[Elenco soci]


Barone Sandro

Professore Ordinario


Università degli Studi di Pisa
s.barone@ing.unipi.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 7005293305
Orcid: 0000-0003-4055-4799



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Aruanno B., Tamburrino F., Razionale A.V., Barone S., Bordegoni M., Automatic Algorithm to Design Bespoke Teeth Whitening Trays, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 20(1), 82-91, (2023). Abstract
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The growing attention of people to aesthetics has led to a greater demand for dental whitening treatments. Several solutions can be utilized to obtain the desired visual whiteness of teeth but, according to literature, at-home supervised treatments are the standard in dental bleaching. They require soft plastic trays to contain a whitening gel, with active chemical agents, and keep it in contact with the patient’s teeth. The fitting, comfort, and tightness of trays play a fundamental role in the treatment. Any gel leakage can compromise the effectiveness of the treatment and damage soft tissues. Commonly, the trays are ready-made or based on physical dental impressions and manually modified by the dental technician. These procedures have low repeatability and do not always ensure high accuracy. This work presents an automatic digital algorithm to design customized whitening trays. Starting from a digital scan acquisition of the patient’s dental arches, it generates the 3D models of the bespoke trays, in approximately two minutes per arch, ready to be produced by additive manufacturing and thermoforming technologies. The evaluation of the method involved 20 patients. The results emphasize that the custom trays were comfortable and ensured high levels of tightness and fitting.

Keywords: automatic product design | custom teeth trays | dental whitening | digital process

[2] Tamburrino F., Aruanno B., Razionale A.V., Barone S., Martini M., Bordegoni M., A Digital Process for Manufacturing Customized Trays for Dental-Whitening Treatments, Processes, 10(7), (2022). Abstract
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This study presents an alternative process for designing and manufacturing customized trays for dental-whitening treatments. The process is based on a digitized approach consisting of three main stages: design of a reference model, its manufacturing by AM, and thermoforming of the tray. The aim of the study was to develop a high-performance tray, able to guarantee comfort, safety, and efficacy for whitening treatments. To evaluate the patient’s experience, some tests under real operating conditions were performed. Twenty people carried out a nighttime treatment of 14 days. Each patient was asked to assess the overall level of satisfaction and the comfort of the tray and its ability to retain the gel. Tooth whitening was also determined according to the VITAPAN scale. All patients involved in the study were satisfied and provided positive feedback about comfort and tightness of the tray. At the end of the treatment, 15 out of 20 patients achieved shade A1 on the VITAPAN scale. The mean improvement in color shades was about 7. These results confirmed the great potential of the proposed dental tray. Its use was proven to guarantee a high level of quality, flexibility, and customization of dental-whitening treatments, improving comfort, safety, and efficacy.

Keywords: additive technologies | bespoke dental trays | custom design | dental engineering | digital manufacturing | esthetic dentistry | tooth whitening

[3] Neri P., Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., A Depth-Camera Based System for the Real-Time Scanning of Upper Limb Anatomy, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 245-255, (2022). Abstract
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The 3D reconstruction of upper limb anatomy plays a significant role in many biomedical fields as ergonomics, motion rehabilitation, prosthesis design. Conventional manual measurements have been progressively replaced by 3D optical scanning in collecting and storing 3D anatomical data, thus increasing reliability and data accuracy, shortening, at the same time, the overall acquisition process. However, the real-time scanning of human body parts still represents a complex task since it is challenging to keep the arm in a stable position and avoid artifacts in the collected data. Also, optical undercut geometries often impair the 3D reconstruction’s completeness. In this paper, a compact and low-cost 3D scanning system has been developed by integrating three D415 Intel RealSense cameras. The three depth cameras have been assembled in a circular rig to define a lightweight handheld scanner capable of carrying out 3D data acquisition in different scenarios. The optical system has been validated through anthropometric measurements on different subjects.

Keywords: 3D scanning | D415 Intel realSense | Depth-camera | Upper limb anatomy

[4] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Effects of Coating Post-processing on the Compressive Properties of Strut-and-Node-Based FDM Lattice Structures, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 442-450, (2022). Abstract
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Lattice structures have many outstanding properties, and their use in diversified industrial and biomedical fields is widely studied. The advent of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies has further pushed the design of these cellular structures allowing for the fabrication of complex trusses and tailored local geometries. However, geometrical defects introduced by the AM process into printed lattice structures significantly affect their mechanical properties. In this work, the effect of chemical post-processing on the compressive properties of FDM-PLA strut-and-node-based lattice structures is evaluated. A UV resin has been used as a coating film on samples fabricated using Simple Cubic (SC) and Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) unit cells. Results demonstrated a 65% increase in compressive strength for SC unit cells and a 12% increase for FCC unit cells with respect to as-printed samples. Resin coating demonstrated to represent an effective approach to minimize defects of strut-and-node-based lattice structures, thus enhancing mechanical properties.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Coating post-process | Compressive properties | Lattice structures

[5] Tamburrino F., Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Post-processing treatments to enhance additively manufactured polymeric parts: a review, Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 16(2), 218-251, (2021). Abstract
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The potential of additive manufacturing to produce optimised and customized polymeric parts is often impaired by poor surface finish, low mechanical properties, and insufficient dimensional accuracy. Post-processing treatments are usually adopted to address these issues. Scientific community and industrial actors are engaged in the development and use of post-processing to enhance the performance and widen the range of application of polymeric components manufactured by additive technologies. The present work aims to provide an exhaustive classification and discussion of the post-processing treatments, as well as an extensive literature review of the approaches proposed within the scientific community. A holistic view of post-processing is provided, including a discussion of the benefits associated with each technique as well as its side effects. This work is intended to support the selection of the most appropriate post-processing by considering multiple aspects such as the material, part geometry, processing time, costs, and treatment specificity.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | polymers | post-processing treatments

[6] Paoli A., Neri P., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Barone S., Sensor architectures and technologies for upper limb 3d surface reconstruction: A review, Sensors (Switzerland), 20(22), 1-33, (2020). Abstract
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3D digital models of the upper limb anatomy represent the starting point for the design process of bespoke devices, such as orthoses and prostheses, which can be modeled on the actual patient’s anatomy by using CAD (Computer Aided Design) tools. The ongoing research on optical scanning methodologies has allowed the development of technologies that allow the surface reconstruction of the upper limb anatomy through procedures characterized by minimum discomfort for the patient. However, the 3D optical scanning of upper limbs is a complex task that requires solving problematic aspects, such as the difficulty of keeping the hand in a stable position and the presence of artefacts due to involuntary movements. Scientific literature, indeed, investigated different approaches in this regard by either integrating commercial devices, to create customized sensor architectures, or by developing innovative 3D acquisition techniques. The present work is aimed at presenting an overview of the state of the art of optical technologies and sensor architectures for the surface acquisition of upper limb anatomies. The review analyzes the working principles at the basis of existing devices and proposes a categorization of the approaches based on handling, pre/post-processing effort, and potentialities in real-time scanning. An in-depth analysis of strengths and weaknesses of the approaches proposed by the research community is also provided to give valuable support in selecting the most appropriate solution for the specific application to be addressed.

Keywords: Body scanner | Depth cameras | Handheld scanner | Stationary scanner | Structured light scanning | Upper limb 3D scanning

[7] Tamburrino F., D’Antò V., Bucci R., Alessandri-Bonetti G., Barone S., Razionale A.V., Mechanical properties of thermoplastic polymers for aligner manufacturing: In vitro study, Dentistry Journal, 8(2), (2020). Abstract
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The use of metal-free thermoplastic materials plays a key role in the orthodontic digital workflow due to the increasing demand for clear aligner treatments. Three thermoplastic polymers commonly used to fabricate clear aligners, namely Duran®, Biolon® and Zendura®, were investigated to evaluate the effect of thermoforming (T.), storage in artificial saliva (S.A.S.) and their combination on their mechanical properties. Elastic modulus and yield stress of the specimens were characterized. Each material was characterized for each condition through tensile tests (ISO527-1). The results showed that thermoforming does not lead to a significant decrease in yield stress, except for Zendura® that showed about a 30% decrease. An increase of the elastic modulus of Duran® and Zendura®, instead, was observed after thermoforming. The same increase was noticed for the yield stress of Duran®. For S.A.S. specimens, the elastic modulus generally decreases compared to supplier condition (A.S.) and simply thermoformed material. A decrease of yield stress, instead, is significant for Zendura®. The results demonstrated that the impact of the operating conditions on the mechanical properties can vary according to the specific polymer. To design reliable and effective orthodontic treatments, the materials should be selected after their mechanical properties are characterized in the simulated intraoral environment.

Keywords: Mechanical properties | Orthodontic aligners | Simulated oral environment | Thermoplastic polymers

[8] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., 3D acquisition and stereo-camera calibration by active devices: A unique structured light encoding framework, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 127, (2020). Abstract
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The use of light encoding techniques is widespread in the field of 3D surface reconstruction. This paper presents a stereo-camera calibration methodology, which integrates structured light encoding with an active digital device. The structured light encoding approach is proposed to unambiguously solve the stereo matching issue for stereo-camera setups. A sequence of vertical and horizontal binary striped patterns, combined with a checkerboard pattern, is displayed by a high-resolution LCD screen, which is used as calibration board. A bundle adjustment technique is adopted to simultaneously adjust both camera parameters and screen geometry, as part of the stereo-camera calibration process, thus taking into account the possible inaccuracies of the digital display. The same structured light approach, with small variants, is projected by a multimedia digital projector to carry out 3D surface reconstruction. The proposed methodology defines a comprehensive framework for the development of a 3D optical scanner, from calibration to 3D acquisition, which has been validated by measuring primitive surfaces and reconstructing free-form shapes with different stereo-camera setups.

Keywords: Binary-code | LCD screen | Stereo-camera calibration | Stripe shifting | Structured light encoding

[9] Barone S., Neri P., Orsi S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Two coatings that enhance mechanical properties of fused filament-fabricated carbon-fiber reinforced composites, Additive Manufacturing, 32, (2020). Abstract
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Moisture absorption degrades the mechanical properties of polymeric parts that are 3D-printed by fused filament fabrication (FFF). This limitation is particularly significant for short fiber-reinforced polymers because the mechanical enhancement obtained by the fiber reinforcement can be compromised by the plasticizing effect introduced by water absorption. Therefore, the present work investigates the effects of two different coatings, a UV cured acrylate resin and an acrylic varnish, on the moisture absorption of FFF 3D-printed samples consisting of polyamide reinforced by short carbon fibers. Water content (CI) and open porosity (OP) were estimated through water absorption tests in distilled water for 2, 24, and 168 h, and after reconditioning. The coating effects were evaluated by conducting tensile tests to compare the Young's modulus, yield stress, and ultimate stress of the coated and uncoated specimens. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of CI and OP with both the acrylic and UV resin coatings, as well as considerable enhancements of these samples’ mechanical properties. Stress-strain curves evidenced a strain reduction after water immersion, which can be ascribed to a greater stability against different moisture conditions. These findings indicate the significant potential of the proposed coating processes to extend the use of FFF 3D-printed composite materials to a broader range of applications.

