[Elenco soci]

Ambu Rita

Ricercatore tempo indeterminato

Università degli Studi di Cagliari

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 55589394300
Orcid: 0000-0002-3126-950X

Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Calì M., Ambu R., A mesh morphing computational method for geometry optimization of assembled mechanical systems with flexible components, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 16(2), 575-582, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper an interactive computational methodology was developed assuming that shape and size optimization of flexible components can significantly improve energy absorption or storage ability in assembled systems with flexible components (AS-FC). A radial basis functions mesh morphing formulation in non-linear numerical finite element analysis, including contact problems and flow interaction, was adopted as optimal design method to optimize shape and size design parameters in AS-FC. Flexible components were assembled in finite element environment according to functional ISO-ASME tolerances specification; non-linear structural analysis with flow interaction analysis was performed. The results of the study showed that the proposed method allows to optimize the shape and size of the flexible components in AS-FC maximizing the system's ability to absorb or store energy. The potentiality of the method and its forecasting capability were discussed for the case study of an automotive crash shock in which the specific energy absorption was increased by over 40%. The case studied refers to a simple flexible component geometry, but the method could be extended to systems with more complex geometries.

Keywords: Crash shock absorber | ISO-ASME tolerances specification | Radial basis functions | Shape and size optimization | Specific energy absorption

[2] Ambu R., Oliveri S.M., Calì M., A Bespoke Neck Orthosis for Additive Manufacturing with Improved Design Method and Sustainable Material, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 50-58, (2022). Abstract

Abstract: The use of additive manufacturing (AM) has widespread over the years in different areas, including the biomedical field. In particular, the design of customized orthoses, external medical devices used in the treatment of specific pathologies, was proposed in different studies mainly concerning upper limbs, while few investigations are reported relatively to the cervical area. In this paper a new design of a bespoke neck orthosis is reported. The manufacturing of a light device with a good transpiration allows to increase the patient’s comfort and, compatibly with the structural requirements, is a main goal to pursue. With this aim, various aspects were considered in the design and manufacturing of the orthosis. At the design stage, the geometry was conceived with a ventilation pattern based on Voronoi cells, which generally allows a better performance in terms of breathability with respect to a pattern made with uniform geometrical features, keeping at the same time structural requirements, as assessed by numerical finite elements simulations. At the manufacturing stage, a new composite material was used, namely Hemp Bio-Plastic® (HBP) filament, composed by polylactic acid (PLA) and hemp shives which provided lightweight, improved superficial finish and antibacterial properties. In order to assess the thermal comfort, an experimental analysis was finally conducted on a prototype of the orthosis, worn by a volunteer subject, with a thermal imaging camera. The beneficial effect of the ventilation pattern considered in terms of temperature and, accordingly, for the patient’s comfort, was highlighted also in relation to a neck orthosis previously designed.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Bio-composite | Orthosis modeling

[3] Calì M., Oliveri S.M., Calì P., Ambu R., A NURBS-based solid modeling to enhance rapid prototyping in the restoration of decorative elements, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 129-132, (2021). Abstract

Abstract: In this research, we describe a computer-aided approach to improve the reconstruction method of decorum in architectural surfaces and sculpture. The effects of withdrawal caused by catalysis of mold in silicone was evaluated and simulated by a NURBS-based solid modelling. A tolerance analysis model was developed to predict manufacturing precision levels. In particular, differential increment along three dimensions was performed considering different volume distributions. The methodology was validated by experimental data obtained during the coffered ceiling restoration of Teatro Massimo Vittorio Emanuele in Palermo. The proposed methodology allowed the reconstruction of decorations or fragments of decoration with high accuracy.

Keywords: Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing | Restoration techniques | Reverse engineering | Silicon mold | Withdrawal

