[Elenco soci]

Cicconi Paolo

Ricercatore TD(B)

Università Politecnica delle Marche

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 53879282700
Orcid: 0000-0002-5154-8821

Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Mandolini M., Pradel P., Cicconi P., Design for Additive Manufacturing: Methods and Tools, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 12(13), (2022).
[2] Mandolini M., Santucci F., Cicconi P., Santecchia E., Germani M., Palladino M., Favi C., Marconi M., A Numerical Model for Simulating the Selective Laser Melting of Closed Impellers, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 494-501, (2022). Abstract

The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is accelerating the adoption of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies in the industry. One of the most critical benefits concerns the possibility of manufacturing complex-shaped components, which are not feasible or too expensive using traditional processes. Recent studies are evaluating the SLM manufacturability of closed impellers through laboratory tests. The adoption of numerical simulation models for achieving this goal is still limited due to the complexity of the additive process and the number of phases to be considered. The paper presents a numerical model developed in the ANSYS workbench platform for simulating the SLM process of closed impellers. This work is one of the first studies available in the literature for such a particular kind of components. The paper describes the overall simulation model and the steps required for its definition. Furthermore, boundary conditions and process parameters are provided for a better understanding of the model. A case study illustrates its application to a specific part, intending to evaluate (i) impact between the recoater and the component, (ii) maximum von Mises stress and (iii) maximum displacement during the printing phase and following post-processing. These evaluations will support design and manufacturing engineers during product and process engineering. The promising results of this study are encouraging further research about the application of SLM for closed impellers.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Impeller | Numerical simulation | Selective laser melting

[3] Landi D., Cicconi P., An Approach for the Responsible Design of the Packaging Employed in Household Appliances, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 381-389, (2022). Abstract

The packaging is responsible for the production of a great amount of waste in the world. Every product comes with different levels of packaging to protect the product during shipping, store the content in the warehouse, and show the product to customers in retail shops. Therefore, the designer of packaging is more and more involved in a responsible analysis while defining the package configurations for a product. This paper proposes an approach to support the packaging configurations considering life cycle data, analytical structural analysis, and parametric cost modeling. Rules, formulas, and specific standards are formalized into a Knowledge Base. As a case study, the methodological approach has been applied to design the packaging of a household appliance. The results show the possibility to reduce the cost and environmental impacts of packaging by a responsible approach.

Keywords: Corrugated cardboard | Eco-design | EPS | Packaging

[4] Cicconi P., Bici M., Colacicchi Alessandri O., D’Ercoli G., Campana F., A CAD-Based Framework for Interactive Analysis in the Restoration of Bronze Statues, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 938-950, (2022). Abstract

Nowadays, restoration is a multidisciplinary work that gathers knowledge and skills from different areas (technical, artistic, historical, architectural, …). In the field of ancient bronze statues, technical knowledge may also concern with materials behaviour and its preservation, surface quality, non-destructive diagnostics for integrity, a better understanding of the manufacturing technology, and of details, sometimes hidden, in not directly accessible sections of the artefact. This knowledge, got from different domains, can support restorers in their decision-making process. In many cases, they summarise it on pictorial views of the artefacts, or on images derived from the 3D model that is experimentally acquired through reverse engineering, to reference information on the interested areas. The aim of this paper is to explore the advantages related to a CAD-based framework able to gather the technical domains involved in the restoration of historical artifacts. Doing so, CAD functionalities and related benefits may be extended to cultural heritage applications as tools oriented for restoration, according to a life cycle perspective of the restorer’s activities and the artefact preservation and fruition. The proposed CAD-based framework has been implemented to manage the investigation for restoration and conservation of bronze statues. The approach has been applied to the Principe Ellenistico, part of the collection of Palazzo Massimo, one of the sites of Museo Nazionale Romano (in Rome). The obtained results show that the CAD-based framework may speed-up the investigation processes without losing accuracy and restorers’ good practices.

Keywords: CAD-CAE | Cultural heritage | Design for restoration | Principe Ellenistico | Virtual prototyping

[5] Favi C., Mandolini M., Campi F., Cicconi P., Germani M., DESIGN FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING: A FRAMEWORK TO COLLECT AND REUSE ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE TOWARDS A CAD-BASED TOOL, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 6, (2021). Abstract

Within the context of modern industries, additive manufacturing (AM) plays a critical role. Design for AM (DfAM) requires defining design actions related to the product's geometry under development. DfAM affects design choices such as the type of process, the material, the geometry, and the model's features. Knowledge-based engineering (KBE) is promising for integrating DfAM principles in the early phases of product development. Still, few limitations are noticed, such as the real interoperability between DfAM and 3D CAD systems, leading to the application of proper DfAM rules downstream of the 3D modeling. This paper aims to describe a method to formalize AM engineering knowledge used as a repository to develop a CAD-integrated decision support tool by acknowledging the current gap. The method uses, as input, geometrical data retrieved by the feature analysis of the 3D CAD model (feature recognition approach) and manufacturing information related to AM processes. The method will allow closing the gap between the design and production departments by creating a knowledge-based system. The outcome of this system does not concern the possibility of predicting the AM process parameters. The system will support engineers in delivering product designs compliant with AM processes. Based on this system, a CAD-integrated DfAM tool can be developed in the future.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Am | Cad | Design for additive manufacturing | Design rules | Design tool | Feature recognition | Knowledge-based system

[6] Cicconi P., Mandolini M., Santucci F., Germani M., Designing die inserts by additive approach: A test case, Procedia CIRP, 100, 702-707, (2021). Abstract

The die manufacturing industry is widely based on the use of conventional machining tools. However, several studies have proposed Additive Manufacturing (AM) for molds and die inserts in the last ten years. The AM flexibility allows designing and manufacturing complex surfaces. This flexibility can be used to optimize the cooling channels of die inserts (conformal cooling). The research aims to evaluate whether Design for Additive Manufacturing commercial tools can be employed in redesigning die inserts. Besides, the paper describes a method to redesign a die insert for High-Pressure Die Casting using Selective Laser Melting. A test case is proposed to analyze an AM die insert's redesign process for improving the thermal exchange and the material distribution. The simulation of the AM process supports the drafting conclusions from the results.

Keywords: 3D Printing | Additive Design | Conformal Cooling | High Pressure Die Casting | Lattice Structure | Metal Additive Manufacturing | Rapid Tooling

[7] Favi C., Mandolini M., Campi F., Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Design for Manufacturing and Assembly: A Method for Rules Classification, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 354-359, (2021). Abstract

The paper provides a method to acquire, process, and represent DfMA rules to help designers and engineers in the development of mechanical products compliant with manufacturing and assembly technology. This research work wants to define a general method able to link DfMA design guidelines (knowledge engineering) with geometrical product features that are available by the investigation of the 3D model. Numerical parameters of design features are related to design guidelines for the identification of manufacturing and assembly issues within the analysis of the 3D model.

Keywords: Design rules | DfMA | Embodiment design | Knowledge formalization | Mechanical products

[8] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Cicconi P., Germani M., Raffaeli R., Parametric Cost Modelling for Investment Casting, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 386-392, (2021). Abstract

This paper presents a parametric cost model for estimating the raw material cost of components realized employing the investment casting process. The model is built using sensitivity analysis and regression methods on data generated by an analytic cost model previously developed and validated by the same authors. This is the first attempt of developing a parametric cost model for investment casting based on activity-based costing. The proposed cost model accounts component volume, material density and material price. The error in estimating the raw material cost for components whose volume is within the common range of investment casting is around 11%.

Keywords: Cost estimating relationship | Cost estimation | Investment casting | Parametric cost modelling | Sensitivity analysis

[9] Postacchini L., Cicconi P., Ciarapica F.E., Germani M., Bevilacqua M., A design method for improving assembly and environmental sustainability in packaging solutions: a case study in household appliances, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 14(4), 574-589, (2021). Abstract

By using a functional requirement analysis, through Design for Manufacture and Assembly and Design for Environment principles, this paper aims at showing a new design method to improve the overall assembly features and environmental sustainability of a packaging solution. This method provides to rank functional requirements according to three different design specifications and also to the number of relationships they have with each other. At the same time, a ranked order of importance for the packaging parts has been realised, considering the number of performed functions. The purpose of this method is to support the designers in focusing their attention on the most important packaging parts and, at the same time, giving them a clear idea of which are the most important functional requirements to be satisfied. This study has been focused on domestic household packaging, but the provided method can be extended to any particular packaging solution and its findings are still valid. According to the Design for Environmental perspective, the actual and the new resulting packaging solutions have been then compared through Life Cycle Assessment method. The results have shown the new packaging solution being able to cut down the environmental impacts, on average, of approximately 30%.

Keywords: corrugated fibreboard | design for environment | design for manufacture and assembly | expanded polystyrene | Industrial packaging | life cycle assessment

[10] Cicconi P., Mandolini M., Favi C., Campi F., Germani M., Metal additive manufacturing for the rapid prototyping of shaped parts: A case study, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 18(5), 1061-1079, (2021). Abstract

Many companies have been evaluating the feasibility and gain of using Additive Manufacturing in their own business. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to produce a shape with complex geometry in a reduced time. Therefore, Additive Manufacturing is often applied in rapid prototyping, which is an essential activity for the evaluation and testing of the design concepts. Even if the advantages and drawbacks of 3D printing are well known in the literature, there is still a lack of tools and methodologies to support a rapid techno-economic analysis for selecting the key manufacturing process between traditional machining tools and 3D printing. A case study on a 3D part of moderate complexity, a gas burner head, fabricated by additive manufacturing, using selective laser melting, has been described in this paper. This test case is focused on the context of rapid prototyping. The 3D part is a gas burner head which has to be printed for testing activity. The analysis focuses on the cost, time, and quality of the built part. An analytical approach has been proposed to calculate the cost of the 3D printing process. The analytical cost is related to the results of the numerical simulations to support the techno-economic analysis. The paper shows a method to compare additive manufacturing and traditional machining processes in rapid prototyping. However, the paper also shows a simulation activity to analyze with more details the 3D printing process in terms of part orientation and deformation of the build.