Keywords: Fused filament fabrication | Material extrusion | Mechanical properties enhancement | Moisture absorption | Short fiber-reinforced polymers

[10] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Bertini L., Santus C., Optical Stereo-System for Full-Field High-Frequency 3D Vibration Measurements Based on Low-Frame-Rate Cameras, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 155-164, (2020). Abstract
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Dynamic characterization of vibrating targets represents a critical issue for many industrial fields. In this paper, a stereo-camera system integrated with a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) algorithm is proposed with the aim at performing 3D full-field vibration measurements in the range of kHz. The system exploits two industrial low-speed cameras, and the Nyquist-Shannon frequency limitation is overcome by a down-sampling approach under the hypothesis that the vibration signal is characterized by a single known frequency component. Experimental results obtained from the measurement of vibrational responses of a cantilever plate excited at three high-frequency resonance values (1121 Hz, 2956 Hz and 4010 Hz) are provided. A comparison with numerical analyses evidences the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Digital Image Correlation | Low-frame-rate cameras | Stereo-camera setup | Vibration measurement

[11] Barone S., Neri P., Orsi S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Properties Enhancement of Carbon PA 3D-Printed Parts by Post-processing Coating-Based Treatments, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 837-847, (2020). Abstract
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In recent years, Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) has become one of the most attractive Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques, due to the advantages in the production of complex shapes with a wide range of materials and low investment costs. The thermoplastic polymers used for FDM technology are characterized by low mechanical properties if compared to those of composites and metals. This issue is usually overcome by reinforcing the thermoplastic polymer with chopped fibres or particles. Moreover, a second issue arises, which is represented by the water absorption with a relevant impact on mechanical properties and dimensional stability of printed models. In this paper, an experimental study is presented with the aim at evaluating the water absorption influence on mechanical properties of Carbon PA (Polyamide matrix reinforced with Carbon Fiber at 20%) specimens fabricated with the FDM technique. Two post-processing treatments, based on the use of acrylic spray and photosensitive resin, have been also proposed to improve the behaviour of Carbon PA printed parts. Results of water absorption tests and tensile tests demonstrated a significant improvement in terms of weight stability and mechanical properties by adopting the proposed post-processing treatments.

Keywords: Carbon fiber | Coating treatment | Fused Deposition Modeling | Mechanical characterization | Water absorption

[12] Bucci R., Rongo R., Levatè C., Michelotti A., Barone S., Razionale A.V., D’Antò V., Thickness of orthodontic clear aligners after thermoforming and after 10 days of intraoral exposure: a prospective clinical study, Progress in Orthodontics, 20(1), (2019). Abstract
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Background: Clear aligners (CA) are among the most chosen orthodontic therapies for patients who require an invisible treatment. Previous studies showed that the thermoforming process and the complexity of the intraoral environment might alter the properties of these devices. The aim of the current prospective clinical study was to assess the thickness changes of the CA after 10 days of intraoral use. The secondary aim was to assess the reproducibility of the thermoforming process, in terms of aligner thickness. Materials and methods: CA from 18 consecutive patients (13 women, 5 men, mean age 28.8 ± 9.6 years) were investigated. Before intraoral exposure (T0), the thickness of the unused CA was measured at different occlusal points on a 3D model with a dedicated software (Geomagic Qualify 2013; 3D Systems, Rock Hill, SC, USA). Two CA configurations were studied: passive maxillary aligner (P—no tooth movement; no shape for attachments) and active maxillary aligner (A—tooth movement; shape for attachments and divot). The used aligners were returned after 10 days (T1) and the thickness measurements were repeated. A Student’s t test for paired data (T1 vs. T0) was applied to compare the thicknesses of used and unused devices (significance level after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparison was set at p < 0.0014). Furthermore, to study the reproducibility of the thermoforming process, P and A aligners were thermoformed twice, and the thicknesses of the two unused thermoformed devices were compared by means of Student’s t test for paired data (significance level after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparison was set at p < 0.0014) and Dahlberg’s error. Results: The thermoforming process showed good reproducibility for both aligner configurations, with a maximum Dahlberg’s error of 0.13 mm. After intraoral use, the thickness of P showed some statistically significant, but not clinically relevant, thickness changes as compared to the unused aligners, while A did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: Considering the thickness changes, the thermoforming process is reliable both with active and passive aligner configurations. Also, the CA examined show good thickness stability after physiological intraoral ageing in a population of healthy adults.

Keywords: Adult | Aesthetic | Clear aligners | Dimensional stability | Intraoral ageing | Mechanical proprieties | Orthodontic appliance | Thermoforming | Thermoplastic

[13] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Low-frame-rate single camera system for 3D full-field high-frequency vibration measurements, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 123, 143-152, (2019). Abstract
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A single-camera stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) system to obtain 3D full-field vibration measurements is proposed. The optical setup is composed of two planar mirrors and a single low frame rate camera, thus resulting in a compact and low-cost equipment. The two mirrors are used to create pseudo-stereo images of a target surface on the camera sensor, which are then correlated by using stereo-DIC. The image acquisition process is carried out at low frame rates and the Nyquist-Shannon frequency limitation is overcome by adopting a down-sampling approach under the hypothesis that the vibration signal is characterized by a single known frequency component. The developed pseudo-stereo DIC system allows to obtain 3D full-field vibration measurements in a frequency range up to 4 kHz even with an available frame rate (at full resolution) of 178 fps. The effectiveness of the described approach has been verified by performing vibration measurements on a cantilever plate and a turbine blade.

Keywords: Digital image correlation | Down-sampling approach | Single low-speed camera | Vibration measurement

[14] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Tamburrino F., Development of a DLP 3D printer for orthodontic applications, Procedia Manufacturing, 38, 1017-1025, (2019). Abstract
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Recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have allowed a widespread diffusion of their use in different fields. 3D printing is becoming commonplace for biomedical applications requiring the custom fabrication of prostheses and appliances fitting patient-specific anatomies. In this work, the feasibility of a vat photopolymerization technology, based on Digital Light Processing (DLP), has been investigated for the manufacturing of polymeric orthodontic appliances. A custom DLP 3D printer has been developed by exploiting an off-the-shelf digital projector, with the aim at studying the influence of printing parameters on the surface roughness. The feasibility of using Dental LT Clear resin, a biocompatible photopolymer specifically designed for SLA technology, has been finally verified.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Custom DLP 3D printer | Orthodontic appliances

[15] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Flexible calibration of a stereo vision system by active display, Procedia Manufacturing, 38, 564-572, (2019). Abstract
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Camera calibration plays a fundamental role for 3D computer vision since it is the first step to recover reliable metric information from 2D images. The calibration of a stereo-vision system is a two-step process: firstly, the calibration of the individual cameras must be carried out, then the two individual calibrations are combined to retrieve the relative placement between the two cameras, and to refine intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. The most commonly adopted calibration methodology uses multiple images of a physical checkerboard pattern. However, the process is time-consuming since the operator must move the calibration target into different positions, typically from 15 to 20. Moreover, the calibration of different optical setups requires the use of calibration boards, which differ for size and number of target points depending on the desired working volume. This paper proposes an innovative approach to the calibration, which is based on the use of a conventional computer screen to actively display the calibration checkerboard. The potential non-planarity of the screen is compensated by an iterative approach, which also estimate the actual screen shape during the calibration process. The use of an active display greatly enhances the flexibility of the stereo-camera calibration process since the same device can be used to calibrate different optical setups by simply varying number and size of the displayed squared patterns.

Keywords: Active display | Reverse Engineering | Stereo camera calibration | Structured light scanner

[16] Savignano R., Valentino R., Razionale A.V., Michelotti A., Barone S., D'Antò V., Biomechanical Effects of Different Auxiliary-Aligner Designs for the Extrusion of an Upper Central Incisor: A Finite Element Analysis, Journal of Healthcare Engineering, 2019, (2019). Abstract
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Aim. To evaluate the biomechanical effects of four different auxiliary-aligner combinations for the extrusion of a maxillary central incisor and to define the most effective design through finite element analysis (FEA). Materials and Methods. A full maxillary arch (14 teeth) was modelled by combining two different imaging techniques: cone beam computed tomography and surface-structured light scan. The appliance and auxiliary element geometries were created by exploiting computer-aided design (CAD) procedures. The reconstructed digital models were imported within the finite element solver (Ansys® 17). For the extrusion movement, the authors compared the aligner without an attachment with three auxiliary-aligner designs: a rectangular palatal attachment, a rectangular buccal attachment, and an ellipsoid buccal attachment. The resulting force-moment (MF) system delivered by the aligner to the target tooth and the tooth displacement were calculated for each scenario. Results. The maximum tooth displacement along the z-axis (0.07 mm) was obtained with the rectangular palatal attachment, while the minimum (0.02 mm) was obtained without any attachments. With the ellipsoid attachment, the highest undesired moments Mx and My were found. The rectangular palatal attachment showed the highest Fz (2.0 N) with the lowest undesired forces (Fx = 0.4 N; Fy = -0.2 N). Conclusions. FEA demonstrated that the rectangular palatal attachment can improve the effectiveness of the appliance for the extrusion of an upper central incisor.

[17] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Automatic technical documentation of lithic artefacts by digital techniques, Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, 11, (2018). Abstract
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Despite the existence of a wide variety of standards to create hand-made illustrations of lithic artefacts, the conventional process is laborious, time-consuming and the quality of the drawings is highly variable. In this paper, a novel computer-based methodology to create automatic technical documentation of lithic artefacts, in the form of manual-like drawings, is presented. The method exploits the artefact digital model obtained by a 3D optical scanner. An optimization process is proposed to orient the digital model reproducing the conventional positioning. A lighting model is used to introduce an illumination source having different directions, to highlight surface details. A set of images is then created and segmented to retrieve the artefact outline and the internal ridges between flake scars. Potentialities of the proposed methodology are illustrated by analyzing three different stone artefacts acquired by a structured light scanner. 2D technological drawings are automatically created and compared to those obtained by an experienced lithic illustrator.

Keywords: 3D scanning | Automatic technical drawing | Lithic artefact | Reverse engineering

[18] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Structured light stereo catadioptric scanner based on a spherical mirror, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 107, 1-12, (2018). Abstract
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The present paper describes the development and characterization of a structured light stereo catadioptric scanner for the omnidirectional reconstruction of internal surfaces. The proposed approach integrates two digital cameras, a multimedia projector and a spherical mirror, which is used to project the structured light patterns generated by the light emitter and, at the same time, to reflect into the cameras the modulated fringe patterns diffused from the target surface. The adopted optical setup defines a non-central catadioptric system, thus relaxing any geometrical constraint in the relative placement between optical devices. An analytical solution for the reflection on a spherical surface is proposed with the aim at modelling forward and backward projection tasks for a non-central catadioptric setup. The feasibility of the proposed active catadioptric scanner has been verified by reconstructing various target surfaces. Results demonstrated a great influence of the target surface distance from the mirror's centre on the measurement accuracy. The adopted optical configuration allows the definition of a metrological 3D scanner for surfaces disposed within 120 mm from the mirror centre.

Keywords: Catadioptric system | Reverse engineering | Spherical mirror | Structured light stereo system

[19] Barone S., Paoli A., Neri P., Razionale A.V., De Santis M.L., Mailland F., Automatic illustration of lithics from 3d scanned models, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 364(1), (2018). Abstract
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The manual drafting of lithics artefacts could be a very time-consuming work, and it could be cumbersome on the archaeological site. In this case, a 3D digital model of the object could be very useful. Nowadays, several digitizing technologies are available to easily acquire information about the shape of an object. Virtual models could be used to create a digital museum or to share information between researchers. On the other hand, the manual drafting of a lithic object contains information about the technologies used to realize it. Information about the core setup, types of chipping surfaces, detach sequence of supports, and much more. In this work a method to easily obtain a hand-made-like draft of lithic artefacts is proposed. The method is based on the 3D acquisition of the object with a structured-light based scanner and a sequence of digital processing of the acquired data.

