[Elenco soci]


Vitolo Ferdinando

Ricercatore TD(A)


Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
ferdinando.vitolo@unina.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 55745342500
Orcid: 0000-0002-1388-9940



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Di Marino C., Rega A., Vitolo F., Patalano S., Enhancing Human-Robot Collaboration in the Industry 5.0 Context: Workplace Layout Prototyping, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 454-465, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: According to the Industry 5.0 framework, the smart factory should combine digitalization and prediction activities with a greater sustainability and human centrality within working processes. Indeed, the optimization and improvement of the manufacturing processes have to meet cost criteria related to energy consumption, safety, and implementation of new technologies. The development of better and more advanced technologies boosts Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) in the manufacturing processes. However, due to the high number of safety standards about collaborative robotics and the absence of tools and specific design approaches, collaborative robots (cobots) are still widely adopted as traditional industrial robots wasting the huge potential of a properly Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC). The layout designing is a crucial activity in achieving a proper and effective HRC. This work illustrates how to transfer standard-compliant layout solutions towards an interactive three-dimensional (3D) visualization environment in order to enable the digital prototyping of HRC workplaces. The possibility to automatically generate and visualize multiple layout solutions of collaborative workplaces, and then, to simulate the interaction between human and robot, represents one of the most significant tasks during the designing process. HRC workplace layout is designed according to an optimization criterion, by using the full integration of a numerical computing platform with an interactive 3D visualization environment. Then, by means of the variation of the input parameters, the visualization of new layout solutions is enabled in a fast and effective way.

Keywords: Human-robot collaboration | Industry 5.0 | Interactive prototyping | Workplace layout

[2] Pasquariello A., Vitolo F., Patalano S., Systems and Requirements Engineering: An Approach and a Software Tool for the Interactive and Consistent Functional Requirement Specification, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 491-502, (2023). Abstract
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Abstract: Managing the complexity of modern systems is a current challenge involving all the phases of a system development process. Complex systems also mean a great number of stakeholders involved and just as many needs to satisfy. In the Systems Engineering approach for complex systems design, Requirements Engineering provides methods to collect stakeholders needs and to translate them into system requirements. Furthermore, several tools currently allow creating requirements repository and manage their properties and changes. Traceability is also implemented to verify design against requirements. Although there are several standards and guidelines which provide criteria and rules for writing requirement statements, it is still missed a process that drives the user in the correct requirement construction. The present paper faces the requirement specification process in order to provide tools that can support and drive designers in the requirements writing. In particular, the paper (i) provides a framework for writing syntactically correct requirements that can be early verified against pre-defined criteria such as clarity, singularity, conformity, and descriptiveness; (ii) presents a software tool for creating well-defined requirements statements offering the user the possibility to formulate “correct requirements by construction”. The driven definition of system requirements leads to a well-defined specification, thus allowing time and efforts reduction during the following steps of system development process.

Keywords: Consistency analysis | Requirements specification | Rules implementation | Systems Engineering

[3] Mhenni F., Vitolo F., Rega A., Plateaux R., Hehenberger P., Patalano S., Choley J.Y., Heterogeneous Models Integration for Safety Critical Mechatronic Systems and Related Digital Twin Definition: Application to a Collaborative Workplace for Aircraft Assembly, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 12(6), (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, several manufacturing systems are evolving towards a greater collaboration between human and robots. The development of such systems requires integrated design tasks involving many disciplines and domains such as systems engineering, safety analyses and multiphysics. Furthermore, the increasing presence of multiple and structured requirements makes the use of models inevitable during the designing phases and also strongly helpful during other phases of the system life-cycle. Besides, for a better efficiency, there is an increasing demand to have a Digital Twin of the system to be used for different purposes such as design improvements by playing different scenarios, virtual commissioning and controlling maintenance activities. In this paper, we first summarize the research context, the reference methodologies, and the emerging needs for Digital Twin creation. Then, we apply a design approach including Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE), Model-Based Safety Assessment (MBSA) and multi-physics modeling for the design of a collaborative workplace for the assembly of Electro-Mechanical Actuators on an aircraft wing. An operational flow to integrate MBSE, MBSA and multi-physics modelling activities is provided. Then, after having identified some relevant scientific barriers, we provide a meta-model for system models integration within a digital twin framework.

