Abstract: Post-processing pipeline for image analysis in reverse engineering modelling, such as photogrammetry applications, still asks for manual interventions mainly for shadows and reflections corrections and, often, for background removal. The usage of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) may conveniently help in recognition and background removal. This paper presents an approach based on CNN for background removal, assessing its efficiency. Its relevance pertains to a comparison of CNN approaches versus manual assessment, in terms of accuracy versus automation with reference to cultural heritage targets. Through a bronze statue test case, pros and cons are discussed with respect to the final model accuracy. The adopted CNN is based on the U-NetMobilenetV2 architecture, a combination of two deep networks, to converge faster and achieve higher efficiency with small datasets. The used dataset consists of over 700 RGB images used to provide knowledge from which CNNs can extract features and distinguish the pixels of the statue from background ones. To extend CNN capabilities, training sets with and without dataset integration are investigated. Dice coefficient is applied to evaluate the CNN efficiency. Results obtained are used for the photogrammetric reconstruction of the Principe Ellenistico model. This 3D model is compared with a model obtained through a 3D scanner. Moreover, through a comparison with a photogrammetric 3D model obtained without the CNN background removal, performances are evaluated. Although few errors due to bad light conditions, the advantages in terms of process automation are consistent (over 50% in time reduction).
Keywords: Close range photogrammetry | CNN | Cultural heritage preservation | MobilenetV2 | Reverse engineering | U-Net
Abstract: This paper presents a Generative Design Method (GDM) for highly customised Cultural Heritage applications concerning the exhibition and conservation of pottery. As a fundamental requirement, archaeological finds must be preserved in their structural integrity. Additionally, when present, the exposition supports must be aesthetically pleasant meaning that they must be non-invasive in the field of view of the observer. Furthermore, each artefact presents a unique geometry, hence its supporting structure must be designed accordingly. The proposed GDM considers these requirements, adopting a synergy of CAD, CAE, and optimisation tools. It is developed through two phases. The first phase, P1, concerns with the structural integrity of the fragment. In this phase, a Parametric Modelling approach is chosen for its ease of use both in the Finite Element Analysis evaluations of artefacts and in the design and optimisations of feasible supporting structures. The output of the phase P1 is the optimised configuration of the functional elements of the support ('Ci ') which are the interface region between the support itself and the fragment of pottery. They represent the input of the second phase, P2, that aims to generate lightweight concepts for the complete supporting structure considering the optimal 'Ci ' configuration. During this phase, an aesthetics criterion (related to the minimisation of the support's visibility) is also considered to achieve non-invasive supporting structures. Doing so, the GDM provides informed decisions in the early stages of the design activities with a simulation driven approach oriented to manufacturing. In this way, users are able to focus on design requirements since the concept's variants are generated by means of an optimised configuration of standardised components ('Ci') and obstacle geometries.
Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM) is currently making the relevance of lattice structure solutions increasing, allowing the achievement of high performance/mass ratio, where performance stands for energy absorption, stiffness, and/or insulation. This paper undertakes lattice structure for lightweight design of a horse saddletree. Saddletree is the backbone of a horse saddle, and it is composed of different components. In particular, the spring steel reinforcements inside the saddletree make it the heaviest part of the horse saddle, involving also multiple processes of manufacturing and manual assemblies. This paper aims to lightweight an existing saddletree with a Voronoi lattice solution, reducing several manual assemblies. From the methodological point of view, the lightweight design has been based on a multi-scale approach, carried out via nTopology (static FEA on the original bulk design, implicit geometrical lattice generation from FEA result maps and Boolean operation among lattice results and bulk design implicit model). The original bulk design has been digitally acquired and modeled through Reverse Engineering techniques, so that a specific customized solution may be improved. A final weight reduction of 76.5% is achieved, providing an example of how topological optimization techniques coupled with AM (in particular Powder Bed Fusion technology) may reduce assembly efforts
Abstract: Mechanical design and engineering can support projects with high-added value in the Cultural Heritage field, such as restoration of artefacts like statues and architectonical decorations. Many examples have been carried out, along the recent past, in the field of ancient bronze restorations (as for Marco Aurelio, Satiro Danzante di Mazara del Vallo and Principe Ellenistico). Engineering design techniques help the assessment of structural problems through physical measurements and FEA simulations; the digital acquisition of surfaces represents a fundamental base for CAD modelling, and the inner frame design helps for guaranteeing stability and manoeuvrability requirements for transport and exhibition. Workflow peculiarities and requirements to accomplish the restorers’ activities and investigations may highlight best practices and rules. The design of the new inner frame of the Vittoria Alata of Brescia, an ancient roman bronze statue, represents a recent example of this kind. Its design workflow was provided in the loop of the restoration program, and it was assessed considering structural integrity, surfaces protection, inner inaccessibility, and dimensions. The solutions adopted are the result of a collaborative process with restorers to evaluate each proposed concept, in compliance with the studies and the constraints highlighted during the investigations. CAD-CAE tools applied starting from the 3D acquisition, helped the development and its verification, reducing the efforts during the manufacturing phase and final set-up. This paper aims to discuss the obtained result demonstrating how structural analysis and mechanical design anchored to 3D acquisitions may help restoration of bronze statues.