Keywords: 3D printing simulation | Additive manufacturing | Cost analysis | Metal printing | Rapid prototyping

[11] Prist M., Monteriú A., Pallotta E., Cicconi P., Freddi A., Giuggioloni F., Caizer E., Verdini C., Longhi S., Cyber-physical manufacturing systems: An architecture for sensor integration, production line simulation and cloud services, Acta IMEKO, 9(4), 39-52, (2020). Abstract

The pillars of Industry 4.0 require the integration of a modern smart factory, data storage in the Cloud, access to the Cloud for data analytics, and information sharing at the software level for simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) capabilities. The resulting cyber-physical system (CPS) is often termed the cyber-physical manufacturing system, and it has become crucial to cope with this increased system complexity and to attain the desired performances. However, since a great number of old production systems are based on monolithic architectures with limited external communication ports and reduced local computational capabilities, it is difficult to ensure such production lines are compliant with the Industry 4.0 pillars. A wireless sensor network is one solution for the smart connection of a production line to a CPS elaborating data through cloud computing. The scope of this research work lies in developing a modular software architecture based on the open service gateway initiative framework, which is able to seamlessly integrate both hardware and software wireless sensors, send data into the Cloud for further data analysis and enable both HIL and cloud computing capabilities. The CPS architecture was initially tested using HIL tools before it was deployed within a real manufacturing line for data collection and analysis over a period of two months.

Keywords: Cyber physical system | Industry 4.0 | OSGi framework | Smart factory | Wireless sensor networks

[12] Cicconi P., Kumar P., Varshney P., A support approach for the modular design of li-ion batteries: A test case with PCM, Journal of Energy Storage, 31, (2020). Abstract

Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in Phase-Change Materials due to their capacity to store latent heat during the phase transition. In the literature, the solid-liquid change is widely applied in cooling applications such as the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The optimization of the cooling system is one of the solutions to reduce battery aging and increase the battery lifetime. Even if Phase-Change Materials are studied to be used in this context, there is still a lack of suitable solutions to be used in engineering design for a further product commercialization. In this context, the paper proposes a modular approach to support the design of a battery pack considering Phase-Change Materials in the cooling system. The approach shows how a single module of cells can be stacked and how the cooling system of each module can be easily connected to each other. The modularity concept is extended from the electrical configuration to the cooling system. As a test case, a battery module has been analyzed. The battery module has been simulated using a Computer-Aided Engineering tool to analyze the behavior of the temperature profile under loading conditions.

Keywords: Battery cooling | Battery simulations | Battery thermal management | Li-ion batteries | Modular design | Phase-change materials (PCM)

[13] Cicconi P., Manieri S., Nardelli M., Bergantino N., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A constraint-based approach for optimizing the design of overhead lines, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 14(3), 1121-1139, (2020). Abstract

The use of computational methods in engineering design is a long-standing issue. Several mathematical approaches have been investigated in the literature to support the design optimization of engineering products. Most of them are focused on the optimization of a single structure, without considering a system of structures. The design of supports for electric lines requires tools for the management and sizing of a system of structures that interacts with each other under specific load conditions. This paper deals with a framework to support the design optimization of an overhead line using methods related to the theory of the Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The object-oriented model of a transmission line has been described and then implemented into a prototypical software platform. The parameters to be considered as variables are defined by the designer at the beginning of the optimization process. These variables are geometrical dimensions, poles locations, cable pre-tension, etc. The set of constraints is related to normative, climate conditions, datasheets, material limits, and expert knowledge. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, a case study has been developed considering a variable number of constraints and parameters. In particular, the case study is focused on the design of a low-voltage sub-network between two distribution substations.

Keywords: Constraint satisfaction problem | Design optimization | Multi-objective optimization | Overhead lines

[14] Cicconi P., Nardelli M., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Integrating a constraint-based optimization approach into the design of oil & gas structures, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 45, (2020). Abstract

Currently, design optimization is widely applied in civil and mechanical engineering. Optimization strategies are used to enhance the product performance and reduce the cost, lead time and environmental impacts related to the product lifecycle. In this context, evolutionary algorithms are used for determining the optimum solution in engineering problems. The design of complex products, such as those that are engineered to order, often requires the study of subproblems. Modularization is a common practice to reduce the complexity; however, the configuration practices are difficult to be applied in engineered to order products. As a solution, the integration of the optimization tools and model-based simulations is proposed to manage the complexity. However, even when a commercial software is available to support the parameter optimization, there may exist a lack of design tools that can be integrated with the product structure of an engineered to order product. This paper describes a design optimization approach that integrates a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) tool with model-based simulations in a collaborative design context. A platform tool is developed using the. NET and MiniZinc languages. The case study is focused on the design optimization of a 700-ton steel structure. In particular, the optimization analysis considers the mechanical behavior, weight, and cost reduction.

Keywords: Constraint satisfaction problem | Design optimization | Engineer-to-order | Oil & gas | Steel structures

[15] Prist M., Monteriu A., Freddi A., Cicconi P., Giuggioloni F., Caizer E., Verdini C., Longhi S., Online Fault Detection: A Smart Approach for Industry 4.0, 2020 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2020 - Proceedings, 167-171, (2020). Abstract

The fourth industrial age takes the manufacturing factory to a new level by introducing smart, extendible, flexible, modular and customized mass production technologies. Production lines or machines need to be integrated at the management level to be industry 4.0 compliant: in this way they can create and optimize a customer-oriented production, while constantly maintaining good performance conditions. In this context, one of the main challenges is the possibility to detect faults as fast as possible, to accurately diagnose those faults which can negatively affect the overall production cycle, and finally address them before it is too late. Due to the great importance that electric motors play in this context, an online smart algorithm for fault detection in electric motors is proposed in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been validated by applying it on an experimental benchmark, where the results show that the method is accurate and fast in detection of faults.

Keywords: Data Analysis | Fault Detection | Fault Diagnosis | Industry 4.0

[16] Cicconi P., Eco-design and Eco-materials: An interactive and collaborative approach, Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 23, (2020). Abstract

Sustainability and recycling have come to be keywords in many consumer products. However, the creative industry still lacks design tools suitable for sustainable development. While different recycled and sidestream materials are available in industry, the relation between sustainability and the use of new composites is still difficult to be evaluated and integrated into the early design phases for the creative area. This paper deals with a collaborative Eco-design approach to support these tasks and overcome traditional limits using an interactive approach. The interaction regards the collaboration between several stake-holders such as designers, manufacturers and suppliers throughout the engineering activities and value stream. The framework of an Eco-design tool is proposed to evaluate secondary raw materials, processes, user's feedback, and best practices for the selection of green and recycled materials.

Keywords: Collaborative design | Creative industry | Recycling

[17] Cicconi P., Castorani V., Germani M., Mandolini M., Vita A., A multi-objective sequential method for manufacturing cost and structural optimization of modular steel towers, Engineering with Computers, 36(2), 475-497, (2020). Abstract

This paper proposes a methodological approach for the multi-objective optimization of steel towers made from prefabricated cylindrical stacks that are typically used in the oil and gas sector. The goal is to support engineers in designing economical products while meeting structural requirements. The multi-objective optimization approach involves the minimization of the weights and costs related to the manufacturing and assembly phases. The method is based on three optimization levels. The first is used in the preliminary design phase when a company receives a request for proposal. Here, minimal information on the order is available, and the time available to formulate an offer is limited. Thus, parametric cost models and simplified 1-D geometries are used in the optimization loop performed by genetic algorithms. The second phase, the embodiment design phase, starts when an offer becomes an order based on the results of the first stage. Simplified shell geometries and advanced parametric cost models are used in the optimization loop, which present a restricted problem domain. In the last phase involving detailed design, a full 3-D computer-aided design model is generated, and specific finite-element method simulations are performed. The cost estimations, given the high levels of detail considered, are analytic and are performed using dedicated software.

Keywords: Engineering-to-order (ETO) | Manufacturing cost estimation | Multi-objective optimization | Numerical simulation | Sequential optimization | Tubular steel towers

[18] Mandolini M., Campi F., Favi C., Cicconi P., Germani M., AN ANALYTICAL COST MODEL for INVESTMENT CASTING, Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN Conference, 1, 987-996, (2020). Abstract

Analytical cost estimation of investment casted products during design phase is a complex task since the quantity of parameters to be evaluated. So far, there is a short literature on such cost estimation models. This paper attempts to improve the cost model presented by Boothroyd and Dewhurst. Improvements (mainly focused on cluster assembly and investment, sintering and melting phases) were defined and verified in cooperation with two foundries. Tested on eight components, deviation between estimated and actual costs is around 14% for manual production lines and 6% for automatic ones.

Keywords: cost estimation | design costing | design for x (DfX) | investment casting | process modelling

[19] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Postacchini L., Monteriù A., Pallotta E., Prist M., Ciarapica F.E., Germani M., Analysis of LGV usage for the improvement of a customized production, Procedia Manufacturing, 51, 1606-1613, (2020). Abstract

The paper describes an approach for analyzing the use of a Laser-Guided Vehicle (LGV) in the context of the small and medium-sized enterprise. The use of LGVs is an efficient solution to provide more flexibility in the context of Just-In-Time production; however, the investment cost can limit this application. A methodology has been proposed in this work to analyze the technical feasibility of using an LGV in the manufacturing industry of customized products. The test case focuses on the study of a laser-guided system to optimize the handling of molds for customized production. In this scenario, an LGV is proposed to substitute manual carts used for moving molds from the warehouse to the injection machines. The traditional path included an intermediate station for pre-heating the molds in hot-air ovens. The proposed solution includes the study of an induction heating system on the LGV to optimize time and energy consumption.

Keywords: Customized production | Laser Guided Vehicle | Life Cycle Cost | System modeling

[20] Landi D., Cicconi P., Germani M., Analyzing the environmental sustainability of packaging for household appliances: A test case, Procedia CIRP, 90, 355-360, (2020). Abstract

Nowadays, packaging represents around 35% of the total municipal solid waste yearly generated. This paper aims at analyzing a methodology to support the redesign of a sustainable packaging for the household appliances. The approach considers the environmental impacts related to geometrical parameters and materials. In particular, here the test case is focused on the packaging for kitchen hoods. Through the proposed method, based on the use of virtual prototyping tools, an eco-design approach has been identified to analyze the main environmental impacts. A packaging redesign has been performed to reduce waste and increase the use of the components from the perspective of the circular economy. This study has been performed in accordance with the international standards ISO 14040/14044, by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from Cradle to Gate. The integration with a CAD tool has been considered to redefine the packaging shape, materials, and internal composition, keeping the same standard requirements (performance, security, etc.). LCA software SimaPro 8.5 has been used to carry out the life cycle assessment, and ReCiPe method has been chosen for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). A comparison has been proposed between a traditional packaging for household appliances and a new solution which integrates an interior part in molded pulp. The results show the possibility to cut down the environmental impacts of approximately 15% by a redesign with a molded pulp interior and avoiding EPS structures.