[4] Calì M., Pascoletti G., Gaeta M., Milazzo G., Ambu R., A new generation of bio-composite thermoplastic filaments for a more sustainable design of parts manufactured by FDM, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 10(17), (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The most recent developments of Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) techniques are moving the application of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies toward new areas of investigation such as the biomedical, aerospace, and marine engineering in addition to the more consolidated industrial and civil fields. Some specific characteristics are required for the components designed for peculiar applications, such as complex geometries, lightweight, and high strength as well as breathability and aesthetic appearance specifically in the biomedical field. All these design specifications could be potentially satisfied by manufacturing with 3D printing techniques. Moreover, the development of purpose-dedicated filaments can be considered a key factor to successfully meet all the requirements. In this paper, fabrication and applications of five new thermoplastic materials with fillers are described and analyzed. They are organic bio-plastic compounds made of polylactic acid (PLA) and organic by-products. The growing interest in these new composite materials reinforced with organic by-products is due to the reduction of production management costs and their low environmental impact. In this study, the production workflow has been set up and described in detail. The main properties of these new thermoplastic materials have been analyzed with a major emphasis on strength, lightweight, and surface finish. The analysis showed that these materials can be particularly suitable for biomedical applications. Therefore, two different biomedical devices were selected and relative prototypes were manufactured with one of the analyzed thermoplastic materials. The feasibility, benefits, and performance of the thermoplastic material considered for these applications were successfully assessed.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing capability | Biomedical applications | Design | Mechanical properties | Organic bio-composite filament | Roughness

[5] Aguilar L.E., Alvarez-Lorenzo C., Ambu R., Amza C., Baino F., Banas J., Banchelli M., Barbeck M., Beltrán A.M., Bernardi S., Boda S.K., Bouropoulos N., Boyer C.J., Bruzell E., Cacciotti I., Casimiro M.H., Chateigner D., Chen Z., Chereddy K., Chern E., Chin K.Y., Ciapetti G., Crisci A., Csapo E., Daprile G., Diaz-Rodriguez P., Dinca A., Dodero V., Donnermeyer D., Dorozhkin S.V., Dutour Sikirić M., Eglin D., Elder S., Fernández-Arévalo M., Figueiras A., Fregnan F., Fröhlich E., Gabrić D., Garcia-Gonzales C., Giudice G.L., Gomez-Lazaro M., Grzech-Leśniak K., Gu C., Gundapaneni D., Hama S., Hamon M., He J., Hegedűs C., Hixon K.R., Hoshiba T., Hsieh C.C., Hu Y., Huang Y., Ibrahim T., Illescas Montes R.I., Incarnato L., Iordache F., Iseki S., Jammalamadaka U., Joly-Duhamel C., Kazek-Kęsik A., Keller B., Kengelbach-Weigand A., Kevadiya B., Kijenska E., Kolmas J., Koltz M.T., Koutavarapu R., Kurečič M., Lee M., Li M.C., Lin M., Lin T.F., Lindberg G., Magyari K., Majumder P., Marrazzo P., Marto C.M., Meisel H.J., Messias A., Metzinger L., Mokhtari S., Mukherjee S., Mulloy B., Muntimadugu E., Nam S.Y., Nandi S., Narayanan G., Ng W.L., Nguyen B.T.L., Nicholson J.W., Nisnevitch M., Okunkova A.A., Otsuka Y., Padmanabhan J., Pagano S., Paknahad A., Patterson J., Peng C., Perale G., Acknowledgement to reviewers of journal of functional biomaterials in 2019, Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 11(1), (2020).
[6] Calì M., Pascoletti G., Gaeta M., Milazzo G., Ambu R., New filaments with natural fillers for FDM 3D printing and their applications in biomedical field, Procedia Manufacturing, 51, 698-703, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: Current Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) techniques have promoted the extension of 3D printing technologies to new applications ranging from the biomedical, aerospace, and submarine fields, to some specific applications in manufacturing and civil fields. The expansion of the fields of application, generally, entails considering peculiar characteristics, such as complex geometries or requirements as low density. Furthermore, the breathability, the pleasantness to the touch, aesthetic appearance and a strong visual identity, that can be achieved by means of 3D printing, are especially requested for some applications such as biomedical. For the improvement of the manufacturing of these parts, the design of a dedicated filament is a relevant issue to be taken into account. polylactic acid (PLA) and organic by-products from agricultural waste. The study includes a preliminary illustration of the main properties of these materials and a biomedical application of such bio-plastic compounds through experimental testing in order to assess the suitability to FDM printing. In particular, the performance in terms of lightweight, strength and roughness have been evaluated. The interesting final properties make these materials suitable for biomedical applications as it is shown in this study for the neck collar prototype reported. In addition, such innovative bio-composite materials allow reducing the cost of environmental impact as well as the production management costs.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing capability | Bio-plastic compounds | Biomedical applications | Mechanical properties | Organic bio-composite filament | Roughness