Keywords: Collaborative workplace | Digital twin definition | MBSA | MBSE | Multiphysics modelling and simulation | Safety critical systems

[4] Vitolo F., Rega A., Di Marino C., Pasquariello A., Zanella A., Patalano S., Mobile Robots and Cobots Integration: A Preliminary Design of a Mechatronic Interface by Using MBSE Approach, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 12(1), (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Enabling technologies that drive Industry 4.0 and smart factories are pushing in new equipment and system development also to prevent human workers from repetitive and non-ergonomic tasks inside manufacturing plants. One of these tasks is the order-picking which consists in collecting parts from the warehouse and distributing them among the workstations and vice-versa. That task can be completely performed by a Mobile Manipulator that is composed by an industrial manipulator assembled on a Mobile Robot. Although the Mobile Manipulators implementation brings advantages to industrial applications, they are still not widely used due to the lack of dedicated standards on control and safety. Furthermore, there are few integrated solutions and no specific or reference point allowing the safe integration of mobile robots and cobots (already owned by company). This work faces the integration of a generic mobile robot and collaborative robot selected from an identified set of both systems. The paper presents a safe and flexible mechatronic interface developed by using MBSE principles, multi-domain modeling, and adopting preliminary assumptions on the hardware and software synchronization level of both involved systems. The interface enables the re-using of owned robot systems differently from their native tasks. Furthermore, it provides an additional and redundant safety level by enabling power and force limiting both during cobot positioning and control system faulting.

Keywords: Human safety | Mbse | Mechatronic system | Mobile cobot | Mobile manipulator | Mobile robot

[5] Di Marino C., Rega A., Fruggiero F., Pasquariello A., Vitolo F., Patalano S., A Graph-Based Multi-level Framework to Support the Designing of Collaborative Workplaces, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 641-649, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: In the paradigm of Industry 4.0, innovative workplaces characterized by Human-Robot Collaboration represent an important topic to improve productivity and adaptability of manufacturing plants. In this context, the design of a collaborative workplace is a challenging issue because of the high level of complexity due to multidisciplinary and non-homogeneity of its features, as well as the presence of human very close to the robot. This work faces with the complexity of collaborative workplace and proposes a structured framework to support strategic decisions in designing. It suggests a clusterization of factors and effects, based on five domains involved in collaborative workplace, in order to better consider the human safety and working conditions. Consequently, the main elements of a collaborative workplace are highlighted in a matrix decomposed in relevant features and main incident factors, and a multi-level designing workflow is described to report collaborative performances. The proposed approach manages connections among the elements by means of the graph theory in the form of an adjacency matrix in order to show and manage the complexity of the problem. A user interface named Smart Graph Interface was developed to read and manipulate the contents of the adjacency matrix. Main results are reported on an assembly and sealing of a refrigerator, to spread out principal outcomes in terms of applicability and robustness.

Keywords: Collaborative workplace design | Graph theory | Human-robot collaboration (HRC) | Multi-level designing | User interface

[6] Rega A., Di Marino C., Vitolo F., Patalano S., Lanzotti A., Towards the Upscaling of Biomanufacturing Process Enhanced by Human-Robot Collaboration, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 615-622, (2022). Abstract
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Abstract: Nowadays, the commercial translation of additive manufacturing technologies for scaffolds fabrication is still a challenge. The production methodology of 3D scaffolds for tissue regeneration is a complex and discontinuous process involving several stages, from the isolation of the stem cells to the dynamic cell culture in vitro. Even though in this scenario industries are increasingly implementing automated robotic systems, current technologies are not enough to realize a large industrial scale scaffold fabrication. Accordingly, a relevant improvement could raise from the implementation of a modern collaborative workplace in an existing production line, combining strength endurance and accuracy of cobots, with intelligence, flexibility, and adaptability of the human being. Such a solution overcomes limits related to the low level of process control, low productivity, and risk of contaminations. Therefore, the current work proposes a systematic approach to the design of a collaborative workplace for biomanufacturing of 3D scaffolds. Starting from an overview of basic concepts on scaffolds for tissue engineering and additive manufacturing, as well as from an analysis of automation solutions in cell culture applications, a design methodology section is reported. The paper provides a further insight into the potentials to upscale the scaffolds manufacturing process, taking advantage of the huge possibilities given from the Human-Robot Collaboration and gives evidence of critical features for workplace definition.

Keywords: Automatic layout generation | Biomanufacturing | Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) | Workplace design

[7] Rega A., Di Marino C., Pasquariello A., Vitolo F., Patalano S., Zanella A., Lanzotti A., Collaborative workplace design: A knowledge-based approach to promote human–robot collaboration and multi-objective layout optimization, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(24), (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: The innovation-driven Industry 5.0 leads us to consider humanity in a prominent position as the center of the manufacturing field even more than Industry 4.0. This pushes us towards the hybridization of manufacturing plants promoting a full collaboration between humans and robots. However, there are currently very few workplaces where effective Human–Robot Collaboration takes place. Layout designing plays a key role in assuring safe and efficient Human–Robot Collaboration. The layout design, especially in the context of collaborative robotics, is a complex problem to face, since it is related to safety, ergonomics, and productivity aspects. In the current work, a Knowledge-Based Approach (KBA) is adopted to face the complexity of the layout design problem. The framework resulting from the KBA allows for developing a modeling paradigm that enables us to define a streamlined approach for the layout design. The proposed approach allows for placing resource within the workplace according to a defined optimization criterion, and also ensures compliance with various standards. This approach is applied to an industrial case study in order to prove its feasibility. A what-if analysis is performed by applying the proposed approach. Changing three control factors (i.e., minimum distance, robot speed, logistic space configuration) on three levels, in a Design of Experiments, 27 layout configurations of the same workplace are generated. Consequently, the inputs that most affect the layout design are identified by means of an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results show that only one layout is eligible to be the best configuration, and only two out of three control factors are very significant for the designing of the HRC workplace layout. Hence, the proposed approach enables the designing of standard compliant and optimized HRC workplace layouts. Therefore, several alternatives of the layout for the same workplace can be easily generated and investigated in a systematic manner.

