[Elenco soci]


Barbieri Loris

Ricercatore TD(B)


Università della Calabria

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 24801940500
Orcid: 0000-0001-7771-6582



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Marino E., Bruno F., Barbieri L., Lagudi A., Benchmarking Built-In Tracking Systems for Indoor AR Applications on Popular Mobile Devices, Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 22(14), (2022). Abstract
X

As one of the most promising technologies for next-generation mobile platforms, Augmented Reality (AR) has the potential to radically change the way users interact with real environments enriched with various digital information. To achieve this potential, it is of fundamental importance to track and maintain accurate registration between real and computer-generated objects. Thus, it is crucially important to assess tracking capabilities. In this paper, we present a benchmark evaluation of the tracking performances of some of the most popular AR handheld devices, which can be regarded as a representative set of devices for sale in the global market. In particular, eight different next-gen devices including smartphones and tablets were considered. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory by adopting an external tracking system. The experimental methodology consisted of three main stages: calibration, data acquisition, and data evaluation. The results of the experimentation showed that the selected devices, in combination with the AR SDKs, have different tracking performances depending on the covered trajectory.

Keywords: Apple ARKit | benchmarking | Google ARCore | mobile augmented reality | simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) | tracking accuracy

[2] Barbieri L., Fuoco F., Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., Exhibit supports for sandstone artifacts designed through topology optimization and additive manufacturing techniques, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 55, 329-338, (2022). Abstract
X

In the Cultural Heritage field, the choice of materials and exhibit structures is essential to properly house and support artifacts without causing damage or deterioration. This problem is even more evident in the case of finds made of stone for which, due to their weight, a proper selection and dimensioning of the relative supports is required. In fact, without adequate support, this can result in stress concentrations that could compromise the artifact's state of conservation. As a consequence, more often such exhibition supports are customized items, that are designed and manufactured to meet specific functional and artistic setup needs. In this context, the paper presents a design approach that combines topology optimization and additive manufacturing techniques to develop customized support structures which undertake the twofold purpose of preserving the artifact and making it available for the exhibition in the museum. The proposed approach has been assessed through the case study of a sandstone Ionic capital hosted in the Brettii & Enotri Museum in Cosenza (Italy). The proposed approach is therefore meant as a guideline for the design of customized exhibit supports especially in the case of sandstone artifacts with a complex shape or a conservation condition that requires specific attention.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Cultural heritage | Design methods | Exhibit supports | Photogrammetry | Topology optimization

[3] Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., Performance-Driven Engineering Design Approaches Based on Generative Design and Topology Optimization Tools: A Comparative Study, Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 12(4), (2022). Abstract
X

The advent of Additive Manufacturing (AM) is uncovering the limits of the current CAD systems and, at the same time, is highlighting the potentials of the Topology Optimization (TO) and Generative Design (GD) tools that had not been fully exploited until now. Differently from the traditional design approach in which designers occupy a predominant role in each stage of the design process, the introduction of such tools in the product development process pushes toward simulationdriven design approaches which imply a significant change in the role of the designer. To this end, the paper presents a comparison of two different design methods for Additive Manufacturing based on the adoption of TO and GD tools. The comparison aims to offer a reflection on the evolution of the traditional approach when TO and GD tools are used, and to highlight the potential and limitations of these optimization tools when adopted in an integrated manner with the CAD systems. Furthermore, this comparative study can be a useful and practical source for designers to identify the most appropriate approach to adopt based on their needs and project resources. The comparative study is carried out through the design study of a prototype of a rocker arm and a brake pedal for the Formula Student race car. Their results, compared in terms of mechanical performances, show that both TO and especially GD tools can be efficiently adopted early in a design process oriented to AM to redesign components to make them lighter and stronger.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing | CAD systems | Design methods | Generative design | Topology optimization

[4] Severino U., Fuoco F., Manfredi F., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., A Fast Scanning System for Automatic 3D Object Reconstruction, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 229-236, (2022). Abstract
X

During field 3D reconstruction activities and indoor reverse engineering processes, there is often a need for a portable and easy-to-deploy system that can autonomously conduct a full 3D scanning operation, aligning and registering point clouds even in a low-light environment and considering different target sizes. Currently, this process can be obtained through various technological solutions, such as photogrammetric systems and laser scanners, that come with some limitations like portability, affordability, and degree of automation. In this context, the paper presents a feasibility study of a low-cost solution that, by integrating a commercial depth camera into an easy to unfold frame design, autonomously operates to perform a fast 3D scanning and reconstruction of small and medium-sized objects. In particular, the proposed system features a rotating two-dimensional light detection and ranging system and integrates an Inertial Measurement Unit sensor to automatically performs a pre-alignment and registration of the acquired scan data. According to the experimental results, this system may become a cost-effective solution for fast 3D scanning when high levels of accuracy are not required.

Keywords: 3D acquisition | Depth camera | LiDAR | Product development

[5] Scarfone L., Aiello R., Severino U., Barbieri L., Bruno F., Online 3D Reconstruction in Underwater Environment Using a Low-Cost Depth Camera, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 237-244, (2022). Abstract
X

Although computer vision techniques are widely and effectively used for terrestrial applications, the adoption of these techniques in underwater scenarios is often a challenging task. This is due to the water medium that degrades the quality of the acquired images requiring the use of specific methodologies for their correction and improvement. In this context, this paper presents a low-cost system for underwater 3D reconstruction and 3D measurements based on an off-the-shelf depth camera. The system consists of a Stereolabs ZED stereo camera and its waterproof housing designed to be fabricated through additive manufacturing technologies. A dedicated software has been developed to manage all the steps of the acquisition process, starting from the calibration phase and continuing for rectification, depth map computation, 3D scene reconstruction, and 3D measurement. A preliminary laboratory test has been carried out in a controlled environment to quantify system performance in accuracy of measurement.

Keywords: Calibration Techniques | Stereo Camera | Stereolabs ZED | Underwater 3D Reconstruction | Underwater Inspection

[6] Marino E., Barbieri L., Colacino B., Bruno F., User-Centered Design of an Augmented Reality Tool for Smart Operator in Production Environment, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 125-132, (2022). Abstract
X

In the context of Industry 4.0, Operator 4.0 paradigm represents a key factor when dealing with the integration of new digital technologies into smart factories that are suited for workers with different skills, capabilities, and preferences. In this regard, to encourage the introduction of these new digital solutions and achieve high user acceptance, it is fundamental to consider human factors and put the worker at the center of the development process through the adoption of structured design strategies such as user-centered design (UCD) approaches. In this perspective, the paper proposes a novel Augmented Reality (AR) tool for supporting operators at the workplace, in real-time, while performing inspection activities on built products. The proposed tool has been developed according to a user-centered design approach by involving end-users in the various design and testing stages. Preliminary tests have been conducted with representative users on a real case study to assess the usability of the proposed solution. The outcomes are very encouraging and lead us towards further investigations for effective and valid implementation of this AR tool in an industrial scenario.

