[Elenco soci]


Carfagni Monica

Professore Ordinario


Università degli Studi di Firenze
monica.carfagni@unifi.it

Sito istituzionale
SCOPUS ID: 6603809389
Orcid: 0000-0002-3393-7014



Pubblicazioni scientifiche

[1] Santarelli C., Carfagni M., Alparone L., Arienzo A., Argenti F., Multimodal fusion of tomographic sequences of medical images: MRE spatially enhanced by MRI, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 223, (2022). Abstract
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Background and Objective:In biomedical fields, image analysis is often necessary for an accurate diagnosis. In order to obtain all the information needed to form an in-depth clinical picture, it may be useful to combine the contents of images taken under different diagnostic modes. Multimodal medical image fusion techniques enable complementary information acquired by different imaging devices to be automatically combined into a unique image. Methods:In this paper, multimodal medical images fusion method based on multiresolution analysis (MRA) is proposed, with the aim to combine the high geometric content of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the elasticity information of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), simultaneously acquired on the same organs of a patient. First, the slices of MRE are volumetrically interpolated to exactly overlap, each with a slice of MRI. Then, the spatial details of MRI are extracted by means of MRA and injected into the corresponding slices of MRE. Due to the intrinsic dissimilarity between corresponding slices of MRE and MRI, the spatial details of MRI are modulated by local or global matching functions. Results:The performance of the proposed method is quantitatively assessed considering radiometric and geometric consistency of the fused images with respect to their originals, in a comparison with two popular methods from the literature. For a qualitative evaluation, a visual inspection is carried out. Conclusions:The results show that the proposed method enables an effective MRI-MRE fusion that allows the elasticity information and geometric details of the examined organs to be evaluated in a single image.

Keywords: Biomedical images | Image processing | Magnetic resonance elastography | Multimodal fusion | Multiresolution analysis | Tomographic sequences

[2] Lazzeri S., Talanti E., Basciano S., Barbato R., Fontanelli F., Uccheddu F., Servi M., Volpe Y., Vagnoli L., Amore E., Marzola A., McGreevy K.S., Carfagni M., 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Casts for the Distal Radius in Children: Outcome and Pre-Market Survey, Materials, 15(8), (2022). Abstract
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Background: Orthopaedic and Trauma surgery is expected to undergo profound trans-formation as a result of the adoption of 3D technology. Among the various applications, patient specific manufacturing of splints and casts would appear to be, particularly in children, an interesting implementation. This study aims to assess the safety of patient specific 3D casts obtained with a newly developed 3D-scanning devise in a small case series. We therefore conducted a clinical outcome and pre-marketing study in 10 consecutive patients with distal radius fractures treated at an Academic Level I Pediatric Trauma Center. After the application of the 3D cast, patients underwent three consecutive evaluations in the following 21 days. The main outcome measurements were: pain, skin lesions and general comfort, and acceptance of the cast. The three domains were measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the NPUAP/EPUAP classification and the Positive affect-Negative affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C), the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) clinical psychology tests and a Likert-type five item questionnaire, respectively. A final mechanical analysis of the cast was carried out to confirm product integrity. Results: The results obtained were consistently positive in the investigated domains of general comfort, efficacy of contention and mechanical integrity of the 3D-printed cast as well as in the practicability of the supply chain. Conclusions: This study provides Level IV evidence that patient specific 3D printed casts obtained with a specifically designed software were safe in the management of “buckle” fractures of the distal radius in children. These results encourage to extend the technology to the treatment of more demanding fractures.

Keywords: 3D printing | customized implants | orthopedic device | orthosis modeling | pediatrics | personalized medicine | reverse engineering

[3] Fiorineschi L., Frillici F.S., Rotini F., Carfagni M., Recent Findings About the Novelty Metric of Shah, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 705-711, (2022). Abstract
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The work presented in this paper aims at presenting the last findings about one of the most acknowledged and used novelty metrics in the field of engineering design. The a-posteriori novelty metric of Shah, Vargas-Hernandez and Smith is often considered in design research, but after two decades, there are still some critical issues to be solved. This paper highlights the issues identified in the last research works, by referring to the few published works that directly face the argument. It emerged that notwithstanding the presence of metric variants proposed by scholars, none of them is capable to overcome the problems. In particular, the assessment of set of ideas implementing heterogeneous numbers of attributes can lead to misleading results. In absence of a comprehensive solution, this paper provides a list of practical hints in order to allow the application of the metric (or the related variants) and ensuring the repeatability of the experiments.

Keywords: Creativity | Design | Novelty assessment | Originality | Unusualness

[4] Mussi E., Simontacchi G., Talamonti C., Servi M., Furferi R., Volpe Y., Protesti L., Carfagni M., Pallotta S., A Rapid Prototyping Strategy for Manufacturing of Personalized Bolus, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 209-219, (2022). Abstract
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In radiotherapy, the treatment of skin tumors requires the application of tissue-equivalent devices in order to avoid the skin-sparing effect, and thus maximize and equalize the dose on the target. In the common clinical practice these devices, called bolus, are standard pads that do not perfectly adapt to the geometry of the patient generating empty spaces at the skin-bolus interface. This phenomenon hinders an efficient planning of the dose to be administered due to the non-adherence and the unpredictability of the position of the air gaps. In this work a workflow for the production of patient-specific bolus in Ecoflex® 00–10 silicone rubber (soft, biocompatible and sterilizable material) is proposed. The process exploits modern Reverse Engineering and Additive Manufacturing technologies to guarantee an accurate compliance with the involved geometries. Significant improvement, with respect to flat boluses, in the adhesion of the medical device to the anatomical region were found through in-vitro testing using replicas of the involved anatomy. Repeatability tests of the positioning performed on the customized bolus led to satisfying results demonstrating the possibility of accurate and predictable treatment planning.