Keywords: CAD-CAE | Cultural heritage | Design for restoration | Structural analysis | Vittoria Alata
Abstract: Numerical simulations and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) have currently increased their applications in medical field for making preoperative plans to simulate the response of tissues and organs. Soft tissue simulations, such as colorectal simulations, can be adopted to understand the interaction between colon tissues and surrounding tissues, as well as the effects of instruments used in this kind of surgical procedures. This paper analyses through FEA the interaction between a surgical device and a colon tissue when it is fully clamped. Sensitivity analysis in the respect of the material mechanical behaviour, geometric approximation and the effect of thickness variation are investigated with the aim of setting up a virtual prototype of the surgical operation to aid mentoring and preliminary evaluation via haptic solutions. Through this investigation, the force feedback estimation that is necessary in many virtual-reality applications, may be estimated without discharging nonlinear effects that occur during clamping and that usually cannot be simulated efficiently to guarantee real-time solutions. Results are aligned with experimental data, confirming the reliability and right the set-up of FEA. Through them, the preliminary set-up of a haptic force feedback has been described and simulated through Simulink 3D animation, confirming the feasibility of the concept.
Abstract: Hepatic diseases are serious condition worldwide, and several times doctors analyse the situation and elaborates a preoperative planning based exclusively on the medical images, which are a drawback since they only provide a 2D vision and the location of the damaged tissues in the three-dimensional space cannot be easily determined by surgeons. Nowadays, with the advancement of Computer Aided Design (CAD) technologies and image segmentation, a digital liver model can be obtained to help understand the particular medical case; even with the geometric model, a virtual simulation can be elaborated. This work is divided into two phases; the first phase involves a workflow to create a liver geometrical model from medical images. Whereas the second phase provides a methodology to achieve liver prototype, using the technique of fused deposition modelling (FDM). The two stages determine and evaluate the most influencing parameters to make this design repeatable in different hepatic diseases. The reported case study provides a valuable method for optimizing preoperative plans for liver disease. In addition, the prototype built with additive manufacturing will allow the new doctors to speed up their learning curve, since they can manipulate the real geometry of the patient's liver with their hands.
Abstract: Nowadays, restoration is a multidisciplinary work that gathers knowledge and skills from different areas (technical, artistic, historical, architectural, …). In the field of ancient bronze statues, technical knowledge may also concern with materials behaviour and its preservation, surface quality, non-destructive diagnostics for integrity, a better understanding of the manufacturing technology, and of details, sometimes hidden, in not directly accessible sections of the artefact. This knowledge, got from different domains, can support restorers in their decision-making process. In many cases, they summarise it on pictorial views of the artefacts, or on images derived from the 3D model that is experimentally acquired through reverse engineering, to reference information on the interested areas. The aim of this paper is to explore the advantages related to a CAD-based framework able to gather the technical domains involved in the restoration of historical artifacts. Doing so, CAD functionalities and related benefits may be extended to cultural heritage applications as tools oriented for restoration, according to a life cycle perspective of the restorer’s activities and the artefact preservation and fruition. The proposed CAD-based framework has been implemented to manage the investigation for restoration and conservation of bronze statues. The approach has been applied to the Principe Ellenistico, part of the collection of Palazzo Massimo, one of the sites of Museo Nazionale Romano (in Rome). The obtained results show that the CAD-based framework may speed-up the investigation processes without losing accuracy and restorers’ good practices.