Keywords: Industrial augmented reality | Industry 4.0 | Operator 4.0 | Usability | User-centered design

[7] Viapiana D., Riggio G., Barbieri L., Bruno F., An Integrated Approach to Ensure Requirements Traceability During the Product Development Process, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 328-335, (2022). Abstract
X

Today’s Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) platforms are a fundamental strategy for the development of complex products because of their capability to integrate processes, business systems, and information getting a complete and clear vision of all the various stages of the product development process and supporting the design and management of an extensive set of requirements. Nevertheless, common PLM platforms lack efficient traceability of design requirements within the product development process. Rather than a stand-alone tool for requirements management, it is desirable to take a design method that places requirements in the spotlight of the design process. For this reason, the paper presents a method, based on the Requirement - Functional - Logical - Physical (RFLP) design approach, that ensures requirements traceability during each stage of the product development process and provides decision support in a multidisciplinary collaborative digital environment. In particular, Dassault Systèmes’ 3DEXPERIENCE platform has been adopted for the case study of the suspension and tyre systems of a vehicle to assess the efficacy of the proposed method and validate the integration within the collaborative business experience platform.

Keywords: 3DEXPERIENCE Platform | Collaborative business experience platform | Design requirements | Product lifecycle management | Requirements traceability | Vehicle suspension system

[8] Cozza M., Isabella S., Di Cuia P., Cozza A., Peluso R., Cosentino V., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., Bruno F., Dive in the past: A serious game to promote the underwater cultural heritage of the mediterranean sea, Heritage, 4(4), 4001-4016, (2021). Abstract
X

In the last decades, the popularity of video games has been increasing thanks to their unique ability to engage their audience and create empathy. Among them, serious games have additional purposes besides entertainment, such as learning and behaviour change. Serious games, in fact, have been successfully applied to different fields, including education, health, tourism, and cultural heritage. In this context, the paper describes a novel serious game developed for increasing awareness and promoting the Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH). In particular, the paper focuses on the Dive in the Past Serious Game which allows users to simulate a virtual dive into the Mediterranean Sea to explore accurate and life-sized 3D reconstructions of underwater archaeological sites. The purpose of the game is twofold: to engage diver and non-diver tourists into a virtual interactive exploration of underwater sites through digital storytelling and challenges; to increase awareness and knowledge on Mediterranean UCH. This work has been carried out in the context of the MeDryDive project, an EU co-funded under the COSME Programme, which aims to create personalized dry dive experiences for the promotion of Mediterranean UCH sites as distinctive tourism destinations.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction | Mediterranean Sea | Serious game | Underwater archaeology | Underwater Cultural Heritage

[9] Scalercio E., Sangiovanni F., Gallo A., Barbieri L., Underwater power tools for in situ preservation, cleaning and consolidation of submerged archaeological remains, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 9(6), (2021). Abstract
X

In situ protection and conservation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage are now considered a primary choice by the scientific community to be preferred, when possible, over the practice of recovery. The conservation of the artefacts within their environmental context is essential in fact for a correct interpretation of archaeological presences and to preserve their true value intact for future generations. However, this is not an easy task because modern technological equipment is necessary to make the work carried out by underwater restorers and archaeologists faster and more efficient. To this end, the paper presents three innovative underwater power tools for the cleaning, conservation, and consolidation activities to be performed in submerged archaeological sites. The first one is an underwater cleaning brush tool for a soft cleaning of the underwater archaeological structures and artefacts; the second one is a multifunctional underwater hammer drill suitable to be used as a corer sampler, chisel, or drill; the last one is an injection tool specifically designed to dispense mortar underwater for consolidation techniques of submerged structures.

Keywords: In situ preservation | Product design | Underwater archeology | Underwater cultural heritage | Underwater power tools

[10] Marino E., Barbieri L., Colacino B., Fleri A.K., Bruno F., An Augmented Reality inspection tool to support workers in Industry 4.0 environments, Computers in Industry, 127, (2021). Abstract
X

Among the key technologies of Industry 4.0, Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the most promising and enabling technologies for supporting factory workers and engineers at the workplace. To this end, the paper proposes a novel AR tool to assist operators during the inspection activities for the detection of production and assembly errors. In fact, thanks to the superimposition of the 3D models, as designed by the technical office, a worker can easily detect the presence of design discrepancies on the final physical assembled product and report them by adding 3D annotations directly on virtual models. This AR tool has been developed by using ARCore™ libraries to ensure, in the first place, its compatibility with commonly used devices for which workers are already trained and, secondly, to take advantage of the hybrid-tracking techniques that combine vision- and sensor-based methods to improve the reliability of the AR visualization. Nevertheless, the proposed AR tool adopts multiple markers to minimize tracking errors and therefore to provide greater freedom of movement to the user, who can use the tool also for the assessment of large-size products. Field experimentations have been carried out on a real case study with end-users in order to assess its usability and perceived mental workload through the SUS (System Usability Scale) and NASA-TLX (Task Load Index) standard questionnaires, respectively. The usability study was performed taking into account also objective metrics, i.e., by analysing user performance in target acquisition tasks while interacting with the AR tool. Statistical analysis proved that the adoption of this AR tool requires low mental demand, and its usability has reached a high level of satisfaction both by the factory workers and engineers involved in the user study.

Keywords: Augmented Reality | Google ARCore | Industry 4.0 | Marker-based tracking | Operator 4.0 | Usability studies

[11] Marino E., Bruno F., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., Liarokapis F., Background-Aware Colorization Technique for Augmented Reality Applications, IEEE Access, 9, 161761-161772, (2021). Abstract
X

A major challenge in the field of Augmented Reality (AR) is the way in which augmented information is presented in a wide range of uncontrollable environmental conditions. In fact, the variability of colours and illumination conditions of the real environment makes it difficult to choose the most suitable appearance properties for augmented contents. In many AR applications, the colours of virtual objects play a crucial role in blending digital information into the real environment, therefore these colours should be selected according to the appearance of the real background. In some use cases, the colours of virtual objects need to be harmonised with the ones of the real environment; in other cases, the colours should be chosen to ensure the visibility (e.g. maximizing the contrast) of the augmented data with respect to the background. To this end, the paper presents a background-aware colourisation technique that allows for selecting virtual objects' colours in accordance with the real environment in real-time. Given an arbitrary real background, virtual objects' colours are automatically chosen according to three different strategies, i.e. harmonic, disharmonic, and balanced. The proposed AR colourisation technique was assessed with a user study that focused on three different case studies. The results were promising and suggest the potential of the proposed technique for many different application areas. In particular, disharmonic and balanced strategies ensured the distinctiveness of virtual objects according to the real background. Instead, the harmonic strategy was less effective in the case of colourful complex AR scenarios.