Keywords: Digital layout optimization | Human–robot collaboration (HRC) | Knowledge-based approach (KBA) | What-if analysis

[8] Vitolo F., Patalano S., Lanzotti A., A graph-based approach and an interactive tool for preliminary digital prototyping, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 125-127, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Design process is usually based on past experiences and best practises which compose the company know-how. The challenge is to identify common patterns in the design solutions generated for different design problems. The present paper focuses on the identification of product patterns by using a graph-based approach. It deals with the designing of automotive gearboxes and with the development of an approach and a software tool aimed to support preliminary design and CAD modelling activities in gearbox designing. The approach is applied to two different architectures of manual transverse gearboxes characterized by two and three shafts. It aims at the identification of common design features through the detection of the directed graphs matching. A Matlab software tool for gearbox preliminary design is implemented according to the detected common features. The proposed approach and the developed software tool provide an effective way to keep and re-use company know-how, especially in the context of large automotive companies.

Keywords: CAD modelling | Graph theory | Graphical user interfaces | KBE | Product pattern

[9] Rega A., Vitolo F., Di Marino C., Patalano S., A knowledge-based approach to the layout optimization of human–robot collaborative workplace, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 133-135, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Human–robot collaboration (HRC) solutions are replacing classic industrial robot due to the possibility of realizing more flexible production systems. Collaborative robot systems, named cobot, can work side by side with humans combining their strengths. However, obtaining an efficient HRC is not trivial; indeed, the potential advantages of the collaborative robotics increase as complexity increases. In this context, the main challenge is to design the layout of collaborative workplaces facing the facility layout problem and ensuring the safety of the human being. To move through the high number of safety standards could be very tiring and unproductive. Therefore, in this work a list of key elements, linked to reference norms and production needs, characterizing the collaborative workplace has been identified. Then, a graph-based approach has been used in order to organize and easily manage this information. The management by means graphs has facilitated the implementation of the acquired knowledge in a code, developed in Matlab environment. This code aims to help the designer in the layout organization of human–robot collaborative workplaces in standards compliance. The paper presents the optimization code, named Smart Positioner, and the operation is explained through a workflow diagram.

Keywords: Facility layout problem | Human–robot collaboration | Knowledge-based approach | Optimization criteria

[10] Mule S., Hehenberger P., Plateaux R., Penas O., Patalano S., Vitolo F., An approach and an illustrative case study for a hybrid development process in mechatronic system design, International Journal of Product Lifecycle Management, 13(3), 265-289, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: In Industry 4.0, the growing incorporation of cyber-physical systems (CPS) into manufacturing facilities composed of mechatronic products brings the need of reducing development cost while maintaining the quality and in parallel the need to adapt changes in the product development. It is then essential to identify the criticalities of mechatronic system development and to introduce an optimised product development approach. As a result, our research work focuses on combining traditional and agile approaches to improve mechatronic products development. To illustrate the advantages of such hybridisation, we propose a first hybrid approach along with the case study, consisting of some elements of the scrum method into the V-model which include the freedom to propagate necessary changes in product architecture during the development of its different modules. This new approach also focuses on the required guidelines to adopt and use for enhanced mechatronic products development and criteria for evaluation of the proposed method. Finally, in order to provide flexibility in product architecture and modules design, the hybrid development process is presented with illustrative case study.

Keywords: Agile approach | Black box analysis | Case study | Hardware-in-loop | HIL | Hybrid approach | Mechatronic products development | MIL | Model-in-loop | Scrum | SIL | Software-in-loop | V-model | White box analysis