Keywords: CAD modeling | Custom bolus | Molding | Radiotherapy

[5] Fiorineschi L., Rotini F., Carfagni M., The Problem-Solution Network for Systematic Conceptual Design: Lesson Learned, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 851-860, (2022). Abstract
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The need for innovative products led scholars to develop design methods to improve or at least to support creativity of designers. Among the different alternatives, the Problem Solution Network (PSN) was developed to solve some of the issues that characterize the German systematic approach for conceptual design. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss pros and cons of the use of the PSN for didactic purposes in an engineering design course. Both, feedback from students and teachers’ impressions, have been gathered in about ten years. The key information is then reported and discussed in this paper, highlighting that as for other academic design methods, the key problem still resides in motivating students to better understand the learned approach.

Keywords: Conceptual design | Creativity | Engineering education

[6] Buttarazzi M.G., Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Paolucci L., Analysis of Possible Algorithms for Active Noise Control of Siren Noise into an Ambulance, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 630-640, (2022). Abstract
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This paper discusses a potential application of Active Noise Control (ANC) algorithms for the reduction of ambulance siren noise inside the vehicle. The study starts from the analysis of ANC techniques available in literature and currently used in industrial and consumer applications. The concept of ANC is based on the introduction of a canceling “antinoise” wave through a suitable speaker array known as secondary sources. These generators are managed through a specific signal-processing algorithm tailored according to the characteristics of the noise generated by the primary source that has to be cancelled. The primary signal is recorded by the control microphones and then processed by the ANC algorithm. An “antinoise” is then generated to reduce the primary source noise in a specific target zone. Based on the fundamental principles of wave superposition and wave cancellation, ANC technique is a very effective solution from a theoretical point of view; nevertheless, this technique faces numerous practical implementation problems and despite the wide number of available industrial and domestic applications, it is still poorly exploited. In this paper, the state of the art about most advanced ANC techniques and applications is analyzed. In particular, the implementation of adaptive signal processing algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) in ANC systems is analyzed.

Keywords: Acoustical | Active Noise Control | Comfort zone | Feed-forward ANC | FIR | Genetic algorithms | IIR | U-LMS | Virtual ANC | X-LMS

[7] Santarelli C., Puggelli L., Carfagni M., Governi L., Preliminary Study of a High-Fidelity Simulator for the Management of Paediatric Tracheal Pathologies, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 773-784, (2022). Abstract
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In the biomedical field, high-fidelity simulation plays a fundamental role for medical and surgical staff as it allows them to simulate real scenarios from everyday clinical practice. The availability of patient-specific pathological models allows doctors to simulate surgical procedures before entering the operating room, thus reducing the risks associated with surgery. Such models are also employed in medical training to enhance the experience of trainees by confronting them with possible real-life emergency scenarios. To obtain a strict correspondence between simulator and reality - both in terms of geometry and haptic feedback - important decisions must be taken from the beginning of the design phase. High fidelity is a fundamental requirement of the simulators, since the design phase of the anatomical model, for what concerns geometries and materials. In this paper, a preliminary study for the development of a paediatric tracheal simulator is presented. This study is focused on the definition of some general geometric parameters and of the material composing the simulator. Mechanical characteristics of the trachea are investigated to identify a set of materials able to reproduce a realistic haptic feedback of the simulator. Materials are chosen in relation with the technological process that will be used for the simulator manufacturing: additive manufacturing or mould casting. To test the various materials, specimens are created and submitted to the judgement of a specialized medical team. The results showed Shore 40A silicone with a 1.75 mm wall-thickness value to be the best compromise for reproducing the haptic feedback of the trachea.

Keywords: 3D printing | Airway simulation | Haptic feedback | Paediatric trachea | Soft tissue modelling

[8] Uccheddu F., Furferi R., Governi L., Carfagni M., Rgb-d-based method for measuring the angular range of hip and knee joints during home care rehabilitation, Sensors, 22(1), (2022). Abstract
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Home-based rehabilitation is becoming a gold standard for patient who have undergone knee arthroplasty or full knee replacement, as it helps healthcare costs to be minimized. Nevertheless, there is a chance of increasing adverse health effects in case of home care, primarily due to the patients’ lack of motivation and the doctors’ difficulty in carrying out rigorous supervision. The development of devices to assess the efficient recovery of the operated joint is highly valued both for the patient, who feels encouraged to perform the proper number of activities, and for the doctor, who can track him/her remotely. Accordingly, this paper introduces an interactive approach to angular range calculation of hip and knee joints based on the use of low-cost devices which can be operated at home. First, the patient’s body posture is estimated using a 2D acquisition method. Subsequently, the 3D posture is evaluated by using the depth information coming from an RGB-D sensor. Preliminary results show that the proposed method effectively overcomes many limitations by fusing the results obtained by the state-of-the-art robust 2D pose estimation algorithms with the 3D data of depth cameras by allowing the patient to be correctly tracked during rehabilitation exercises.

Keywords: 3D model | Body tracking | Data fusion | Joints estimation | RGB-D camera

[9] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Volpe Y., Governi L., Reverse engineering by CAD template fitting: study of a fast and robust template-fitting strategy, Engineering with Computers, 37(4), 2803-2821, (2021). Abstract
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This paper considers the fitting of a CAD template model to tessellated data as strategy to implement a reverse engineering process that aims at the reconstruction of a parametric associative CAD model. The reconstruction methodology, called Template-Based CAD Reconstruction (TCRT), has been presented and fully discussed in a previous paper Buonamici et al. (J Comput Des Eng 5:145–159, 2018). The present paper focuses on the study of a fast and robust strategy to perform the fitting of the Template CAD Model to reference data. The study explores how different optimization strategies and evaluation metrics can affect a parametric CAD-fitting methodology. Two different optimization algorithms (PSO and GA) and three formulations of the objective function are tested to find the most effective combination. Reconstruction test cases are presented and discussed in the text.