Keywords: Augmented reality | colour harmonisation | colourisation | image processing | user studies

[12] Škola F., Rizvić S., Cozza M., Barbieri L., Bruno F., Skarlatos D., Liarokapis F., Virtual reality with 360-video storytelling in cultural heritage: Study of presence, engagement, and immersion, Sensors (Switzerland), 20(20), 1-17, (2020). Abstract
X

This paper presents a combined subjective and objective evaluation of an application mixing interactive virtual reality (VR) experience with 360◦ storytelling. The hypothesis that the modern immersive archaeological VR application presenting cultural heritage from a submerged site would sustain high levels of presence, immersion, and general engagement was leveraged in the investigation of the user experience with both the subjective (questionnaires) and the objective (neurophysiological recording of the brain signals using electroencephalography (EEG)) evaluation methods. Participants rated the VR experience positively in the questionnaire scales for presence, immersion, and subjective judgement. High positive rating concerned also the psychological states linked to the experience (engagement, emotions, and the state of flow), and the experience was mostly free from difficulties linked to the accustomization to the VR technology (technology adoption to the head-mounted display and controllers, VR sickness). EEG results are in line with past studies examining brain responses to virtual experiences, while new results in the beta band suggest that EEG is a viable tool for future studies of presence and immersion in VR.

Keywords: 360-video storytelling | Cultural heritage | EEG | Immersion | Presence | Virtual reality

[13] Bruno F., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., A Mixed Reality system for the ergonomic assessment of industrial workstations, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 14(3), 805-812, (2020). Abstract
X

The use of modeling and ergonomic analysis software is a widespread practice in the industrial sector to effectively improve the operator’s well-being and operating comfort within the workplace. In this context, the paper proposes a Mixed Reality system for the ergonomic assessment of industrial workstations. Specifically, the proposed system integrates motion capture tools, a head-mounted display device, and ergonomic analysis software to simulate and analyse the operations to be carried out within a virtual workplace where some physical components, with which the operator interact, are prototyped through 3D printing technology in order to make the simulation as realistic as possible. The proposed Mixed Reality system in fact increases the realism of the simulation and improves the effectiveness of the ergonomics analysis thanks to the haptic feedback that the user perceives when manipulating the physical objects.

Keywords: Ergonomics | Industry 4.0 | Mixed Reality | Rapid prototyping

[14] Randazzo L., Collina M., Ricca M., Barbieri L., Bruno F., Arcudi A., La Russa M.F., Damage indices and photogrammetry for decay assessment of stone-built cultural heritage: The case study of the san domenico church main entrance portal (South Calabria, Italy), Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(12), (2020). Abstract
X

In recent decades, increasing attention is being paid to the multidisciplinary approach that allows the performance of both a preventive conservation and a more invasive restoration action. In this context, the present study aims to acquire information and data from field surveys undertaken in San Domenico Church, Southern Calabria, in order to provide a tool for the recording and the inventory of damage and decay phenomena, and assess their causes and scale. The subsequent calculation of damage indices also provided useful information in order to allow the prioritization of conservation and preservation responses.

Keywords: Built heritage | Calabria | Computer graphics | Damage diagnosis | Decay | Italy | Photogrammetry

[15] Bruno F., Barbieri L., Lagudi A., Mangeruga M., Pupo F., Casavola A., A Cooperative Monitoring System for Diver Global Localization and Operation Support, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 410-421, (2020). Abstract
X

The paper presents the MOLUX project which aims to design and develop a system capable of supporting the underwater operators by means of innovative technologies for the diagnosis, recovery, management, conservation, and valorization of the archaeological and naturalistic assets in the marine environment. This system allows to increase the efficiency and the safety of the operations carried out in the underwater environment thanks to its capabilities: to make the diver aware of his/her position; to acquire geolocated data (images, videos, notes, environmental parameters); to optimize and monitor the planned dive route.

Keywords: Autonomous surface vehicle | Diver operation support | Monitoring | Underwater localization | Underwater tablet

[16] Bruno F., Barbieri L., Marino E., Muzzupappa M., Colacino B., A Handheld Mobile Augmented Reality Tool for On-Site Piping Assembly Inspection, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 129-139, (2020). Abstract
X

In the context of Industry 4.0, Augmented Reality occupies an important role thanks to its unique capability to enhance the perception of the real world with virtual information. Taking advantage of this capability, the paper presents a handheld mobile Augmented Reality tool that supports manufacturing and production workers and engineers to easily check on-site the ongoing operations carried out in the manufacturing environment for the tubing and piping assembly. The tool runs on a modern tablet and performs an augmented reality visualization of the 3D models, as defined in the project plan, on the corresponding physical objects. In this manner the user can easily check the presence of assembly errors or detect design discrepancies. The level of acceptance of the proposed handheld mobile Augmented Reality tool has been assessed by means of a preliminary test carried out with representative users on a real case study. Results from the experiment are presented and discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Google ARCore | Industrial augmented reality | Industry 4.0 | Mobile augmented reality | Usability

[17] Barbieri L., Cucinotta F., Gallo A., Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., Penna N., Gaudio R., Design and Simulation of the Hull of a Small-Sized Autonomous Surface Vehicle for Seabed Mapping, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 422-431, (2020). Abstract
X

Autonomous Surface Vehicles are versatile marine vehicles that allow to fulfill a variety of offshore activities. Their versatility has been appreciated by the marine and aquatic science community, in fact, in the last years, a large number of ASVs have been developed in research projects and introduced in the market. In this paper, the design and simulation of a small-sized ASV for seabed mapping of shallow waters are described. The vehicle is characterized by catamaran shape, low draft, jet-drive propellers that allow its deployment from the shore, and a payload of 20 kg. The design process has been carried out with the aim to realize a vehicle characterized by ease of transportability and deployment, available payload and performance in terms of speed and endurance. Three hull types have been modelled in a computer-aided design environment and then optimized through fluid dynamics analysis for a cruise speed of 1.5 kN. The results of these simulations have been used to choose the best hull shape in terms of resistance, in order to comply with the constraints of autonomy and available payload. Finally, a scaled model of the best hull shape has been then tested in a circulating water channel to validate simulation data.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Autonomous Surface Vehicle | Modeling and simulation | Shape design

[18] Bruno F., Barbieri L., Marino E., Muzzupappa M., D’Oriano L., Colacino B., An augmented reality tool to detect and annotate design variations in an Industry 4.0 approach, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 105(1-4), 875-887, (2019). Abstract
X

Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the nine key technologies of Industry 4.0 and one of the most promising innovation accelerators that in the next years will bring smart factories to a higher level of efficiency. In this context, the paper presents an AR tool that improves and increases the efficiency of data collection and exchange of information among different professional figures involved in the design and production processes of products for the oil and gas sector. In fact, prototyping and labour-intensive activities usually require modifications and improvements to be made on-site that should be sent as feedback to the technical office. To this end, the proposed AR tool supports workers at the workplace to easily detect and annotate design variations made during their working activities and furthermore to formalize and automate the collecting and transferring of this data to the designers in order to prevent loss of information. Field experimentation has been carried out with end-users to evaluate their acceptance by means usability studies, based on objective and subjective metrics, and personal interviews. Experimental results show that the proposed AR tool provides medium-to-high levels of usability and has been positively accepted by all the participants involved in the study.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Design discrepancies | Industry 4.0 | Technical instructions