Keywords: CAD-CAE | Cultural heritage | Design for restoration | Principe Ellenistico | Virtual prototyping
 Nishida K., Basu M., Mahmud R., Bici M., Syai'In M., Budianto A., Syamsuri ,
PREFACE, Journal of Physics: Conference Series,
Abstract: For the past few decades, topology optimization (TO) has been used as a structural design optimization tool. With the passage of time, this kind of usage of TO has been extended to many application fields and branches, thanks to a better understanding of how manufacturing constraints can achieve a practical design solution. In addition, the advent of additive manufacturing and its subsequent advancements have further increased the applications of TO, raising the chance of competitive manufacturing. Design for additive manufacturing has also promoted the adoption of TO as a concept design tool of structural components. Nevertheless, the most frequent applications are related to lightweight design with or without design for assembly. A general approach to integrate TO in concept designs is still missing. This paper aims to close this gap by proposing guidelines to translate design requirements into TO inputs and to include topology and structural concerns at the early stage of design activity. Guidelines have been applied for the concept design of an inner supporting frame of an ancient bronze statue, with several constraints related to different general design requirements, i.e., lightweight design, minimum displacement, and protection of the statue’s structural weak zones to preserve its structural integrity. Starting from the critical analysis of the list of requirements, a set of concepts is defined through the application of TO with different set-ups (loads, boundary conditions, design and non-design space) and ranked by the main requirements. Finally, a validation of the proposed approach is discussed comparing the achieved results with the ones carried out through a standard iterative concept design.
Keywords: Design methodology | Lightweight design | Restoration of ancient statues | Topology optimization
 Chern M.J., Dong-Seong K., Vaziri N., Bici M., Syai in M., Hidayat D.Z., Budianto A., Syamsuri ,
Preface, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering,
Abstract: Mechanical behavior of metallic foams suffers from scattering due to morphology and distribution of cells. FEA modeling, at mesoscale level, may assist design of metallic foam components or the development of a proper model able to consider the effects of this variability. This paper discusses a foam modeling approach based on a surface tessellation provided by a Voronoi diagram, investigating its ability to obtain a final model that respects an assigned cell morphology. Results show that a wide range of void volume fraction can be achieved, with good agreement between assigned cell morphology and modeled cell distribution. Absence of non-manifold geometry and STL optimization speed-up the FEA checks on the solid mesh creation, so that, many models may be systematically simulated to investigate the role of cell morphology during deformation.
Abstract: Close-Range Photogrammetry is a widespread and efficient technique in the 3D acquisition of artefacts, particularly in fields like Cultural Heritage. Despite this wide usage, also due to a convenient quality/cost ratio, it shows some limitations due to light conditions as well as the artefact surface finishing. In this paper, we would like to report the assessment of a photogrammetry approach to 3D capture metal reflective surfaces, such as bronze, which is a widely used material in ancient statues. To this aim, we propose a photogrammetry workflow based on systematic steps capable of overcome some of the main issues of reflective surfaces. To validate this approach, the developed 3D model is compared to a more accurate model of the same artefact, obtained with a 3D scanner. As a case study, we selected the Principe Ellenistico, an ancient bronze statue conserved in the Museo Nazionale Romano (Rome, Italy), of which a photogrammetric model is firstly developed and then compared to the scanned one.
Abstract: The use of continuum mechanics, especially Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has gained an extensive application in the medical field, in order to simulate soft tissues. In particular, colorectal simulations can be used to understand the interaction between colon and the surrounding tissues, and also, between colon and surgical instruments. Although several works have been introduced considering small displacements, FEA applied to colorectal surgical scenarios with large displacements is still a challenge. This work aims to investigate how FEA can describe non-linear effects induced by material properties and different approximating geometries for colon. More in detail, it shows a comparison between simulations that are performed using well-known hyperelastic models (principally Mooney-Rivlin and, in one case, Yeoh) and the linear one. These different mechanical behaviours are applied on different geometrical models (planar, cylindrical and a 3D-shape from digital acquisitions) with the aim of evaluating also the effects of geometric non-linearity. Increasing the displacements imposed by the surgical instruments, the adoption of a hyperelastic model shows lower stresses than the linear elastic one that seems to overestimate the averaged stress. Moreover, the details of the geometrical models affect the results in terms of stress-strain distribution, since it provides a better localisation of the effects related to the hypothesis of large strains.