Keywords: CAD reconstruction | CAD template | Fitting | Genetic Algorithm | Particle Swarm Optimization | Reverse engineering

[10] Uccheddu F., Governi L., Furferi R., Carfagni M., Home physiotherapy rehabilitation based on RGB-D sensors: a hybrid approach to the joints angular range of motion estimation, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 99-102, (2021). Abstract
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Home-based recovery is gradually being used to reduce health-care costs; however, with a shorter stay in the hospital, the risk of growing adverse clinical outcomes exists, mainly due to the lack of motivation in the patient and on the difficulties in performing a strict control by the doctors. This is particularly true for patients who went under knee arthroplasty or total knee replacement who should strictly follow the effective recovery protocols delivered by the doctors. The development of tools for measuring the functional recovery of the operated joint is therefore deemed crucial both for the patient to feel motivated in performing the right number of exercises, and for the doctor that can follow him/her up remotely. One of the most recognized methods for assessing the correctness of a series of recovery exercises, is to monitor the pose of the patient in real-time so as to evaluate its posture in his range of motion. Accordingly, in this paper a novel hybrid approach to 3D human pose estimation is proposed. A first estimation of 2D body pose of the patient in the scene is given, then the depth information coming from the RGB-D sensor is exploited to estimate the joints 3D coordinates. The proposed algorithm proved to overcome the main limitation of using a pure 3D skeleton tracking algorithm during physiotherapy rehabilitation.

Keywords: 3D | Body tracking | Data fusion | Joints estimation | RGB-D camera

[11] Mussi E., Servi M., Facchini F., Carfagni M., Volpe Y., A computer-aided strategy for preoperative simulation of autologous ear reconstruction procedure, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 15(1), 77-80, (2021). Abstract
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Autologous ear reconstruction is the preferred treatment in case of partial or total absence of the external ear. The surgery can be very challenging to perform and the aesthetic result highly dependent on the surgeon’s “artistic skills”. In this context a preoperative planning and simulation phase based on the patient’s specific anatomy may result crucial for the surgical outcome. In this work, starting from a case study, the elements necessary for an effective simulation are identified and a strategy for their interactive design and customization is devised with a perspective of a semi-automatization of the procedure.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Autologous ear reconstruction | Microtia | Preoperative planning | Reverse engineering

[12] Servi M., Mussi E., Magherini R., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Volpe Y., U-net for auricular elements segmentation: A proof-of-concept study, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, 2712-2716, (2021). Abstract
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Convolutional neural networks are increasingly used in the medical field for the automatic segmentation of several anatomical regions on diagnostic and non-diagnostic images. Such automatic algorithms allow to speed up time-consuming processes and to avoid the presence of expert personnel, reducing time and costs. The present work proposes the use of a convolutional neural network, the U-net architecture, for the segmentation of ear elements. The auricular elements segmentation process is a crucial step of a wider procedure, already automated by the authors, that has as final goal the realization of surgical guides designed to assist surgeons in the reconstruction of the external ear. The segmentation, performed on depth map images of 3D ear models, aims to define of the contour of the helix, antihelix, tragus-antitragus and concha. A dataset of 131 ear depth map was created;70% of the data are used as the training set, 15% composes the validation set, and the remaining 15% is used as testing set. The network showed excellent performance, achieving 97% accuracy on the validation test.

[13] Fiorineschi L., Bacci T., Frillici F.S.S., Cubeda S., Volpe Y., Rotini F., Carfagni M., Facchini B., Non-reactive test rig for combustor-turbine interaction studies in industrial gas turbines, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, (2021). Abstract
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Purpose: This paper aims to present the design of a particular non-reactive test rig for combustion swirlers and first stage turbine nozzles. The test rig is required for important experimental activities aimed at the optimization of a specific class of gas turbines. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-disciplinary team performed the design process by following a tailored design approach, which has been developed for the specific case. The design outcomes allowed to build a fully functional test rig to be introduced in a test cell and then to perform preliminary experiments about the fluid dynamic behaviour of the turbine elements. Findings: The followed design approach allowed to efficiently perform the task, by supporting the information exchange among the different subjects involved in both the conceptual and the embodiment design of the test rig. Additionally, the performed experiments allowed to achieve a final configuration that makes the test rig a valuable test case for combustor-turbine interaction studies. Research limitations/implications: The study described in this paper is focused on the design of a specific test rig, used for first validation tests. However, the achieved results (both in terms of design and test) constitutes the underpinning of the in-depth investigations to be performed in the next steps of the experimental campaign. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present paper is the first one that comprehensively describes the design activity of an experimental test rig for turbine application, also providing indications about the specific methodological procedure used to manage the process.

Keywords: Embodiment design | Fluid engineering | Fluid modelling | Mechanical design | Systematic design | Test rig design

[14] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Puggelli L., Servi M., Volpe Y., A Fast and Reliable Optical 3D Scanning System for Human Arm, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 268-273, (2021). Abstract
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The article discusses the design of an acquisition system for the 3D surface of human arms. The system is composed by a 3D optical scanner implementing stereoscopic depth sensors and by an acquisition software responsible for the processing of the raw data. The 3D data acquired by the scanner is used as starting point for the manufacturing of custom-made 3D printed casts. Specifically, the article discusses the choices made in the development of an improved version of an existing system presented in [1] and presents the results achieved by the devised system.