[20] Barone S., Carulli M., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., An omnidirectional vision sensor based on a spherical mirror catadioptric system, Sensors (Switzerland), 18(2), (2018). Abstract
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The combination of mirrors and lenses, which defines a catadioptric sensor, is widely used in the computer vision field. The definition of a catadioptric sensors is based on three main features: hardware setup, projection modelling and calibration process. In this paper, a complete description of these aspects is given for an omnidirectional sensor based on a spherical mirror. The projection model of a catadioptric system can be described by the forward projection task (FP, from 3D scene point to 2D pixel coordinates) and backward projection task (BP, from 2D coordinates to 3D direction of the incident light). The forward projection of non-central catadioptric vision systems, typically obtained by using curved mirrors, is usually modelled by using a central approximation and/or by adopting iterative approaches. In this paper, an analytical closed-form solution to compute both forward and backward projection for a non-central catadioptric system with a spherical mirror is presented. In particular, the forward projection is reduced to a 4th order polynomial by determining the reflection point on the mirror surface through the intersection between a sphere and an ellipse. A matrix format of the implemented models, suitable for fast point clouds handling, is also described. A robust calibration procedure is also proposed and applied to calibrate a catadioptric sensor by determining the mirror radius and center with respect to the camera.

Keywords: Backward projection model | Catadioptric sensor | Computer vision | Forward projection model | Spherical mirror

[21] Barone S., Braglia M., Gabbrielli R., Miceli S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Fabrication of fluidic reactors by a customized 3D printing process, Procedia Structural Integrity, 12, 113-121, (2018). Abstract
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Microfluidic systems demonstrated to improve the analysis of biological and chemical processes by providing a more controlled fluid-handling environment. Typically, microfluidic systems are created in monolithic form by means of microfabrication techniques that constrain designers to work in a two-dimensional space. In this regard, Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a powerful set of technologies that can deal with the complexity of 3D structures producing flow paths with sections differing in size and direction. In this work, the use of a commercial laser-based stereolithography 3D printer has been firstly explored to fabricate transparent channels for flow reactors. A custom 3D printer, based on Digital Light Processing Stereolithography (DLP-SLA), has then been developed with the aim at gaining flexibility and overcoming typical limitations raised from standard commercial solutions. The effectiveness of the developed DLP-SLA 3D printer has been experienced by printing transparent fluidic devices with embedded channels with a specifically designed three-step printing process.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | DLP 3D printing | fluidic reactor | laser-based stereolithograpy

[22] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., 3D vibration measurements by a virtual-stereo-camera system based on a single low frame rate camera, Procedia Structural Integrity, 12, 122-129, (2018). Abstract
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A 3D full-field optical system for high frequency vibration measurement is proposed. The system is composed of a single low-frame-rate camera and two planar mirrors. This compact optical setup overcomes the typical drawback of capturing synchronous acquisitions in the case of a camera pair. Moreover, planar mirrors allow for the use of the classical pinhole model and, thus, conventional stereo-calibration techniques. The use of a low-frame-rate camera provides on the one hand a high-resolution sensor with a relatively low-cost hardware but imposes, on the other, the adoption of a down-sampling approach, which is applicable only when a single (known) sinusoidal load is applied to the structure. The effectiveness of the proposed setup has been verified by the 3D vibration measurement of two different targets up to a frequency of 1 kHz, corresponding to a displacement amplitude of 0.01 mm.

Keywords: digital image correlation | down-sampling approach | Reverse engineering | single low-speed camera

[23] Barone S., Graziosi S., Bordegoni M., Razionale A.V., Cucinotta F., Sfravara F., Human face reconstruction in biomedical applications, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2018, (2018). Abstract
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3D virtual reconstruction of human body parts is nowadays a common practice in many research fields such as the medical one, the manufacturing of customized products or the creation of personal avatar for gaming purpose. The acquisition can be performed with the use of an active stereo system (i.e., laser scanner, structured light sensors) or with the use of a passive image-based approach. While the former represents a consolidated approach in human modeling, the second is still an active research field. Usually, the reconstruction of a body part through a scanning system is expensive and requests to project light on the patient’s body. On the other hand, the image-based approach could use multi-photo technique to reconstruct a real scene and provides some advantages: low equipment costs (only one camera) and rapid acquisition process of the photo set. In this work, the use of the photogrammetry approach for the reconstruction of humans’ face has been investigated as an alternative to active scanning systems. Two different photogrammetric approaches have been tested to verify their potentiality and their sensitivity to configuration parameters. An initial comparison among them has been performed, considering the overall number of points detected (sparse point cloud reconstruction, dense point cloud reconstruction). Besides, to evaluate the accuracy of the reconstruction, a set of measures used in the design of wearable head-related products has been assessed.

[24] Bordegoni M., Ferrise F., Wendrich R., Barone S., Virtual and mixed prototyping techniques and technologies for consumer product design within a blended learning design environment, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 1, 183-192, (2018). Abstract
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Both physical and virtual prototyping are core elements of the design and engineering process. In this paper, we present an industrial case-study in conjunction with a collaborative agile design engineering process and "methodology." Four groups of heterogeneous Post-doc and Ph.D. students from various domains were assembled and instructed to fulfill a multi-disciplinary design task based on a real-world industry use-case. We present findings, evaluation, and results of this study.

Keywords: Augmented reality (AR) | Collaborative design | Engineering design | Virtual prototyping | Virtual reality (VR)

[25] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Catadioptric stereo-vision system using a spherical mirror, Procedia Structural Integrity, 8, 83-91, (2018). Abstract
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In the computer vision field, the reconstruction of target surfaces is usually achieved by using 3D optical scanners assembled integrating digital cameras and light emitters. However, these solutions are limited by the low field of view, which requires multiple acquisition from different views to reconstruct complex free-form geometries. The combination of mirrors and lenses (catadioptric systems) can be adopted to overcome this issue. In this work, a stereo catadioptric optical scanner has been developed by assembling two digital cameras, a spherical mirror and a multimedia white light projector. The adopted configuration defines a non-single viewpoint system, thus a non-central catadioptric camera model has been developed. An analytical solution to compute the projection of a scene point onto the image plane (forward projection) and vice-versa (backward projection) is presented. The proposed optical setup allows omnidirectional stereo vision thus allowing the reconstruction of target surfaces with a single acquisition. Preliminary results, obtained measuring a hollow specimen, demonstrated the effectiveness of the described approach.

Keywords: 3D acquisition | catadioptric stereo vision system | internal geometries acquisition | spherical mirror projection model | structured light scanning

[26] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Design and manufacturing of patient-specific orthodontic appliances by computer-aided engineering techniques, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 232(1), 54-66, (2018). Abstract
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Orthodontic treatments are usually performed using fixed brackets or removable oral appliances, which are traditionally made from alginate impressions and wax registrations. Among removable devices, eruption guidance appliances are used for early orthodontic treatments in order to intercept and prevent malocclusion problems. Commercially available eruption guidance appliances, however, are symmetric devices produced using a few standard sizes. For this reason, they are not able to meet all the specific patient’s needs since the actual dental anatomies present various geometries and asymmetric conditions. In this article, a computer-aided design-based methodology for the design and manufacturing of a patient-specific eruption guidance appliances is presented. The proposed approach is based on the digitalization of several steps of the overall process: from the digital reconstruction of patients’ anatomies to the manufacturing of customized appliances. A finite element model has been developed to evaluate the temporomandibular joint disks stress level caused by using symmetric eruption guidance appliances with different teeth misalignment conditions. The developed model can then be used to guide the design of a patient-specific appliance with the aim at reducing the patient discomfort. At this purpose, two different customization levels are proposed in order to face both arches and single tooth misalignment issues. A low-cost manufacturing process, based on an additive manufacturing technique, is finally presented and discussed.

Keywords: additive manufacturing | eruption guidance appliance | finite element model | Orthodontics | temporomandibular joint

[27] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Optical tracking of a tactile probe for the reverse engineering of industrial impellers, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 17(4), (2017). Abstract
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Different sensor technologies are available for dimensional metrology and reverse engineering processes. Tactile systems, optical sensors, and computed tomography (CT) are being used to an increasing extent in various industrial contexts. However, each technique has its own peculiarities, which may limit its usability in demanding applications. The measurement of complex shapes, such as those including hidden and twisted geometries, could be better afforded by multisensor systems combining the advantages of two or more data acquisition technologies. In this paper, a fully automatic multisensor methodology has been developed with the aim at performing accurate and reliable measurements of both external and internal geometries of industrial components. The methodology is based on tracking a customized hand-held tactile probe by a passive stereo vision system. The imaging system automatically tracks the probe by means of photogrammetric measurements of markers distributed over a plate rigidly assembled to the tactile frame. Moreover, the passive stereo system is activated with a structured light projector in order to provide full-field scanning data, which integrate the point-by-point measurements. The use of the same stereo vision system for both tactile probe tracking and structured light scanning allows the two different sensors to express measurement data in the same reference system, thus preventing inaccuracies due to misalignment errors occurring in the registration phase. The tactile methodology has been validated by measuring primitive shapes. Moreover, the effectiveness of the integration between tactile probing and optical scanning has been experienced by reconstructing twisted and internal shapes of industrial impellers.

Keywords: industrial impeller | multisensor system | structured light scanning | tactile-optical measuring system

[28] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Savignano R., Computational design and engineering of polymeric orthodontic aligners, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, 33(8), (2017). Abstract
X

Transparent and removable aligners represent an effective solution to correct various orthodontic malocclusions through minimally invasive procedures. An aligner-based treatment requires patients to sequentially wear dentition-mating shells obtained by thermoforming polymeric disks on reference dental models. An aligner is shaped introducing a geometrical mismatch with respect to the actual tooth positions to induce a loading system, which moves the target teeth toward the correct positions. The common practice is based on selecting the aligner features (material, thickness, and auxiliary elements) by only considering clinician's subjective assessments. In this article, a computational design and engineering methodology has been developed to reconstruct anatomical tissues, to model parametric aligner shapes, to simulate orthodontic movements, and to enhance the aligner design. The proposed approach integrates computer-aided technologies, from tomographic imaging to optical scanning, from parametric modeling to finite element analyses, within a 3-dimensional digital framework. The anatomical modeling provides anatomies, including teeth (roots and crowns), jaw bones, and periodontal ligaments, which are the references for the down streaming parametric aligner shaping. The biomechanical interactions between anatomical models and aligner geometries are virtually reproduced using a finite element analysis software. The methodology allows numerical simulations of patient-specific conditions and the comparative analyses of different aligner configurations. In this article, the digital framework has been used to study the influence of various auxiliary elements on the loading system delivered to a maxillary and a mandibular central incisor during an orthodontic tipping movement. Numerical simulations have shown a high dependency of the orthodontic tooth movement on the auxiliary element configuration, which should then be accurately selected to maximize the aligner's effectiveness.

Keywords: Computational engineering | Computer-aided design | Finite element analysis | Orthodontic treatment | Patient-specific modeling | Polymeric aligner

[29] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A., Digital Image Correlation Based on Projected Pattern for High Frequency Vibration Measurements, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1592-1599, (2017). Abstract
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The dynamic characterization of mechanical components is a crucial issue in industry, especially in the field of rotating machinery. High frequency loads are typical in this field and experimental tools need to fulfill severe specifications to be able to analyze these high-speed phenomena. In this work, an experimental setup, based on a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique with a projected speckle pattern, is presented. The proposed approach allows the measurement of vibrational response characterized by a single sinusoidal component having a frequency up to 500 Hz and an amplitude lower than 10 μm.