[7] Ambu R., Motta A., Calì M., Design of a Customized Neck Orthosis for FDM Manufacturing with a New Sustainable Bio-composite, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 707-718, (2020). Abstract

Abstract: The interest in developing customized external orthopaedic devices, thanks to the advent of Additive Manufacturing (AM), has grown in recent years. Greater attention was focused on upper limb casts, while applications to other body’s parts, such as the neck, were less investigated. In this paper the computer aided design (CAD) modelling, assessment and 3D printing with fused deposition modelling (FDM) of a customized neck orthosis are reported. The modelling, based on anatomic data of a volunteer subject, was aimed to obtain a lightweight, ventilated, hygienic and comfortable orthosis compared to the produced medical devices generally used for neck injuries. CAD models with different geometrical patterns, introduced for lightening and improving breathability, were considered, specifically, a honeycomb pattern and an elliptical holes pattern. These models were structurally assessed by means of finite elements analysis (FEA). Furthermore, an innovative composite material was considered for 3D printing. The material, Hemp Bio-Plastic® (HBP), composed by polylactic acid (PLA) and hemp shives, offers different advantages including lightweight, improved superficial finish and antibacterial properties. The results obtained in terms of design methodology and manufacturing by 3D printing of a prototype have shown the feasibility to develop customized cervical orthoses, with potentially improved performance with respect to cervical collars available on the market also thanks to the use of the innovative composite material.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing | Bio-composite | CAD | Neck orthosis

[8] Babič M., Miliaresis G.C., Mikoš M., Ambu R., Calì M., New method for estimating fractal dimension in 3d space and its application to complex surfaces, International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 9(6), 2154-2159, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: The concept of "surface modeling" generally describes the process of representing a physical or artificial surface by a geometric model, namely a mathematical expression. Among the existing techniques applied for the characterization of a surface, terrain modeling relates to the representation of the natural surface of the Earth. Cartographic terrain or relief models as threedimensional representations of a part of the Earth's surface convey an immediate and direct impression of a landscape and are much easier to understand than two-dimensional models. This paper addresses a major problem in complex surface modeling and evaluation consisting in the characterization of their topography and comparison among different textures, which can be relevant in different areas of research. A new algorithm is presented that allows calculating the fractal dimension of images of complex surfaces. The method is used to characterize different surfaces and compare their characteristics. The proposed new mathematical method computes the fractal dimension of the 3D space with the average space component of Hurst exponent H, while the estimated fractal dimension is used to evaluate, compare and characterize complex surfaces that are relevant in different areas of research. Various surfaces with both methods were analyzed and the results were compared. The study confirms that with known coordinates of a surface, it is possible to describe its complex structure. The estimated fractal dimension is proved to be an ideal tool for measuring the complexity of the various surfaces considered.

Keywords: Fractal dimension | Hurst exponent H | Image analysis | Space component | Surface

[9] Ambu R., Morabito A.E., Modeling, assessment, and design of porous cells based on schwartz primitive surface for bone scaffolds, Scientific World Journal, 2019, (2019). Abstract

Abstract: Te design of bone scafolds for tissue regeneration is a topic of great interest, which involves diferent issues related to geometry of architectures, mechanical behavior, and biological requirements, whose optimal combination determines the success of an implant. Additive manufacturing (AM) has widened the capability to produce structures with complex geometries, which should potentially satisfy the diferent requirements. These architectures can be obtained by means of refned methods and have to be assessed in terms of geometrical and mechanical properties. In this paper a triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS), the Schwarz's Primitive surface (P-surface), has been considered as scafold unit cell and conveniently parameterized in order to investigate the efect of modulation of analytical parameters on the P-cell geometry and on its properties. Several are the cell properties, which can afect the scafold performance. Due to the important biofunctional role that the surface curvature plays in mechanisms of cellular proliferation and diferentiation, in this paper, in addition to properties considering the cell geometry in its whole (such as volume fraction or pore size), new properties were proposed. Tese properties involve, particularly, the evaluation of local geometrical-diferential properties of the P-surface. Te results of this P-cell comprehensive characterization are very useful for the design of customized bone scafolds able to satisfy both biological and mechanical requirements. A numerical structural evaluation, by means of fnite element method (FEM), was performed in order to assess the stifness of solid P-cells as a function of the changes of the analytical parameters of outer surface and the thickness of cell. Finally, the relationship between stifness and porosity has been analyzed, given the relevance that this property has for bone scafolds design.