Keywords: Molded pulp | Sustainable design | Sustainable packaging

[21] Prist M., Longhi S., Monteriu A., Freddi A., Pallotta E., Ciabattoni L., Cicconi P., Giuggioloni F., Caizer E., Verdini C., Machine learning-as-a-service for consumer electronics fault diagnosis: A comparison between matlab and azure ML, Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, 2020-January, (2020). Abstract

Today, the improvement of the product value in consumer goods, such as new services to increase the positive customer experience, is the subject of many research activities. In a context where the product complexity becomes ever greater and the product life-cycle is always shorter, the use of intelligent tools for supporting all phases of the product life-cycle is very important. One of the aspects that is taking interest is to support the consumer in fault management. This analysis are well-known practices in the industrial, automotive fields, etc. but less used for consumer electronics. This paper analizes a Cloud service based on a Machine Learning (ML) approach used to provide fault detection capabilities to household appliances equipped with electric motors and compare the results with on premise ML algorithms provided research tools. The purpose of this paper is to perform a preliminary comparison of ML algorithm performances provided by two software, namely Microsoft Azure (cloud solution) and MATLAB (on premise solution), on a study case. In detail, the vibration data of an asynchronous motor installed in an oven extractor hood for commercial restaurant kitchen have been analyzed. To this end, two classification algorithms have been selected to implement fault diagnosis techniques.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence | Fault Diagnosis | Machine Learning as a Service

[22] Cicconi P., Mandolini M., Nardelli M., Raffaeli R., Design Optimization: Tools and Methods for ETO Products, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 516-527, (2020). Abstract

The design of Engineer-To-Order products needs tools and methods for reducing time and cost during the phase of the quotation preparation. Modularization is one of the more applied design methods for ETO systems; however, it is necessary to integrate traditional tools with practices of design optimization to improve the development of a proposal. Even if commercial design tools for modeling specific types of engineering systems are available, the application of design optimization is still based on the use of tools not integrated with each level of the design phases. Moreover, these tools often require software customization. The integration of geometrical modeling, simulations, analysis, and optimization concerns the interaction between different tools. This paper describes an approach to support the Multi-Object Optimization related to the design of complex ETO systems with a focus on the oil & gas context. In this context, Genetic Algorithms and Constraint Satisfaction Problems are introduced as tools to support the design optimization of steel structures. The approach includes the employment of different and integrated tools throughout the design phases. This paper also shows a collection of tools to support the different levels for the design of different ETO products during the preparation of an offer related to proposal submission.

Keywords: Design optimization | Design tools and methods | Engineered-To-Order | Oil & gas

[23] Cicconi P., Manieri S., Bergantino N., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A design approach for overhead lines considering configurations and simulations, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 17(4), 797-812, (2020). Abstract

Nowadays, the contribution of the CAD modeling is not yet well exploited into the design of overhead lines. Even if some commercial tools are available, they are very similar to configuration tools with design rules related to reference normative. Sometimes, if 2D/3D CAD tools are employed, they are viewers or customized versions with specific features for the design of overhead lines. This situation limits the interoperability between the design of overhead lines and traditional software employed in the design of civil structures and infrastructures. Moreover, an information modeling approach is still lacking in current tools for the management of additional data about maintenance, cost, etc. In the context of overhead lines, the paper aims at showing an information modeling approach with a platform software which includes a configuration tool, a CAD module, an analytical-based solver, a costing tool, and a Finite Element Method solver. The CAD module is employed to define a 3D model including, as tag-objects, a set of information regarding the lifecycle design of overhead lines. Finally, a Finite Element Model solver enhances a second level of validation and enables advanced simulations.

Keywords: Computer-aided design | Configurations | Finite Element Model | Information Modeling | Overhead lines

[24] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., An industry 4.0 framework for the quality inspection in gearboxes production, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 17(4), 813-824, (2020). Abstract

Nowadays, the development of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have been enhancing the factory digitalization with several advantages in terms of production efficiency, product quality, and cost reduction. This opportunity encourages the implementation of digital twins related to physical systems for controlling the production workflow in real time. Firstly, the paper studies the enabling technologies for supporting the defect analysis in the context of Industry 4.0 for mechanical workpieces. Secondly, the approach aims to study the integration between the CAD geometry and the quality check process for the inspection planning. A Knowledge-Based tool has been proposed to support the configurations of the quality control chain for each CAD geometry. The test case is focused on the fragmented production of customized gearbox parts.

Keywords: Gearbox | Industry 4.0 | Knowledge Base | Machine Vision | Quality Control

[25] Cicconi P., Postacchini L., Pallotta E., Monteriù A., Prist M., Bevilacqua M., Germani M., A life cycle costing of compacted lithium titanium oxide batteries for industrial applications, Journal of Power Sources, 436, (2019). Abstract

Nowadays, although the lithium-ion batteries have been widely applied in the context of electric vehicles for passengers, lead-acid batteries are still prevalent in motive-power applications, such as electric pallet jacks and laser guided vehicles. The battery cost is the main disadvantage that limits the employment of lithium-ion solutions in such applications. Several strategies for reducing the battery life cycle cost have been discussed in the scientific literature. The opportunity charging is one of them, even though it is suitable only for batteries having high lifecycles and high charging/discharging rates, such as the Lithium Titanium Oxide ones. This paper aims at assessing a feasible solution to reduce the life cycle cost of the energy storage units for laser guided vehicles. A tool has been proposed to analyze the Total Cost of Ownership of batteries, under the adoption of an opportunity charging strategy. Simulations of energy consumption have also been included, to predict the battery cycles and the operation costs. The life cycle analysis has investigated the use of a compacted Lithium Titanium Oxide battery in comparison with a traditional lead-acid battery. The results have shown the feasibility of the Lithium Titanium Oxide solution and its economic advantage in an industrial context.

Keywords: Laser guided vehicle | Li-ion batteries | LTO | Opportunity charging | Total cost of ownership

[26] Landi D., Cicconi P., Germani M., A design methodology for the virtual energy labelling of cooking ovens, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 13(3), 851-871, (2019). Abstract

Nowadays, the increasing of global climate change and warming is leading governments, consumers, and firms towards a low-carbon economy. A lot of research shows that about 75% of the environmental impacts related to energy-related products is due to the use phase. Therefore, energy-related products, such as household appliances, are responsible for the consumption and depletion of natural resources. The eco-design of household appliances is a necessary approach to analyze and reduce the environmental impacts related to these products, considering materials, efficiency, and energy consumptions. In Europe, as well in China and America, the eco-design is becoming an Integrated Product Policy to support the Energy Labelling of several energy-related and consuming products. This paper deals with a design methodology to support the eco-design of cooking ovens by the simulation of the product performance. Two simulation cases have been analyzed: the energy consumption, which is provided by EU regulations No 66/2014 and No 65/2014 and the baking test. Even if regulations only provide the energy consumption test, the baking test is necessary to analyze the functional quality of the product. Therefore, two levels of simulations are necessary to complete the eco-design approach of cooking ovens. The results show that the proposed methodological approach can reduce the time-to-market and enhance the design optimization from the early design phases.

Keywords: CFD | Electric oven | Energy labelling | Gas oven | Heating ovens

[27] Prist M., Monteriu A., Freddi A., Pallotta E., Cicconi P., Giuggioloni F., Caizer E., Verdini C., Longhi S., Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems for Industry 4.0: Architectural Approach and Pilot Case, 2019 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2019 - Proceedings, 219-224, (2019). Abstract

The pillars of Industry 4.0 require a modern smart factory to be integrated, store data into the Cloud, access the Cloud for data analytics and share information at software level for simulation and Hardware-In-the-Loop capabilities. The resulting Cyber-Physical System is often called Cyber-Physical Manufacturing System, and it becomes fundamental to cope with the increased system complexity and the desired performances. However, since a lot of old production systems are based on monolitic architectures, with limited external communication ports and reduced local computational capabilities, it is very difficult to make such production lines compliant to Industry 4.0 pillars. Wireless Sensor Network is a solution for the smart connection of a production line to a Cyber-Physical System architecture, data processing through Cloud Computing. The scope of this research work is to propose an intermediate layer within the architecture that allows each device, production line and machine to be independently connected despite the adopted protocol. The solution is based on OSGi Framework, which is able to seamlessly integrate both hardware and software wireless sensors, send data into the Cloud for further data analysis, and grant both Hardware-In-the-Loop and Cloud Computing capabilities. A general description of the architecture is here proposed, together with preliminary results on a real manufacturing line for data collection and analysis over a period of two months.

Keywords: Cyber-Physical Manifacturing System | Industry 4.0 | OSGi Framework | Wireless Sensor Network

[28] Nardelli M., Cicconi P., Savoretti A., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A knowledge based approach to support the conceptual design of ETO products, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 2019-August, 2417-2426, (2019). Abstract

The ever-increasing competitiveness, due to the market globalization, has forced the industries to modify their design and production strategies. A key point is the development of products that fulfil the individual customer needs as close as possible. ETO companies manufacture new products according to the customer technical requirements given in the request for proposal. Computational Design Synthesis is the research area focused on activities to automate the design phase in the production of products such ETO structures. In this context, Knowledge Based Engineering applications are usually applied to automate design routines and to implement a multidisciplinary product design. Knowledge should be elicited and formalized, so that it can allow the past cases retrieval and the connection between customer specifications and the product configuration tasks. This paper proposes an approach for the rapid definition of the product structure related to a ETO product, including the early cost evaluation in configurations. The research scope aims at defining a framework to support the knowledge repository, which is the Knowledge Based used to design new products and estimate their costs.

Keywords: Design engineering | Design methodology | DSM | Embodiment design | Engineer-To-Order

[29] Raffaeli R., Cicconi P., Mandorli F., A Comparative Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Online vs Traditional Teaching of Engineering Drawing, Communications in Computer and Information Science, 1091, 149-162, (2019). Abstract

In recent years, long distance learning has become more and more popular. Web based technologies, that allow the sharing of information in real time, as well as the development of Learning Management Systems, provide the required technological support to implement long distance courses. However, long distance learning is characterized by a completely different relationship between teacher and student, in respect to the traditional teaching approach. It is then important to understand if this difference can affect the students learning outcomes. In this paper the comparison is presented between the summative assessment of two separated groups of students, attending an engineering drawing course, that is part of the curriculum for the bachelor degree in mechanical engineering. One group attended the course in a traditional form, while the second group attended the course in remote. The aim of the study is to verify if significant differences exist between the two groups of students, in terms of learning outcome. The identification of such differences is the premise to develop appropriated teaching strategies, aimed to overcome possible deficiencies related to the teaching approach.