Keywords: computer assisted surgical planning | Finite element analysis | segmentation of medical images | soft tissues simulation | surface modelling
Abstract: In injection molding production, automatic inspections are needed to control defects and evaluate the assigned functional tolerances of components and dies. With the “Smart Manufacturing” approach as a point of view, this paper resumes part of a wider research aiming the integration and the automation of a Reverse Engineering inspection process in components and die set-up. The paper compares two fitting approaches for recognition of portions of cylindrical surfaces. Therefore, they are evaluated in the respect of an automatic voxel-based feature recognition of 3D dense cloud of points for tolerance inspection of injection-molded parts. The first approach is a 2D Levenberg Marquardt algorithm coupled with a first guess evaluation made by the Kasa algebraic form. The second one is a 3D fitting based on the RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm (RANSAC). The evaluation has been made according to the ability of the approaches of working on points associated to the voxel structure that locally divides the cloud to characterize planar and curved surfaces. After the presentation of the overall automatic recognition, the cylindrical surface algorithms are presented and compared trough test cases.
Abstract: Reverse Engineering (RE) may help tolerance inspection during production by digitalization of analyzed components and their comparison with design requirements. RE techniques are already applied for geometrical and tolerance shape control. Plastic injection molding is one of the fields where it may be applied, in particular for die set-up of multi-cavities, since no severe accuracy is required for the acquisition system. In this field, RE techniques integrated with Computer-Aided tools for tolerancing and inspection may contribute to the so-called “Smart Manufacturing”. Their integration with PLM and suppliers' incoming components may set the information necessary to evaluate each component and die. Intensive application of shape digitalization has to front several issues: accuracy of data acquisition hardware and software; automation of experimental and post-processing steps; update of industrial protocol and workers knowledge among others. Concerning post-processing automation, many advantages arise from computer vision, considering that it is based on the same concepts developed in a RE post-processing (detection, segmentation and classification). Recently, deep learning has been applied to classify point clouds, considering object and/or feature recognition. This can be made in two ways: with a 3D voxel grid, increasing regularity, before feeding data to a deep net architecture; or acting directly on point cloud. Literature data demonstrate high accuracy according to net training quality. In this paper, a preliminary study about CNN for 3D points segmentation is provided. Their characteristics have been compared to an automatic approach that has been already implemented by the authors in the past. VoxNet and PointNet architectures have been compared according to the specific task of feature recognition for tolerance inspection and some investigations on test cases are discussed to understand their performance.
Abstract: In sheet metal forming, springback represents a major drawback increasing die set-up problems, especially for ultra-high strength steels. Finite Element Analysis is a well-established method to simulate the process during design, and multicriteria optimizations, for example, via surrogate models, are investigated in order to develop integrated design. Since to take into account also springback compensation die design may involve a large number of geometric variables, this paper presents a robust design formulation, based on the adoption of the shape function optimization, to describe springback in terms of weights directly associated to global shape variations of the die shape. Doing so, multicriteria optimization, which involves also die compensation, can be set up in a more intuitive approach, as requested in the preliminary steps of die design. After the introduction of the industrial problem, the mathematical formulation of the shape function optimization is presented together with its novel extension to Robust Design, which is based on the Dual Response Surface. Through a test case derived from the head part of a B-pillar, stamped from a Dual Phase sheet 1.5 mm thick, this novel extension investigates the effect of 6% variation from nominal values of initial yield stress and thickness. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the procedure, underlying that an optimal compensation may not be optimal in terms of process robustness.
Abstract: Interventions of ancient bronze statues restoration may last long periods, involving several activities from material and structural analysis to set-up of museum exhibitions, passing through reconstruction of fragments. In this paper, we describe procedures and methods used for evaluation of the current posture of “Principe Ellenistico”. In fact, the statue seems to present some inaccuracies, in the fragments assembly, made during the last restoration activity (one of this effect is clearly observed in the spear inclination). The final aims are: (1) evaluation of differences among the postures before and after the last restoration; (2) recognition of the original fragments embedded in a previous restoration; and (3) the study of a possible better positioning of them. Methods applied are related to feature recognition on acquired point clouds, image analysis through control points and algorithms to find centerline of the elements that could need to be repositioned. In the final part, a concept design for a new inner-support is presented, giving the possibility to avoid assembly inaccuracies. Future developments are presented as the prospect of additive manufacturing the support, firstly with a FDM prototype and then through SLM or similar technologies.