Keywords: 3D printing | 3D scanning | Arm scanner | Body scanner | Orthoses

[15] Carfagni M., Fiorineschi L., Furferi R., Governi L., Rotini F., Usefulness of prototypes in conceptual design: students’ view, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 14(4), 1305-1319, (2020). Abstract
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Planning prototyping strategies for conceptual design purposes is a crucial activity, which needs a clear understanding of the potentialities of the different typologies of prototype. Therefore, to prepare future designers, it is very important to provide the required information in design-related academic courses. However, prototypes and prototyping activities are often taught in specific courses with a major emphasis on the underpinning technologies, but with limited attention on design implications, especially about the fuzzy-front-end of the design process. The work presented in this paper aims at investigating about how students perceive the usefulness of prototypes during conceptual design activities, in order to provide first indications about the gap to be filled. To this purpose, two classes of students participated to an experimental session, and were asked to perform a conceptual design task individually. Subsequently, they participated to an on-line survey developed to gather information about the perceived usefulness of prototypes, in relation to the performed conceptual design activity. Several findings have been obtained from this work, but maybe the most impacting one concerns the different consideration that the two samples of students had about the fidelity of prototypes. Indeed, differently from what recently highlighted in current literature, it emerged that engineering students preferred low-fidelity prototypes. However, other unexpected evidences have been found, which highlight that at least for the considered institution, students still lack a comprehensive understanding of the design-related potentialities of prototypes.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | CAD | Design | Design education | Engineering education | Prototyping

[16] Santarelli C., Argenti F., Uccheddu F., Alparone L., Carfagni M., Volumetric interpolation of tomographic sequences for accurate 3D reconstruction of anatomical parts, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 194, (2020). Abstract
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Background and objective:Tomographic sequences of biomedical images are commonly used to achieve a three-dimensional visualization of the human anatomy. In some cases, the number of images contained in the sequence is limited, e.g., in low-dose computed tomography acquired on neonatal patients, resulting in a coarse and inaccurate 3D reconstruction. Methods:In this paper, volumetric image interpolation methods, devised to increase the axial resolution of tomographic sequences and achieve a refined 3D reconstruction, are proposed and compared. The techniques taken into consideration are based on motion-compensated frame-interpolation concepts, which have been developed for video applications, mainly frame-rate conversion. Results: The performance of the proposed methods is quantitatively assessed by using sequences with a simulated low axial resolution obtained from the decimation of standard high-resolution computed tomography sequences. Real data with an actual low axial resolution have been used as well for a qualitative evaluation of the proposed methods. Conclusions:The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods enable an effective slice interpolation and that the achievable 3D models clearly benefit from the increased axial resolution.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction | Biomedical image sequences | Computer tomography | Optical flow | Registration | Volumetric interpolation

[17] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Paolucci L., Analysis and development of an active noise control system for the cancellation of noise produced by the reactors of electric stations, Proceedings of 2020 International Congress on Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2020, (2020). Abstract
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The Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Florence has gained over the years extensive expertise in the field of acoustics and has developed specific skills concerning the study and implementation of active noise control systems. The department studies were motivated by the need to develop methods for active control of stationary noise, such as that generated by electrical transformers and power factor corrector reactors in power stations. The experience in this field was acquired thanks also to some research projects carried out in the last decade. In this paper, a new active noise control system developed for the cancellation of the noise produced by the reactors of electric power stations is described. The experimental tests were carried on by exploiting an electrical reactor model which was developed on this purpose. The ANC setup structure is presented, and some experimental results obtained through field testing are reported and discussed.

[18] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Çoban N.A., Asensio C., A new curriculum for acoustics experts developed in the frame of the Erasmus+ “noise training” project, Proceedings of 2020 International Congress on Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2020, (2020). Abstract
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The excessive exposure to noise seriously harms human health and interferes with people's daily activities. The Environment Action Programme of the European Union committed to decrease noise pollution, moving closer to levels recommended by the WHO by 2020. When considering the noise policy instruments, including the legislative, economic and communicative way, the policy applications mostly rely on legislative ones. Although, there is intensive control strategies based on legislations related to environmental noise and legal punishments (as economic way) to the facilities, the public noise complaints have been still increasing. Hence, it is required to increase the capability of staff on the use of communicative instruments of noise management. The Erasmus+ Noise Training Project (NTP) aimed to improve the skills and practices of staff working on environmental noise management (ENM), using innovative methods. Moreover, it improved the sharing of good practices on noise management in audits between European countries to provide the high acoustic quality of urban cities. In the present paper, the comparative analysis on ENM applications between project partner countries (Turkey, Italy and Spain) is described and the final version of the new curriculum focusing on environmental noise is illustrated, together with its transferability potential to additional EU Countries.

[19] Servi M., Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Volpe Y., Facchini F., Ghionzoli M., Messineo A., CAD-based automatic modelling of customized cutting templates for Pectus Arcuatum surgical correction, Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, 2020-July, 6044-6048, (2020). Abstract
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Pectus Arcuatum (PA) is a congenital chest wall deformity which produces a superior manubrial and sternal protrusion, particularly at the sternal angle. PA surgical correction to reduce the angle of the sternum always includes the removal of bone portion by means of horizontal sternal osteotomies, resection of deformed rib cartilage and finally stabilization of the anterior thoracic wall. Within this process an incorrect assessment of the sternotomy angle during the procedure may lead to the need for bone or cartilage grafts to fill the left voids. This problem has been addressed with a patient-specific cutting template, realized with Reverse Engineering and Additive Manufacturing techniques, which proved to be a key element to simplify the procedure and avoid the occurrence of this type of complications. In this work is presented and validated a procedure that, through common CAD operations, realizes in a completely automatic way the CAD model of the custom cutting template, so as to make non-expert users independent in the realization of the medical device.