[19] Bruno F., Barbieri L., Mangeruga M., Cozza M., Lagudi A., Čejka J., Liarokapis F., Skarlatos D., Underwater augmented reality for improving the diving experience in submerged archaeological sites, Ocean Engineering, 190, (2019). Abstract
X

The Mediterranean Sea has a vast maritime heritage which exploitation is made difficult because of the many limitations imposed by the submerged environment. Archaeological diving tours, in fact, suffer from the impossibility to provide underwater an exhaustive explanation of the submerged remains. Furthermore, low visibility conditions, due to water turbidity and biological colonization, sometimes make very confusing for tourists to find their way around in the underwater archaeological site. To this end, the paper investigates the feasibility and potentials of the underwater Augmented Reality (UWAR) technologies developed in the iMARECulture project for improving the experience of the divers that visit the Underwater Archaeological Park of Baiae (Naples). In particular, the paper presents two UWAR technologies that adopt hybrid tracking techniques to perform an augmented visualization of the actual conditions and of a hypothetical 3D reconstruction of the archaeological remains as appeared in the past. The first one integrates a marker-based tracking with inertial sensors, while the second one adopts a markerless approach that integrates acoustic localization and visual-inertial odometry. The experimentations show that the proposed UWAR technologies could contribute to have a better comprehension of the underwater site and its archaeological remains.

Keywords: Markerless and marker-based tracking | Underwater acoustic localization | Underwater augmented reality | Underwater cultural heritage

[20] Bruno F., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., Tusa S., Fresina A., Oliveri F., Lagudi A., Cozza A., Peluso R., Enhancing learning and access to Underwater Cultural Heritage through digital technologies: the case study of the “Cala Minnola” shipwreck site, Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, 13, (2019). Abstract
X

The paper presents the digital technologies developed in the VISAS project and their application to the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola (Levanzo Island, Italy)that preserves the remains of a Roman ship. Following the basic principles defined by UNESCO for the protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage the VISAS project has led to the development of innovative digital technologies for a more engaging and educational exploitation of the submerged archaeological sites. In particular, the paper describes a virtual diving system that allows users to perform, outside of the submerged environment, a virtual exploration of the Cala Minnola shipwreck site. Moreover, an augmented diving system provides, through an underwater tablet, a geolocalized multimedia guide for the divers that visit the underwater archaeological site. Both digital technologies allow users to perform an entertaining and interdisciplinary learning experience by receiving archaeological, historical, and biological information of the specific submerged site.

Keywords: Underwater 3D reconstruction | Underwater archaeology | Underwater Cultural Heritage | Virtual exploitation | Virtual reality

[21] Bruno F., Lagudi A., Barbieri L., Cozza M., Cozza A., Peluso R., Davidde Petriaggi B., Petriaggi R., Rizvic S., Skarlatos D., VIRTUAL TOUR in the SUNKEN "vILLA CON INGRESSO A PROTIRO" WITHIN the UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARK of BAIAE, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 42(2/W10), 45-51, (2019). Abstract
X

The paper presents the application of some Virtual Reality technologies developed in the Horizon 2020 i-MARECulture project to the case study of the sunken "Villa con ingresso a protiro", dated around the II century AD, and located in the Marine Protected Area - Underwater Park of Baiae (Naples).The i-MARECulture project (www.imareculture.eu), in fact, aims to improve the public awareness about the underwater cultural heritage by developing new tool and techniques that take advantage of the virtual reality technologies to allow the general public to explore the archaeological remains outside of the submerged environment.To this end, the paper details the techniques and methods adopted for the development of an immersive virtual tour that allow users to explore, through a storytelling experience, a virtual replica and a 3D hypothetical reconstruction of the complex of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro".

Keywords: 3D hypothetical reconstruction | digital storytelling | Virtual Diving | Virtual Heritage | Virtual Reality

[22] Gallo A., Bruno F., Barbieri L., Lagudi A., Muzzupappa M., Performance evaluation of underwater image pre-processing algorithms for the improvement of multi-view 3D reconstruction, Acta IMEKO, 8(3), 69-77, (2019). Abstract
X

3D models of submerged structures and underwater archaeological finds are widely used in various and different applications, such as monitoring, analysis, dissemination, and inspection. Underwater environments are characterised by poor visibility conditions and the presence of marine flora and fauna. Consequently, the adoption of passive optical techniques for the 3D reconstruction of underwater scenarios is a highly challenging task. This article presents a performance analysis conducted on a multi-view technique that is commonly used in air in order to highlight its limits in the underwater environment and then provide guidelines for the accurate modelling of a submerged site in poor visibility conditions. A performance analysis has been performed by comparing different image enhancement algorithms, and the results have been adopted to reconstruct an area of 40 m2 at a depth of about 5 m at the underwater archaeological site of Baiae (Italy).

Keywords: 3D reconstruction | Image enhancement | Underwater Cultural Heritage | Underwater imaging

[23] Barbieri L., Marino E., An Augmented Reality Tool to Detect Design Discrepancies: A Comparison Test with Traditional Methods, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 11614 LNCS, 99-110, (2019). Abstract
X

Augmented Reality (AR) is an innovation accelerator for Industry 4.0 that supports the digitalization and improves the efficiency of the industrial sector by providing powerful tools able to enhance the workers’ visual perception by combining the real world view with computer-generated data. In this context, the paper presents a new AR tool and an exploratory test in order to examine how well it supports the user’s tasks for the detection of design discrepancies. In particular, the test aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed tool and how it compares to other instruments traditionally adopted for this end, such as technical drawings and CAD systems. The experimental findings show that the proposed AR tool presents similar results with the other instruments in term of effectiveness and very encouraging results about its efficiency.

Keywords: Assistive tool | Augmented reality | Design variations | Industry 4.0

[24] Barbieri L., Marino E., Bruno F., A knowledge-based augmented reality tool for managing design variations, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 430-439, (2019). Abstract
X

In view of the wide scope of challenges concerning Industry 4.0, a variety of enabling digital industrial technologies can support the digitization of the manufacturing sector. Among them, Augmented Reality represents one of the most promising innovation accelerators that will support human workers and bring Smart Factories to a higher level of efficiency. To this end, the paper presents an Augmented Reality tool that provides support at the workplace to easily detect and collect design changes by augmenting virtual 3D models, as defined in the project plan, on the actual design. The proposed tool runs on a consumer smartphone and adopts hybrid tracking techniques to allow workers to formalize and make more efficient the knowledge management of the design changes within the overall design process.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Industry 4.0 | Knowledge-based engineering

[25] Barbieri L., Calzone F., Muzzupappa M., Form and function: Functional optimization and additive manufacturing, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 649-658, (2019). Abstract
X

In these last years, with the advent of Additive Manufacturing, a deep review of the design methodologies has occurred. This is mainly due to two reasons: The technological progress and the new manufacturing capabilities that offer designers much greater freedom for the creation of complex geometries; the modern engineering optimization tools that are spreading widely in the industrial design field, and offer new opportunities for searching a compromise between form and function. On the basis of these two reasons, the paper presents some reflections and exemplifications on the changes that new AM technologies, together with the optimization tools, are bringing in the design process.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Design theory and methodology | Topology optimization