Abstract: The research reported in this paper applies an explicit non-linear FEA solver to simulate the interaction between a clamp and a hyper-elastic material that aims to mimic the biological tissue of the colon. More in detail, the paper provides new results as a continuation of a previous works aimed at the evaluation of this solver to manage contact and dynamic loading on complex, multiple shapes. Results concern with the evaluation of the contact force during clamping, thus to the assessment of the force-feedback. The analysis is carried out on two geometries, using the hyper-elastic Mooney-Rivlin model for the mechanical behavior of the soft tissues. A pressure is applied on the colon to simulate the surgical clamp, which goes progressively in contact with tissue surface. To assess FEA criticality, and, then, its feasibility, the stress-strain and the contact force are analysed according to geometrical model and thickness variation, leaving the pressure constant. Doing so, their effect on the force-feedback can be foreseen, understanding their role on the accuracy of the final result.
Abstract: Chronicles of sieges to castles or fortresses, using "machinae", can often be found in historical sources. Moreover, archaeological excavations of castles or fortresses has brought to light rocks or projectiles whose carving suggests a military usage. Nevertheless, chronicles and discoveries alone, are seldom enough to propose a faithful reconstruction of these machines. Therefore, the aim of this research is the development of methodologies for reconstructing virtual scenarios of sieges, starting from the scarce information available. In order to achieve it, a procedure for the virtual reconstruction of the siege machine has been set up, focusing on typology and dimensions of the machines, also investigating possible fire positions according to topography. The entire procedure has been developed using the siege of Cervara di Roma's Rocca as a case study. Late medieval chronicles (end of 13th Century) report the siege brought by the papal army in order to restore the jurisdiction on the Cervara's stronghold, following the insurrection of a group of vassals headed by a monk named Pelagio. The discovery, in the area of the Rocca, of a stone that could have been used as a projectile confirms what reported. The proposed methodology is composed of two parts. The first one is connected to the study of the "internal ballistics", to understand the performances and to build virtual models of siege machines. The second part is the study of the "external ballistics", then to the positioning and shooting ability of possible machines, analysing the topography of the area. In this paper, we present the feasibility of this methodology through the preliminary results achieved correlating internal and external ballistics.
Abstract: Ancient bronze statues mainly require material integrity assessment and restoration. Restoration may include also the update of the museum exhibition, defining new structural frames and fragment re-composition to preserve the statue and improve the interpretation of the original aspect. This paper proves how engineering methods (such as Finite Element Analysis, Computer Aided Design modelling, Reverse Engineering) may assist cultural heritage experts and restorers in these tasks. It presents the activities made together with the Museo Nazionale Romano and the Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro, on the so-called "Principe Ellenistico" (Hellenistic Prince). This bronze was found in pieces (body, left arm and right leg), at the end of 19th century during an excavation made in Rome. No visual or reference sources can say its origin and its final posture was defined by restorers at the end of the 19th century according to their hypothesis and studies. In the 20th century, a further restoration was made on the critical areas of the surface, together with some structural improvement of the inner frame. Nowadays, after a review of its position inside the Museum, new experimental and numerical analyses have been carried out to better understand surface weakness and correct left arm positioning.
Abstract: In this paper, we aim at providing results concerning the application of desktop systems for rapid prototyping of medical replicas that involve complex shapes, as, for example, folds of a colon. Medical replicas may assist preoperative planning or tutoring in surgery to better understand the interaction among pathology and organs. Major goals of the paper concern with guiding the digital design workflow of the replicas and understanding their final performance, according to the requirements asked by the medics (shape accuracy, capability of seeing both inner and outer details, and support and possible interfacing with other organs). In particular, after the analysis of these requirements, we apply digital design for colon replicas, adopting two desktop systems. The experimental results confirm that the proposed preprocessing strategy is able to conduct to the manufacturing of colon replicas divided in self-supporting segments, minimizing the supports during printing. This allows also to reach an acceptable level of final quality, according to the request of having a 3D presurgery overview of the problems. These replicas are compared through reverse engineering acquisitions made by a structured-light system, to assess the achieved shape and dimensional accuracy. Final results demonstrate that low-cost desktop systems, coupled with proper strategy of preprocessing, may have shape deviation in the range of ±1 mm, good for physical manipulations during medical diagnosis and explanation.