[20] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Noise monitoring in Monza (Italy) during COVID-19 pandemic by means of the smart network of sensors developed in the LIFE MONZA project, Noise Mapping, 7(1), 199-211, (2020). Abstract
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As a scientific consequence of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, several initiatives have taken place in order to monitor noise levels trends before and after the lock down phase in several Italian and European cities. In Monza (Italy), since June 2017, a new smart noise monitoring system consisting of 10 sensors developed in the frame of the LIFE MONZA project is continuously measuring acoustic data every second and transmitting them hourly to a dedicated server. The sensors are located both along a main street of the Libertà district characterised by high traffic flows and along secondary streets of the district; they are positioned on (preferably sensitive) buildings facades and on streetlamps. In the present paper results of a study concerning changes occurred in noise levels trends before and during the lock down phase for the smart sensors are presented, together with a comparison with noise levels collected by the same sensors in the equivalent months of the previous year. Some preliminary considerations regarding the reliability of the sensors themselves are also provided.

Keywords: LIFE MONZA | noise mapping | noise monitoring | smart network of sensors

[21] Silvaggio R., Curcuruto S., Mazzocchi E., Borchi F., Bartalucci C., Governi L., Carfagni M., Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Colucci G., Cattani G., Gaeta A., Leone G., Di Menno di Bucchianico A., Cusano M., Algieri A., Colombi C., Cuccia E., Dal Santo U., Life Monza: Comparison between ante and post-operam noise and air quality monitoring activities in a Noise Low Emission Zone, Noise Mapping, 7(1), 171-191, (2020). Abstract
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LIFE MONZA project (Methodologies fOr Noise low emission Zones introduction And management) aims at defining an easy-replicable method for the identification and management of the Noise Low Emission Zones (Noise LEZ), urban areas subject to traffic restrictions, usually introduced in order to ensure compliance with the air pollutants limit values, prescribed by the European Directive on ambient air quality 2008/50/EC, whose impacts and potential benefits regarding noise issues have been taken into account, tested and analysed in a pilot area of the city of Monza, located in North Italy. Noise LEZ has been established in Libertà district, introducing infrastructural interventions carried out by the municipality (top-down actions) and encouraging an active involvement of the citizens, in the definition of a more sustainable lifestyle (bottom-up actions). The analysis of potential effects on noise reduction due to the Noise LEZ can contribute to the implementation of the EU Directive 2002/49/EC, related to the assessment and management of environmental noise (Environmental Noise Directive – END), which introduces noise action plans, designed to manage noise issues and their effects, suggesting the adoption of urban and mobility planning. Noise and air quality monitoring activities have been carried out in pilot area in ante and post-operam conditions. The monitoring methods, the measurement techniques, the analysis procedures, able to describe the effects due to Noise LEZ establishment, for both the main environmental issues are reported in this paper, as proposals to be applied in other different contexts. Results of monitoring activities highlight a reduction of noise, in term of sound pressure levels, between ante and post-operam, during the day and particularly during the night period, and it is essentially due to the interventions realised. The effect of the Noise LEZ on air pollution seems to be negligible for combustion related pollutant and carbon fractions of PM, due both to the moderate spatial effects of the measures undertaken and confounding factors due to concomitant emission sources and meteorology.

Keywords: Air quality monitoring system | Bottom-up approach | Environmental noise | Low emission zone | Noise monitoring system | Top-down approach | Urban planning

[22] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Volpe Y., Governi L., Generative design: An explorative study, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 18(1), 144-155, (2020). Abstract
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Generative design tools have recently become an interesting solution to tackle design problems in several technical fields. This article takes into consideration the specific field of mechanical design and aims at describing available generative design solutions capable of dealing with structural optimization problems. The study provides a practical description on the workflow and performances of a specific software system implementing a generative approach for the generation of a set of alternative solutions for a static structural design problem. The software analyzed is Autodesk’s Generative Design, hosted in Fusion 360. The article discusses the functioning of the software and its performances; an enhanced focus on the features oriented to the generation of manufacturable shapes is provided in the text. In order to provide a practical and effective procedure, a literature case study was selected to test the software.

Keywords: Biomimetic Design | CAD | Generative Design | Structural Optimization | Topology Optimization

[23] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Industrial Noise Modelling and Control: The Case of Natural Gas Distribution Systems, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 506-515, (2020). Abstract
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It is widely known that exposure to noise may have negative impacts on human health and well-being. Among the several sources of noise pollution, pressure monitoring stations associated with natural gas distribution networks can have a significant noise impact on the surrounding areas. A collaboration between Toscana Energia S.p.A. and the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Florence has allowed to characterize the emission and sound propagation of these stations, through both theoretical and experimental analysis. In the current manuscript, results obtained from the validation of the algorithm for the estimation of the sound pressure level due to the gas distribution systems proposed by Tartarini manufacturer according to noise measurements campaigns are illustrated. Moreover, the design of a semi-automatic tool for the noise evaluation impact of natural gas distribution systems at the receivers is presented.

Keywords: Environmental noise | Gas distribution system | Noise control

[24] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Volpe Y., CAD Reconstruction: A Study on Reverse Modelling Strategies, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 165-176, (2020). Abstract
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Computer Aided reconstruction of mechanical parts nowadays heavily relies on dedicated RE software systems and highly skilled users to be carried out effectively. This paper investigates this scenario in order to identify most limiting factors in the current framework. With this respect, several considerations of general validity are drawn while presenting the problem from a theoretical perspective. A significant test case reconstruction, discussed in depth in the manuscript, is used to provide a practical point of view on real applications and help the reader acquire a hands-on comprehension of the current situation.