[26] Bruno F., Lagudi A., Barbieri L., Rizzo D., Muzzupappa M., De Napoli L., Augmented reality visualization of scene depth for aiding ROV pilots in underwater manipulation, Ocean Engineering, 168, 140-154, (2018). Abstract
X

Underwater manipulation is a key technology for marine industries and exploration that can be efficiently adopted in other application fields, such as underwater archaeology, biological manipulation, scientific expedition, as well as offshore construction in the Oil and Gas industry. It is performed remotely by expert pilots thanks to the visual feedbacks provided by one or more cameras but without any information about the distance between the end-effector and the target. To this end, the paper presents a novel system based on a sensorized robotic arm, stereoscopic 3D perception and augmented reality visualization to support ROV's pilots in underwater manipulation tasks. The system, thanks to the adoption of an optical-stereo camera, provides a visual feedback of the underwater scene on which a depth map of the underwater workspace is augmented on. In particular, combining the kinematics of the robotic arm and the standard photogrammetric model of the stereo camera, it is possible to generate a depth map that shows to the pilots the distances of the surface of the scene objects from the end-effector's pose. Experimental tests carried out in the context of the CoMAS (In-situ conservation planning of Underwater Archaeological Artefacts) project have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed system.

Keywords: Augmented reality | Forward kinematics | Optical-stereo camera | Underwater manipulation

[27] Barbieri L., Bruno F., Gallo A., Muzzupappa M., Russo M.L., Design, prototyping and testing of a modular small-sized underwater robotic arm controlled through a Master-Slave approach, Ocean Engineering, 158, 253-262, (2018). Abstract
X

Underwater exploration, in the last years, has evolved toward a wide adoption of increasingly smaller ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicle). As a consequence, the need to equip these underwater vehicles with robotic arms is currently rising as well. According to this demand, the paper presents three innovative solutions achieved in the UVMS (Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System) field. Firstly, the paper proposes a modular architecture for a lightweight underwater robotic arm, which can be mounted on small-sized ROVs. The modular concept of the arm enables several different configurations, each one characterized by the related DOFs, deployed according to the type of application to be performed. Secondly, the arm has been equipped with an adaptive gripper that, taking advantage of the additive manufacturing techniques, is able to easily grip differently shaped objects. Lastly, the underwater arm is controlled through a Master–Slave approach, designed for commercial off-the-shelf electronics, that on the one hand, entailed a significant reduction of the bill of materials, but, on the other hand, required a greater effort in the software development. Experimental tests have been carried out to measure and evaluate the gripping and manipulation capability of the robotic arm and the performance of the proposed control system.

Keywords: Flexible gripper | Master-slave control | Modular robotic arm | Underwater manipulation | Underwater vehicle-manipulator systems (UVMS)

[28] Bruno F., Barbieri L., Lagudi A., Cozza M., Cozza A., Peluso R., Muzzupappa M., Virtual dives into the underwater archaeological treasures of South Italy, Virtual Reality, 22(2), 91-102, (2018). Abstract
X

The paper presents a virtual diving system based on a virtual reality (VR) application for the exploitation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. The virtual diving experience has been designed to entertain users, but its added pedagogical value is explicitly emphasized too. In fact, the ludic activities, consisting in the simulation of a real diving session from the point of view of a scuba diver, are following a storyline described by a virtual diving companion who guides users during the exploration of the underwater archaeological site. The virtual diving system provides general and historical-cultural contents, but also information about the flora and fauna of the specific submerged site to the users. The results collected through user studies demonstrate that the proposed VR system is able to provide a playful learning experience, with a high emotional impact, and it has been well appreciated by a large variety of audiences, even by younger and inexperienced users.

Keywords: Serious games | Underwater archaeological sites | Underwater Cultural Heritage | Virtual diving system | Virtual reality

[29] Barbieri L., Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., User-centered design of a virtual reality exhibit for archaeological museums, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(2), 561-571, (2018). Abstract
X

Nowadays, the adoption of virtual reality (VR) exhibits is increasingly common both in large and small museums because of their capability to enhance the communication of the cultural contents and to provide an engaging and fun experience to its visitors. The paper describes a user-centered design (UCD) approach for the development of a VR exhibit for the interactive exploitation of archaeological artefacts. In particular, this approach has been carried out for the development of a virtual exhibit hosted at the “Museum of the Bruttians and the Sea” of Cetraro (Italy). The main goal was to enrich the museum with a playful and educational VR exhibit able to make the visitors enjoy an immersive and attractive experience, allowing them to observe 3D archaeological artefacts in their original context of finding. The paper deals with several technical issues commonly related to the design of virtual museum exhibits that rely on off-the-shelf technologies. The proposed solutions, based on an UCD approach, can be efficiently adopted as guidelines for the development of similar VR exhibits, especially when very low budget and little free space are unavoidable design requirements.

Keywords: Human–computer interaction | User interface design | User-centered design | Virtual museum systems | Virtual reality

[30] Rizzo D., Bruno F., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., Kinematic performances evaluation of a hydraulic underwater manipulator, OCEANS 2017 - Aberdeen, 2017-October, 1-6, (2017). Abstract
X

Underwater manipulation is an essential operation for performing a diverse range of applications in the submerged environment that, in spite of the hostile and unstructured environment, it requires high precision and reliability of the robotic arm. The paper presents the evaluation and characterization of the kinematic performances of an underwater robotic arm mounted on a light work class ROV. The arm analyzed in the study is a re-engineered version of a commercial hydraulic manipulator whose geometry and end-effector have been modified. Moreover, the arm has been equipped with a set of encoders in order to provide the positioning feedback. The test conducted in laboratory focused on the measurement of accuracy and repeatability in order to evaluate the limits of the arm architecture. This work has been carried out in the context of the CoMAS (In situ conservation planning of Underwater Archaeological Artifacts - http://www.comasproject.eu) project in which the possibility to develop a ROV able to perform maintenance operations in underwater archeological sites has been investigated.

Keywords: accuracy | forward kinematics | repeatability | robotic arm | underwater manipulator

[31] Barbieri L., Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., Virtual museum system evaluation through user studies, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 26, 101-108, (2017). Abstract
X

Virtual museum (VM) systems are a very effective solution for the communication of cultural contents, thanks to their playful and educational approach. In fact, these appealing technological systems have demonstrated their usefulness and value in science centres and traditional museums all over the world, thanks to the fact that visitors can view digitized artworks and explore reconstructed historical places by means of VM-hosted installations. This paper presents a methodology, based on user studies, for the comparative evaluation of different design alternatives related to the user interaction with VM systems. The methodology has been validated by means of a testbed related to a VM system hosted at the “Museum of the Bruttians and the Sea” of Cetraro (Italy). The results of the user study demonstrate that this methodology can be effectively adopted in the development process of VM systems to optimize its outcomes in terms of usability and potential for entertainment and education.

