficiency of a Production Site: A Method to Support Data Acquisition for Effective Action Plans, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 760-767, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays the efficient use of energy has acquired a significant importance in the industrial sector. Moreover, stringent regulations on environmental impact lead companies to tread a path towards energy efficiency in short terms to avoid penalties. The goal of this work is to propose a structured method to perform fast and simplified energy assessments. The latter starts from a proper classification of process data, passing through an effective mapping in order to identify criticalities that have to be solved by innovative action plans. Method will be tested on a real case study.

Keywords: data management | energy efficiency | process innovation | sustainable manufacturing

[57] Gregori F., Papetti A., Pandolfi M., Peruzzini M., Germani M., Digital Manufacturing Systems: A Framework to Improve Social Sustainability of a Production Site, Procedia CIRP, 63, 436-442, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The topic of digital manufacturing is increasingly emerging in industry. One of the main scope of data digitalization is achieving more efficient factories. Different techniques and tools under the Industry 4.0 paradigm were already discussed in literature. These are aimed mostly at boosting company efficiency in terms of costs and environmental footprint. However, from a sustainability point of view, the social theme must be equally considered. While energy flows or costs can be already monitored in a production plant, this is not valid for data related to human effort. Monitoring systems aimed at supervising factory social sustainability were not already discussed in literature. The aim of this paper is to propose a method to acquire social related data in a production plant. The method is supported by a smart architecture within the concept of IoT factory. Such architecture permits to monitor the parameters that could influence social sustainability in a production site. After a discussion on production plants facilities and features, the parameters that need to be considered to guarantee socially sustainable manufacturing processes are identified. A set of sensors controls these data taken from different sources, including operator vital signs. Operations as well as humans are monitored. Data acquired by sensors are collected by a central server. A decision maker can interpret the data and improve the production system from a social point of view, implementing corrective actions. Data can be exploited not only for social assessments but even for other analyses on the production system. Guaranteeing social sustainability could boost the factory productivity. A case study is included in the paper: smart sensors are implemented in a production line to understand the operations efficiency in terms of social sustainability.

Keywords: digital manufacturing | smart sensors | social sustainability

[58] Gullà F., Cavalieri L., Ceccacci S., Papetti A., Germani M., The user-product ontology: A new approach to define an ontological model to manage product searching based on user needs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10273 LNCS, 333-346, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Search engines play an important role in determining the success of e-commerce. Despite many efforts have been made to improve searching methods (SM) they remain mostly limited to semantic elaboration of keywords. This implies that the SM are not capable of supporting the research of products that best satisfy customers, according to their characteristics and background. To overcome this limitation, this paper introduces an approach able to define a new ontological model that formalizes the knowledge necessary to implement a search engine capable to guide the customer to search the desired product or service according to his/her characteristics and needs. To this purpose, three essential aspects have been considered: a User Ontology (UO), a Product Ontology (PO) and rules (or properties) to link the user and product ontologies. The described approach is applied, as an example, to the products class known as Smart Objects that are part of the Internet of Things (IoT) market.

Keywords: Internet of things | Ontologies connection | Product ontology | User ontology | User-centred design

[59] Marilungo E., Papetti A., Germani M., Peruzzini M., From PSS to CPS Design: A Real Industrial Use Case Toward Industry 4.0, Procedia CIRP, 64, 357-362, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: During the last 10 years, manufacturing companies have faced new challenges for improving their value proposition and being more efficient and effective on the market, satisfying the customer needs. According to this trend, several technologies have been developed and applied in different sectors and with different aims, in order to support such the companies in their reconfiguration. For example, the recent advances in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) could give also to manufacturing industries the competences required to develop novel sustainable products embedded with a dedicated infrastructure able to provide more service functionalities to customer. In this context, the application of Internet of Things (IoT) have allowed developing the so named Product Service Systems (PSSs). Moreover, the cross-fertilization between such the technologies with the development of other ones have fostered the application of these novel ICT technologies inside the manufacturing companies also at process level. This approach has encouraged the study and development of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs). The present paper deals with a real industrial use case, where the application of ICT technologies and specifically the adoption of IoT at a plant of plastic extrusion pipes have allowed optimizing the production process in terms of energy efficiency.