Keywords: Engineering drawing | Learning outcomes | Online teaching

[30] Cicconi P., Postacchini L., Bergantino N., Capuzzi G., Russo A.C., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A decision theory approach to support action plans in cooker hoods manufacturing, Dyna (Spain), 94(3), 203-208, (2019). Abstract

Nowadays, Knowledge-Based systems are widespread decision-making tools applied in product design and manufacturing planning. The series production requires agile and rapid decision-making methods to support actions in manufacturing lines. Therefore, agent-based tools are necessary to support the detection, diagnosis, and correction of accidental production faults. The context of Industry 4.0 has been enhancing the integration of sensors in manufacturing lines to monitor production and analyze failures. The motivation of the proposed research is to study and validate decision theory methods to be applied in smart manufacturing. This paper shows a Knowledge-Based approach to support action decision-making processes by a Bayesian network model. The proposed method aims at solving production problems detected in the manufacturing process. In particular, the focus is on the automatic production of cooker hoods. A case study describes how the approach can be applied in the real-time control actions, after a problem in quality is detected.

Keywords: Bayesian Network | Cooker Hoods | Industry 4.0 | Knowledge Base

[31] Cicconi P., Pallotta E., Russo A.C., Raffaeli R., Prist M., Monteriù A., Longhi S., Germani M., A model-based approach to support the design of mold heating for composites, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 391-401, (2019). Abstract

Molding is one of the most widely used processing technologies in manufacturing. Among typical molding parameters, the mold temperature is a critical one for the quality of the molding process. A solution to this issue can be the employment of induction heating which, through a high-frequency electromagnetic field, produces eddy currents and a consequent rapid heating of the material into the cavity of the mold. The necessity to maintain the mold walls at the operative temperature makes the induction heating to be one of the most efficient non-contact means of heating. In fact, induction heating is characterized by quickness, efficiency, and energy saving; however, the design and the sizing of an induction heating system is complex due to different parameters involved in the electromagnetic and thermal phenomena. In this context, the paper aims to define a methodology to support engineers in the design and sizing of an induction heating system for molds, taking as case study a mold for composite parts. A model-based approach is proposed to analyze and simulate the mold heating, considering three different levels of modelling: Analytical (0D), Finite-Difference Methods (2D) and Finite Element Methods (3D). The Analytical approach investigates the solution of the physical equations applied to the volume of the material involved. Instead, the Finite-Difference approach (2D) solves the heat transfer problem by discretizing the domain and by solving for temperature at discrete points. Finally, the Finite Element method (3D) solves partial differential equations on a 3D discretized domain.

Keywords: Epoxy-Based carbon fiber prepregs | Induction heating | Model-Based simulations | Mold heating | Resin curing | Virtual prototyping

[32] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Borghi A., A design approach to support BIM for existing structures, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 292-300, (2019). Abstract

Nowadays, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a common design approach to support the life cycle of projects in the field of Architecture Engineering Construction (AEC). New constructions’ projects require a BIM modeling to provide digital information within a 3D digital mockup. The main target is to reduce time and cost related to the elaboration of additional and not integrated documentation. This issue is also common in projects focused on the renovations of existing buildings. In fact, the BIM approach provides tools to improve interoperability between different software to integrate analysis and simulations within the architectural representation. The renovation projects require reverse engineering tools and methods for the 3D modeling of existing structures. One of the issues concerns the digital photogrammetric survey of glass surfaces. This paper proposes a design approach to support BIM phases for already existing structures with a test case focused on a hallway with a continuous glass wall.

Keywords: BIM | Photo matching | Photo survey | Steel-glass buildings

[33] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., An Ecodesign approach for the lightweight engineering of cast iron parts, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 99(9-12), 2365-2388, (2018). Abstract

Lightweight engineering is a current topic in mechanical industry. The mass reduction is a common design objective to reduce product cost and environmental impacts. Virtual prototyping tools are widely applied to study new lightened solutions and check the compliance with regulations and standards. However, an integrated approach, involving simulations and life-cycle analysis, is necessary to support design optimization and decision-making. The scope of this study concerns the definition of an Ecodesign approach to support the lightweight engineering of cast iron parts through the redesign of the product shape. In particular, this paper deals with the optimization of a ductile cast iron manhole. The test case shows a redesign method which considers structural analysis with environmental impacts. The structural analysis has been evaluated using a finite element method tool. In particular, the simulation results have been compared and validated with physical tests. The environmental analysis is based on the methodology provided by the standardized ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006. The proposed LCA study considers the phases of manufacturing and transport related to one ductile iron product. The described manufacturing phase is related to a Chinese foundry which produces roughly 12,000 tons of ductile cast-iron castings. The results show the possibility to achieve about 20% of mass reduction for one casting. Considering such mass decreasing, the related reduction in terms of carbon emission is about 7%. Summarizing, this paper shows a design approach to integrate the structural improvements with the reduction of the environmental impacts related to a lighter weight casting.

Keywords: Cast ductile iron | Design optimization | Life-cycle assessment | Lightweight engineering | Manhole | Virtual prototyping

[34] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Marchionne M., Germani M., A model-based simulation approach to support the product configuration and optimization of gas turbine ducts, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 15(6), 807-818, (2018). Abstract

Nowadays, product configuration and optimization are very important topics in several industrial applications such as the manufacturing of Engineered-to-order (ETO) products, where there is a fierce increase in market competition. The product configuration allows past design solutions to be reused and new product variants to be defined and pre-designed. However, the delivery of new configurations of products requires a technical feasibility analysis before closing the contract of the order with the customer. There is a lack of commercial tools which can support the designer from the early configuration phase to the product optimization with the automatic generation of geometric models and simulations. While traditional software tools can be used for the product configuration, with automation in the CAD modeling, other ones can combine optimization algorithms with numerical simulations. However, the combination of all these design levels requires the development of a dedicated platform tools. The research aims to reduce time and cost related to the early design phase of an oil & gas system, focusing on gas turbine ducts. The paper proposes a methodological approach to integrate the design optimization with the product configuration using Model-Based simulations to verify the technical feasibility and to optimize the product design. As a test case, the early design of a gas turbine chimney is proposed.

Keywords: Model-Based simulation | oil & gas | Product configuration | Product optimization | Virtual prototyping

[35] Cicconi P., Landi D., Russo A.C., Nardelli M., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A CSP-based design framework for appliances under energy labelling, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(4), 1243-1263, (2018). Abstract

Nowadays, several consumer goods are sold with an energy label which provides energy information about consumption, efficiency, noise, and performance. These labels are regulated by local energy policy and governments. Because of this, customers are becoming increasingly aware about the energy efficiency and consumption of products such as household appliances. In Europe, several household appliances are involved in the European Energy Labelling Directive. Therefore, the manufacturers are paying attention to Ecodesign tools and methods to support the development of eco-innovation and sustainable products. In this context, the paper proposes a design methodology to support the development of efficient cooker hoods using an approach based on a constraints satisfaction problem model. The scope of the proposed research is to reduce the time-to-market of household appliances considering the energy efficiency optimization from the early design phases to the embodiment design. A Case Based Reasoning is also implemented to define a pre-configured model of product before the CSP optimization. The CSP model has been developed as an analytical system, which can predict the energy label achieved by a final prototype of a cooker hood. The interaction of such tools can fill the gap between traditional design methods and eco-innovation approaches, in order to support the designer in the decision-making activity. The test case shows a cooker hoods optimization based on a CSP tool, developed using a programming framework based on Gecode platform.

Keywords: Case-based reasoning | Constraints satisfaction problem | Design optimization | Ecodesign | Energy label | Virtual prototyping

[36] Prist M., Pallotta E., Cicconi P., Monteriu A., Germani M., Longhi S., Induction Mold Heating: Modelling and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for Temperature Control, Proceedings - 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe, EEEIC/I and CPS Europe 2018, (2018). Abstract

Mold heating is an important key factor for the mold cycle which affects the quality of the molded product. The involved molding processes regards polymers foaming, plastics injection, or resin-curing with composites. While the manufacturing cycle of plastics injection molding requires a heating/cooling system, other processes do not require the cooling phase. Polymers foaming and resin-curing require specific values of temperature to provide full chemical reactions and a good product quality on the surface. Induction heating systems are suitable for such applications; however, many industrial cases require customized solutions to support the molding cycle of different parts. A temperature control is always mandatory to reduce the energy cost and increase the heating efficiency. This paper studies a molds temperature control applied in the polyurethane foaming of footwear soles. The proposed induction heating system and its control have been studied using the Hardware-In-the-Loop simulations. Due to a high mold thermal inertia, which increases the mold temperature even if the control system turns off the thermal power, tailored controllers have been analyzed to achieve the desired temperature set-point. The thermal model of the foaming mold and the induction heating system have been modelled and developed in the MATLAB/Simulink® framework. An ATMEGA processor was used to implement and test a discrete PID controller while Simulink induction-heating system model was running, creating an Hardware-In-The-loop platform.

Keywords: Footwear Industry | Hardware-In-the-Loop | Induction Heating | Mold Heating | Polyurethane Foaming | Temperature Control

[37] Castorani V., Cicconi P., Mandolini M., Vita A., Germani M., A method for the cost optimization of industrial electrical routings, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 15(5), 747-756, (2018). Abstract

The cost reduction is one of the most spread strategy adopted by companies for guaranteeing profits in a competitive market. This paper presents an approach for the cost optimization of industrial electrical routings. The proposed optimization process consists of two levels: the arrangement of the cables within the cable trays and the 3D routing of the cable trays for connecting the modules of a product. The arrangement of the power and signal cables and the selection of the cable trays are carried out considering specific configuration rules. A genetic algorithm, coupled with the Hightower's algorithm, is used to solve the routing optimization problem. The proposed cost functions consider the raw materials and manufacturing/assembly operations. The optimization process has been used for optimizing a portion of the electric cable harness of a 43 MWe power plant with a size of 44 × 20 meters, and a total of 40,60 kilometers of cables. The optimization process let to a cost saving of about 15% compared to the design carried out with the traditional approach. Abbreviations:CTs: cable trays; CUi: hourly rate for the installation phase [€/hour]; CUrmtk: hourly rate for the k-th cost center used for transforming a semi-finished component [€/hour]; Cut: hourly rate for the test phase [€/hour]; CUtray: unitary cost of a cable tray [€]; DOE: design of experiment; GA: genetic algorithm [€]; Ic: installation cost [€]; If: installation factor [-]; PAc: cost for the preliminary analysis [€]; PAcp: percentage used for calculating the cost of the preliminary analysis [%]; RMc: cost of the raw material and relative transformation operations [€]; RMcci: cost of the i-th commercial component [€]; RMoc: percentage of the overhead costs related to the management of the raw material [%]; RMsc_scrapsj: cost of the scraps for the j-th semi-finished component [€]; RMscj: cost of the j-th semi-finished component [€]; RMtc: cost for transforming semi-finished components [€]; Tcl: commercial length of a straight cable tray [meter]; Tii,j: standard installation time for the i-th or j-th component [hour]; Tl: linear distance between two points of the wiring system that need to be connected [meter]; Trmtk: time for the k-th operation for transforming a semi-finished component [hour]; Ttk: standard test time for the k-th skid of the electrical system [hour].