Keywords: Geometrical inspection | Optiocal touch probe | Reverse Engineering

[30] Barone S., Neri P., Paoli A., Razionale A., Optical Tactile Probe for the Inspection of Mechanical Components, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1582-1591, (2017). Abstract
X

Mechanical components are often subjected to tolerances and geometrical specification. This paper describes an automatic 3D measurement system based on the integration of a stereo structured light scanner and a tactile probe. The tactile probe is optically tracked by the optical scanner by means of 3D measurements of a prismatic flag, rigidly connected to the probe and equipped with multiple chessboard patterns. Both the stereo vision system and the tactile probe can be easily configured enabling complete reconstructions of components having complex shapes. For instance, structured light scanning can be used to acquire external and visible geometries while tactile probing can be limited to the acquisition of internal and hidden surfaces.

Keywords: Geometrical inspection | Optical touch probe | Reverse Engineering

[31] Barone S., Paoli A., Neri P., Razionale A.V., Giannese M., Mechanical and geometrical properties assessment of thermoplastic materials for biomedical application, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 437-446, (2017). Abstract
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Clear thermoplastic aligners are nowadays widely used in orthodontics for the correction of malocclusion or teeth misalignment defects. The treatment is virtually designed with a planning software that allows for a definition of a sequence of little movement steps from the initial tooth position to the final desired one. Every single step is transformed into a physical device, the aligner, by the use of a 3D printed model on which a thin foil of plastic material is thermoformed. Manufactured aligners could have inherent limitations such as dimensional instability, low strength, and poor wear resistance. These issues could be associated with material characteristics and/or with the manufacturing processes. The present work aims at the characterization of the manufactured orthodontic devices. Firstly, mechanical properties of different materials have been assessed through a set of tensile tests under different experimental conditions. The tests have the purpose of analyzing the effect that the forming process a d the normal use of the aligner may have on mechanical properties of the material. The manufacturing process could also introduce unexpected limitations in the resulting aligners. This would be a critical element to control in order to establish resulting forces on teeth. Several studies show that resulting forces could be greatly influenced by the aligner thickness. A method to easily measure the actual thickness of the manufactured aligner is proposed. The analysis of a number of real cases shows as the thickness is far to be uniform and could vary strongly along the surface of the tooth.

Keywords: 3D Human Modeling | Clear Aligner | Mechanical Properties Assessment | Optical 3D Scanner | Thermoforming Process | Virtual Design

[32] Savignano R., Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Computer aided engineering of auxiliary elements for enhanced orthodontic appliances, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 405-414, (2017). Abstract
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Orthodontic treatments based on removable thermoplastic aligners are becoming quite common in clinical practice. However, there is no technical literature explaining how the loads are transferred from the thermoformed aligner to the patient dentition. Moreover, the role of auxiliary elements used in combination with the aligner, such as attachments and divots, still needs to be thoroughly explained. This paper is focused on the development of a Finite Element (FE) model to be used in the design process of shape attributes of orthodontic aligners. Geometrical models of a maxillary dental arch, including crown and root shapes, were created by combining optical scanning and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used to compare five different aligner’s configurations for the same tooth orthodontic tipping movement (rotation around the tooth’s center of resistance). The different scenarios were analyzed by comparing the moment along the mesio-distal direction of the tooth and the resulting moment-to-force ratio (M:F) delivered to the tooth on the plane of interest. Results evidenced the influence of the aligner’s configuration on the effectiveness of the planned orthodontic movement.

Keywords: Anatomical modelling | Numerical analysis | Orthodontic aligner | Orthodontic tooth movement

[33] Neri P., Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A., Finite element analysis of TMJ disks stress level due to orthodontic eruption guidance appliances, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 415-423, (2017). Abstract
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In the present work, the effect of Eruption Guidance Appliances (EGAs) on TemporoMandibular Joint (TMJ) disks stress level is studied. EGAs are orthodontic appliances used for early orthodontic treatments in order to prevent malocclusion problems. Commercially available EGAs are usually produced by using standard sizes. For this reason, they are not able to meet all the specific needs of each patient. In particular, EGAs are symmetric devices, while patient arches generally present asymmetric conditions. Thus, uneven stress levels may occur in TMJ disks, causing comfort reduction and potential damage to the most solicited disk. On the other hand, a customized EGA could overcome these issues, improving the treatment effectiveness. In this preliminary study, a Finite Element (FE) model was developed to investigate the effects of a symmetric EGA when applied to an asymmetric mouth. Different misalignment conditions were studied to compare the TMJ disks stress levels and to analyze the limitations of a symmetric EGA. The developed FE model can be used to design patient-specific EGAs, which could be manufactured by exploiting non-conventional techniques such as 3D printing.

Keywords: Eruption guidance appliance (EGA) | FE model | Patient-specific orthodontic appliance | TMJ disks stress | TMJ disorders

[34] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Savignano R., Modelling strategies for the advanced design of polymeric orthodontic aligners, Communications in Computer and Information Science, 690, 67-83, (2017). Abstract
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In the last decade, orthodontic removable thermoplastic aligners have become a common alternative to conventional fixed brackets and wires. However, the wide spread of this typology of orthodontic treatment was not followed by an adequate scientific investigation about its biomechanical effects onto the teeth. In the present work, a patient-specific framework has been developed with the aim of simulating orthodontic tooth movements by using plastic aligners. A maxillary and a mandibular dental arch were reconstructed by combining optical and radiographic imaging methods. A Finite Element (FE) model was then created to analyze two different aligner configurations. In particular, the effect of a non-uniform aligner’s thickness and of a customized initial offset between the aligner and the patient dentition were studied. The force-moment systems delivered by the aligner to a mandibular central incisor during labiolingual tipping, and to a maxillary central incisor during rotation were analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Aligner thickness | Customized aligner shape | Finite element model | Orthodontic aligner design

[35] Barone S., Cucinotta F., Sfravara F., A comparative life cycle assessment of utility poles manufactured with different materials and dimensions, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 91-99, (2017). Abstract
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In the production of utility poles, used for transmission, telephony, telecommunications or lighting support, for many years, the steel has almost entirely replaced wood. In recent years, however, new composite materials are a great alternative to steel. The questions are: is the production of composite better in terms of environmental impact? Is the lifecycle of composite pole more eco-sustainable than lifecycle of steel pole? Where is the peak of pollution inside the lifecycle of both of technologies? In the last years, in order to deal with new European polices in environmental field, a new approach for the impact assessment has been developed: the Life Cycle Assessment. It involves a cradle-to-grave consideration of all stages of a product system. Stages include the extraction of raw material, the provision of energy for transportation and process, material processing and fabrication, product manufacture and distribution, use, recycling and disposal of the wastes and the product itself. A great potentiality of the Life Cycle assessment approach is to compare two different technologies designed for the same purpose, with the same functional unit, for understanding which of these two is better in terms of environmental impact. In this study, the goal is to evaluate the difference in environmental terms between two different technologies used for the production of poles for illumination support.

Keywords: Green Design | Life Cycle Assessment | Manufacturing optimization | Utility poles

[36] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Savignano R., Computer aided modelling to simulate the biomechanical behaviour of customised orthodontic removable appliances, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 10(4), 387-400, (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: In the field of orthodontics, the use of Removable Thermoplastic Appliances (RTAs) to treat moderate malocclusion problems is progressively replacing traditional fixed brackets. Generally, these orthodontic devices are designed on the basis of individual anatomies and customised requirements. However, many elements may affect the effectiveness of a RTA-based therapy: accuracies of anatomical reference models, clinical treatment strategies, shape features and mechanical properties of the appliances. In this paper, a numerical model for customised orthodontic treatments planning is proposed by means of the finite element method. The model integrates individual patient’s teeth, periodontal ligaments, bone tissue with structural and geometrical attributes of the appliances. The anatomical tissues are reconstructed by a multi-modality imaging technique, which combines 3D data obtained by an optical scanner (visible tissues) and a computerised tomography system (internal tissues). The mechanical interactions between anatomical shapes and appliance models are simulated through finite element analyses. The numerical approach allows a dental technician to predict how the RTA attributes affect tooth movements. In this work, treatments considering rotation movements for a maxillary incisor and a maxillary canine have been analysed by using multi-tooth models. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Keywords: Anatomical modelling | Numerical analysis | Orthodontic tooth movement | Removable thermoplastic appliance

[37] Savignano R., Viecilli R.F., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Barone S., Nonlinear dependency of tooth movement on force system directions, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 149(6), 838-846, (2016). Abstract
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Introduction Moment-to-force ratios (M:F) define the type of tooth movement. Typically, the relationship between M:F and tooth movement has been analyzed in a single plane. Here, to improve the 3-dimensional tooth movement theory, we tested the hypothesis that the mathematical relationships between M:F and tooth movement are distinct, depending on force system directions. Methods A finite element model of a maxillary first premolar, scaled to average tooth dimensions, was constructed based on a cone-beam computed tomography scan. We conducted finite element analyses of the M:F and tooth movement relationships, represented by the projected axis of rotation in each plane, for 510 different loads. Results We confirmed that a hyperbolic equation relates the distance and M:F; however, the constant of proportionality ("k") varied nonlinearly with the force direction. With a force applied parallel to the tooth's long axis, "k" was 12 times higher than with a force parallel to the mesiodistal direction and 7 times higher than with a force parallel to the buccolingual direction. Conclusions The M:F influence on tooth movement depends on load directions. It is an incomplete parameter to describe the quality of an orthodontic load system if it is not associated with force and moment directions.

[38] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., CT segmentation of dental shapes by anatomy-driven reformation imaging and B-spline modelling, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, 32(6), 1-17, (2016). Abstract
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Dedicated imaging methods are among the most important tools of modern computer-aided medical applications. In the last few years, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has gained popularity in digital dentistry for 3D imaging of jawbones and teeth. However, the anatomy of a maxillofacial region complicates the assessment of tooth geometry and anatomical location when using standard orthogonal views of the CT data set. In particular, a tooth is defined by a sub-region, which cannot be easily separated from surrounding tissues by only considering pixel grey-intensity values. For this reason, an image enhancement is usually necessary in order to properly segment tooth geometries. In this paper, an anatomy-driven methodology to reconstruct individual 3D tooth anatomies by processing CBCT data is presented. The main concept is to generate a small set of multi-planar reformation images along significant views for each target tooth, driven by the individual anatomical geometry of a specific patient. The reformation images greatly enhance the clearness of the target tooth contours. A set of meaningful 2D tooth contours is extracted and used to automatically model the overall 3D tooth shape through a B-spline representation. The effectiveness of the methodology has been verified by comparing some anatomy-driven reconstructions of anterior and premolar teeth with those obtained by using standard tooth segmentation tools.