Abstract: Lattice materials can overcome the need of light and stiff structures in the aerospace industry. The wing leading edge is one of the most critical parts for both on-board subsystem and structure features: it must withstand to the aerodynamic loads and bird-strike, integrating also the anti-ice system functions. Nowadays, this part is made by different components bonded together such as external skin, internal passageways, and feeding tubes. In the present work, a single-piece multifunctional panel made by additive manufacturing will be developed. Optimal design and manufacturing are discussed according to technological constraints, aeronautical performances and sustainability.
Abstract: Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has gained an extensive application in the medical field, such as soft tissues simulations. In particular, colorectal simulations can be used to understand the interaction with the surrounding tissues, or with instruments used in surgical procedures. Although several works have been introduced considering small displacements, as a result of the forces exerted on adjacent tissues, FEA applied to colorectal surgical scenarios is still a challenge. Therefore, this work aims to provide a sensitivity analysis on three geometric models, taking in mind different bioengineering tasks. In this way, a set of simulations has been performed using three mechanical models named Linear Elastic, Hyper-Elastic with a Mooney-Rivlin material model, and Hyper-Elastic with a YEOH material model.
Abstract: Mesoscale geometric modeling of cellular materials is not strictly related only to tomography reconstruction, but it can be applied also in Finite Element Analysis: (a) to better understand load distribution at the interfaces; (b) to develop and calibrate material models; (c) for sensitivity analysis to different loads or shape parameters. This paper aims to examine some of the most applied techniques for geometric modeling of cellular materials at a mesoscale level discussing their advantages and disadvantages for Finite Element Analysis. Among them, two of the most applied techniques, the Voronoi approach and the reverse engineering reconstruction, are here applied to simulate the behavior of aluminum foams under compression. These applications compared to some experimental evidences confirm the capability of mesoscale analysis, highlighting possible enhancement of the geometric modeling techniques.
Keywords: Cellular materials | Finite Element Analysis | Representative Volume Element | Reverse Engineering | Voronoi Diagram
Abstract: This work presents Reverse Engineering and Computer Aided technologies to improve the inspection of injection moulded electro-mechanical parts. Through a strong integration and automation of these methods, tolerance analysis, acquisition tool-path optimization and data management are performed. The core of the procedure concerns the automation of the data measure originally developed through voxel-based segmentation. This paper discusses the overall framework and its integration made according to Smart Manufacturing requirements. The experimental set-up, now in operative conditions at ABB SACE, is composed of a laser scanner installed on a CMM machine able to measure components with lengths in the range of 5÷250 mm, (b) a tool path optimization procedure and (c) a data management both developed as CAD-based applications.
Abstract: Nowadays, the most updated CAE systems include structural optimization toolbox. This demonstrates that topological optimization is a mature technique, although it is not a well-established design practice. It can be applied to increase performance in lightweight design, but also to explore new topological arrangements. It is done through a proper definition of the problem domain, which means defining functional surfaces (interface surfaces with specific contact conditions), preliminary external lengths and geometrical conditions related to possible manufacturing constraints. In this sense, its applicability is possible for all kind of manufacturing, although, in Additive Manufacturing, its extreme solutions can be obtained. In this paper, we aim to present the general applicability of topological optimization in the design workflow together with a case study, exploited according to two design intents: the lightweight criterion and the conceptual definition of an enhanced topology. It demonstrates that this method may help to decrease the design efforts, which, especially in the case of additive manufacturing, can be reallocated for other kind of product optimization.
Abstract: This paper presents the advancements of an automatic segmentation procedure based on the concept of Hierarchical Space Partitioning. It is aimed at tolerance inspection of electromechanical parts produced by injection moulding and acquired by laser scanning. After a general overview of the procedure, its application for recognising cylindrical surfaces is presented and discussed through a specific industrial test case.
Keywords: Computer aided tolerancing & inspection | Hierarchical space partitioning | Injection moulding | Reverse engineering
Abstract: ABSTRACT: This paper presents a point cloud segmentation based on a spatial multiresolution discretisation that is derived from hierarchical space partitioning. Through part type recognition it aims to simplify Computer Aided Tolerance Inspection of electromechanical components avoiding cloud-CAD model registration. A voxel structure subdivides the point cloud. Then, through a suitable surface partitioning, it is linked to component volumes by means of the morphological components of the binary image that is derived from voxel attributes (‘true state’ if points are included in a specific cluster or ‘false state’ if they are not). The proposed approach is then applied on a din-rail clip of a breaker, made by injection moulding. This case study points out the suitability of the approach on box-shaped components or with normal protrusions, and its limits concerning the assumptions of the implementation.
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