Keywords: cable routing | Cost optimization | electric cable harness | oil & gas

[38] Prist M., Pallotta E., Cicconi P., Venturini P., Monteriu A., Germani M., Longhi S., Energy Saving in Industrial Wireless Power Recharge System: Simulation of a PI-Sliding Mode Control for a Non-Inverting Buck-Boost Converter, 2018 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power Transfer, Wow 2018, (2018). Abstract

In this work, a PI-Sliding mode controller is developed in feedback loop from a non-inverting buck boost converter, in order to control the recharge of a Li-Ion battery of a Laser Guided Vehicle (LGV), which is the last stage of an industrial wireless recharge power station. In detail, the industrial case study regards the wireless recharge of a LGV employed to transport molds used for footwear soles production. The proposed solution has been modelled and developed in the MATLAB/Simulink® framework, and the performances of this controller are compared with the classical PID industrial controller. The obtained results depend only from the developed recharge system and can be applied in other industrial cases (e.g., car battery recharge). In particular, the numerical simulations show that the proposed solution has an important impact on the energy consumptions.

Keywords: Buck-boost | Energy Saving | Industrial Automation | LGV | PID | Sliding Mode | Wireless power charging

[39] Cavanini L., Cicconi P., Freddi A., Germani M., Longhi S., Monteriu A., Pallotta E., Prist M., A Preliminary Study of a Cyber Physical System for Industry 4.0: Modelling and Co-Simulation of an AGV for Smart Factories, 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018 - Proceedings, 169-174, (2018). Abstract

In this research, a localization system for a particular Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV), namely a Laser Guided Vehicle (LGV), which takes advantage of RSSI data, is described. The vehicle, its sensors and the wireless sensor network are virtualized, in order to provide a software replica of that available in a real factory. A Co-Simulator, composed by two simulation environments, has been implemented: from one hand, Robot Operating System (ROS), the RVIZ and GAZEBO for modeling and simulating the virtual system, and from the other hand, COOJA for reproducing the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) behavior and RSSI signals. The virtualized LGV in ROS, together with its virtual sensors set, is integrated with the WSN in COOJA, so that localization can be performed by sensor fusion of odometric and RSSI data according to a Kalman Filter approach. The Co-simulator can be used to deploy path-Tracking policies and test them before actual implementation in a Cyber Physical System (CPS) scenario.

Keywords: Automated Guided Vehicle | Cyber-Physical System | Industry 4.0 | Robot Operating System | Wireless Sensor Network

[40] Prist M., Pallotta E., Cicconi P., Russo A.C., Monteriu A., Germani M., Longhi S., An automatic temperature control for induction cooktops to reduce energy consumption, 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, ICCE 2018, 2018-January, (2018). Abstract

Induction cooktops are very used as an efficient alternative to traditional cooking systems such as gas hobs. Even if the energy efficiency of induction cooktops is twice as much as the traditional gas burners, the differences in terms of energy price can limit the diffusion and marketing of induction cooktops. Recent eco-normative are regulating the energy consumption of this kind of household appliances sold in different countries. This paper proposes an automatic temperature control to reduce the energy consumption for induction cooktops. The water boiling test was used as case study to simulate and validate the proposed approach.

Keywords: Hardware-In-The-Loop | Induction heating | PID control

[41] Cicconi P., Nardelli M., Raffaeli R., Germani M., A design methodology for a csp-based optimization approach, Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 7, 837-846, (2018). Abstract

Design optimization is a common practice in industry. Different mathematical algorithms have been developing to support the optimization in engineering design. The integration between optimization methods and simulations is an interesting issue in engineering design. A typical optimization workflow can include simulation steps; however, the Virtual Prototyping analysis is more time-consuming than analytical calculations. The study of Constraints Satisfaction Problems is a mathematical topic which can be applied for solving engineering issues in design. The strength of this approach is the velocity on searching the satisfied solutions. This paper proposes a design methodology which considers the use of CSP models and calculation tools to optimize the sizing of columns and beams in the design of a steel structure. The calculation tools regard analytical models and numerical analysis. While the analytical approach regards the computing of cost and weight, the numerical analysis is used to verify and check the engineering performance in terms of deformation and stress state. A customized application, based on MiniZinc platform, has been developed and proposed to solve the CSP model for a test case steel structure. The CSP problem has been limited to the calculation of analytical constraints such as cost and weight. Finally, the resultant set of solutions has been evaluated using numerical solution to complete the optimization analysis.

Keywords: Constraints Satisfaction Problems (CSP) | MiniZinc | Optimization | Steel Structures | Virtual Prototyping

[42] Castorani V., Bondi S., Cicconi P., Marronaro M.G., Germani M., Coppolaro S., A framework to support the optimization of modularized oil&gas structures, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2B-2018, (2018). Abstract

Modularization is a current issue in the context of plant design. A modular system aims to reduce lead time and cost in design phases. An oil & gas plant consists of many Engineered-To-Order solutions to be submitted and approved during the negotiation phase. In this context, design tools and methods are necessary to support the design life cycle from the conceptual study to the detailed project. The paper proposes an approach to optimize the design of modularized oil & gas plants with a focus on the related steel structures. A test case shows the configuration workflow applied to a modular steel structure of about 400 tons. The modularized layout has been optimized using genetic algorithms. A Knowledge Base has been described to support the configuration phase related to the conceptual design. Design rules and metrics have been formalized from the analysis of past solutions.

[43] Landi D., Postacchini L., Cicconi P., Ciarapica F.E., Germani M., Study and design of sustainable packaging for household hoods, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4, (2018). Abstract

In industrialized countries, packaging waste is one of the major issues to deal with, representing around 35% of the total municipal solid waste yearly generated. Therefore, an analysis and an environmental assessment of packaging systems are necessary. This paper aims at analyzing and comparing the environmental performances of two different packaging for domestic hoods. It shows how, through a packaging redesign, it is possible to obtain a reduction of the environmental impacts. This study has been performed in accordance with the international standards ISO 14040/14044, by using attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from Cradle to Gate. The functional unit has been defined as the packaging of a single household hood. Primary data have been provided by a household hood manufacturer, while secondary data have been obtained from the Ecoinvent database. LCA software SimaPro 8.5 has been used to carry out the life cycle assessment, and ReCiPe method has been chosen for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) stage. The results have shown the new packaging model being able to cut down the environmental impacts of approximately 30%. These outcomes may be used by household manufacturers to improve performances and design solutions of their different packaging.

[44] Nardelli M., Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Supporting design tasks through constraint satisfaction tools, Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 1, 393-404, (2018). Abstract

Nowadays, different commercial tools are available to support engineers during optimization tasks in engineering design; however, many researches have been still studying tools and methods to improve the design process and overcome some limits related to configuration and design optimization. This paper proposes a methodological approach to highlight how a CSP analysis can support the first phase of an optimization analysis, to reduce the design space of solutions to be investigated and subsequently optimized. A test case shows a CSP study applied to steel structures for oil & gas applications.

Keywords: Constraint modelling | Design optimisation | Engineering design | Steel structures

[45] Prist M., Pallotta E., Monteriu A., Longhi S., Cicconi P., Russo A.C., Germani M., Modelling and hardware-in-The-loop simulation for energy management in induction cooktops, IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Berlin, ICCE-Berlin, 2017-September, 250-251, (2017). Abstract

Induction cooktops are very efficient systems, but, their energy consumption should be reduced using a temperature controller for optimizing the electrical power. Such controllers are already widely spread in several applications (air conditioning, ovens, etc.). Induction cooktops work with discrete levels of power, and, therefore, the user can select and modify the requested power level during the cooking. This paper presents the Hardware-In-The-Loop simulation to develop an active temperature controller, which optimizes the energy management of the water boiling using an induction cooktop. A thermal and induction model has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink® framework, while a discrete PID controller has been implemented inside a physical ATMEGA processor and tested within the Hardware-In-The-Loop platform.

Keywords: Hardware-In-The-Loop | Induction Heating | Temperature Controller | Water Boiling

[46] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., Russo A.C., A support approach for the conceptual design of energy-efficient cooker hoods, Applied Energy, 206, 222-239, (2017). Abstract

In Europe, kitchen hoods currently come with an energy label showing their energy efficiency class and other information regarding the energy consumption and noise level, as established by the European Energy Labelling Directive. Because of recent regulations, designs of cooker hoods must consider new issues, such as the evaluation of the energy efficiency, analysis of the energy consumption, and product lifecycle impact. Therefore, the development of eco-driven products requires Ecodesign tools to support eco-innovation and related sustainability improvements. The scope of the proposed research is to define a method and an agile and affordable platform tool that can support designers in the early estimation of product energy performance, including the calculation of energy efficiency indexes. The approach also considers the use of genetic algorithm methods to optimize the product configuration in terms of energy efficiency. The research context concerns large and small productions of kitchen hoods. The paper describes the methodological approach within the developed tool. The results show a good correlation between real efficiency values and calculated ones. A validation activity has been described, and a test case shows how to apply the proposed approach for the design of a new efficient product with an A-class Energy Efficiency Index.

Keywords: Ecodesign | Energy label | Knowledge-based engineering | Optimization | Product configuration | Virtual prototyping

[47] Cicconi P., Russo A.C., Germani M., Prist M., Pallotta E., Monteriu A., Cyber-physical system integration for industry 4.0: Modelling and simulation of an induction heating process for aluminium-steel molds in footwear soles manufacturing, RTSI 2017 - IEEE 3rd International Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry, Conference Proceedings, (2017). Abstract

In recent years, the Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), have become a new trend to increase and to enrich the interactions between physical and virtual systems with the goal to create a truly connected world in which smart objects interact and exchange data with each other. The CPS is the core of the new industrial revolution called 'Industry 4.0', which promotes the computerization of manufacturing to make decentralized decisions. Within the modular structured smart factories, Cyber-Physical Systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world, simulate parts of process and implement sophisticated control policies in order to take optimized decisions. This research proposes the modelling and simulation of an induction heating process for aluminium-steel mold, which is used in the production of footwear soles. The modelling supports the simulation of a CPS model related to the use of a multi-use LGV (Laser Guided Vehicle) which transports aluminum-steel molds from a mechanized warehouse to the final rotary production line, used for the soles foaming. In detail, a thermal model and an induction heating electronic circuit model have been studied to describe the whole mold heating system and they have been simulated using Simulink/MATLAB. In addition, two types of controllers, an induction preheating control technique based on a Model Predictive Controller (MPC), and another one based on PID, have been developed in order to analyse the different behaviour of the system.