Keywords: 3D imaging | B-spline modelling | Cone beam computed tomography | Digital dentistry | Tooth segmentation

[39] Barone S., Casinelli M., Frascaria M., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Interactive design of dental implant placements through CAD-CAM technologies: from 3D imaging to additive manufacturing, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 10(2), 105-117, (2016). Abstract
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In the field of oral rehabilitation, the combined use of 3D imaging technologies and computer-guided approaches allows the development of reliable tools to be used in preoperative assessment of implant placement. In particular, the accurate transfer of the virtual planning into the operative field through surgical guides represents the main challenge of modern dental implantology. Guided implant positioning allows surgical and prosthetic approaches with minimal trauma by reducing treatment time and decreasing patient’s discomfort. This paper aims at defining a CAD/CAM framework for the accurate planning of flapless dental implant surgery. The system embraces three major applications: (1) freeform modelling, including 3D tissue reconstruction and 2D/3D anatomy visualization, (2) computer-aided surgical planning and customised template modelling, (3) additive manufacturing of guided surgery template. The tissue modelling approach is based on the integration of two maxillofacial imaging techniques: tomographic scanning and surface optical scanning. A 3D virtual maxillofacial model is created by matching radiographic data, captured by a CBCT scanner, and surface anatomical data, acquired by a structured light scanner. The pre-surgical planning process is carried out and controlled within the CAD application by referring to the integrated anatomical model. A surgical guide is then created by solid modelling and manufactured by additive techniques. Two different clinical cases have been approached by inserting 11 different implants. CAD-based planned fixture placements have been transferred into the clinical field by customised surgical guides, made of a biocompatible resin and equipped with drilling sleeves.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Biomedical imaging | Computer-assisted dental implantology | Freeform solid modelling | Oral rehabilitation

[40] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Savignano R., Design of customised orthodontic devices by digital imaging and CAD/FEM modelling, BIOIMAGING 2016 - 3rd International Conference on Bioimaging, Proceedings; Part of 9th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, BIOSTEC 2016, 44-54, (2016). Abstract
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In recent years, the public demand of less invasive orthodontic treatments has led to the development of appliances that are smaller, lower profile and more transparent with respect to conventional brackets and wires. Among aesthetic appliances, removable thermoplastic aligners gained instant appeal to patients since able to perform comprehensive orthodontic treatments without sacrificing comfort issues. The aligner must deliver an appropriate force in order to move the tooth into the expected position. However, at present, the relationship between applied force and aligner properties (i.e., aligner's thickness) is poorly understood. In this paper, a patient-specific framework has been developed to simulate orthodontic tooth movements by using aligners. In particular, a finite element model has been created in order to optimise the aligner's thickness with regard to the magnitude of the force-moment system delivered to a mandibular central incisor during bucco-lingual tipping.

Keywords: Aligner thickness | Finite element model | Orthodontic aligner

[41] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Geometrical modeling of complete dental shapes by using panoramic X-ray, digital mouth data and anatomical templates, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, 43, 112-121, (2015). Abstract
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In the field of orthodontic planning, the creation of a complete digital dental model to simulate and predict treatments is of utmost importance. Nowadays, orthodontists use panoramic radiographs (PAN) and dental crown representations obtained by optical scanning. However, these data do not contain any 3D information regarding tooth root geometries. A reliable orthodontic treatment should instead take into account entire geometrical models of dental shapes in order to better predict tooth movements.This paper presents a methodology to create complete 3D patient dental anatomies by combining digital mouth models and panoramic radiographs. The modeling process is based on using crown surfaces, reconstructed by optical scanning, and root geometries, obtained by adapting anatomical CAD templates over patient specific information extracted from radiographic data. The radiographic process is virtually replicated on crown digital geometries through the Discrete Radon Transform (DRT). The resulting virtual PAN image is used to integrate the actual radiographic data and the digital mouth model. This procedure provides the root references on the 3D digital crown models, which guide a shape adjustment of the dental CAD templates. The entire geometrical models are finally created by merging dental crowns, captured by optical scanning, and root geometries, obtained from the CAD templates.

[42] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Three-dimensional tooth segmentation by integrating multiple ray-sum images from CBCT data, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1A-2015, (2015). Abstract
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The reconstruction of tooth anatomies is of utmost importance when dental implant surgeries and/or orthodontic corrections must be planned. In the last few years, cone beam CT (CBCT) has gained popularity in dentistry for 3D imaging of jawbones and teeth. However, within CBCT data sets, each tooth is defined by a region, which cannot be easily separated from surrounding tissues (i.e., bone tissue) by only considering pixel's grey-intensity values. For this reason, some enhancement is usually necessary in order to properly segment tooth geometries. In this paper, a semi-automatic approach to reconstruct individual 3D tooth anatomies by processing CBCT-scan data is presented. The methodology is based on the creation of a minimal number of 2D "local ray-sum" images by adding the absorption values of adjacent voxels along the most significant views for each tooth. The knowledge of the specific anatomical patient morphology drives the selection of these significant projection directions. The reconstructed "ray-sum" images greatly enhance the clearness of the root contours, which can then be interactively traced by dentists. A set of meaningful 2D tooth contours is consequently obtained and used to automatically extract a cubic spline curve for each transverse slice, thus approximating the overall 3D tooth profile. The effectiveness of the methodology has been evaluated by comparing the results obtained for the reconstruction of anterior teeth with those obtained by using classical segmentation tools provided within commercial software.

[43] Traghella D., Paoli A., Barone S., Razionale A.V., Multi-sensor reverse engineering technique for the acquisition of centrifugal pump impellers, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2B-2015, (2015). Abstract
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The geometrical reconstruction of centrifugal pump impellers is a strategic activity for many manufacturing industries. In particular, the digitalization of internal hydraulic shapes represents the most critical task due to the difficulties in accessing the internal parts of impeller disks. In this paper, an automatic approach to digitize the internal shape of impellers is presented. The methodology is based on the integration of optical and probing methods in order to combine the advantages of both technologies. The developed approach uses an optically tracked hand-held probe designed to digitize, point-by-point, the whole surface of blades. The tracking system is based on a passive device, composed of two stereo cameras, which is used to accurately locate a specific plate, rigidly connected to a probe. The proposed methodology has been validated by experimental tests on primitive surfaces as plane, cylinders and spheres. Nonetheless, the robustness and flexibility of the developed technique has allowed the whole reconstruction of industrial impellers through the acquisition of hundreds of points in few minutes.

[44] Tilli J., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Barone S., A novel methodology for the creation of customized eruption guidance appliances, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1A-2015, (2015). Abstract
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Within the orthodontic field, malocclusion problems are usually treated by using different types of appliances. In particular, Eruption Guidance Appliances (EGAs) are recommended for early orthodontic treatment or prevention of malocclusion problems. The traditional approach with EGAs is based on the use of standard prefabricated appliances. Experts in the orthodontic field believe that the customization of the EGAs would strongly enhance the results of malocclusion treatments. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the design and manufacturing of fully customized EGAs. The methodology is based on an extensive integration between traditional orthodontic procedures with advanced computer aided design processes. The methodology moves from the digitalization of the plaster models obtained by optical scanning techniques. The patient morphology is then exploited, under dental practitioner supervision, for the design of the appliance geometry through CAD modeling tools. Medical guided assessment is required throughout the most of the data elaboration processes, in order to design the EGAs accordingly to the patient's clinical conditions. Low-pressure injection molds for the physical manufacturing of the appliances are then 3D printed by using rapid prototyping techniques. The proposed methodology allows the production of patient customized appliances guaranteeing low cost manufacturing and high quality standards, similar to those typically obtained by in series productions. Moreover, the presented approach offers a high integration level with numerical and finite element methods, which can be used for evaluating the stress applied on the EGA, thus allowing the reinforcement of the appliance prior its manufacturing.

[45] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Multi-modal imaging for shape modelling of dental anatomies, Communications in Computer and Information Science, 511, 135-145, (2015). Abstract
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In dentistry, standard radiographic imaging is a minimally invasive approach for anatomic tissue visualization and diagnostic assessment. However, this method does not provide 3D geometries of complete dental shapes, including crowns and roots, which are usually obtained by Computerized Tomography (CT) techniques. This paper describes a shape modelling process based on multi-modal imaging methodologies. In particular, 2D panoramic radiographs and 3D digital plaster casts, obtained by an optical scanner, are used to guide the creation of both shapes and orientations of complete teeth through the geometrical manipulation of general dental templates. The proposed methodology is independent on the tomographic device used to collect the panoramic radiograph.

Keywords: Dental shape modelling | Discrete radon transform | Multi-modal imaging | PAN radiograph

[46] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Savignano R., 3D reconstruction of individual tooth shapes by integrating dental CAD templates and patient-specific anatomy, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1A, (2014). Abstract
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The accurate reconstruction of a human digital dental model represents a wide research area within the orthodontic field due to its importance for the customization of patient treatments. Usually, 3-D dental root geometries are obtained by segmenting tomographic data. However, concerns about radiation doses may be raised since tomographic scans produce a greater X-ray dose than conventional 2-D panoramic radiographs (PAN). The present work is aimed at investigating the possibility to retrieve 3-D shape of individual teeth by exposing the patient to the minimum radiation dose. The proposed methodology is based on adapting general CAD templates over patient-specific dental anatomy, which is reconstructed by integrating the optical digitization of dental plaster models with a PAN image. The radiographic capturing process is simulated through the Discrete Radon Transform (DRT) and performed onto the patient crowns geometry obtained by segmenting the digital plaster model. A synthetic PAN image is then reconstructed and used to integrate the radiographic data within the digitized plaster model, thus allowing to retrieve roots information which guide the CAD templates adapting over the patient anatomy.

[47] Savignano R., Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., FEM analysis of bone-ligaments-tooth models for biomechanical simulation of individual orthodontic devices, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1A, (2014). Abstract
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In the last decades, research in the orthodontic field has focused on the development of more comfortable and aesthetic appliances such as thermoformed aligners. Aligners have been used in orthodontics since the mid 20-century. Nonetheless, there is still not enough knowledge about how they interact with teeth. This paper is focused on the development of a Finite Element Method (FEM) model to be used in the optimization process of geometrical attributes of removable aligners. The presented method integrates Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) data and optical data in order to obtain a customized model of the dental structures, which include both crown and root shapes. The digital simulation has been focused on analyzing the behavior of three upper frontal teeth. Moreover, the analyses have been carried out by using different aligners' thicknesses with the support of composite structures polymerized on teeth surfaces while simulating a 2 degrees rotation of an upper central incisor.

[48] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Customised 3D tooth modeling by minimally invasive imaging modalities, BIOIMAGING 2014 - 1st International Conference on Bioimaging, Proceedings; Part of 7th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, BIOSTEC 2014, 70-75, (2014). Abstract
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Dental panoramic tomography represents a standard imaging modality in dentistry since it provides a convenient and inexpensive method to visualize anatomic structures and pathologic conditions with low radiation doses. However, this technique does not provide comprehensive 3D geometries of dental shapes which are conventionally demanded to computerised tomography (CT) techniques. In this paper, a tooth reconstruction process is presented by integrating patient-specific information with general dental templates. A 2D panoramic radiograph and the digitised patient plaster cast are used to customise both shape and orientation of teeth templates thus allowing a consistent 3D tooth reconstruction with minimally invasive imaging modalities. The proposed methodology does not make any assumption about the tomographic device used to collect the panoramic radiograph. Copyright © 2014 SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Customised Tooth Reconstruction | Digital Cast | Discrete Radon Transform | Panoramic Radiograph

[49] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., A coded structured light system based on primary color stripe projection and monochrome imaging, Sensors (Switzerland), 13(10), 13802-13819, (2013). Abstract
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Coded Structured Light techniques represent one of the most attractive research areas within the field of optical metrology. The coding procedures are typically based on projecting either a single pattern or a temporal sequence of patterns to provide 3D surface data. In this context, multi-slit or stripe colored patterns may be used with the aim of reducing the number of projected images. However, color imaging sensors require the use of calibration procedures to address crosstalk effects between different channels and to reduce the chromatic aberrations. In this paper, a Coded Structured Light system has been developed by integrating a color stripe projector and a monochrome camera. A discrete coding method, which combines spatial and temporal information, is generated by sequentially projecting and acquiring a small set of fringe patterns. The method allows the concurrent measurement of geometrical and chromatic data by exploiting the benefits of using a monochrome camera. The proposed methodology has been validated by measuring nominal primitive geometries and free-form shapes. The experimental results have been compared with those obtained by using a time-multiplexing gray code strategy. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords: 3D shape acquisition | Coded Structured Light | De Bruijn pattern | Texture reconstruction