Keywords: User study | User-centered design | Virtual museum systems | Virtual reality

[32] Bruno F., Lagudi A., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., Mangeruga M., Pupo F., Cozza M., Cozza A., Ritacco G., Peluso R., Tusa S., Virtual diving in the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives, 42(2W3), 121-126, (2017). Abstract
X

The paper presents the application of the technologies and methods defined in the VISAS project for the case study of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola located in the island of Levanzo, in the archipelago of the Aegadian Islands (Sicily, Italy). The VISAS project (http://visas-project.eu) aims to improve the responsible and sustainable exploitation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage by means the development of new methods and technologies including an innovative virtual tour of the submerged archaeological sites. In particular, the paper describes the 3D reconstruction of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola and focus on the development of the virtual scene for its visualization and exploitation. The virtual dive of the underwater archaeological site allows users to live a recreational and educational experience by receiving historical, archaeological and biological information about the submerged exhibits, the flora and fauna of the place.

Keywords: Underwater 3D reconstruction | Underwater cultural heritage | Virtual exploitation | Virtual reality

[33] Barbieri L., Bruno F., Mollo F., Muzzupappa M., User-centered design of a virtual museum system: A case study, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 157-166, (2017). Abstract
X

The paper describes a user-centered design (UCD) approach that has been adopted in order to develop and build a virtual museum (VM) system for the “Museum of the Bruttians and the Sea” of Cetraro (Italy). The main goal of the system was to enrich the museum with a virtual exhibition able to make the visitors enjoy an immersive and attractive experience, allowing them to observe 3D archaeological finds, in their original context. The paper deals with several technical and technological issues commonly related to the design of virtual museum exhibits. The proposed solutions, based on an UCD approach, can be efficiently adopted as guidelines for the development of similar VM systems, especially when very low budget and little free space are unavoidable design requirements.

Keywords: Human-computer interaction | User interfaces design | User-centered design | Virtual museum systems

[34] Barbieri L., Bruno F., De Napoli L., Gallo A., Muzzupappa M., Design of an electric tool for underwater archaeological restoration based on a user centred approach, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 353-362, (2017). Abstract
X

This paper describes a part of the contribution of the CoMAS project (“In situ conservation planning of Underwater Archaeological Artifacts”), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), and run by a partnership of private companies and public research centers. The CoMAS project aims at the development of new materials, techniques and tools for the documentation, conservation and restoration of underwater archaeological sites in their natural environment. This paper details the results achieved during the project in the development of an innovative electric tool, which can efficiently support the restorers’ work in their activities aimed to preserve the underwater cultural heritage in its original location on the seafloor. In particular, the paper describes the different steps to develop an underwater electric cleaning brush, which is able to perform a first rough cleaning of the submerged archaeological structures by removing the loose deposits and the various marine organisms that reside on their surface. The peculiarity of this work consists in a user centred design approach that tries to overcome the lack of detailed users’ requirements and the lack of norms and guidelines for the ergonomic assessment of such kind of underwater tools. The proposed approach makes a wide use of additive manufacturing techniques for the realization and modification of prototypes to be employed for insitu experimentation conducted with the final users. The user tests have been addressed to collect data for supporting the iterative development of the prototype.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing | Product Design | Underwater Applications | User centred design

[35] Bruno F., Lagudi A., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., Cozza M., Cozza A., Peluso R., A VR system for the exploitation of underwater archaeological sites, 2016 International Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding, IWCIM 2016, (2016). Abstract
X

The paper presents an outcome of the VISAS project (www.visas-project.eu) that concerns a virtual reality application for the exploitation of the underwater cultural heritage. The VR system takes advantage of novel 3D reconstruction techniques to provide geolocated and multi-resolution textured 3D models of underwater archaeological sites. Within the virtual underwater sites users live a recreational and educational experience by receiving historical, archaeological and biological information and contents about the submerged exhibits and structure of the site. Furthermore, the VR system allows divers to make a detailed planning of the operations and itinerary that will be later performed in the underwater environment.

Keywords: underwater 3D reconstruction | Underwater cultural heritage | VR systems

[36] Bruno F., Lagudi A., Muzzupappa M., Lupia M., Cario G., Barbieri L., Passaro S., Saggiomo R., Project VISAS: Virtual and augmented exploitation of submerged archaeological sites—Overview and first results, Marine Technology Society Journal, 50(4), 119-129, (2016).
[37] Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., Barbieri L., Gallo A., Ritacco G., Lagudi A., La Russa M.F., Ruffolo S.A., Crisci G.M., Ricca M., Comite V., Pietraggi B.D., Di Stefano G., Guida R., The CoMAS project: New materials and tools for improving the in situ documentation, restoration, and conservation of underwater archaeological remains, Marine Technology Society Journal, 50(4), 108-118, (2016). Abstract
X

On November 2, 2001, the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage provided a detailed state cooperation system and set out the basic principles for the protection of underwater cultural heritage. To date, the Convention has been ratified by 51 countries. One of the four main principles states that the in situ preservation of underwater cultural heritage should be considered as the first option before allowing or engaging in any further activities. In accordance with these principles and recommendations, in the last years many projects intended for developing and testing new techniques and tools to support in situ conservation of underwater archaeological remains have been funded and are now underway. This paper describes the contribution of the CoMAS project (In situ conservation planning of Underwater Archaeological Artifacts—http://www.comasproject.eu), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) and run by a partnership of private companies and public research centers. The CoMAS project aims at the development of new materials, techniques, and tools for the documentation, conservation, and restoration of underwater archaeological sites in their natural environment. The paper describes in detail the results achieved during the project in the development of innovative materials, mechatronic tools, and armed remotely operated vehicle systems that can efficiently support the restorers’ work in all their activities for preserving underwater cultural heritage in its original location on the seafloor.

Keywords: 3D imaging | Mechatronics | ROV | Underwater archaeological restoration | Underwater archaeology

[38] Bruno F., Lagudi A., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., Ritacco G., Cozza A., Cozza M., Peluso R., Lupia M., Cario G., Virtual and augmented reality tools to improve the exploitation of underwater archaeological sites by diver and non-diver tourists, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10058 LNCS, 269-280, (2016). Abstract
X

The underwater cultural heritage is an immeasurable archaeological and historical resource with huge, but yet largely unexploited, potentials for the maritime and coastal tourism. In this regard, in the last years, national and international government authorities are supporting and strengthening research activities and development strategies, plans and policies to realize a more sustainable, responsible and accessible exploitation of the underwater cultural heritage. To this end, the paper presents the architecture of a new system that, taking advantage of the modern virtual and augmented reality technologies, allows diver and non-diver tourists to make a more engaging and educational experience of the underwater archaeological sites. This system has been developed and tested in the VISAS project (www.visasproject. eu) that aims to the enhancement of the cultural and tourist offer related to the underwater archaeology through innovation of modes of experience, both on site and remote, of the underwater environments of archaeological interest.