Keywords: Automated Laser Guided Vehicles | Cyber Physical System | Footwear Industry | Industry 4.0 | Injection Molding | Model Predictive Controller | Preheating Molds

[48] Prist M., Cicconi P., Ferracuti F., Russo A.C., Monteriù A., Pallotta E., Longhi S., Temperature control of an innovative aluminium-steel molds induction preheat process placed on automated laser guided vehicles, Conference Proceedings - 2017 17th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2017 1st IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe, EEEIC / I and CPS Europe 2017, (2017). Abstract

In the production of plastic components based on injection molding, like shoe sole manufacturing, the temperature control and the on-line process optimization are important issues in order to preserve the quality of the plastic components and improve the time performance, while maintaining high product quality. This research proposes an induction preheating control technique based on Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for a steel-aluminium mold for production of soles, performed on an automated Laser Guided Vehicle (LGV) with an innovative induction heating functionality. A thermal model has been studied using a finite-difference approach to describe the mold heating system. The resulting system has been simulated using Simulink/MATLAB. Then, three types of controllers have been modelled in the proposed simulation workflow, in order to compare the different behavior of the system. Due to the high mold thermal inertia, which increases the mold temperature even if the control system turns off the thermal power, innovative controllers are needed in order to track the desired temperature setpoint. The comparison with standard industrial controllers, based on PI and PID controllers, shows the effectiveness of proposed solution.

Keywords: Automated Laser Guided Vehicles | Footwear Industry | Injection Molding | Model Predictive Controller | Preheating Molds | Temperature Control

[49] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Germani M., An approach to support model based definition by PMI annotations, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 14(4), 526-534, (2017). Abstract

PMI annotations are widely used to support the Model Based Design within modern companies. In particular, the introduction of digital annotations marks the transition from the 2D drawings to the 3D representation in many manufacturing and design companies. However, today the implementation of the PMI technology presents some limits, such as the lack of functions to generate structure templates to be applied to similar CAD models. The proposed approach aims to overcome the limits of traditional tools which are not able to add a PMI annotation’s structure from one model to another one. The paper describes a method to reuse digital PMI annotations in a new model during the design phase, where the annotations are inherited from similar CAD documents. The proposed approach is based on two levels of geometric analysis: the searching of similar template models from an XML database, and the identification of the related geometric entities, which are used as associated objects for the definition of 3D annotations. The test case is focused on the automatic generation of PMI annotations for exhaust duct items used in oil & gas applications. The proposed tool has been developed within a software program called Duct Designer, which is used for the CAD automation of duct items. Particularly, the test case enhances the retrieval and reuse of sizing schemes from previous 3D models in order to obtain an automatic rebuilding of the geometric annotations.

Keywords: Digital annotations | Model-based definition (MBD) | Oil & gas | Product manufacturing information (PMI)

[50] Cicconi P., Castorani V., Germani M., Mandolini M., Vita A., A multi-objective and multi-level design optimization method for oil & gas ducts, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2B-2017, (2017). Abstract

The paper proposes a methodological approach to support the multi-objective (i.e. cost and structural performance) optimization of complex systems, typical of the oil & gas sector. The complexity is managed through a double-level of optimization. The first one, based on simplified product models (1-D and 0-D), considers an analytical approach for the structural behavior and a parametric one for the cost estimation. The second level considers the use of a 3-D FEM solver for structural simulations, and an analytical tool for the cost estimation. As case study, the paper proposes the design optimization of an oil & gas chimney for gas turbines. The workflow analyzed during the case study describes the use of a multi-objective and multilevel approach to optimize cost, weigh, and structural behavior of oil & gas ducts.

[51] Cicconi P., Costanza Russo A., Prist M., Ferracuti F., Germani M., Monteriù A., A parametric optimization approach of an induction heating system for energy consumption reduction, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2B-2017, (2017). Abstract

Nowadays, electromagnetic high-frequency induction is very used for different non-contact heating applications such as the molding process. Every molding process requires the preheating and the thermal maintenance of the molds, to enhance the filling phase and the quality of the final products. In this context, an induction heating system, mostly, is a customized equipment. The design and definition of an induction equipment depends on the target application. This technology is highly efficient and performant, however it provides a high-energy consumption. Therefore, optimization strategies are very suitable to reduce energy cost and consumption. The proposed paper aims to define a method to optimize the induction heating of a mold in terms of time, consumption, and achieved temperature. The proposed optimization method involves genetic algorithms to define the design parameters related to geometry and controller. A test case describes the design of an induction heating system for a polyurethane molding process, which is the soles foaming. This case study deals with the multiobjective optimization of parameters such as the geometrical dimensions, the inductor sizing, and the controller setting. The multi-objective optimization aims to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the wall temperature of the mold.

[52] Mandolini M., Cicconi P., Castorani V., Vita A., Germani M., A design to cost method for electric cable harness, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 5(DS87-5), 365-374, (2017). Abstract

The Design to Cost method is a well-known methodology for developing cost-competitive products. In the context where the Industry 4.0 initiative is pushing the research on innovative systems for data exchange and analysis, the electric aspect of a product is becoming more and more important. The scientific and industrial literature contains several methods and tools for the cost estimation of electric cable harness, but they essentially calculate the cost by simply considering the Bill of Material and computing the cost of the raw material. The installation cost is not considered. The paper presents a Design to Cost method for electric cable harness, based on the analytic cost analysis of the raw material and routing process. The inputs of such a method are the electric Bill of Material and the 3D path of the cable harness. The cost consists of three items: purchasing, installation and cutting. The method, once implemented within a prototype software tool, has been applied for the cost optimization of the electric cable harness of an on-shore module for power generation. The average accuracy, measured comparing the results with experimental data, was 10.5%.

Keywords: Design costing | Design to X | Electric cable harness | Industrial design

[53] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Russo A.C., A design methodology to predict the product energy efficiency through a configuration tool, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 1097-1106, (2017). Abstract

During recent years the European Ecodesign Directive has introduced big changes in the design methodology of several energy-using products including consumer goods such as ovens, washing machines and kitchen hoods. Additionally, the introduction of the Energy Labelling Directive pushes manufacturers to implement new energy-saving features in many energy-related products sold in Europe. As a consequence, several companies have been encouraging the improvement of their energy using products paying attention to the related selling cost. Eco-driven products require eco-design tools to support the eco-innovation and the related sustainability improvement. The main scope of the proposed re-search is the reduction of the time-to-market for the energy-using products such as kitchen hoods. In this context, the paper aims to provide an approach to support a pre-evaluation of the energy labeling related to kitchen hoods. A prototypical software tool has been developed in order to simulate the energy performance of new kitchen hood configurations in term of energy efficiency. The approach also considers the introduction of virtual experiments in order to calculate the performance of virtual modules. This tool makes the product-engineer more aware in the decision-making about the energy-saving. As a test case, different product configurations have been compared analyzing the energy labelling and the overall energy performance.

Keywords: Ecodesign | Energy efficiency labeling | KBE | Kitchen hoods | Virtual prototyping

[54] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., Thermal analysis and simulation of a Li-ion battery pack for a lightweight commercial EV, Applied Energy, 192, 159-177, (2017). Abstract

The scope of the present research is the reduction of cost and time related to the design, prototyping and testing of a Li-ion battery pack, which is used in commercial full electric vehicles using tools for rapid product configuration and simulation. This objective is particularly important for small companies that produce many different batteries in small lots. To develop the product design support system, a preliminary study was necessary. A 3D model was analyzed to simulate real thermal behavior, reproducing a real electric load using a standard ECE-15 cycle. Experimental tests have been conducted on the vehicle and battery to validate the model. An analytical thermal model was developed to evaluate the heat generated by electrochemical reactions inside a Li-ion cell. The outcome of this analytical model was used as the boundary condition in the CFD simulation of the battery model to evaluate the cooling behavior. The rules and results deduced from these studies have allowed the implementation of an easy-to-use knowledge-based configuration tool that supports the designer in the definition of the layout of the battery pack to save time and evaluate costs. As a test case, the battery for an urban freight vehicle was designed using the proposed approach. The achieved results show good performance and robustness of the simplified approach in terms of temperature distribution evaluation and design process efficiency.

Keywords: Battery configuration | Battery cooling | Electric vehicle | Li-ion batteries | Virtual prototyping

[55] Raffaeli R., Cicconi P., Germani M., Automation of drafting execution by schemes definitions and feature recognition, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 13(4), 459-470, (2016). Abstract

Despite of the widespread of annotated 3D virtual models, it is still important to produce engineering drawings for a correct communication among the people of the design and manufacturing chain. Automatic drafting through meta drawing definitions, called Drafting Schemes, is proposed in this paper to save time when drawing becomes a repetitive task. The approach produces drafts with a predetermined content in terms of views arrangement and dimensioning strategy, and guarantees robust results to the variations of the input geometry. In fact, the geometrical entities referenced by the generated dimensions are retrieved through dedicated search algorithms based on recognition of geometric features of the input model. The approach has been implemented and tested on a family of gear motors showing feasibility and good results in terms of drafting time savings.

Keywords: Design Automation | Drafting | Feature Recognition | Knowledge Based Systems

[56] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., A virtual modelling of a hybrid road tractor for freight delivery, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 12, (2016). Abstract

The market of the hybrid electric vehicles has been increasing for several years. Different commercial EV and PHEV solutions are available for passenger cars and light vehicles for freight deliveries. However, the market of heavy trucks still regards traditional ICE vehicles powered by diesel oil fuel. The recent interest for electric solutions have been pushing the development of the hybrid solutions, but only micro-hybrid systems are considered feasible for heavy truck applications. The proposed research aims to define a methodological approach with a virtual model in order to simulate the behavior of a hybrid heavy truck. The scope of this research is the feasibility analysis of a retrofit hybrid heavy truck. A real driving cycle has been used in order to obtain reliable results in terms of cost, energy consumption and gas emission. The layout of the hybrid system has been proposed as well as the sizing of battery and electric motor. A commercial tool has been used for the vehicle modelling and simulation. As a test case, an 18-ton truck has been analyzed with a 10-liter diesel engine. Firstly, the simulation of the diesel truck has been reproduced considering the real driving cycle data. Secondly, the simulation activity has been focused on the evaluation of the hybrid system behavior by investigating different battery sizes with the same boundary conditions related to the real driving cycle.