[10] Calì M., Ambu R., Advanced 3D photogrammetric surface reconstruction of extensive objects by UAV camera image acquisition, Sensors (Switzerland), 18(9), (2018). Abstract

Abstract: This paper proposes a replicable methodology to enhance the accuracy of the photogrammetric reconstruction of large-scale objects based on the optimization of the procedures for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) camera image acquisition. The relationships between the acquisition grid shapes, the acquisition grid geometric parameters (pitches, image rates, camera framing, flight heights), and the 3D photogrammetric surface reconstruction accuracy were studied. Ground Sampling Distance (GSD), the necessary number of photos to assure the desired overlapping, and the surface reconstruction accuracy were related to grid shapes, image rate, and camera framing at different flight heights. The established relationships allow to choose the best combination of grid shapes and acquisition grid geometric parameters to obtain the desired accuracy for the required GSD. This outcome was assessed by means of a case study related to the ancient arched brick Bridge of the Saracens in Adrano (Sicily, Italy). The reconstruction of the three-dimensional surfaces of this structure, obtained by the efficient Structure-From-Motion (SfM) algorithms of the commercial software Pix4Mapper, supported the study by validating it with experimental data. A comparison between the surface reconstruction with different acquisition grids at different flight heights and the measurements obtained with a 3D terrestrial laser and total station-theodolites allowed to evaluate the accuracy in terms of Euclidean distances.

Keywords: Accuracy | Acquisition grid optimization | Digital surfaces models | Ground sampling distance | Structure-from-motion algorithms

[11] Ambu R., Morabito A.E., Porous scaffold design based on minimal surfaces: Development and assessment of variable architectures, Symmetry, 10(9), (2018). Abstract

Abstract: In tissue engineering, biocompatible porous scaffolds that try to mimic the features and function of the bone are of great relevance. In this paper, an effective method for the design of 3D porous scaffolds is applied to the modelling of structures with variable architectures. These structures are of interest since they are more similar to the stochastic configuration of real bone with respect to architectures made of a unit cell replicated in three orthogonal directions, which are usually considered for this kind of applications. This property configures them as, potentially, more suitable to satisfy simultaneously the biological requirements and those relative to the mechanical strength. The procedure implemented is based on the implicit surface modelling method and the use of a triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS), specifically, the Schwarz's Primitive (P) minimal surface, whose geometry was considered for the development of scaffolds with different configurations. The representative structures modelled were numerically analysed by means of finite element analysis (FEA), considering them made of a biocompatible titanium alloy. The architectures considered were thus assessed in terms of the relationship between the geometrical configuration and the mechanical response to compression loading.

Keywords: Design | FEA | Scaffold | Tissue engineering | TPMS

[12] Calì M., Oliveri S.M., Ambu R., Fichera G., An integrated approach to characterize the dynamic behaviour of a mechanical chain tensioner by functional tolerancing, Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 64(4), 245-257, (2018). Abstract

Abstract: Assembled systems composed of flexible components are widely used in mechanics to dampen vibrations and store or dissipate energy. Often, the flexible components of these systems are assembled via non-linear sliding contacts and yielding constraints. Geometric non-linearity along with non-linearity of stiffness, damping and contact pressure between flexible components greatly complicate the dynamic characterization of these assemblies. Therefore, such assemblies are characterised almost exclusively by means of experimental testing. This research analyses how classic ASME and ISO tolerance standards can be used to guarantee and control the conformity of these assembled systems with their functional requirements limiting the number of experimental tests. In particular the dependence of the dynamic behaviour upon functional tolerances is studied for a mechanical tensioner in a chain drive timing system of an internal combustion engine (ICE). The semi empirical methodology is based on displacement measurements and modal analyses. A multibody model with few degrees of freedom (MBM-FDoF) is proposed as the first approximation to reproduce the variability of the dynamic behaviour of the tensioner considering variations in functional tolerances.