[11] Patalano S., Mango Furnari A., Vitolo F., Dion J.L., Plateaux R., Renaud F., A Critical Exposition of Model Order Reduction Techniques: Application to a Slewing Flexible Beam, Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, 28(1), 31-52, (2021). Abstract
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Abstract: Complexity of dynamical systems are increasing more and more as well as their mathematical models. At the same time, simulation of system behaviour assumes a key role to assure the fulfillment of requirements as performances, quality, safety, and robustness. Therefore, due to model complexity, it is often very complex to assess a system behaviour but a reduction of model complexity could enhance the simulation aimed to specific characteristics of the system. Several useful model order reduction (MOR) techniques exist but each of them is often powerful for specific applications. This review paper deals with MOR by critically comparing the most popular MOR techniques from the fields of structural dynamics, numerical mathematics and systems and control. In particular, after different reduction techniques have been presented, a table summarizing their most important features is proposed, for comparison purpose. The motivation for such comparison stems from the fact that the insight obtained by the comparison allows to make a motivated choice for a particular model reduction technique, on the basis of the desired properties retained in the reduced model. Particular attention is paid on reduction techniques from the area of structural dynamics. Finally, the differences among some of the presented reduction techniques are illustrated, on a quantitative level, by means of their application to the case of a slewing flexible beam. In particular, in the application of the different reduction techniques, a consistent-mass finite element model, with only translational degrees of freedom, is employed as beam full model.

[12] Rega A., Vitolo F., Patalano S., Gerbino S., A sensor data fusion-based locating method for large-scale metrology, Acta IMEKO, 9(4), 136-143, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The measurement of geometric and dimensional variations in the context of large-sized products is a complex operation. One of the most efficient ways to identify deviations is by comparing the nominal object with a digitalisation of the real object through a reverse engineering process. The accurate digitalisation of large geometric models usually requires multiple acquisitions from different acquiring locations; the acquired point clouds must then be correctly aligned in the 3D digital environment. The identification of the exact scanning location is crucial to correctly realign point clouds and generate an accurate 3D CAD model. To achieve this, an acquisition method based on the use of a handling device is proposed that enhances reverse engineering scanning systems and is able to self-locate. The present paper tackles the device's locating problem by using sensor data fusion based on a Kalman filter. The method was first simulated in a MatLAB environment; a prototype was then designed and developed using low-cost hardware. Tests on the sensor data fusion have shown a locating accuracy better than that of each individual sensor. Despite the low-cost hardware, the results are encouraging and open to future improvements.

Keywords: Handling device | Large-scale metrology | Position measurement | Product design | Sensor data fusion

[13] Di Marino C., Rega A., Vitolo F., Patalano S., Lanzotti A., A new approach to the anthropocentric design of human-robot collaborative environments, Acta IMEKO, 9(4), 80-87, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper deals with collaborative robotics by highlighting the main issues linked to the interaction between humans and robots. A critical study of the standards in force on human-robot interaction and the current principles on workplace design for human-robot collaboration (HRC) are presented. The paper focuses on an anthropocentric paradigm in which the human becomes the core of the workplace in combination with the robot, and it presents a basis for designing workplaces through two key concepts: (i) the introduction of human and robot spaces as elementary spaces and (ii) the dynamic variations of the elementary spaces in shape, size and position. According to this paradigm, the limitations of a safety-based approach, introduced by the standards, are overcome by positioning the human and the robot inside the workplace and managing their interaction through the elementary spaces. The introduced concepts, in combination with the safety prescriptions, have been organised by means of a multi-level graph for driving the HRC design phase. The collaborative workplace is separated into sublevels. The main elements of a collaborative workplace are identified and their relationships presented by means of digraphs.

Keywords: Anthropocentric approach | Collaborative environment | Digraph | Graph theory | Human-robot collaboration

[14] Plateaux R., Penas O., Mule S., Hehenberger P., Patalano S., Vitolo F., SCRUM++ Framework concepts, ISSE 2020 - 6th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, Proceedings, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Traditional design processes must adapt to new industrial challenges, to the rapid evolution of technologies and the resulting complexity of systems. Today's industry, particularly in the field of mechatronics, must design and develop ever more innovative products while reducing time-to-market in order to maintain a competitive edge. As late changes during the realization and detailed design phases lead to a considerable increase in costs and design time, it is necessary to introduce more flexibility during the development process. The agile approach has already proven successful in the design of software system and offer many benefits, as it aims to limit the rigidity of the specifications, interfaces and organization, and to involve in a more flexible way the different actors, customers, specifiers and partners. In this context, we propose a MBSE approach to identify the set of requirements related both to the mechatronic product development and to the dynamic market, companies and current new trends, in order to define the SCRUM++ framework key concepts that aim to meet previous requirements, by supporting agile hybridization methods.