[57] Landi D., Cicconi P., Germani M., Russo A.C., A methodological approach to support the design of induction hobs, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 11, (2016). Abstract

Nowadays in many industrial applications, i.e. electrical household appliances, it is necessary to have a robust and safe control for some variables involved in the analysis of the performances of different products. In addition, the recent ecodesign directives require products increasingly eco-friendly and eco-efficient, preserving high-performance but a low power consumption. For these reasons, the physical prototypes of products require many expensive and complex tests in term of time, resources and qualified personnel involved. To overcome these limitations, the proposed approach is focused on the use of virtual prototyping tools, which support and reduce the expensive physical experiments. The main objective of this paper is the development, implementation and testing of an innovative methodology, which could be an improvement for the sustainable design of induction hobs. Induction heating applied to the domestic cooking has significantly evolved since the first cooking hobs appeared. Different issues such as maximum power available for heating a pot, dimensional compactness of the hobs, or inverter electronics efficiency have achieved a great development. The proposed methodology provides the development of a multi-physic model which is able to estimate the efficiency of the induction hobs starting from the design data of the project. In particular, the multi-physic model is composed by an electromagnetic simulation and a thermal simulation. The electromagnetic simulation, starting from electrical values such as voltage, current and frequency, is able to simulate the eddy current induced in the bottom of the pot, and resistance leads to the Joulean heating of the material. The thermal simulation is able to measure the energy consumption during the operational phase and the temperature reached by the materials. Therefore, the thermal power obtained by the Joulean heating is, at the same time, the output of the electromagnetic simulation and the input of the thermal one. The proposed model can be applied to design product and simulate the performance considering different operating conditions such as different types of cookers, different coils and different materials. Through the use of virtual prototyping tools is possible to control the heat flux on the whole system (stove, pot, water), and to evaluate the energy efficiency during the operational phase. The proposed tool makes the productengineer more aware about decision-making strategies in order to achieve an energy saving, calculated over the whole life cycle.

[58] Cicconi P., Germani M., Bondi S., Zuliani A., Cagnacci E., A Design Methodology to Support the Optimization of Steel Structures, Procedia CIRP, 50, 58-64, (2016). Abstract

Steel constructions are widely used in several applications such as structures for buildings, stores, factories, and power plants. The scope of the research is to study a methodology to reduce the weight and the cost related to big frame steel structures during the early design phase, which is the phase where most of the project layout is defined. The main aim of this paper is the development of a platform-tool to support the automatic optimization of a steel structure using virtual prototyping tools and genetic algorithms. The focus is on the design of heavy steel structures for oil & gas power plants. This work describes in detail the design methodology and estimates the weight saving related to the re-design process of a test case structure. The design cases considered in the paper are those relevant to the operating.

Keywords: Design methodology | genetic algorithms | oil & gas | optimization | simulations | steel structures

[59] Malatesta M., Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Germani M., Supporting the configuration of new product variants by reusing the implicit knowledge of past solutions, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, 10(DS 80-10), 199-208, (2015). Abstract

The market globalization pushes for ever new products in order to reach new niches. In the household appliances field, the marketing specialists daily configure new combinations of numerous functional and product requirements seeking new product definitions. Each novel combination requires an assessment of technical and economic feasibility by the design departments. This paper proposes a method for a preliminary validation of new configurations at the marketing stage. Indeed a tentative Bill of Materials (BOM) and a cost of the product are obtained. A knowledge base is derived by eliciting the requirement compatibilities from existing products. The approach is matrix based and it analyzes recurrent dependencies between requirements and components variants to determine which parts are most likely to appear in the BOM. Then, the knowledge base is integrated with rules that are input by experienced designers through a simple syntax. The approach has been tested moving from the requirements of some instances of a family of cookers, and comparing the results obtained from the application of the method with the actual product BOM.

Keywords: Bill of materials | Configuration | Design requirements | Knowledge management

[60] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Analytical thermal model for characterizing a Li-ion battery cell, 2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014, (2014). Abstract

In a scenario of small and customized production of electric vehicle, it is important to set methods and tools to evaluate the Li-Ion cells heat source in EV battery. The main problem of the new lithium batteries is represented by the need to keep the battery packs at uniform and constant temperatures and avoid peaks of temperatures which cause degradation of performance and safety problem. The main issue concerns the characterization of a thermal model to calculate the heat generated by electrochemical reactions in a single battery cell. In order to achieve this objective, electrical tests have been conducted to obtain the parameters such as voltage curves, open circuit voltage, and capacity for different type of Li-Ion cells and different rate of current in charge and discharge. During experiments, the use of an IR camera allows to acquire real temperature data under working conditions. These tests concern one cell per time, analyzed in natural convection condition at constant external temperature. The heat generation is evaluated solving the analytical thermal formula which depends on the current rate. The approach has been validated comparing the calculated temperature values with experimental data. The proposed methodology allows to determine the heat generated and temperature for different working condition.

Keywords: heat exchange | lithium battery | modeling

[61] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Modeling and thermal simulation of a PHEV battery module with cylindrical LFP cells, 2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, EVS 2014, (2014). Abstract

Generally a part of electric vehicle diffusion is still based on marketing of cars and vans suitable for specific use like work vehicles. A flexible design methodology is required to support rapid prototyping and product customization in the market of tailored EV/PHEV. The research focuses the cooling simulation for a PHEV Li-Ion battery. The thermal analysis is based on the physical parameters of the single cell and on the experimental data. The proposed methodology concerns firstly an analytical approach which evaluates the average heat generated by a single cell during working condition. Then the proposed virtual prototyping analysis has been divided into two levels: the thermal simulation of one cell, and the CFD analysis of a battery module. This workflow has been applied to support the design of a battery pack for a prototypal ecological hybrid vehicle. That test case vehicle is a small van, used for the curbside collection, which has in parallel an internal combustion engine and an electric motor supplied by a LFP battery with small cylindrical cells. The analysis concerns one of the four module which constitutes the whole battery pack. The virtual model has been parameterized and the behavior of air cooling system has been evaluated through virtual tools.

Keywords: cooling | lithium battery | modeling | PHEV | simulation

[62] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Mengarelli M., Virtual prototyping approach to evaluate the thermal management of Li-Ion batteries, 2014 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2014, (2014). Abstract

Nowadays, electric vehicles fill a relevant car market share. The Li-Ion batteries currently represent the best solution in term of environmental impact and performance. Thermal management for Li-Ion batteries is a very interesting topic, since high temperatures accelerate degradation rate of a cell and compromise its safety level. The battery thermal modeling can be quite challenging. The proposed approach describes a methodology to simulate different thermal management algorithms in order to obtain an uniform temperature distribution in a Li-Ion battery pack. A test case has been developed where the application of an thermal algorithm has been analyzed through CFD simulations.

Keywords: CFD | Hybrid electric vehicle | Li-ion battery | Simulation | Thermal management | Virtual prototyping

[63] Landi D., Cicconi P., Germani M., A methodological approach for supporting the thermal design of Li-ion battery for customized electric vehicles, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 11, (2014). Abstract

An important issue in the mechanical industry is the reduction of the time to market, in order to meet quickly the customer needs. This goal is very important for SMEs that produce small lots of customized products. In the context of greenhouse gas emissions reduction, vehicles powered by electric motors seem to be the most suitable alternative to the traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. The market of customized electric vehicles is a niche market suitable for SMEs. Nowadays, the energy storage system of an electric vehicle powertrain consists of several Li-ion cells arranged in a container called battery pack. Particularly, the battery unit is considered as the most critical component in electric vehicle, because it impacts on performance and life cycle cost. Currently, the design of a battery pack mostly depends on the related market size. A longer design time is expected in the case of a large scale production. While a small customized production requires more agility and velocity in the design process. The proposed research focuses on a design methodology to support the designer in the evaluation of the battery thermal behavior. This work has been applied in the context of a customized small production. As test case, an urban electric light commercial vehicle has been analyzed. The designed battery layout has been evaluated and simulated using virtual prototyping tools. A cooling configuration has been analyzed and then prototyped in a physical vehicle. The virtual thermal behavior of a Li-ion battery has been validated at the test bench. The real operational conditions have been analyzed reproducing several ECE-15 driving cycles and many acceleration runs at different load values. Thermocouples have measured the temperature values during the physical experiments, in order to validate the analytical thermal profile evaluated with the proposed design approach.

[64] Cicconi P., Landi D., Germani M., A modular optimization method based on a multi-DOE approach proposed for a centrifugal impeller, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 11, (2014). Abstract

Nowadays, design processes need of agile and flexible tools and methods to meet market needs and Ecodesign directive in the industry of household appliances. Virtual prototyping techniques are widespread in design processes and practices, in order to reduce the project development lead-time and the cost related to any real physical prototyping. The aim of this paper is the study of a generic modular approach to support the optimization process of simple mechanical parts using virtual prototyping tools and a multi-DOE solving analysis based on virtual experiments. The target is to increase flexibility in design phases. The research context regards the optimization of a blower for cooker hood applications, in order to improve the fluid dynamic efficacy indicator in accordance with EU Ecodesign directive regarding ventilation fans. The increasing of fluid dynamic efficiency is a way to reduce electrical energy consumption during blower operation. Particularly, this paper focuses on the design optimization of an impeller for kitchen hood. The research-work takes into account the optimization of the blade profile. Inlet and outlet fluid-blade angles have been analyzed and discussed. The methodology proposes the study of a set of geometrical parameters through an analysis based on DOE scheduling with virtual experiments. The proposed test case provides a study of two different fan wheel models for the same hood application. Three geometrical parameters have been considered. The DOE objective function fits the maximization of the fluid dynamic efficiency indicator, in order to reduce energy consumptions. A multi-DOE approach has been used to evaluate the best configuration set. Several CFD simulations have been conducted and the resultant impeller configuration has been also validated through physical tests.

[65] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., A knowledge based approach for affordable virtual prototyping: The drip emitters test case, Competitive Design - Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Design Conference, 575-582, (2014). Abstract

Virtual prototyping lacks of application in SME due to the costs of software systems and the necessity of skilled operators. The aim is to improve dripper emitters design process reducing costs. A knowledge base is presented to gather data on products behaviour in terms of experimental data and simulation results for a set of meaningful test cases. Input design parameters were linked to performance indices on the base of the correlations emerged in the analysis. Specifications for a new product can be used to extract similar cases and to define a possible solution in terms of a combination of them.