[50] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Creation of 3D multi-body orthodontic models by using independent imaging sensors, Sensors (Switzerland), 13(2), 2033-2050, (2013). Abstract
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In the field of dental health care, plaster models combined with 2D radiographs are widely used in clinical practice for orthodontic diagnoses. However, complex malocclusions can be better analyzed by exploiting 3D digital dental models, which allow virtual simulations and treatment planning processes. In this paper, dental data captured by independent imaging sensors are fused to create multi-body orthodontic models composed of teeth, oral soft tissues and alveolar bone structures. The methodology is based on integrating Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and surface structured light scanning. The optical scanner is used to reconstruct tooth crowns and soft tissues (visible surfaces) through the digitalization of both patients' mouth impressions and plaster casts. These data are also used to guide the segmentation of internal dental tissues by processing CBCT data sets. The 3D individual dental tissues obtained by the optical scanner and the CBCT sensor are fused within multi-body orthodontic models without human supervisions to identify target anatomical structures. The final multi-body models represent valuable virtual platforms to clinical diagnostic and treatment planning. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords: Dental CBCT images | Optical scanning | Orthodontic model | Sensor fusion | Tooth segmentation

[51] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Computer-aided modelling of three-dimensional maxillofacial tissues through multi-modal imaging, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 227(2), 89-104, (2013). Abstract
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Recent developments in digital imaging techniques have allowed a wide spread of three-dimensional methodologies based on capturing anatomical tissues by different approaches, such as cone-beam computed tomography, three-dimensional photography and surface scanning. In oral rehabilitation, an objective method to predict surgical and orthodontic outcomes should be based on anatomical data belonging to soft facial tissue, facial skeleton and dentition (maxillofacial triad). However, none of the available imaging techniques can accurately capture the complete triad. This article presents a multi-modal framework, which allows image fusion of different digital techniques to create a three-dimensional virtual maxillofacial model, which integrates photorealistic face, facial skeleton and dentition. The methodology is based on combining structured light surface scanning and cone-beam computed tomography data processing. The fusion procedure provides multi-modal representations by aligning different tissues on the basis of common anatomical constraints. © IMechE 2012.

Keywords: Computer assisted | Cone-beam computed tomography scanning | Maxillofacial modelling | Multi-modal image fusion | Optical scanning | Three-dimensional medical imaging

[52] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Multiple alignments of range maps by active stereo imaging and global marker framing, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 51(2), 116-127, (2013). Abstract
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Three-dimensional shapes can be digitised by using active imaging techniques, which reconstruct entire objects by capturing multiple range maps from different viewpoints. Multiple-view reconstructions require the computation of translation and rotation parameters to transform each range map with reference to a global coordinate frame. In this paper, an automatic method has been developed to efficiently align 3D range maps acquired by an active stereo vision system. The methodology is based on referring range maps to a global frame of fiducial markers captured by the stereo system. The procedure includes a refinement of the marker frame in order to globally minimise the misalignment errors. The methodology optimises the overall accuracy of 3D reconstructions regardless of the scanning strategies, even processing large data sets. The proposed approach has been experienced and validated by measuring both nominal shapes and industrial models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: 3D optical scanning | Global refinement | Marker detection | Multi-view measurements | Stereo-vision

[53] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., 3D virtual reconstructions of artworks by a multiview scanning process, Proceedings of the 2012 18th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2012: Virtual Systems in the Information Society, 259-265, (2012). Abstract
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The creation of three-dimensional virtual models by optical technologies typically involve uncontrolled metric errors, in particular, when small high-resolution 3-D imaging systems are used to reconstruct a large object. Within Cultural Heritage, the problem of metric accuracy is a major issue and no methods are currently available for controlling and enhancing it. This paper presents a methodology based on the integration of a 3D range camera system with an optical tracking technique. The basic idea is the generation of a global coordinate system determined by the optical tracker, which controls the rigid motions of the 3D range camera system during multi-scan processes. The tracking process is based on measuring the spatial coordinates of reference markers located onto the range camera. The metric reliability of the 3D model reconstruction is guaranteed to a known acceptable level. Experimental results on a Statue of Hope located at the English Cemetery in Florence, are also reported. © 2012 IEEE.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction | Cultural Heritage | optical tecquiques

[54] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., 3D maxillofacial model creation for computer-guided treatments in oral rehabilitation, Proceedings of the 2012 18th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2012: Virtual Systems in the Information Society, 421-428, (2012). Abstract
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Recent advances in 3D imaging techniques have provided flexible tools for clinical assessments within many medical fields. In the field of orthodontic and orthognathic surgery, the reliable creation of 3D anatomical models can assist clinicians for both diagnosis and treatment planning. In particular, the accurate integration between facial soft tissue, facial skeleton and dentition (maxillofacial triad) provides clinicians with a complete model for virtual 3D treatment planning. However, none of the existing imaging technologies is able to simultaneously capture the complete triad with the optimal resolution and accuracy. For this reason, a "model fusion" process must be carried out in order to integrate 3D models obtained using different imaging techniques. This paper aims at introducing a procedure to create accurate maxillofacial triad models by guiding the fusion of multi-modal 3D imaging techniques. The methodology is based on integrating a structured light optical scanner with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) data processing in order to capture the different tissue groups composing the maxillofacial triad. The generated models represent an all-embracing virtual workbench for orthodontists in the treatment planning of malocclusion problems and for surgeons in the preoperative prediction of surgical outcomes. © 2012 IEEE.

Keywords: 3D image fusion processes | 3D reconstruction | maxillofacial model

[55] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., 3D reconstruction and restoration monitoring of sculptural artworks by a multi-sensor framework, Sensors (Switzerland), 12(12), 16785-16801, (2012). Abstract
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Nowadays, optical sensors are used to digitize sculptural artworks by exploiting various contactless technologies. Cultural Heritage applications may concern 3D reconstructions of sculptural shapes distinguished by small details distributed over large surfaces. These applications require robust multi-view procedures based on aligning several high resolution 3D measurements. In this paper, the integration of a 3D structured light scanner and a stereo photogrammetric sensor is proposed with the aim of reliably reconstructing large free form artworks. The structured light scanner provides high resolution range maps captured from different views. The stereo photogrammetric sensor measures the spatial location of each view by tracking a marker frame integral to the optical scanner. This procedure allows the computation of the rotation-translation matrix to transpose the range maps from local view coordinate systems to a unique global reference system defined by the stereo photogrammetric sensor. The artwork reconstructions can be further augmented by referring metadata related to restoration processes. In this paper, a methodology has been developed to map metadata to 3D models by capturing spatial references using a passive stereo-photogrammetric sensor. The multi-sensor framework has been experienced through the 3D reconstruction of a Statue of Hope located at the English Cemetery in Florence. This sculptural artwork has been a severe test due to the non-cooperative environment and the complex shape features distributed over a large surface. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords: 3D imaging sensors | 3D reference information system | Cultural heritage | Stereo-photogrammetry | Structured light scanning

[56] Frisardi G., Barone S., Razionale A.V., Paoli A., Frisardi F., Tullio A., Lumbau A., Chessa G., Biomechanics of the press-fit phenomenon in dental implantology: an image-based finite element analysis, Head and Face Medicine, 8(1), (2012). Abstract
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Background: A fundamental pre-requisite for the clinical success in dental implant surgery is the fast and stable implant osseointegration. The press-fit phenomenon occurring at implant insertion induces biomechanical effects in the bone tissues, which ensure implant primary stability. In the field of dental surgery, the understanding of the key factors governing the osseointegration process still remains of utmost importance. A thorough analysis of the biomechanics of dental implantology requires a detailed knowledge of bone mechanical properties as well as an accurate definition of the jaw bone geometry.Methods: In this work, a CT image-based approach, combined with the Finite Element Method (FEM), has been used to investigate the effect of the drill size on the biomechanics of the dental implant technique. A very accurate model of the human mandible bone segment has been created by processing high resolution micro-CT image data. The press-fit phenomenon has been simulated by FE analyses for different common drill diameters (D A = 2.8 mm, D B = 3.3 mm, and D C = 3.8 mm) with depth L = 12 mm. A virtual implant model has been assumed with a cylindrical geometry having height L = 11 mm and diameter D = 4 mm.Results: The maximum stresses calculated for drill diameters D A, D B and D C have been 12.31 GPa, 7.74 GPa and 4.52 GPa, respectively. High strain values have been measured in the cortical area for the models of diameters D A and D B, while a uniform distribution has been observed for the model of diameter D C . The maximum logarithmic strains, calculated in nonlinear analyses, have been ε{lunate} = 2.46, 0.51 and 0.49 for the three models, respectively.Conclusions: This study introduces a very powerful, accurate and non-destructive methodology for investigating the effect of the drill size on the biomechanics of the dental implant technique.Further studies could aim at understanding how different drill shapes can determine the optimal press-fit condition with an equally distributed preload on both the cortical and trabecular structure around the implant. © 2012 Frisardi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

[57] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Three-dimensional point cloud alignment detecting fiducial markers by structured light stereo imaging, Machine Vision and Applications, 23(2), 217-229, (2012). Abstract
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In recent years, various methodologies of shape reconstruction have been proposed with the aim at creating Computer-Aided Design models by digitising physical objects using optical sensors. Generally, the acquisition of 3D geometrical data includes crucial tasks, such as planning scanning strategies and aligning different point clouds by multiple view approaches, which differ for user's interaction and hardware cost. This paper describes a methodology to automatically measure three-dimensional coordinates of fiducial markers to be used as references to align point clouds obtained by an active stereo vision system based on structured light projection. Intensity-based algorithms and stereo vision principles are combined to detect passive fiducial markers localised in a scene. 3D markers are uniquely recognised on the basis of geometrical similarities. The correlation between fiducial markers and point clouds allows the digital creation of complete object surfaces. The technology has been validated by experimental tests based on nominal benchmarks and reconstructions of target objects with complex shapes. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Keywords: Digital image processing | Marker detection | Multiple view scanning | Reverse engineering | Stereo vision

[58] Barone S., Paoli A., Viviano Razionale A., Shape measurement by a multi-view methodology based on the remote tracking of a 3D optical scanner, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 50(3), 380-390, (2012). Abstract
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Full field optical techniques can be reliably used for 3D measurements of complex shapes by multi-view processes, which require the computation of transformation parameters relating different views into a common reference system. Although, several multi-view approaches have been proposed, the alignment process is still the crucial step of a shape reconstruction. In this paper, a methodology to automatically align 3D views has been developed by integrating a stereo vision system and a full field optical scanner. In particular, the stereo vision system is used to remotely track the optical scanner within a working volume. The tracking system uses stereo images to detect the 3D coordinates of retro-reflective infrared markers rigidly connected to the scanner. Stereo correspondences are established by a robust methodology based on combining the epipolar geometry with an image spatial transformation constraint. The proposed methodology has been validated by experimental tests regarding both the evaluation of the measurement accuracy and the 3D reconstruction of an industrial shape. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Multi-view measurements | Optical tracking | Stereo vision | Structured light