Keywords: ASME-ISO tolerance specification | Deformation energy | Multibody model | Reverse engineering | Tensioner

[13] Ambu R., Morabito A.E., Design and analysis of tissue engineering scaffolds based on open porous non-stochastic cells, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 777-787, (2017). Abstract

Abstract: In orthopaedics, cellular structures can be used as three-dimensional porous biomaterials that try to mimic the characteristics and function of the bone. The progress in manufacturing techniques, mainly in the field of additive manufacturing, can potentially allow the production of highly controlled pore architectures and customized implants that, however, need more sophisticated design methodologies. In this paper, the design of porous biocompatible structures based on mathematically defined surfaces (triply periodic minimal surfaces) has been considered in respect of the approach that considers unit cells entirely modelled in CAD environment. Two types of unit cell have been here considered: the cubic and the P-cell. The cubic cell is created by a 3D CAD s/w from solid features that are combined together. The P-cell is modelled using an implicit function to describe the outer surface of the cell. Two are the design parameters of the P-cell: thickness and radius. The variation of these parameters allows modifying the architecture of the basic unit of the scaffold. The modification of the radius is carried out by a procedure, based on scaling and truncation operations. The thickness of the cell is modified by thickening and closure operations on the P-isosurface. The effect of these variations on the mechanical behaviour of the scaffold has been numerically evaluated by the estimation of the stiffness of each structure considered. The results demonstrated the huge potentiality of the method and stiffness values compatible with those required for biomechanical applications.

Keywords: Bone implants | Design | Porous materials | Scaffolds

[14] Ambu R., Bertetto A.M., Mazza L., Re-design of a guide bearing for pneumatic actuators and life tests comparison, Tribology International, 96, 317-325, (2016). Abstract

Abstract: The re-design at the front-head/guide-bearing interface of a linear pneumatic actuator is proposed in this paper. Design changes were performed by means of finite element analyses. Contact pressure and its redistribution at the rod-guide interface were assumed to be the "leading parameter" in this process to promote improvements of tribological behaviour, viz., reduction of guide-bearing wear and increase of cylinder life. Wear measurements and life tests made possible a comparison of pneumatic actuator life: these were modified on the basis of the various re-design solutions proposed. Therefore, a validation of the model's predicted conditions was possible.

Keywords: Contact pressure | Finite element analysis | Pneumatic cylinder | Rod guide bearing

[15] Ambu R., Bertetto A.M., Falchi C., Design of a prototype system operant in lunar environment, Strojniski Vestnik/Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 60(10), 629-637, (2014). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper, the design of a prototype system developed for a rover intended for the removal and transport of rocks on lunar soil is reported. The part of the rover dedicated to some of the main tasks, i.e. the lifting of objects and moving on rugged terrain, while controlling of the balance of the vehicle, is considered. These tasks are accomplished through the mechanical components assembled in a column connected to wheels. The study has been conducted with the aim of obtaining a simple and lightweight structure satisfying the requirements necessary to operate on the lunar soil. After a description of the architecture of the rover, the layout of the components of the column is detailed. A compliant, spiral-spring wheel is proposed to complete the mobility system. The primary components of the column are then structurally assessed by means of FEM numerical simulations. A numerical model of the wheel has also been implemented, in order to define in detail the wheel geometry and performance. The proposed layout could be promising for lunar applications since it has a configuration suitable for the specific characteristics of the environment it has to operate.

Keywords: Column | Design | FEM simulation | Lunar environment | Wheel | Working operation

[16] Ambu R., A method with a statistical approach for the evaluation of tolerance chains, Advanced Materials Research, 651, 601-606, (2013). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper a procedure based on a statistical approach to manufacturing for the analysis of tolerance chains is reported. In particular, the proposed approach can be summarised into two main steps. First, each single technological operation (for example, the drilling of a hole) is simulated by extracting, from a statistical distribution typical of the machine tool, the parameters characteristic of the manufacturing procedure. Then, a simulation is performed, to verify if the real features of the part can simultaneously fit the virtual gage. This method of acceptance/rejection of a part is according to the ISO/ASME standards and is representative of the real functional requirements of the part. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Keywords: Manufacturing | Statistical | Tolerancing

[17] Ambu R., Falchi C., Bertetto A.M., A lunar rover leg: Optimal design of a decoupling joint, International Journal of Mechanics and Control, 11(1), 45-50, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: The development of vehicles for the exploration in the lunar environment is a topic of great interest. In particular, recently, there has been a growing attention toward the lunar rovers for working missions since the building of lunar bases is a primary objective for the lunar exploration. However, these vehicles have peculiar requirements to be taken into account in the design of each component. In this paper a particular component of a worker rover, developed as a collaboration between two academic institutions, has been designed for an optimal functionality. Each leg of this rover comprises a mechanism for lifting weights and the component considered, a decoupling joint, is a part of this mechanism. The design optimization was performed by means of parametric modelling and numerical simulations.