Keywords: Design of experiments | Drip emitters | Knowledge based engineering | Virtual prototyping

[66] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Mengarelli M., Life cycle cost from consumer side: A comparison between traditional and ecological vehicles, ENERGYCON 2014 - IEEE International Energy Conference, 1440-1445, (2014). Abstract

The present work investigates the economic feasibility of ecological vehicles. The comparison has been developed between traditional vehicles, gasoline and diesel fueled, and green vehicles powered by electric, hybrid or natural gas motors. Nowadays, the vehicle life cycle cost is an important decision criterion used by consumer to buy a car, due to fuel price increasing. Life cycle cost includes purchase cost, operation cost, but also social cost lead to environmental impact regarding production, use and end-of-life phases. The proposed research focuses life cycle cost from consumer side in order to evaluate the economic feasibility, using ecological solutions for transportation in EU. Different use scenarios are proposed, considering different vehicle sizes and mileages, without considering taxes and any governance incentives. © 2014 IEEE.

Keywords: ecological vehicles | EV | HEV | life cycle cost | natural gas vehicles

[67] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Modeling and thermal simulation of a PHEV battery module with cylindrical LFP cells, World Electric Vehicle Journal, 6(1), 175-185, (2013). Abstract

Generally a part of electric vehicle diffusion is still based on marketing of cars and vans suitable for specific use like work vehicles. A flexible design methodology is required to support rapid prototyping and product customization in the market of tailored EV/PHEV. The research focuses the cooling simulation for a PHEV Li-Ion battery. The thermal analysis is based on the physical parameters of the single cell and on the experimental data. The proposed methodology concerns firstly an analytical approach which evaluates the average heat generated by a single cell during working condition. Then the proposed virtual prototyping analysis has been divided into two levels: the thermal simulation of one cell, and the CFD analysis of a battery module. This workflow has been applied to support the design of a battery pack for a prototypal ecological hybrid vehicle. That test case vehicle is a small van, used for the curbside collection, which has in parallel an internal combustion engine and an electric motor supplied by a LFP battery with small cylindrical cells. The analysis concerns one of the four module which constitutes the whole battery pack. The virtual model has been parameterized and the behavior of air cooling system has been evaluated through virtual tools.

Keywords: Cooling | Lithium battery | Modeling | PHEV | Simulation

[68] Cicconi P., Germani M., Landi D., Mengarelli M., Cooling simulation of an EV battery pack to support a retrofit project from lead-acid to li-ion cells, 2013 9th IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, IEEE VPPC 2013, 94-99, (2013). Abstract

A niche of the electric vehicle market is the electric retrofit of existing vehicles. These updates replace internal combustion engines with high efficiency electric motors and high capacity Li-ion batteries. This market is dominated by mostly small and medium size enterprises that provide tailored solutions to customers. These companies seek to reduce their costs and lead times by using virtual prototyping tools and methods in the main design processes. In this context, our work defines a design methodology to support designers in the definition of cooling systems. As a test case, we analyzed the electric retrofit of a small electric car with a lead-acid battery that was updated to Li-ion technology. We focused on a simulation of the cooling of the battery using a thermal analysis based on the physical parameters of the cell and test bench results. The issue is the evaluation of the heat generated by the electrochemical reactions of lithium ion battery cells. A representative battery module was simulated following the methodological approach. The virtual prototyping analysis was divided into two levels: the thermal simulation of a single cell, and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a battery module composed of LiFePO4 prismatic cells. The geometric and fluid dynamic parameters were investigated with a CFD solver to study the cooling performance. A cooling system configuration was proposed and analyzed using the virtual prototyping tools. © 2013 IEEE.

Keywords: FEV | Lithium-ion battery | Modeling | Simulation

[69] Cicconi P., Landi D., Morbidoni A., Germani M., Feasibility analysis of second life applications for Li-Ion cells used in electric powertrain using environmental indicators, 2012 IEEE International Energy Conference and Exhibition, ENERGYCON 2012, 985-990, (2012). Abstract

The recently increase of the EV/PHEV market is in part due to the technological progress of battery systems. The energy storage and charging are the critical aspects of an electric vehicle; Li-Ion batteries allow an increase in storage performance and efficiencies despite the needs of a high number of cells. The single Li-Ion cell is constituted by metals, graphite, various salts and electrolytes which result difficult to dispose of or recycle. Therefore the expected environmental sustainability of any EV is limited by the final impact of battery production and disposal. The proposed research studies the Second Life applications suitable for the Li-Ion battery cells used for electric powertrains in order to promote a Sustainable Transportation and avoid the environmental impact that disposal of these batteries would have. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis has been adopted to estimate the gain in terms of environmental impact provided by reusing disposed Li-Ion cells for a Second Life application. An automotive battery pack with LiFePO4 cells has been chosen as a test case, then the life-cycle due to vehicle loads has been predicted by accelerated tests and the residual cell capacity has been experimentally evaluated. A possible Second Life scenario has been studied for the automotive Li-Ion batteries: reusing the disposed cell in a smart grid system after vehicle use to provide the grid energy stabilization and storage. This strategy has been evaluated with an LCA tool taking into account materials (anode, cathode, separator, et.), as well as flows and processes (production, assembly, disassembly) both for production and reuse phases. The research results show a positive effect of the Second Life solution on the environmental impact of the Li-Ion cells; moreover, the collected data will be useful for the Second Life strategies and scheduling during the early design phase. © 2012 IEEE.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles | Li-Ion Battery | Life Cycle Assessment | Second Life Applications

[70] Daniele L., Paolo C., Michele G., A KBE design methodology to support li-ion battery cooling for hybrid and electric vehicles, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE), 3(PARTS A, B, AND C), 367-375, (2012). Abstract

In a scenario of a small and customized production of Electric Vehicles, it is important to have methodologies and tools able to guarantee high flexibility, good quality, and reduced time to market. The optimisation of electric motors and battery design stages is a key factor to achieve the expected results. Specific activities such as design automation, virtual prototyping and simulation are fundamental to obtain highperformance customised solutions. In this context the study of cooling systems for Li-Ion battery packs is one of the most important problems regarding EV and PHEV powertrain design. The proposed research presents a Knowledge Based methodology to support the cooling design of a battery pack and an analytical tool to evaluate the temperature and heat generation due to electrochemical reactions. All the research project is finalized to a definition of a Knowledge Based System to define a battery layout including engineering knowledge. The current strategies of battery pack design depend on the market size. In particular, the research activity is focalized on customized production of a SME (Small Medium Enterprise). The main question concerns the estimation of heat generated from electrochemical reactions in a single battery cell. In order to achieve these objectives, a preliminary phase for knowledge acquisition is necessary and a process of formalization has been carried out using the Knowledge Management methods. A first prototype of the Knowledge Based Engineering tool has been developed to determine the optimal cooling condition of a battery pack. The main module is based on an analytical approach which has been formulated to evaluate the average thermal flow generated by a standard LiFePO4 polymeric cell at different values of current and state of charge (SOC). This method can be used for different types of geometry and different chemical compositions. Finally, the proposed approach has been validated by experimental measures and numerical simulations in collaboration with a medium enterprise of electric energy storage systems and light ecological vehicles. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

[71] Germani M., Mandolini M., Cicconi P., Manufacturing cost estimation during early phases of machine design, ICED 11 - 18th International Conference on Engineering Design - Impacting Society Through Engineering Design, 5, 198-209, (2011). Abstract

Machine design process requires the effective and rapid assessment of different design solutions. Beyond functions and technical performance other parameters as safety, manufacturability, assemblability etc. have to be taken into account. Manufacturing cost is one of the main factors in order to choose the most suitable solution, so accurate estimation in the early design phases is fundamental. Design to cost implies to manage a vast amount of manufacturing knowledge that has to be linked to the design parameters. Feature based 3D CAD models contain data useful for cost estimation but, despite the numerous researches on features recognition and extraction, no cost estimation software system yet assures reliable results. In such context, this paper presents an approach for rapid manufacturing cost estimation where design features are automatically linked to manufacturing operations. The approach has been implemented into a knowledge-based system and tested on practical case studies in order to validate the performance. Copyright © 2002-2012 The Design Society. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Design to cost | Feature-based costing | Knowledge-based system | Manufacturing features

[72] Cicconi P., Raffaeli R., Knowledge based plants layout configuration and piping routing, Global Product Development - Proceedings of the 20th CIRP Design Conference, 497-509, (2011). Abstract

The design of industrial plants requires managing many geometrical and non geometrical data to reach a satisfactory solution in terms of costs, performance and quality. An approach is presented to support designers in the elicitation and formalization phase of the required knowledge. Then an integral prototypal software application accomplishes layout configuration tasks through a customized graphic wizard. A routing algorithm is presented to automate calculation and modelling of piping and electrical cables respecting design constraints. Cogeneration plant powered by micro gas-turbines has been chosen as test case to evaluate the proposed design method and tool. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

Keywords: Cogeneration | Computer aided plant design | Knowledge based systems | Knowledge management | Routing

[73] Raffaeli R., Cicconi P., Mengoni M., Germani M., Modular product configuration: An automatic tool for eliciting design knowledge from parametric cad models, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1(PARTS A AND B), 207-218, (2010). Abstract

The offer of tailored products is a key factor to satisfy specific customer needs in the current competitive market. Modular products can easily support customization in a short time. Design process, in this case, can be regarded as a configuration task where solution is achieved through the combination of modules in overall product architecture. In this scenario efficient configuration design tools are evermore important. Although many tools have been already proposed in literature, they need further investigation to be applicable in real industrial practice, because of the high efforts required to implement system and the lack of flexibility in products updating. This work describes an approach to overcome drawbacks and to introduce a product independent configuration system which can be useful in designing recurrent product modules. To manage configuration from the designer perspective, the approach is based on Configurable Virtual Prototypes (CVP). In particular, the definition of geometrical models is analyzed providing a tool for eliciting and reusing knowledge introduced by parametric template CAD models. Semantic rules are used to recognize parts parameterization and assembly mating constraints. The approach is exemplified through a case study. © 2010 by ASME.

Keywords: Design automation | Modularity | Product configuration

[74] Cicconi P., Germani M., Mandolini M., How to support mechanical product cost estimation in the embodiment design phase, Advanced Concurrent Engineering, 419-430, (2010). Abstract

An efficient mechanical product design process implies the evaluation of many alternatives in a short time and rapid product changes on the basis of emerging needs. Product cost is one of the main factors in order to choose the most promising solution. Hence its accurate estimation in the design phases is fundamental. The main problem is the vast amount of knowledge that has to be managed in order to make robust evaluations. Features based 3D CAD models implicitly contain part of needed information. But such information has to be elaborated by adopting suitable rules based on manufacturing knowledge. In this context, the paper presents an approach and the related knowledge-based system able to automatically make reliable cost estimation starting from the 3D CAD model. The approach is based on the manufacturing knowledge formalization, on the geometrical and non-geometrical feature automatic recognition and, finally, on the mapping between manufacturing operations and modelling features. In order to validate the system performance case studies are reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Keywords: Cost estimation | Feature recognition | Knowledge-based systems