Keywords: CAD | CAD reconstruction | Reverse engineering

[25] Uccheddu F., Governi L., Carfagni M., A Preliminary 3D Depth Camera-Based System to Assist Home Physiotherapy Rehabilitation, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 696-706, (2020). Abstract
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Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have been recently heralded as the operations of the Century. Large improvements in mobility and patient-reported outcomes are typically observed compared with the small-to-moderate effects experienced with non-surgical interventions. Following surgery, physiotherapy-led exercise-based rehabilitation is often prescribed to yield better gait-related outcomes. Nevertheless, outpatient rehabilitation is expensive and heavily burden the national health service. When specific machines are not needed during the physiotherapy, patients, if assisted, can perform a home program. The purpose of this paper is to qualitatively investigate the applicability of a self-managed, home-based system for the automated evaluation of a home physiotherapy rehabilitation after TKA and THA. The system leverages the cost effectiveness and the versatility of a RGB-Depth camera system together with a commercial skeleton tracking system to analyse specific exercises. A novel computation of lower limb movements and related angles is proposed to evaluate the quality of the daily exercises. The laboratory experimental campaign, envisaged the analysis of the rotation angles of hips and knees; a lower limb schematic model is considered to estimate both knee and hip angles during ab/adductor and flex/extension movements. A novel real time calculation of the hip bone plane is proposed to assess the joint angles during specific exercises performance. A qualitative data analysis of each exercise has been performed. Results on the system usability in a domestic environment are reported as well as a visual comparison of the analysed output.

Keywords: 3D | Body tracking | RGB-D camera

[26] Santarelli C., Uccheddu F., Argenti F., Alparone L., Carfagni M., Governi L., Shift-Compensated Volumetric Interpolation of Tomographic Sequences for Accurate 3D Reconstruction, IFMBE Proceedings, 76, 312-321, (2020). Abstract
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In patients affected by craniosynostosis, i.e. a congenital cranial defect, diagnostic evaluation for a prompt surgical treatment is performed using low-dose three-dimensional computer tomography (CT), characterized by a poor spatial resolution (in terms of slice thickness). The limited number of CT images reduces the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction of the skull and leads to a coarser segmentation and modelling. In this paper, Motion Compensated Frame Interpolation (MCFI) techniques are applied for an effective axial interpolation of tomographic images sequences, with the main objective of obtaining a refined 3D reconstruction. The performance of the proposed method was assessed by using high-resolution CT sequences. After downsampling along the axial direction, the missing slices were recovered by using the proposed algorithm, to obtain an estimate of the original sequence. The experimental results show that the 3D models obtained from the downsampled/interpolated sequence are very close to those obtained from the original one thus providing a high-quality 3D skull reconstruction.

Keywords: 3D modeling | CT slices | Interpolation | Motion compensation

[27] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Lazzeri S., Servi M., Talanti E., Volpe Y., Automatic CAD modeling of ventilation holes for 3D printed wrist orthoses, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 17(2), 325-336, (2020). Abstract
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The present paper presents the study of a semi-automatic CAD technique for the generation of ventilation holes on ABS AM-manufactured arm orthoses. A lighter device, good air and water transpiration and an increased patient’s comfort are the main advantages achievable by introducing openings on plastic casts. The proposed procedure relies on the adaptation of a reference pattern of holes, obtained integrating both structural and functional aspects, to each patient’s cast. The adaptation procedure maps the original pattern, respecting its proportions, on each target orthosis, thanks to a set of reference points automatically extracted. The generation of holes is performed relying on an advanced CAD environment (i.e. Siemens NX), where a series of CAD modeling operations, based on the data extracted by the mapping algorithm, have been studied and tested. The whole procedure has been tested on 5 orthoses to validate its efficacy.

Keywords: Cad | Cast modeling | Orthosis modeling | Personalized medicine

[28] Leng S., Bici K., Facchini F., Volpe Y., Uccheddu F., Furferi R., Governi L., Carfagni M., Ghionzoli M., Messineo A., Customized Cutting Template to Assist Sternotomy in Pectus Arcuatum, Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 107(4), 1253-1258, (2019). Abstract
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Purpose: Pectus arcuatum is an anterior chest wall deformity that requires transverse wedge sternotomy. Determining and delivering the correct cutting angle are crucial for successful correction. This report describes the early clinical experience with a novel cutting template technology able to deliver the optimal cutting angle. Description: From patients’ computed tomographic scans, the optimal cutting angle is obtained using computer-aided design. A template comprising slots tilted at the right cutting angle and a safety block to avoid damaging the posterior periosteum is printed through additive manufacturing. Evaluation: The template allows surgeons to perform a precise wedge sternotomy, safely sparing the posterior periosteum in all patients, without complications. Postoperative chest roentgenograms and clinical photographs demonstrate optimal sternal realignment and cosmetic outcome. In this report, the mean operative time was 110 minutes. All patients were successfully discharged, with a mean length of stay of 4 days. Conclusions: Transverse wedge sternotomy aided by a computer-aided design–devised cutting template may reduce the technical challenge of this procedure, thereby increasing its safety and reducing operative times and hospital stay. Further research on long-term patient outcomes is necessary.

[29] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Santarelli C., Servi M., Uccheddu F., Volpe Y., Metrological and critical characterization of the intel D415 stereo depth camera, Sensors (Switzerland), 19(3), (2019). Abstract
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Low-cost RGB-D cameras are increasingly being used in several research fields, including human–machine interaction, safety, robotics, biomedical engineering and even reverse engineering applications. Among the plethora of commercial devices, the Intel RealSense cameras have proven to be among the most suitable devices, providing a good compromise between cost, ease of use, compactness and precision. Released on the market in January 2018, the new Intel model RealSense D415 has a wide acquisition range (i.e., ~160–10,000 mm) and a narrow field of view to capture objects in rapid motion. Given the unexplored potential of this new device, especially when used as a 3D scanner, the present work aims to characterize and to provide metrological considerations for the RealSense D415. In particular, tests are carried out to assess the device performance in the near range (i.e., 100–1000 mm). Characterization is performed by integrating the guidelines of the existing standard (i.e., the German VDI/VDE 2634 Part 2) with a number of literature-based strategies. Performance analysis is finally compared against the latest close-range sensors, thus providing a useful guidance for researchers and practitioners aiming to use RGB-D cameras in reverse engineering applications.