Keywords: Agile Hybrid Approach | Agility | Mechatronic Product Development | SCRUM

[15] Mule S., Plateaux R., Hehenberger P., Penas O., Patalano S., Vitolo F., A New Agile Hybridization Approach and a Set of Related Guidelines for Mechatronic Product Development, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 594, 618-633, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: In industry 4.0, the growing incorporation of cyber-physical systems (CPS) into manufacturing facilities composed of mechatronic products brings forth the need of reducing development cost while maintaining the quality and in parallel the need to adapt changes along the lifecycle of the product development. Most of the traditional development methods fail to solve such new challenges. However, some agile methods, widely used in the software industry, could meet these requirements. It is then essential to identify the criticalities of agile methods regarding mechatronic system development specificities. As a result, our research work focuses on combining traditional and agile approaches to improve mechatronic products development in a changing market context. The development of hybrid approach is based on the analysis of traditional, agile methods and consideration of challenges in the development of mechatronic products. To illustrate the advantages of such hybridization, we propose a first hybrid approach consisting of some elements of the Scrum method (the most popular agile approach) into the V-Model. Differentiating advantages of this new approach, compared to other agile methods, include the freedom to propagate necessary changes in product architecture during the development of its different modules. This new approach focuses on the hybridization of traditional and agile methods and the required guidelines to adopt and use for enhanced mechatronic products development. These guidelines are the base for changing the organizational culture and values which were previously associated with traditional development approaches.

Keywords: Agile approach | Hybrid approach | Mechatronic products development | Scrum | V-Model

[16] Mozzillo R., Vitolo F., Iaccarino P., Franciosa P., Tolerance Prediction for Determinate Assembly Approach in Aeronautical Field, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 229-240, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: The optimization of the aeronautical assembly lines is one of the most challenging tasks in development of a new aircraft. To date the Aeronautical companies are founding project related to the optimization of the manufacturing processes, impacting on the reduction of the non-recurring costs. The work presented focuses on methods for the implementation of the determinate assembly approach in the case of manufacturing of aeronautical structures. The methods are based on the prediction of the coupling tolerances between airframe components in order to reduce the numbers of the features to be manufactured in assembly. All that to lead to a reduction of the non-recurring costs.

Keywords: Aeronautical products | Assembly process | CAD | Determinant Assembly | Determinate Assembly | Hole to hole | Statistical distribution | Tolerance prediction

[17] Vitolo F., Pasquariello A., Patalano S., Gerbino S., A Multi-layer Approach for the Identification and Evaluation of Collaborative Robotic Workplaces Within Industrial Production Plants, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 719-730, (2020). Abstract
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Abstract: Collaborative robotic solutions, where humans and robots share a common workspace performing tasks concurrently without physical safety barriers dividing them, are entering the 4.0 manufacturing market. Some proven and tested use cases of Human-Robot Collaboration have been implemented, but their identification process is often just based on the intuition of planning engineers. The purpose of this work is to propose a systematic approach for the identification of potential collaborative workstations within an industrial production plant. In order to do this a multi-layer modelling approach was used and enriched. The multi-layer approach defines the overall goal of the industrial process, the sub-processes that made it possible, the activity models that enables a flow of activities and, finally, a set of methods to carry out the activities. A morphological box of methods that can be used to achieve the specific goal of identifying suitable collaborative workplaces in an industrial plant, through a process of HRC potential analysis is, therefore, ready to be deeply investigated and used.

Keywords: Collaborative workplaces | Evaluation criteria | Multi-layer approach

[18] Rega A., Patalano S., Vitolo F., Gerbino S., A Sensor Data Fusion-Based Locating Method for Reverse Engineering Scanning Systems, 2019 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2019 - Proceedings, 123-126, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The measurement of geometric deviations within large-size products is a challenging topic. One of the most applied technique compares the nominal product with the digitalization of real product obtained by a reverse engineering process. Digitalization of big geometric models is usually performed by means of multiple acquisitions from different scanning locations. Therefore, digitalization needs to correctly place the acquired point clouds in 3D digital environment. For this purpose, it is very important identifying the exact scanning location in order to correctly realign point clouds and generate an accurate 3D CAD model.The present paper faces the locating problem of a handling device for reverse engineering scanning systems. It proposes a locating method by using sensor data fusion based on Kalman filter, implemented in Matlab environment by using a low-cost equipment.

Keywords: Kalman filter | Position measurement | Product design | Prototypes | Reverse Engineering | Sensor data fusion

[19] Mozzillo R., Iaccarino P., Vitolo F., Franciosa P., Design and development of jigless assembly process: The case of complex aeronautical systems, 2019 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2019 - Proceedings, 132-136, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The optimization of the aeronautical structures manufacturing is one of the most challenging tasks in development of a new aircraft. Nowadays, aeronautical industries are supporting researches deal with the development of new assembly approaches which aim at increasing efficiency and reducing cost of the processes. The work here presented focused on definition of a Jig-less assembly procedure of the 'Integrated Main Landing Gearbox' (ITEM B). The project aims to develop a new generation of Lower Center Fuselage with an innovative landing system integrated in the fuselage itself. The ambition of ITEMB is the creation of a single integrated structure in composite material of the gear bay that reduces assembly costs, optimizing and integrating the entire design, construction and maintenance of the aircraft. The approach here described is based on the integration of different engineering disciplines, as such as the tolerance statistical prediction, the ergonomics, digital human modeling, manufacturing and measurement technologies. In particular, through an appropriate ergonomic analysis, an innovative assembly process of the gear bay was developed and optimized in a virtual environment pointing out the advantages and disadvantages with respect to a traditional assembly cycle. The assembly process is based also on the implementation of the assembly tolerance prediction.