[59] Bruno F., Bianco G., Muzzupappa M., Barone S., Razionale A.V., Experimentation of structured light and stereo vision for underwater 3D reconstruction, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 66(4), 508-518, (2011). Abstract
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Current research on underwater 3D imaging methods is mainly addressing long range applications like seafloor mapping or surveys of archeological sites and shipwrecks. Recently, there is an increasing need for more accessible and precise close-range 3D acquisition technologies in some application fields like, for example, monitoring the growth of coral reefs or reconstructing underwater archaeological pieces that in most cases cannot be recovered from the seabed. This paper presents the first results of a research project that aims to investigate the possibility of using active optical techniques for the whole-field 3D reconstructions in an underwater environment. In this work we have tested an optical technique, frequently used for in air acquisition, based on the projection of structured lighting patterns acquired by a stereo vision system. We describe the experimental setup used for the underwater tests, which were conducted in a water tank with different turbidity conditions. The tests have evidenced that the quality of 3D reconstruction is acceptable even with high turbidity values, despite the heavy presence of scattering and absorption effects. © 2011 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

Keywords: 3D reconstruction | Imaging in turbid medium | Photogrammetry | Structured light | Underwater imaging

[60] Frisardi G., Chessa G., Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A., Frisardi F., Integration of 3D anatomical data obtained by CT imaging and 3D optical scanning for computer aided implant surgery, BMC Medical Imaging, 11, (2011). Abstract
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Background: A precise placement of dental implants is a crucial step to optimize both prosthetic aspects and functional constraints. In this context, the use of virtual guiding systems has been recognized as a fundamental tool to control the ideal implant position. In particular, complex periodontal surgeries can be performed using preoperative planning based on CT data. The critical point of the procedure relies on the lack of accuracy in transferring CT planning information to surgical field through custom-made stereo-lithographic surgical guides.Methods: In this work, a novel methodology is proposed for monitoring loss of accuracy in transferring CT dental information into periodontal surgical field. The methodology is based on integrating 3D data of anatomical (impression and cast) and preoperative (radiographic template) models, obtained by both CT and optical scanning processes.Results: A clinical case, relative to a fully edentulous jaw patient, has been used as test case to assess the accuracy of the various steps concurring in manufacturing surgical guides. In particular, a surgical guide has been designed to place implants in the bone structure of the patient. The analysis of the results has allowed the clinician to monitor all the errors, which have been occurring step by step manufacturing the physical templates.Conclusions: The use of an optical scanner, which has a higher resolution and accuracy than CT scanning, has demonstrated to be a valid support to control the precision of the various physical models adopted and to point out possible error sources. A case study regarding a fully edentulous patient has confirmed the feasibility of the proposed methodology. © 2011 Frisardi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

[61] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Assessment of chronic wounds by three-dimensional optical imaging based on integrating geometrical, chromatic, and thermal data, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225(2), 181-193, (2011). Abstract
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Chronic wounds represent a particular debilitating health care problem, mainly affecting elderly people. A full and correct diagnosis of tissue damage should be carried out considering both dimensional, chromatic, and thermal parameters. A great variety of methods have been proposed with the aim of producing objective assessment of skin lesions, but none of the existing technologies seem to be robust enough to work for all ulcer typologies. This paper describes an innovative and non-invasive system that allows the automatic measurement of non-healing chronic wounds. The methodology involves the integration of a three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner, based on a structured light approach, with a thermal imager. The system enables the acquisition of geometrical data, which are directly related to chromatic and temperature patterns through a mapping procedure. Damaged skin areas are detected by combining visible and thermal imaging. This approach allows for the automatic measurement of extension and depth of ulcers, even in the absence of significant and well-defined chromatic patterns. The proposed technology has been tested in the measurement of ulcers on human legs. Clinical tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of this methodology in supporting medical experts for the assessment of chronic wounds. © 2011 Authors.

Keywords: 3D model reconstruction | 3D thermography | image processing | wound assessment

[62] Maggini M., Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., A robotic system for 3D optical scanning of large surfaces, Innovative Developments in Design and Manufacturing - Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, 145-150, (2010). Abstract
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In the last few years, many methodologies of reverse engineering have been proposed for 3D shape measurement using optical systems. All the proposed 3D scanning solutions require user interactions concerning the alignment process of partial measures to reconstruct the complete shape of a target object. This paper presents an innovative solution based on the integration of a robotic arm and an optical stereo system, which minimizes user intervention both in the acquisition and in the reconstruction phases. The procedure is divided into two steps: 1) complete and accurate identification of the integrated system, using optical measurements of a reference surface (calibration process); 2) planning of scanning strategies in order to automatically obtain a complete 3D CAD representation. Results of experimental tests conducted on nominal samples and on industrial contexts are presented and discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group.

[63] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Guided dental surgery based on integrating 3D image slicing and structured light scanning, Innovative Developments in Design and Manufacturing - Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, 137-143, (2010). Abstract
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Complex periodontal surgeries can be performed using preoperative planning based on CT or MRI data that permit a 3D reconstruction of the patient bone anatomy. This allows a more accurate assessment of the surgical difficulties by the surgeon. The precise placement of dental implants is a crucial step to optimize both prosthetic considerations and functional aspects and the use of physical guiding systems has been recognized as a fundamental tool to control their positions and angulations. The weak point of the procedure relies on the accuracy of transferring CT planning information to the surgical field by means of custom-made stereolithographic guides. This paper concerns the study of an innovative methodology for the monitoring of the loss in the clinical accuracy through the various steps concurring in this transfer. The procedure is based on the integration of an optical scanner, with a structured coded light approach, within the CT scan based preoperative planning process. The higher resolution and accuracy, compared to CT scanning systems, has allowed for the use of the optical scanner as a standard to evaluate the precision of CT data and fabrication processes of the guiding templates. A clinical case if finally presented and discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group.

[64] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., 3D imaging analysis of chronic wounds through geometry and temperature measurements, Proceedings of the 8th IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging, and Image Processing, VIIP 2008, 239-244, (2008). Abstract
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Chronic wounds represent one of the most frequent pathologies affecting elderly people. In the last few years, several methods have been proposed with the aim at developing systems able to produce automatic and objective assessment of skin ulcers. Despite that, none of the existing technologies seems to be robust enough to work for all the ulcer typologies. In the majority of the clinical contexts, the evaluation of chronic wounds still depends on the experience of physicians rather than on the use of numerically objective attributes. This paper presents a non-invasive methodology to allow automatic measurements of chronic wounds. The proposed system involves the development of a 3D optical scanner, based on a structured light approach, combined with an infrared detector. This arrangement permits the acquisition of geometrical data including both chromatic texture and temperature information. A tool for the automatic detection of damaged skin areas has been developed by segmenting both color and thermal images, making possible to reliably quantify parameters characterizing wounds, such as area, depth and volume, even in absence of a perceptible color characterization. The described technology has been finally experienced in medical environment, proving its effectiveness for an objective assessment of wound healing.

Keywords: 3D segmentation | 3D thermography | Imaging | Wound modelling

[65] Barone S., Paoli A., Razionale A.V., Fast digitizing of 3D shapes by automatic alignment of multiple range maps, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping: Virtual and Rapid Manufacturing Advanced Research Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, 209-215, (2007). Abstract
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Range maps registration still represents one of the most time consuming phases in the digitization of 3D shapes due to the high user intervention required. The traditional approaches are, in fact, based on manual rough alignments, followed by ICP refining techniques. On the other hand, existing unattended methodologies, based on the automatic searching for correspondent morphological singularities on adjacent point clouds, do not seem to guarantee sufficient robustness and flexibility in the fast reconstruction of target objects. This paper presents a methodology to acquire free-form shapes by combining a 3D stereo vision system and a fully automatic range maps registration process. The automatic alignment is carried out without any assumptions about the initial positions of the point clouds and is based on the automatic detection of fiducial markers, located on the surface object, by processing grey intensity images. © 2008 Taylor & Francis Group.

[66] Argento M., Barone S., Bianconi F., Conti P., Rosati E., Reverse engineering and CFD analysis: A case study, Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Applied Simulation and Modelling, 323-328, (2004). Abstract
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This article describes a procedure based on reverse engineering and CFD analysis to numerically evaluate the aerodynamic performances of physical components. The case study is represented by the investigation of the aerodynamic behaviour of a racing car air-box. An existing air-box has been digitised using a proprietary system which enables the acquisition of a point cloud of the surface of the object. A procedure has been developed to obtain a CAD model suitable for CFD analysis from the raw 3D data. A computational fluid-dynamics analysis has been performed using the digital model. The procedure described in this paper can be easily extended to the reconstruction and the analysis of similar classes of shapes such as wings and profiles.

Keywords: Aerodynamic analysis | Geometric modelling | Reverse engineering

[67] Barone S., Curcio A., Razionale A.V., Epipolar geometry and structured light for reverse engineering of free form surfaces, Proceedings of the Fourth IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging, and Image Processing, 971-976, (2004). Abstract
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This paper presents a 3D optical digitiser based on an active stereo vision aproach. The system is composed of a digital camera, a multimedia projector and software to control the hardware and process the images. The proposed solution integrates an active coded light method with a photogrammetric procedure in order to allow the acquisition of complex surfaces. In the work, experimental tests have been conducted with a nominal model and styling components of two-wheeler vehicles. The measurement process and the experimental results have been analysed to verify usability and accuracy of the methodology.

Keywords: Coded light | Photogrammetry | Reverse Engineering | Stereovision

[68] Barone S., Curcio A., A computer-aided design-based system for posture analyses of motorcycles, Journal of Engineering Design, 15(6), 581-595, (2004). Abstract
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This paper presents a computer-aided design (CAD)-based system for ergonomics analyses of motorcycles, which includes three-dimensional models of vehicle configurations and equipment, three-dimensional human models of various anthropometries and evaluative techniques to assess reach and postures. The system is based on a modular structure that integrates an established top-down computer-aided design framework for motorcycle design, a widely used anthropometric database and specific behavioural criteria defined by an experimental procedure correlating driving postures and vehicle configurations. As a result, vehicle designers are able to use a single analysis tool to prognosticate and assess postural comfort, from the earliest stages of the design process. In the paper, issues in vehicle design with reference to ergonomics assumptions and posture evaluations by a computerized system are discussed.

[69] Barone S., Borgianni L., Forte P., Evaluation of the effect of misalignment and profile modification in face gear drive by a finite element meshing simulation, Journal of Mechanical Design, Transactions of the ASME, 126(5), 916-924, (2004). Abstract
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Face gear drives have many advantages over other cross axis transmissions especially in high performance applications. The lack of published design experience and design standards make their design difficult. This is mainly due to the complex geometries and to the lack of practical experience. For these reasons face gears have not been used for long. This work is aimed at investigating the behavior of a face gear transmission considering contact path under load, load sharing and stresses, for an unmodified gear set including shaft misalignment and modification on pinion profile. The investigation is carried out by integrating a 3D CAD system and a FEA code, and by simulating the meshing of pinion and gear sectors with three teeth, using contact elements and an automated contact algorithm. The procedures followed to create the 3D models of teeth in mesh are described and finite element analysis results discussed showing the differences between unmodified, modified and misaligned teeth. Results show the influence of load on theoretically calculated contact paths, contact areas, arc of action and load sharing. The differences with respect to the ideal case are sometimes remarkable. Further developments are discussed. Copyright © 2004 by ASME.