Keywords: Active stereo | Depth camera | Device characterization | Performance comparison | RealSense D415 | Reverse engineering | VDI/VDE standard

[30] Akbulut Çoban N., Kaya S., Asensio C., Arcas G., Pavón I., Trujillo J.A., Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Carfagni M., Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Improvement of environmental noise management skills on audits: Initial results achieved in the frame of the Erasmus+ Project on Noise Training, INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID - 48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering, (2019). Abstract
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Environmental noise has been increasing day by day and this leads to serious health problems. European Union Environment Action Programme committed to decrease noise pollution, moving closer to levels recommended by World Health Organization by 2020. One of the key legislative instruments for achieving this is Environmental Noise Directive (END). European Commission Report on Evaluation of END published in 2016 highlighted the variances across Europe in terms of implementation of national strategies for environmental noise management (ENM). These variances in terms of practice and approaches to training bring the need for greater knowledge and practice exchange with using innovative developments. This is the primary focus of “Noise Training Project (NTP)” financed by EC under Erasmus+ Program. The main objective of NTP is to promote vocational skills of technical and administrative staff working on ENM. Within the project's scope, a survey was performed to analyse staff's perception regarding their training needs and training courses they have previously attended to. In this extent, a new curriculum focusing on environmental noise will be developed. The comparative analysis on ENM applications between project partner countries will also be introduced. In this article, the main structure of the project, its objectives and progresses are presented.

Keywords: Environmental noise | Qualifications | Training

[31] Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Curcuruto S., Silvaggio R., Mazzocchi E., Casati C.N., Nizzola C., First results of activities carried out in the pilot area of life MONZA project, INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID - 48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering, (2019). Abstract
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One of the main goal of the LIFE MONZA project, which started in September 2016, is to reduce the average noise levels present in the Libertà district by means of both top-down (creation of a limited traffic zone to forbid the access to trucks, limitation of vehicles speed, lanes-width reduction and pedestrian crossing introduction, substitution of the current asphalt with a silent one) and encouraged bottom up actions (people involvement, ideas contest among students, pedibus service, etc). In this paper, first results of activities carried out in the mentioned pilot area of Life Monza project are illustrated.

Keywords: Environmental noise | Low cost sensors | Low noise paving | Noise management | Noise monitoring

[32] Silvaggio R., Curcuruto S., Maggi M., Fasanella A., Cattani G., Di Menno Di Bucchianico A., Gaeta A., Leone G., Mazzocchi E., Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Borchi F., Bartalucci C., Carfagni M., Arcangeli G., Mucci N., Casati C., Pessina G., Noise low emission zone implementation in urban planning: Results of monitoring activities in pilot area of LIFE MONZA project, Proceedings of the International Congress on Acoustics, 2019-September, 7027-7034, (2019). Abstract
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The main objective of LIFE MONZA (Methodologies fOr Noise low emission Zones introduction And management) concerns an easy-replicable method for the identification and management of the Noise Low Emission Zones, urban areas subject to traffic restrictions, whose impacts and benefits regarding noise issues are testing in the pilot area of the city of Monza, located in North Italy. Noise LEZ has been introduced in Libertà district, by top-down actions (infrastructural interventions) and encouraging an active involvement of the people, in the definition of a more sustainable lifestyle (bottom-up actions). Monitoring activities in pilot area regarding noise, air quality and the wellbeing conditions of the citizens have been carried out, and they are still ongoing, before and after the Noise LEZ implementation and the available results are described in this paper, in order to discuss and to evaluate the main effects of Noise LEZ introduction in urban planning and in lifestyle of the inhabitants.

Keywords: Noise Low Emission Zone | Noise monitoring sensors | Noise urban planning

[33] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Luzzi S., Aspuru I., Gaudibert P., Wolfert H., LIFE+2010 QUADMAP Project: Results obtained from the analysis of data collected during the application of the new methodology to the pilot quiet areas, Noise Mapping, 6(1), 22-37, (2019). Abstract
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Since the 90s, quiet areas have commonly been considered as places to be acoustically preserved or where acoustic interventions should be implemented to reduce noise levels. With the enforcement of the Environmental Noise Directive in 2002, a formal definition of a 'quiet area in agglomeration' and a 'quiet area in open country' was established. However, many Member States complained about the absence of guidelines regarding the identification and management of quiet areas. The LIFE QUiet Areas Definition and Management in Action Plans (QUADMAP) project started in 2011 to contribute to the Directive's incomplete requirements for quiet areas. The project's main result has been the introduction of a flexible methodology for the selection, analysis and management of quiet areas in agglomeration in which both acoustic and nonacoustic parameters are evaluated. The current paper illustrates the analyses carried out on the data collected during the application of the selection, analysis and management phases of the developed methodology in the different pilot cases selected during the Project. Mentioned analysis are aimed at verifying the benefits of the proposed complementary selection criteria ('relative quiet urban areas' identification criteria and 'homogeneous urban areas' subdivision criteria), at defining the measurement periods most representative of the areas and the acoustic and nonacoustic parameters to be considered as the most significant.