Keywords: AR systems | Underwater 3D reconstruction | Underwater cultural heritage | VR systems

[39] Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., Lagudi A., Gallo A., Spadafora F., Ritacco G., Angilica A., Barbieri L., Di Lecce N., Saviozzi G., Laschi C., Guida R., Di Stefano G., A ROV for supporting the planned maintenance in underwater archaeological sites, MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2015 - Genova: Discovering Sustainable Ocean Energy for a New World, (2015). Abstract
X

Remotely Operated underwater Vehicles (ROVs) play an important role in a number of operations conducted in shallow and deep water (e.g.: exploration, survey, intervention, etc.), in several application fields like marine science, offshore construction, and underwater archeology. In this work we describe the preliminary steps in the development of the set-up of a special ROV addressed to perform the monitoring and the planned maintenance activities required to prevent the biological colonization in an underwater archeological site. In order to perform these operations, the ROV has been equipped with a custom arm and an opto-acoustic camera. To simultaneously satisfy position and force trajectory constraints, the vehicle-manipulator system is also controlled through a hybrid positionforce control scheme.

Keywords: opto-acoustic 3D camera | ROV control | sensorized arm

[40] Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., Gallo A., Barbieri L., Galati D., Spadafora F., Davidde Petriaggi B., Petriaggi R., Electromechanical devices for supporting the restoration of underwater archaeological artefacts, MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2015 - Genova: Discovering Sustainable Ocean Energy for a New World, (2015). Abstract
X

In accordance to the recommendations of the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Culturage Heritage in the last years many projects have been founded and are now underway developing and testing new techniques and tools to support in-situ conservation of underwater archaeological remains. This paper describes the contribution of the CoMAS project ('In situ conservation planning of Underwater Archaeological Artefacts' - www.comasproject.eu) in the development of innovative electromechanical devices that can efficiently support the cleaning process of submerged archaeological structures.

Keywords: electromechanical devices | restoration | underwater archaeological artefacts

[41] Barbieri L., Bruno F., Cosco F., Muzzupappa M., Effects of device obtrusion and tool-hand misalignment on user performance and stiffness perception in visuo-haptic mixed reality, International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 72(12), 846-859, (2014). Abstract
X

The Visuo-Haptic Mixed Reality (VHMR) is a branch of the Mixed Reality (MR) that is acquiring more and more interest in the recent years. Its success is due to the ability of merging visual and tactile perceptions of both virtual and real objects with a collocated approach. Like any emerging technology, the development of the VHMR systems is accompanied by challenges that, in this case, deals with the efforts to enhance the multi-modal human perception with the user-computer interface and interaction devices at the moment available. This paper deals with two of the typical problems related to VHMR systems, that are device obtrusion and tool-hand misalignment, and suggests solutions whose effectiveness has been tested by means of user studies. First, the paper analyzes the obtrusion problem and the benefits that users may gain performing task in a mixed environment with unobstructed haptic feedback, performed by means of a novel technique. Secondly, it investigates the effects of tool-hand misalignment on user perception and verifies the efficacy of a proposed misalignment correction technique by means of a comparative user test. Experimental results show that users would benefit from using the proposed unobstructed visuo-haptic approach and the misalignment compensation technique. These enhancements demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed solutions and at the same time get stronger the awareness that obtrusion and misalignment problems are fundamental issues to take into account for producing a realistic perception of a visuo-haptic mixed environment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: Haptic interaction | Occlusion handling | User evaluation | Visuo-Haptic Mixed Reality

[42] Barbieri L., Angilica A., Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., Mixed prototyping with configurable physical archetype for usability evaluation of product interfaces, Computers in Industry, 64(3), 310-323, (2013). Abstract
X

Mixed prototyping (MP) is an emerging approach for usability testing, thanks to its multimodal environment, which is able to involve sight, hearing and touch thus improving the ability to analyze the inter-relationships between the physical form and the behavior of the industrial products. This paper presents a method to perform usability tests in a mixed reality (MR) environment for analyzing human performance in target acquisition tasks while interacting with household appliances. The proposed method is based on the use of different kinds of digital and physical prototypes and, moreover, it introduces an experimental physical archetype for mixed prototyping that contributes to increase the efficiency of the usability evaluation process. Through this archetype the design of a user interface can be easily changed by the adoption of plug-and-play moving components (knobs and buttons) that allow to model in a few seconds any kind of control panel for washing machines, thus reducing the prototyping costs and enlarging the variety of MR interfaces that can be evaluated. The paper proposes also a validation of the use of the physical archetype through a case study in which three different control panel alternatives have been evaluated in a competitive usability study. The competitive testing allows to gather user behaviors with a broad range of design options before the development of a new control panel refined through iterative design. Experimental results show that the proposed method based on the physical archetype can be an effective support to improve the usability of the product interface. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Design review | Interaction design | Mixed prototyping | Usability test

[43] Barbieri L., Angilica A., Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., An interactive tool for the participatory design of product interface, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2(PARTS A AND B), 1437-1447, (2012). Abstract
X

The importance of participatory design (PD) is progressively increasing thanks to its capacity to explore a wide variety of concepts, thus increasing the opportunity to create a successful product. In fact the design process should not be a solo activity, as designers often need inputs and other points of view, especially from end-users. According to the ultimate idea of PD, end-users are actively involved in the various activities of the product development to ensure that their needs and desires are satisfied. This paper presents a novel approach to the participatory design of product interfaces in a user-centered design (UCD) process. The approach is based on an interactive tool that allows end-users to design custom user interfaces of household appliances taking advantage of their own needs and experiences. The tool incorporates the analytical and more abstract knowledge of the designers codified in the form of aesthetical, technological and manufacturing constraints (i.e., limitations in the number and geometry of interface components, a limited number of colors, a discretization of the area where interface widgets are placed). This solution allows the end-users to directly design their favorite interface without the interference of any other subject. Through an accurate analysis of the choices done by the users, the designers are able to access to the deepest level of the usersâTM expression in order to catch their latent needs and tacit knowledge. The tool has been designed in order to make possible to immediately perform usability tests on the designed interface by using a Mixed Reality prototype. The paper describes the development of the tool and proposes a methodology that has been specifically addressed to include this tool in a design process based on UCD principles. Both the tool and the methodology are presented through the description of a case-study related to the redesign of a washing machine dashboard. Experimental results show that the proposed tool can be an effective support to design product interfaces during PD sessions. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

Keywords: Participatory design | Usability | User-centered design

[44] Bruno F., Angilica A., Cosco F., Barbieri L., Muzzupappa M., Comparing different visuo-haptic environments for virtual prototyping applications, ASME 2011 World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality, WINVR 2011, 183-191, (2011). Abstract
X

The use of haptic devices in Virtual Reality applications makes the interaction with the digital objects easier, by involving the sense of touch in the simulation. The most widespread devices are stylus-based, so the user interacts with the virtual world via either a tool or a stylus. These kinds of devices have been effectively used in several virtual prototyping applications, in order to allow the users to easily interact with the digital model of a product. Among the several open issues related to these applications, there is the choice of the set-up and of the techniques adopted to combine the visual and the haptic stimuli. This paper presents the comparison of three different solutions specifically studied for virtual prototyping applications and in particular for usability assessment. The first is a simple desktop configuration where the user looks at a screen, and visual and haptic stimuli are presented in a de-located manner. The second is a HMD based set-up where the user has a more natural first-person immersive interaction. The third requires a video-see-trough HMD in order to augment the virtual scene with the visualization of the real user's hand. The test realized with the users on these three different setups have been finalized to study the effect of two different factors that are crucial for the effectiveness and the user-friendliness of the interaction. One is the perception of the visual and haptic stimuli in a collocated manner; the other is the visualization of his/her own hand during the interaction with the virtual product. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