Keywords: CPS | Cyber Physical System design | ICT | Industry 4.0 | IoT

[60] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Papetti A., Iualè M., Design of sustainable smart homes for elderly, International Journal of Design Sciences and Technology, 22(1), 7-30, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Designing sustainable systems is challenging since economic, environmental and social factors must be considered. It is particularly hard when heavy interaction with humans take place. The smart home is an example: it is finalized to increase the comfort of dwellings and optimize the devices’ behaviour as well as the consumed resources in relation to the users’ habits. Elderly represent a special category of users characterized by specific needs: therefore, the design of a smart home is particularly critical since elderly require support in their everyday activities, control of their own lifestyle monitoring, and consciousness about the devices’ behaviours. As a consequence, smart home are usually complicated, expensive and not suitable for elderly. This paper defines a methodology to design sustainable smart home systems for elderly. An intelligent network monitoring the users’ wellbeing and assuring a controlled use of objects and resources is defined and verified on a case study.

Keywords: Assistive technologies | Distributed information management | Smart home | Smart objects | Sustainability

[61] Cavalieri L., Capitanelli A., Ceccacci S., Gullà F., Germani M., Papetti A., A new smart strategy for web searching of commercial products, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2016, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Search engine efficiency is an essential prerequisite to ensure a satisfactory on-line purchasing experience. Despite powerful tools available today, search engine is limited to a semantic elaboration of keywords and they do not allow users finding product categories that do not belong to their knowledge sphere. In this context, in order to make an effective search engine it is necessary to provide tools able to understand what the user is looking for and suggest the products that best satisfy their needs, regardless of users' background. To this aim, this paper proposes an innovative smart search strategy, based on artificial intelligence technologies. In order to highlight the system potential, the smart object market case study has been considered. The SOs market is grown so quickly to disorient the average user and it offer a wide variety of products apparently similar, but that are characterized by different features that the average user fails to perceive.

Keywords: Adaptive systems | Internet of Things | Product evaluation | Search dngine

[62] Gregori F., Luzi A., Papetti A., Germani M., Camorani F., An innovative tool to monitor and represent energy value stream of a production system, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, the energy factor is growing in importance because it really affects the production costs of factories. Not least, energy regulation and rules are stricter as time goes by. Tools for energy monitoring are needed. The objective of this work is to propose a tool aimed to assess the energy value flowing in a production system, according to the Energy Value Stream Mapping method (EVSM). The final goal is to increase the sustainability of the processes through identification of energy wastes, aiming at eliminating them. The tool is a lean graphic instrument; it permits to represent explicitly the energy flows along the process with respect to the concept of value creation. The tool permits to clearly identify and quantify different types of energy flows concerning different carriers, even in a complex production plant where multiple energy carriers act at the same time. Finally, it will be shown the testing of the tool in a household appliances production system.

[63] Papetti A., Capitanelli A., Cavalieri L., Ceccacci S., Gullà F., Germani M., Consumers vs Internet of Things: A Systematic Evaluation Process to Drive Users in the Smart World, Procedia CIRP, 50, 541-546, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: Smart Objects (SOs) market offers a wide variety of products apparently similar but characterized by different features that the average users fail to perceive. Consequently, their purchasing is often based on price and brand affection. In this context, users need a tool able to guide them in choosing the most suitable object to satisfy their expectations. To this purpose, this paper proposes a new systematic method to assess SOs in a comprehensive way: it allows to objectively assess and compare products and provides evaluation results tailored on users' needs. A first validation is carried out on three different SO typologies.

Keywords: Internet of Things | Smart objects | Systematic evaluation process | Usability

[64] Papetti A., Marilungo E., Gregori F., Germani M., Driving Process Innovation: A Structured Method for Improving Efficiency in SMEs, Procedia CIRP, 50, 448-453, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper proposes a method to drive process innovation toward the increase in efficiency of a production plant. The work defines a structured method, supported by a classification tool, to correctly organize whole plant information with a mayor focus on energy consumptions. The method was tested in a medium enterprise with the target to increase the efficiency of the entire production plant. The method is the basis for a web application tool. A correct data management permits to plan the best practices to improve processes and systems involved in terms of environmental and economic impacts, meaning a process sustainable innovation.