Keywords: Decoupling joint | Design | Lunar rover

[18] Ambu A., Manuello Bertetto A., Falchi C., A working lunar rover: Passive gripper mechanism and actuated leg, 19th International Workshop on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region, RAAD 2010 - Proceedings, 199-203, (2010). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper two particular subsystems of a worker rover, developed as a collaboration between two academic institutions, has been described for an optimal functionality. The rover has a gripper mechanism and four legs: these components are the on board mechanical subsystems. The gripper mechanism, described in the paper, is designed to operate without motors and the leg of this rover comprises a mechanism for lifting weights and has a decoupling structural joint. The design optimization was performed by means of parametric modelling and numerical simulations. © 2010 IEEE.

[19] Ambu R., Aymerich F., Ginesu F., Priolo P., Assessment of NDT interferometric techniques for impact damage detection in composite laminates, Composites Science and Technology, 66(2), 199-205, (2006). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper, the feasibility of using optical methods to detect impact damage in thin laminates is investigated and discussed. Specimens impacted with different energy levels were analysed by a holographic procedure and by an electronic speckle pattern interferometry technique; the results obtained with the two techniques were compared with those acquired by a pulse-echo full-volume ultrasonic technique. The investigation showed that both optical methods were able to identify the presence of impact damage, with an efficiency dependent on the through-thickness location of the delaminations produced by impact. The adoptation of the ESPI technique allowed significant reductionn in inspectioon times, but quantitative estimates of impact damage were drastically impaired by the high level of speckle noise typical of the technique. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: B. Impact behaviour | C. Delamination | D. Ultrasonics | ESPI | Holography

[20] Ambu R., Aymerich F., Bertolino F., Investigation of the effect of damage on the strength of notched composite laminates by digital image correlation, Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 40(5), 451-461, (2005). Abstract

Abstract: In this paper the results of an experimental investigation on the effect of subcritical damage on the residual strength properties of notched composite laminates are presented. A procedure based on the digital image correlation method was applied to laminates subjected to static and fatigue tensile loading. The digital image correlation method (DICM) is a whole-field technique that calculates surface displacements and strains from digital images characterized by a random distribution of intensity grey levels. Graphite/PEEK (polyether ether ketone) and graphite/epoxy laminates with different stacking sequences were analysed and the damage progression near the stress riser was evaluated by means of the strain maps obtained by digital image correlation. It was found that damage developing before final fracture may significantly affect the structural performance of composite laminates. The digital image correlation technique allowed clarification of the beneficial or detrimental role played by the different failure mechanisms on the strain redistribution around the hole and, as a consequence, on the residual strength and fatigue life of notched samples. The findings of the investigation suggest that the DICM is an efficient and reliable tool for full-field monitoring and detailed damage characterization of structural composite elements. © IMechE 2005.

Keywords: Composite materials | Damage | Digital image correlation | Fatigue | Notch

[21] Ambu R., Ginesu F., Residual stress analysis in graphite/PEEK composite laminates, Key Engineering Materials, 221-222, 347-354, (2002). Abstract

Abstract: Residual stresses exist in composite structures free from external forces or constrains and generally are very undesirable because can contribute to damage or failure. In this paper a moirè interferometric hole drilling procedure is applied for residual strain measurements in graphite/PEEK composite laminates. Experimental results obtained are reported and a numerical calibration procedure is proposed for residual stress evaluation from the experimental data.

Keywords: Composite Laminates | Hole Drilling | Moiré Interferometry | Residual Stress

[22] Ambu R., Bertolino F., Ginesu F., Experimental Analysis of a SMC Truck Bumper, Key Engineering Materials, 144, 145-154, (1998). Abstract

Abstract: Over the last decade the use of composite materials in automotive industries has increased considerably. Relatively low cost, good stiffness and strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance and design flexibility are properties that make them attractive. Although steel is still widely used in automobile body panels, many companies are developing the technology needed to expand the use of these materials. Polyester sheet moulding compound is the material preferred. FIAT-IVECO is one company that some years ago decided to expand the use of SMC to its full line of trucks. The object of this paper is the static analysis of a SMC truck bumper manufactured by FIAT-IVECO. To analyse the structural behaviour two different experimental techniques were used: holographic interferometry and centesimal comparators. The experimental results were then compared with numerical data obtained from a finite element model of the bumper.