Keywords: CAD | Determinant Assembly | Ergonomics | Jig-less approach | Tolerance statistical prediction | Variational assemblies

[20] Di Marino C., Rega A., Vitolo F., Patalano S., Lanzotti A., The anthropometric basis for the designing of collaborative workplaces, 2019 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2019 - Proceedings, 98-102, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: The present paper deals with collaborative robotics and proposes to enable collaborative workstations by means of the critical study of the in-force standards on Human Robot Cooperation. The paper introduces the anthropocentric paradigm and presents a new basis for designing workstation composed by two key concepts: (i) human and robot spaces are elementary spaces able to generate all other spaces; (ii) dynamic variations of the elementary spaces in terms of shape, size and position occur. Moreover, dynamic positions of human and robot spaces enable collaborative operations in case of mobile robots.

Keywords: anthropocentric design | dynamic workspace | human-robot interaction | safety

[21] Vitolo F., Franciosa P., Ceglarek D., Patalano S., De Martino M., A Generalised Multi-Attribute Task Sequencing Approach for Robotics Optical Inspection Systems, 2019 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2019 - Proceedings, 117-122, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: Robot programming usually consists of four steps: (1) task planning; (2) task sequencing; (3) path planning and (4) motion planning. Task (2) and (3-4) are strongly coupled. For example, the optimal robot path, which is function of the robot kinematics, relies on the pre-defined schedule of tasks, whose sequencing is computed based on the assumption that the travelling 'cost' from one task to the next is only driven by the Euclidean distance in Cartesian space. Current methods tends to decouple the problem and sequentially compute the task sequencing in the T-space, and then compute the robot path by solving the inverse kinematics in the C-space. However, those approaches suffer the capability to reach a global optimum. This paper aims at developing a novel approach which integrates some of the key computational requirements of the path planning in the early stage of the task sequencing. Multi-attribute objectives are introduced to take into account: robot pose and reachability, data quality, obstacles avoidance, overall cycle time. The paper introduces a novel multi-attribute approach to find the optimized task sequencing via candidate poses solving inverse kinematics in the T-space. This is based on the core idea to combine T-space and C-space. The proposed solution has been tested on a vision-based inspection robot system with application to automotive body assembly systems. Results could however impact a wider area, from navigation systems, game and graph theory, to autonomous driving systems.

Keywords: Multi-attribute Optimization | Robot vision system | Robotic task sequencing | TSPN

[22] Vitolo F., Patalano S., Rega A., Lanzotti A., An autonomous and self-locating handling device for reverse engineering systems, Proceedings of the 2019 20th International Conference on Research and Education in Mechatronics, REM 2019, (2019). Abstract
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Abstract: High accuracy digitalisation of geometric models, related to big size objects, usually is performed by means of multiple acquisitions from different scanning locations. It needs to correctly place the acquired point clouds in 3D digital environment. For this purpose, it is very important identifying the exact scanning location in order to correctly realign point clouds and automatically generate an accurate 3D CAD model. The present paper focuses on design and prototype of a mobile handling device for reverse engineering scanning systems, named Dedalo. It is able to locate itself using a sensor fusion method based on a Kalman Filter. The sensor equipment is composed by wheel encoders and an ultrasonic sensor for measuring the distance from a known reference. Although Dedalo is equipped with low-cost hardware, results have showed a location accuracy by 0,1% error/meter, better than each sensor accuracy.

Keywords: Kalman filter | Position measurement | Product design | Prototypes | Reverse Engineering | Sensor data fusion

[23] Vitolo F., Martorelli M., Gerbino S., Patalano S., Lanzotti A., Controlling form errors in 3D printed models associated to size and position on the working plane, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(3), 969-977, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to assess the main effects on the geometric errors in terms of flatness, circularity and cylindricity based on the size of the printed benchmarks and according to the position of the working plane of the 3D printer. Three benchmark models of different sizes, with a parallelepiped and cylinder shape placed in five different positions on the working plane are considered. The sizes of models are chosen from the Renard series R40. Benchmark models are fabricated in ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) using RepRap Prusa i3 3D printer. A sample of five parts for each geometric category, as defined from the R40 geometric series of numbers, is printed close to each corner of the plate, and in the plate center position. Absolute Digimatic Height Gauge 0–450 mm with an accuracy of ± 0.03 mm by Mitutoyo is used to perform all measurements: flatness on box faces, and circularity/cylindricity on cylinders. Results show that the best performances, in terms of form accuracy, are reached in the upper-left printable area while they decrease with the sample size. Being quality a critical factor for a successful industrial application of the AM processes, the results discussed in this paper can provide the AM community with additional scientific data useful to understand how to improve the quality of parts which may be obtained through new generations of 3D printer.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Fused deposition modelling | GD&T | Geometric errors