[45] Muzzupappa M., Barbieri L., Bruno F., Integration of Topology Optimisation tools and knowledge management into the virtual product development process of automotive components, International Journal of Product Development, 14(1-4), 14-33, (2011). Abstract
X

This paper presents a methodology in which CAD, a multi-body simulator and a Topological Optimisation (TO) tool are synergically employed to support the design of a suspension component. In particular, the methodology defines some guidelines and introduces two knowledge-based interfaces able to facilitate the integration of TO of the component within a standard design process. To illustrate this capability, the process is applied to the conceptual design of the Upright for a Formula SAE prototype. The results show that the integrated design approach can efficiently support the selection of the optimum conceptual design of a mechanical component with complex dynamic behaviour, in particular when very little previous experience on the system is available. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Keywords: Integrated approach | Knowledge-based engineering | Multi-body | TO | Topological optimisation | Virtual product development

[46] Muzzupappa M., Barbieri L., Bruno F., Cugini U., Methodology and tools to support knowledge management in topology optimization, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 10(4), (2010). Abstract
X

Topological optimization (TO) tools are today widely employed in several engineering fields (e.g., construction, aeronautics, aerospace, and automotive). The diffusion of these tools is due to their capacity to improve mechanical properties of products through a global optimization of the product in terms of weight, stiffness, strength, and cost. On the other hand, the adoption of TO tools still requires a sizeable organizational effort because, at present, these tools are mostly stand-alone and are not well integrated into the product development process (PDP). This paper presents an innovative methodology that supports designers and analysts in formalizing and transmitting design choices taken during project activities and in making the integration of TO tools in the PDP more efficient. The methodology clearly defines the roles, the activities, the data to exchange, and the software tools to be used in the process. Some custom computer-aided design automation tools have been implemented to improve the efficiency of the methodology. Moreover, this paper defines an original procedure to support the interpretation of the TO results. © 2010 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Keywords: CAD automation | knowledge management | topology optimization

[47] Muzzupappa M., Barbieri L., Bruno F., Luchi M.L., Malito G., Knowledge management in topology optimization of automotive components, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering, TMCE 2010, 2, 1109-1120, (2010). Abstract
X

This paper presents a methodology in which CAD, a multi-body simulator and a topological optimization tool are synergically employed in order to support the design of a suspension component. In particular, the methodology defines some guidelines and introduces two Knowledge Based interfaces able to facilitate the integration of topological optimization of the component within a standard design process. In order to illustrate this capability, the process is applied to the conceptual design of the Upright for a Formula SAE prototype. The results show that the integrated design approach can efficiently support the selection of the optimum conceptual design of a mechanical component with complex dynamic behaviour, in particular when very little previous experience on the system is available. © Organizing Committee of TMCE 2010 Symposium.

Keywords: Integrated approach | Knowledge based engineering | Multi-body | Topological optimization

[48] Barbieri L., Bruno F., Luchi M.L., Malito G., Muzzupappa M., Rotini F., Design of automotive components using advanced CAE systems, 21st European Modeling and Simulation Symposium, EMSS 2009, (2009). Abstract
X

Simulation and other computer aided tools are often used in automotive design, since the design process is strictly oriented to the optimization of the performances through an iterative synthesis and analysis cycle aimed to understand the effects of changes in the geometry and layout of the various components. The search for the optimal performances is at the moment carried out empirically by the "trial and error" approach because parameters and constraints are too many for a global optimization of the vehicle dynamics to be performed. Nevertheless it is possible to introduce in the current design process some optimization algorithms or tools that can guide the designer in the decision process. This paper presents a methodology, applied to the conceptual design of the upright for a Formula SAE prototype, in which a multi-body simulator, CAD and a topological optimization tool are sinergically employed in order to support the suspension design.

Keywords: Integrated approach | Multi-body | Topological optimization

[49] Barbieri L., Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., Cugini U., Design automation tools as a support for knowledge managment in topology optimization, 2008 Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, DETC 2008, 1(PART B), 1227-1234, (2009). Abstract
X

The problem of integrating topological optimization tools in product development process (PDP) is becoming more and more urgent since nowadays they are widely employed in several engineering fields (civil, aeronautics, aerospace, automotive). The interest for these tools is due to their capacity to better mechanical properties through a global optimization of the product in terms of weight, stiffness, resistance and cost. In particular, there is a lack of specific tools for automatic feature recognition on voxel models generated by the topological optimization tools. Our paper presents an innovative methodology that allows the integration of topological optimizers in the product development process by means of a wise and rational knowledge management and an efficient data exchange between different systems. The target has been reached through the implementation of CAD automation modules which decrease the working time and give the possibility to effectively schematize the designer's knowledge. Copyright © 2008 by ASME.

[50] Barbieri L., Bruno F., Muzzupappa M., Cugini U., Design automation tools as a support for knowledge managment in topology optimization, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1(PARTS A AND B), 1227-1234, (2008). Abstract
X

The problem of integrating topological optimization tools in product development process (PDP) is becoming more and more urgent since nowadays they are widely employed in several engineering fields (civil, aeronautics, aerospace, automotive). The interest for these tools is due to their capacity to better mechanical properties through a global optimization of the product in terms of weight, stiffness, resistance and cost. In particular, there is a lack of specific tools for automatic feature recognition on voxel models generated by the topological optimization tools. Our paper presents an innovative methodology that allows the integration of topological optimizers in the product development process by means of a wise and rational knowledge management and an efficient data exchange between different systems. The target has been reached through the implementation of CAD automation modules which decrease the working time and give the possibility to effectively schematize the designer's knowledge. Copyright © 2008 by ASME.

[51] Barbieri L., Bruno F., Caruso F., Muzzupappa M., Innovative integration techniques between Virtual Reality systems and CAx tools, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 38(11-12), 1085-1097, (2008). Abstract
X

The efficacy of virtual reality (VR) as a design support technique is widely recognised by industries. However, the efficiency of the routine employment of VR into the product development process (PDP) still finds an obstacle in the poor integration of the tools employed. The use of VR still needs long and quite hard procedures to work effectively; the models have to be converted into a format that is compatible with VR systems and each task requires an effort to prepare the virtual environment or to post-process the results that depend on the complexity of the task. This work analyses some VR applications into the PDP and describes some ideas to effectively support the operator that prepares the virtual environment. These ideas have been tested by developing four software interfaces, able to create an easy data exchange link between VR and other design tools like CAD, CAE and computer aided control engineering (CACE). © 2007 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Keywords: CACE | CAD | CAD-VR integration | CAE | Virtual prototyping | Virtual reality