[70] Barone S., Borgianni L., Forte P., Evaluation of the effect of misalignment and profile modification in face gear drive by a finite element meshing simulation, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4 A, 279-288, (2003). Abstract
X

Face gear drives have many advantages over other cross axis transmissions especially in high performance applications. The lack of published design experience and design standards make their design difficult. This is mainly due to the complex geometries and to the lack of practical experience. For these reasons face gears have not been used for long. This work is aimed at investigating the behavior of a face gear transmission considering contact path under load, load sharing and stresses, for an unmodified gear set including shaft misalignment and modification on pinion profile. The investigation is carried out by integrating a 3D CAD system and a FEA code, and by simulating the meshing of pinion and gear sectors with three teeth, using contact elements and an automated contact algorithm. The procedures followed to create the 3D models of teeth in mesh are described and finite element analysis results discussed showing the differences between unmodified, modified and misaligned teeth. Results show the influence of load on theoretically calculated contact paths, contact areas, contact length and load sharing. The differences with respect to the ideal case are sometimes remarkable. Further developments are discussed.

[71] Barone S., Burriesci G., Petrucci G., Computer aided photoelasticity by an optimum phase stepping method, Experimental Mechanics, 42(2), 132-139, (2002). Abstract
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In this paper an automated photoelastic method based on the phase stepping technique is described. It provides full-field maps of the isoclinic parameter and the relative retardation. The technique is based on processing six images of a photoelastic specimen acquired using plane and circularly polarized light. The number of acquisitions and the type of polariscope used in this approach have been chosen with the aim at reducing the influence of quarter wave plate errors and obtaining raw photoelastic data in a periodic form suitable for easy applications of automatic unwrapping routines.

Keywords: Automated photoelasticity | Digital image processing | Phase stepping

[72] Ajovalasit A., Barone S., Petrucci G., Zuccarello B., The influence of the quarter wave plates in automated photoelasticity, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 38(1-2), 31-56, (2002). Abstract
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During the last decades, several methods have been proposed to automate photoelastic analyses. Some procedures are based on the circularly polarised light by using quarter wave plates. However, quarter wave plates are typically matched for a specific wavelength, and an error is introduced at different wavelengths. The error of quarter wave plates affects the measurement of isochromatic and isoclinic data. In this paper, the influence of the errors of quarter wave plates in some of the most common automated photoelastic methods is reviewed. The errors in the photoelastic data are given and the procedures to reduce, or eliminate, them are also suggested. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Isochromatic | Isoclinic | Photoelasticity | Quarter wave plates

[73] Barone S., Borgianni L., Forte P., CAD/FEM procedures for stress analysis in unconventional gear applications, International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, 15(4-5), 157-167, (2002). Abstract
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The development of extremely high performance aerospace power transmissions will be a very interesting technological challenge for the next future. In gear design for high power transmissions, desirable characteristics, such as low noise emissions, low vibrations, minimum size, minimum maintenance cost, but most of all minimum weight can be obtained through the development of innovative layouts. However, most of the rules based on experimental data, by which common gears are calculated and verified, are not applicable to transmissions which can be defined unconventional in terms of geometry and/or operating conditions (high power, high rotating speed, low weight). In these cases, numerical simulations can be performed by using FEM codes. The objective of this work is to describe how integrated CAD/FEM tools can be employed to develop procedures for the static performance analysis of unconventional gears. In the paper, potential characteristics, limits and capabilities of simulating real system behaviours are discussed.

Keywords: Computer aided design | Finite element method | Gear design

[74] Barone S., Gear geometric design by B-spline curve fitting and sweep surface modelling, Engineering with Computers, 17(1), 66-74, (2001). Abstract
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In this paper, B-spline curve fitting and sweep surface generation are used for the geometric design of involute gears. Tooth profiles are described by a B-spline formulation based on interpolating data points with first and second derivative constrains. Tooth surfaces are generated by sweeping the B-spline profiles along specified trajectories. This representation scheme enables tooth shapes to be interactively controlled by manipulating control polygons and sweep trajectories. A CAD-CAE integration allows the analysis of contact and structural three-dimensional problems for various geometric configurations. In the paper, the methodology is applied to the geometric design of involute pinions of face gear drives.

Keywords: B-splines | CAD | Curve fitting | Gear design | Geometric design | Sweep surfaces

[75] Barone S., Forte P., Borgianni L., CAD/FEM analysis of teeth contact stress and load share in face gears, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2, 185-190, (2001). Abstract
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Face gear drives have many advantageous characteristics compared to other angular transmissions but their complex geometry makes their design difficult with common approaches. This work is aimed at investigating the stress state of the teeth of a face gear and the mating pinion by integrating a 3D CAD system and a FEA code, and by simulating the meshing of a pinion and gear three teeth sector using contact elements and an automated contact algorithm. The procedures followed to create the 3D models of teeth in mesh are described and finite element analysis results are discussed.

Keywords: CAD | Contact analysis | FEM | Gear design

[76] Barone S., Berghini M., Bertini L., Grid pattern for in-plane strain measurements by digital image processing, Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 36(1), 51-59, (2001). Abstract
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This paper presents a non-contact and non-destructive method for full-field in-plane strain measurements. Digital image processing is employed for monitoring the deformations of grid lines marked on a planar surface of a component or a specimen. Full-field in-plane strain distributions are obtained by processing the geometrical characteristics of the grid with computer graphics algorithms. The strain field determined in the necking zone of a tensile specimen has demonstrated the benefit of the method.

[77] Barone S., Pitarresi G., Development of a hybrid technique employing the boundary element method for thermoelastic stress separation, Strain, 36(4), 187-196, (2000). Abstract
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This paper presents a development of a hybrid technique employing a boundary element method for determining individual stress components in two-dimensional arbitrarily shaped domains from experimental isopachics only. The procedure consists of a numerical solution of two Poisson equations representing equilibrium for two-dimensional plane-stressed solids with zero body forces. An existing technique is employed for smoothing interior thermoelastic data and enhancing boundary information. The algorithm of stress separation has been implemented with the help of commercial codes. The whole procedure has been tested through a complete post-processing example of thermoelastic stress analysis data.

[78] Barone S., Patterson E.A., Development of simultaneous thermo- and photo-elasticity for principal stress analyses, Strain, 35(2), 57-65, (1999). Abstract
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A technique is developed for determining the individual principal stresses by measuring experimentally the sum and the difference of the principal stresses over a surface of an engineering component. This application, which results from previous research on the thermoelastic response of polycarbonate coatings typically used in reflection photoelasticity, is based upon the simultaneous use of thermoelastic stress analysis and automated photoelasticity. Full field patterns of the individual principal stresses can be evaluated, even over complex geometric surfaces, by properly processing the data obtained by the independent experimental techniques.

[79] Barone S., Patterson E.A., An alternative finite difference method for post-processing thermoelastic data using compatibility, Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 33(6), 437-447, (1998). Abstract
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A finite difference technique for processing thermoelastic data for biaxial problems is presented. The method enables thermoelastic data to be smoothed at interior points and boundary information to be calculated from measured non-boundary values by an iterative procedure based on the compatibility equation. The technique has been successfully applied to quantify stress concentrations and to perform stress separation.

Keywords: Compatibility | Finite difference | Laplace equation | Thermoelasticity

[80] Barone S., Patterson E.A., Polymer coating as a strain witness in thermoelasticity, Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 33(3), 223-232, (1998). Abstract
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The work described in this paper offers the possibility of using a polymer coating as a strain witness in thermoelasticity. In particular, the efficacy of a polymer coating for making thermoelastic measurements is investigated by experiment and the supporting theory is presented. It was found that the thermoelastic response is greatest with thick coatings at high frequencies. However, thicknesses of more than 0.5 mm and frequencies greater than 5 Hz provide adequate results.

Keywords: Coating | Strain witness | Thermoelasticity

[81] Ajovalasit A., Barone S., Petrucci G., A method for reducing the influence of quarter-wave plate errors in phase stepping photoelasticity, Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 33(3), 207-215, (1998). Abstract
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The phase stepping technique has recently been applied to the automated analysis of photoelastic fringes to determine the isoclinic parameter and the relative retardation. Generally, in these methods the error of quarter-wave plates, due to common manufacturing tolerances, influences the determination of the isoclinic parameter and the fringe order. In this paper a new phase stepping method in which the influence of quarter-wave plate error is null on the isoclinic parameter and negligible on the fringe order is proposed. The theoretical results have been confirmed by experimental tests.

Keywords: Image processing | Phase stepping | Photoelasticity

[82] Ajovalasit A., Barone S., Petrucci G., A review of automated methods for the collection and analysis of photoelastic data, Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 33(2), 75-91, (1998). Abstract
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Photoelasticity is one of the most widely used full-field methods for experimental stress analysis. However, the collection of photoelastic parameters can be a long and tedious process. The advent of automated photoelastic systems has allowed the experimentalists to speed up the rate of analysis and to perform more complex investigations. This paper provides a survey of recent methods of automated photoelasticity developed in the last 20 years, i.e. methods of the fringe centres, half-fringe photoelasticity, phase-stepping photoelasticity, methods based on the Fourier transform, spectral content analysis (SCA) and RGB (red, green, blue) photoelasticity.

Keywords: Automated photoelasticity | Digital image processing | Stress analysis

[83] Barone S., A technique for smoothing interior thermoelastic data and enhancing boundary information, Strain, 33(1), 9-14, (1997). Abstract
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This paper presents a technique by which it is possible to smooth thermoelastically measured interior information and to enhance edge data from non-boundary measured values. The methodology is based on the compatibility equation and an iterative procedure. The technique has been successfully applied to correctly quantify the stress concentration around a hole in an araldite plate.

Keywords: Compatibility equation | Smoothing | SPATE | Thermoelastic stress analysis

[84] Barone S., Patterson E.A., Full-field separation of principal stresses by combined thermo- and photoelasticity, Experimental Mechanics, 36(4), 318-324, (1996). Abstract
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The combined use of thermoelastic stress analysis and full-field reflection photoelasticity based on the phase-stepping technique has been developed for two-dimensional problems. The first method determines the sum of the principal stresses, the latter evaluates the difference of the principal stresses. Thus the principal stresses were separated at each point in the field of view without reference to neighboring points. An evaluation of this approach has been performed using a tensile plate with a central circular hole. The results show that the analysis carried out combining thermo- and photoelasticity incurred errors no larger than those of each system working independently.

Keywords: Photoelasticity | Principal stresses | Stress separation | Thermoelasticity

[85] Ajovalasit A., Barone S., Petrucci G., Towards RGB photoelasticity: Full-field automated photoelasticity in white light, Experimental Mechanics, 35(3), 193-200, (1995). Abstract
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In this paper a new full-field method for the automatic analysis of isochromatic fringes in white light is presented. The method, named RGB photoelasticity, eliminates the typical drawbacks of the classical approach to photoelasticity in white light which requires a subjective analysis of colors and an experienced analyst to acquire and interpret the results. The proposed method makes it possible to determine retardations uniquely in the range of 0-3 fringe orders. For this purpose the isochromatics are acquired by means of a color video camera and the colors are decomposed in the three primary colors (red, green and blue) and compared to those stored in a calibration array in the system. Furthermore, the influence of various spurious effects on the accuracy of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated. © 1995 Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc.

[86] Ajovalasit A., Barone S., Petrucci G., Automated photoelasticity in white light: influence of quarter-wave plates, Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 30(1), 29-34, (1995). Abstract
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This paper deals with the influence of optical retarders on the isochromatic fringes obtained by automated white light photoelasticity using methods such as those based on spectral content analysis (SCA) and on primary colour (red, green and blue) analysis. In the following the light intensity equations of dark- and light-field polariscopes with both crossed and parallel optical retarders are reviewed. In particular, it is shown that the retardance error of the quarter-wave plates produces an attenuation of the maximum intensity in dark field and an increase of minimum intensity in light field. Experimental evidence of the influence of optical retarders is also shown.