[24] Patalano S., Vitolo F., Gerbino S., Lanzotti A., A graph-based method and a software tool for interactive tolerance specification, Procedia CIRP, 75, 173-178, (2018). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper deals with the problem of tolerance specification and, in particular, proposes a graph-based method and a preliminary software tool: (i) to accomplish the tolerance specification for a mechanical assembly; (ii) to verify the consistency of the specification and, (iii) to allow the tracing of relationships among parts and features of the assembly. The method adopts Minimum Reference Geometric Elements (MRGE), directed graphs (di-graphs) and a set of dedicated algorithms to tackle the problems of consistency that occur during an interactive tolerance specification activity. Finally, an application illustrates the proposed method and its actual implementation.

Keywords: Datum | GD&T | graph theory | MRGE | tolerance specification

[25] Vitolo F., Patalano S., Lanzotti A., Timpone F., De Martino M., Window shape effect in a single bowden power window system, 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2017 - Proceedings, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Simulation results are not representative of a real system behavior up to its model validation. Validation activity needs a model characterization to match real system and model parameters. This activity impacts more on mechatronics systems which are affected by both physical and control characterizations. This work deals with single bowden power window systems; it improves a system model, previously developed, by deepening window aspects and force system. Force types and modules have been obtained by several experimental tests, in different operating conditions. Experimental automated tests have been carried out by means of a new virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW® environment. Comparison of test results highlights three main components related to: sliding friction, window friction and gravity. These components are affected by window shape which induces module variations. We named these variations 'window shape effect and these results bring to a new procedure for system validation.

Keywords: experimental test | mechatronic system | single bowden power window system | system model validation | validation

[26] Patalano S., Lanzotti A., Del Giudice D.M., Vitolo F., Gerbino S., On the usability assessment of the graphical user interface related to a digital pattern software tool, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 11(3), 457-469, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: Design team belonging to powertrain divisions can speed up the process of managing information, within gearbox design activities, by adopting digital pattern tools. These tools, belonging to a knowledge-based engineering (KBE) system, can assist engineers in re-using company knowledge in order to improve time-consuming tasks as retrieval and selection of previous architectures and to modify and virtually test a new gearbox design. A critical point in the development of a KBE system is the usability of user’s interface to demonstrate effective reduction of development time and satisfaction in its use. In this paper, the authors face the problem of usability improvement of the graphical user interface (GUI) of the tool belonging to the KBE system and previously proposed. An approach based on analytic hierarchy process and multiple-criteria decision analysis is used. A participatory test is performed for evaluating the usability index of the GUI. Taking into account the data analysis, some changes are carried out and a new GUI release is validated through new experimentations.

Keywords: Gearbox design | Graphical user interface | Participatory design | Usability assessment

[27] Franciosa P., Palit A., Vitolo F., Ceglarek D., Rapid Response Diagnosis of Multi-stage Assembly Process with Compliant non-ideal Parts using Self-evolving Measurement System, Procedia CIRP, 60, 38-43, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: This paper introduces the novel concept of self-evolving measurement system with the aim of rapidly identifying and localising defect patterns in multi-stage assembly systems with compliant non-ideal parts. This allows to enhance the level of diagnosability which cannot be achieved using fixed and static pre-determined measurement systems. The proposed methodology helps to identify and select new measurement points to increase the likelihood of isolating root causes of defects. This happens by automatically classifying defect patterns and associating them to critical key control characteristics. The methodology integrates supervised machine learning tools with first principle engineering simulations. It is based on the principle of pattern similarity, taking into account data generated by the self-evolving measurement system. The methodology is demonstrated and validated using the results of an automotive door assembly system.

Keywords: closed-loop quality control | pattern similarity index | rapid diagnosis | self-evolving measurement system | simulation-in-the-loop

[28] Martorelli M., Gerbino S., Lanzotti A., Patalano S., Vitolo F., Flatness, circularity and cylindricity errors in 3D printed models associated to size and position on the working plane, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 201-212, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to assess the main effects on the geometric errors in terms of flatness, circularity and cylindricity based on the size of the printed benchmarks and according to the position of the working plane of the 3D printer. Three benchmark models of different sizes, with a parallelepiped and cylinder shape placed in five different positions on the working plane are considered. The sizes of models are chosen from the Renard series R40. Benchmark models are fabricated in ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) using Zortrax M200 3D printer. A sample of five parts for each geometric category, as defined from the R40 geometric series of numbers, is printed close to each corner of the plate, and in the plate center position. Absolute Digimatic Height Gauge 0-450mm with an accuracy of ±0.03mm by Mitutoyo is used to perform all measurements: flatness on box faces, and circularity/cylindricity on cylinders. Results show that the best performances, in terms of form accuracy, are reached in the area center printable while they decrease with the sample size. Being quality a critical factor for a successful industrial application of the AM processes, the results discussed in this paper can provide the AM community with additional scientific data useful to understand how to improve the quality of parts which may be obtained through new generations of 3D printer.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Fused deposition modelling | Geometric errors