Keywords: data management | energy efficiency | energy measurement | lean manufacturing | process innovation

[65] Germani M., Luzi A., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Peruzzini M., Investigating the sustainability of a high-energy consuming industrial process to achieve total quality, International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 18(2-3), 301-324, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: In the last century, the quality factor is seen as the key to success of each industry. In industrial companies, total quality management (TQM) principles have been introduced to achieve specific innovations in product and process development, though the continuous improvement (CI). Simultaneously, industrial companies think sustainable manufacturing as a means to create innovation, respecting environmental, economic and social themes. In fact, when a product reach the maturity stage of its life cycle, the improvements are no longer on product itself, but on its production process, optimising energy and resources use, eliminating waste, adopting sustainable end-of-life (EoL) policies, and reducing costs. Indeed, industrial processes require large consumption of resources during the product manufacturing phase. In this context, the paper aims to create a link between sustainable manufacturing and TQM principles, defining a new methodology that uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to assess the impacts of industrial processes inside the existing 'plan, do, check, act' (PDCA) method.

Keywords: Continuing improvement | Energy efficiency | Process lca | Process monitoring | Quality management | Sustainability | Sustainable manufacturing

[66] Capitanelli A., Germani M., Landi D., Papetti A., A methodology to design a knowledge-based tool for residential buildings simulation, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 11-2015, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The actual growing world energy demand is generating strong attention to the energy efficiency and to the environmental sustainability. The residential sector is one of the most energy-intensive reaching about 25% of global energy consumption. Furthermore, it is difficult to understand the real energy use in residential buildings suggesting the development of methodologies and tools to monitor and assess their energy performances. Such an analysis requires defining all the actors, their interaction rules and the intelligent management of a large amount of data. In addition to this, the energy performances of the home environment are closely related to the specific case under investigation, in fact it imposes the analysis of the particular application scenario and the target users to extract parameters able to describe the building behavior. They are related to the technological characteristics of the systems, to the external environment (e.g. external temperature, solar irradiation, etc.) and to the user needs and habits. It introduces some complexities, because many of these data are difficult to find and to predict. Another cause of complexity was introduced by the information and communication technologies (ICT) that creates new relationship between home devices fostering the spread of smart systems. In this scenario, simulation tools have been developed to grasp the real energy performance of a building, but they require a high level of detail for the input data which are often difficult to find. Otherwise, other tools are built for much simplified simulations and typically addressed to inexperienced users neglecting the real complexities of the system. For this reason, the paper presents a new design approach that aims to develop knowledge-based tools with architecture able to simulate the real behavior of the building considering all the actors and their interaction rules, but at the same time containing the features that allow them to be used in fast simulations or by inexperienced users. One of the focuses is the development of an intelligent user interface that, when requested, is able to automate and simplify data entry process. It is particularly useful when the user does not know the necessary input data for the simulation, e.g. energy consumption profiles, detailed features of the building, etc. All the steps of the proposed approach are described in the paper. In the first section is highlighted how the key parameters have been found and how they are organized as creating a knowledge base, while in the second section is shown the operation of the smart user interface and of the simulation tool. The results demonstrate that the proposed knowledge-based approach generates real benefits by simplifying and speeding up the data entry. Furthermore, the study shows how the smart user interface allows performing complex simulations also to novice users.

[67] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Investigating the sustainability of product supply chains, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 1(DS 80-01), 181-190, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: According to the growing pressure on Sustainability issues from governances, manufacturing industries must pay their attention to optimize their processes. Anyway, it is necessary go behind this preliminary approach, extending the boundaries from the single company to the other actors that operate in the same supply chain. In this context, the paper proposes a methodology to increase the sustainability and to guarantee the traceability along the whole product supply chain. The methodology allows to model any supply chain, through the data collection from all the actors involved, and to measure the environmental sustainability, through the implementation of a distributed software system. The experimental case study, which involved a leather shoe supply chain, allowed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in the selection of suppliers and in the optimization of the supply chain, taking into account the environmental aspects together with the other constraints such as design, costs and quality.