[29] Patalano S., Vitolo F., Lanzotti A., A digital pattern approach to 3D CAD modelling of automotive car door assembly by using directed graphs, Mechanisms and Machine Science, 42, 175-185, (2017). Abstract
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Abstract: The present paper deals with methods for product development aimed to support designing activities and to re-use company know-how. The work is addressed to complex products i.e. products characterized by several components and dependencies among them. Then, the paper presents both the methodological approach and the application to the 3D CAD modelling of an automotive car door assembly. The work uses directed graphs and a series of algorithms to provide a Graphical User Interface (GUI) able to support a designer by reducing the development time of new car door assemblies and increasing the accuracy of the design activities. According to a digital pattern approach, the GUI is used to determine the set of changes to 3D CAD models that typically occur in the automotive field, during the development of new car door assemblies.

Keywords: Automotive car door design and development | CAD modelling | Digital pattern for product development | Directed graphs

[30] Patalano S., Vitolo F., Lanzotti A., Automotive power window system design: Object-oriented modelling and design of experiments integration within a digital pattern approach, Mechanics and Industry, 17(5), (2016). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper tackles an integrated use of object-oriented modelling (OOM) and design of experiments (DoE) to determine the performance of a double bowden power window system in order to accomplish the expected system performances during the preliminary designing phase and, therefore, by accelerating the product development process. A DoE has been carried out by using the power window model, developed in Dymola environment. The response surface method (RSM) and ANOVA analysis are used to identify the significant factors. Then, an empirical equation is derived. It predicts the main system response i.e. the stroke time, expressed as dependency related to the significant factors. Finally, the use of the empirical relation inside a design flow of a power window, based on digital patterns, is presented.

Keywords: Design of experiments | Digital pattern for product development | Mechatronic systems | Object-oriented modeling | Power window systems

[31] Patalano S., Vitolo F., Lanzotti A., Object-oriented model validation for single bowden power window system development, 1st IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2015 - Proceedings, 150-154, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper deals with automotive power window systems and, in particular, tackles the problem of validating the object-oriented model of a single bowden system, to be used within a Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) approach. Therefore, the paper tackles the problem of increasing accuracy of object-oriented models by defining model refinements i.e. by identifying objects whose modelling has to be improved. Firstly, the role of object-oriented modelling and the main characteristics of the power window system are summarized. Then, the object-oriented model of an automotive single bowden power window system is presented. Finally, the experimental phase, performed to characterize the behavior of the real system is summarised and the validation of simulation model, as well as the identification of model refinement, are accomplished.

Keywords: mechatronic systems | model validation | object-oriented modeling | single bowden power window system

[32] Patalano S., Vitolo F., Lanzotti A., A digital pattern approach to the design of an automotive power window by means of object-oriented modelling, Applied Condition Monitoring, 2, 199-207, (2015). Abstract
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Abstract: The paper deals with a digital pattern (DP) approach to the design of an automotive power window, using object-oriented modelling. Therefore, the paper faces the designing of a mechatronic system by using an integrated approach to product development. Then, Dymola/Modelica environment is used as a tool of a decision support system that makes possible the DP approach. The paper briefly sum up the results of simulations related to a power window system characterized by a double bowden sliding mechanism. Finally, the paper highlights the parameters that could be easily integrated in a graphical user interface, aimed to reduce both the development time of new power window system and to increase the accuracy of design activities.

Keywords: Digital pattern for product development | Mechatronic systems | Objectoriented modeling | Power window systems

[33] Patalano S., Vitolo F., Lanzotti A., A graph-based software tool for the CAD modeling of mechanical assemblies, GRAPP 2013 IVAPP 2013 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications and International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications, 60-69, (2013). Abstract
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Abstract: The challenge of reducing designing time for new mechanical assemblies, especially in the context of large companies, encourages the use of methods and tools aimed to support designing activities and to re-use the company know-how. Furthermore, the design choices must be rapidly check to avoid errors that could cause delay or expensive re-designing. In such a context, the graph theory and related algorithms could be used to define a transfer function, easily to implement, that governs a software tool able to support the designing activities. Therefore, the paper presents a designing approach, based on the graph theory, aimed to generate the geometric modeling of mechanical assemblies. The approach and the software tool are useful both for designer and companies that want to customize and improve such activities. Finally, the paper shows the case study related to the design of a transversal manual gearbox and the generation of a GUI, developed in Mat LAB® environment, to validate the approach.

Keywords: CAD modeling | Digital pattern | Graph theory | Graphical user interfaces | Mechanical design