Keywords: Design for X (DfX) | Supply chain modelling | Sustainability | Traceability

[68] Germani M., Mandolini M., Marconi M., Marilungo E., Papetti A., A system to increase the sustainability and traceability of supply chains, Procedia CIRP, 29, 227-232, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper proposes a system to increase the environmental sustainability and to guarantee the traceability along the whole product supply chain. A methodology to efficiently model complex supply chains, share data between all the actors and measure the environmental sustainability, has been developed and implemented in a distributed software system. The experimental case study, realized in collaboration with a manufacturer of leather products, allowed demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach in the selection of suppliers and in the optimization of the whole supply chain, taking into account the environmental aspects together with the other constraints such as design, costs and quality.

Keywords: Life cycle assessment | Supply chain sustainability | Traceability

[69] Papetti A., Germani M., Mandolini M., Product innovations and eco-sustainability: An approach to evaluate the relationships, Key Engineering Materials, 572(1), 74-77, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: The academic and industrial literature presents a lot of innovations to improve the energy efficiency of the home appliances around the world. However, few methodologies are able to combine innovations and eco-sustainability, during the design phase of green products. In this context, the paper defines an approach to analyse the relationships between different types of innovation and the relative environmental impacts, during the product lifecycle. The analysis has been performed by defining innovations categories and comparing the product Life Cycle Assessment before and after their implementation. This approach represents the preliminary phase of the innovation process, required to support the product manager. The approach has been experimented within a household appliances company, highlighting that there are innovations able to reduce the energy and water consumption respectively of 25% and 30%.©(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Keywords: Household appliances | Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) | Product innovation

[70] Luzi A., Marilungo E., Papetti A., Germani M., Development of a methodology based on industrial environment simulation to optimise the heating energy consumption, Proceedings of the Summer School Francesco Turco, 09-12-September-2014, 302-307, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Over the last years, industrial companies have started to use simulation software to evaluate their energy performance. Today, the main researchers are focusing on the process energy consumption, but there is a lack in the indirect energy optimization such as ventilation and heating and a lack in the use of the simulation results as a practical feedback for energy manager. The focus of this paper is the study and the development of an approach based on the industrial environment simulation to optimize the thermal energy consumption related to the heating industrial building. To validate the proposed approach a test in a real industrial case is conducted.

Keywords: Indirect energy | Simulation | Thermal energy | Virtual industrial model

[71] Peruzzini M., Capitanelli A., Papetti A., Germani M., Designing and simulating smart home environments and related services, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 2014-January, 1145-1156, (2014).
[72] Capitanelli A., Papetti A., Peruzzini M., Germani M., A smart home information management model for device interoperability Simulation, Procedia CIRP, 21, 64-69, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: Numerous smart home systems have been created in the recent years, but they still lack of high interoperability and research has been focused on single smart technologies instead of the system interoperability as a whole. Furthermore, available systems are usually strongly technology-oriented and they neglect the user's satisfaction and the benefits' analysis. In addition to this, modern systems impose the intelligent management of a huger amount of data, which needs to be properly coordinated to achieve higher performances and offer new energy-control services. This paper defines an information management model to improve device interoperability in smart homes. It allows selecting and classifying the devices, visualizing their data model, aggregating the necessary data according to the desired service functions, and finally defining a set of rules to coordinate device operations according to user preferences and external events. A case study focused on washing machines is presented to demonstrate the methodology implementation; it allows designing and developing an energy-control service for the selected device and optimizing its functions according to the users' needs and preferences as well as the constraints of the use scenario. Finally, the benefits achieved with such a new service are evaluated in terms of energy consumption, costs reduction and user satisfaction in a simulated home environment that represents practical scenarios of use.

Keywords: Customized and personalized product development | Intelligent design | Smart product engineering

[73] Papetti A., Iualé M., Ceccacci S., Bevilacqua R., Germani M., Mengoni M., Smart objects: An evaluation of the present state based on user needs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8530 LNCS, 359-368, (2014). Abstract
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Abstract: In the last years, some attempts have been made to explore the use of smart objects, with the purpose of monitoring well-being and supporting people's independent living. However an inventory of characteristics of smart products currently available on the market is still lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such products in order to: (1) understand if their features really match users' needs, answering to the definition of assistive technology and, consequently, (2) understand if an environment embedded with SOs can be considered as assistive too, taking into consideration the attributes given by the definition of the SOs, of being embedded in familiar objects and immerse in the users' surround. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Keywords: Home Environment | Inclusive Design | Internet of Things | Universal Design

[74] Peruzzini M., Germani M., Papetti A., Capitanelli A., Smart home information management system for energy-efficient networks, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 408, 393-401, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Energy efficiency of smart home systems imposes the intelligent management of a huge quantity of data and the collaboration between multiple stakeholders. Indeed, thanks to recent developments in ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) and IoT (Internet of Things), it is possible to achieve higher performances and offer new energy-control services. However, data must be not only retrieved but also translated into significant information and related to interoperable tasks. This paper focuses on smart home energy control and defines a methodology to improve smart home information management in order to create an extended energy-efficient network comprehending the distributed manufacturing enterprise as well as the energy utility and the consumers. The case study focuses on a sub-set of interoperable smart devices and shows how to apply the proposed information management model to make an extended virtual enterprise provide energy-control services. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013.

Keywords: Energy-control services | Energy-efficient networks | Internet of Things (IoT) | Interoperable smart home systems (SHS) | Virtual Enterprise (VE)

[75] Papetti A., Peruzzini M., Capitanelli A., Germani M., A methodology for interoperability and information management in smart home environments, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 6 DS75-06, 149-158, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: The environmental impact reduction and the growing world energy demand have generated a strong interest to smart home all over the world. Indeed, thanks to the recent developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Internet of Things (IoT), it is possible to create smart home system by making several objects installed at home cooperate each other and offering new services to end users. However, smart home system design is not a trivial task: the increasing embedded intelligence of smart devices is generating a huge quantity of data, which needs to be properly structured and managed, and the related services must be designed and personalized according to the specific users' needs. This paper defines a methodology to support smart home system design and improve smart home information management by selection, aggregation and classification of relevant data, and their correlation to smart home services. The methodology implementation shows how it can support the design of services able to bring benefits to the subjects involved. It also represents the first step towards the creation of a standard by data management and device interoperability for smart home systems' design.

Keywords: Device interoperability | Information management | Product-service systems | Service design | Smart home system design

[76] Andrea L., Eugenia M., Alessandra P., Margherita P., Michele G., Combining energy monitoring and LCA/LCCA analyses to improve the sustainability of an extrusion process, Proceedings of the Summer School Francesco Turco, 11-13-September-2013, 67-72, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: Purpose It is well known that industrial processes require large consumption of energy and other resources during the product manufacturing phase. This exploitation of energy is reflected both in terms of environmental impact and in terms of economic impact, which can be measured through specific tools. The measurement of these environmental and economic impacts is an essential step towards both the control of the energy consumption and energy costs and in sustainability energy assessment. In this paper is presented the extrusion process of plastic materials in a big Italian company. This process is highly energy-consuming and for this reason it is necessary monitoring the energy consumption and controlling the process parameters to increase the energy sustainability and, at the same time, decrease the environmental and social impacts. The aim of this work is presenting a methodology to capture the extrusion process sustainability to have a base line useful to compare the results of any other extrusion process assessment. Design/methodology/approach The proposed methodology aims to identify the high energy consuming machineries, components, and devices in the company. To do this, the industrial process must be organised in several functional components which have a specific number of input and output. The first step in this propose is the process evaluation in terms of the definition of the functional modules involved and the identification of the input/output needed in each one. After the collection of these data, the next step is the assessment of the environmental and economic impacts through Life Cycle Assessment analysis (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost Assessment analysis (LCCA). This study is supported by a hardware and software infrastructure among the extrusion process machineries and the SimaPro tool to conduct the LCA and LCCA analyses. Originality/value The innovation of this paper is to consider the Life Cycle Assessment of a process through the evaluation of each its components. The resulted impacts are focused on the process sustainability and not on the product sustainability as is instead largely made clear in the literature. The results of this work are related to the definition of a methodology in the field of industrial processes evaluation; in fact, it has been defined a new approach to conduct the Life Cycle Assessment focused on the industrial process and it has been suggested a method to evaluate the Energy Sustainability in a highly energy-consuming process.

Keywords: Energy efficiency | Process life cycle assessment | Process monitoring | Sustainable manufacturing