Keywords: data analysis | perception | QUADMAP | quiet areas

[34] Buonamici F., Volpe Y., Furferi R., Carfagni M., Signorini G., Goli G., Governi L., Fioravanti M., Bamboo’s bio-inspired material design through additive manufacturing technologies, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 24, 809-826, (2019). Abstract
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Bamboo is one of the longest-used organic raw materials in the tropics for a large number of different purposes in the daily lives of human beings. Because of its excellent physical-mechanical properties, in many parts of the world it is widely used as a structural material, especially for the construction of scaffolding and the construction of buildings. The bamboo can be modelled as a composite material, consisting of a of a parenchyma cells matrix, similar to a foam, reinforced by bundles of fibers associated with vessels. The present work aimed to explore the possibility to design a 3D printed biomimetic composite material able of keeping advantages from the bamboo morphological structure. Samples made of PVA, ABS and PVA + ABS were manufactured using Fused Deposition Modelling and tested under compression and bending conditions. The behavior under compression has shown to depend mainly on the material used while in bending the structure has shown important effects leading the sample made of PVA + ABS to have the same performances of much expensive pure ABS.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | Bamboo | Structure optimization

[35] Carfagni M., Facchini F., Furferi R., Ghionzoli M., Governi L., Messineo A., Uccheddu F., Volpe Y., Towards a CAD-based automatic procedure for patient specific cutting guides to assist sternal osteotomies in pectus arcuatum surgical correction, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 6(1), 118-127, (2019). Abstract
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Pectus Arcuatum, a rare congenital chest wall deformity, is characterized by the protrusion and early ossification of sternal angle thus configuring as a mixed form of excavatum and carinatum features. Surgical correction of pectus arcuatum always includes one or more horizontal sternal osteotomies, consisting in performing a V-shaped horizontal cutting of the sternum (resection prism) by means of an oscillating power saw. The angle between the saw and the sternal body in the V-shaped cut is determined according to the peculiarity of the specific sternal arch. The choice of the right angle, decided by the surgeon on the basis of her/his experience, is crucial for a successful intervention. The availability of a patient-specific surgical guide conveying the correct cutting angles can considerably improve the chances of success and, at the same time, reduce the intervention time. The present paper aims to propose a new CAD-based approach to design and produce custom-made surgical guides, manufactured by using additive manufacturing techniques, to assist the sternal osteotomy. Starting from CT images, the procedure allows to determine correct resection prism and to shape the surgical guide accordingly taking into account additive manufacturing capabilities. Virtually tested against three case studies the procedure demonstrated its effectiveness.

Keywords: Biomedical devices | CAD | Design for additive manufacturing | Medical imaging

[36] Lapini A., Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Argenti F., Carfagni M., Audio virtualization of façade acoustic insulation by convex optimization, European Signal Processing Conference, 2018-September, 2185-2189, (2018). Abstract
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In this study, modeling of façade acoustic insulation is addressed. The objective is predicting the acoustic behaviour of a virtual façade on an incoming audio signal based on measurements made on an actual façade and on Standardized Level Differences (DnT) curves known for both of them. In this way, a fast and concise characterization of acoustic insulation performance from outside noise can be achieved. The problem is cast as an inverse one, in which the acoustic impulse response of the actual façade must be substituted by the virtual one, taking into account, however, the constraints that are derived from the DnT analysis. Experimental results are shown to demostrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.

Keywords: Acoustic insulation | Audio virtualization | Convex optimization | Standardized Level Differences

[37] Cavallo F., Limosani R., Fiorini L., Esposito R., Furferi R., Governi L., Carfagni M., Design impact of acceptability and dependability in assisted living robotic applications, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(4), 1167-1178, (2018). Abstract
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This paper presents the implementation and investigation of a novel user centred method, adopted to design, develop and test a personal robot system, composed of a mobile robotic platform and a smart environment, for assisting people at home. As robots need to work closely with humans, novel interactive engineering design approaches are required to develop service robots that are adherent to end users’ needs and that can be quickly employed in daily life. Particularly, this paper presents a methodology based on the simultaneous evaluation of dependability and acceptability, thus leading to an innovative approach for metrics and benchmarks that includes not only the main technical attributes of dependability, but also the parameters of acceptability, both implemented via a user-centered design and co-creative approach. Additionally, dependability and acceptability form the basis for defining standardized methodologies to test and evaluate robotic systems in dedicated experimental infrastructures (or robotic facilities), which are conceived to facilitate engineers in their studies and assessments.

Keywords: Acceptability | Companion robot | Dependability | Service robotics | User centred design

[38] Carfagni M., Fiorineschi L., Furferi R., Governi L., Rotini F., The role of additive technologies in the prototyping issues of design, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 24(7), 1101-1116, (2018). Abstract
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Purpose: This paper aims to argue about the involvement of additive technologies (ATs) in the prototyping issues of designing. More precisely, it reviews the literature contributions focused on the different perspectives of prototyping activities for design purposes, searching for both available knowledge and research needs concerning the correct exploitation of ATs. Design/methodology/approach: A two-step literature review has been performed. In the first step, general information has been retrieved about prototyping issues related to design. In the second step, the literature searches were focused on retrieving more detailed information about ATs, concerning each of the main issues identified in the previous step. Extracted information has been analyzed and discussed for understanding the actual coverage of the arguments and for identifying possible research needs. Findings: Four generally valid prototyping issues have been identified in the first step of the literature review. For each of them, available information and current lacks have been identified and discussed about the involvement of AT, allowing to extract six different research hints for future works. Originality/value: This is the first literature review concerning AT-focused contributions that cover the complex and inter-disciplinary issues characterizing prototyping activities in design contexts.

Keywords: Additive technologies | Design | Engineering | Engineering design | Prototyping | Rapid prototyping

[39] Volpe Y., Furferi R., Governi L., Uccheddu F., Carfagni M., Mussa F., Scagnet M., Genitori L., Surgery of complex craniofacial defects: A single-step AM-based methodology, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 165, 225-233, (2018). Abstract
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Background and objective: The purpose of the present paper is to pave the road to the systematic optimization of complex craniofacial surgical intervention and to validate a design methodology for the virtual surgery and the fabrication of cranium vault custom plates. Recent advances in the field of medical imaging, image processing and additive manufacturing (AM) have led to new insights in several medical applications. The engineered combination of medical actions and 3D processing steps, foster the optimization of the intervention in terms of operative time and number of sessions needed. Complex craniofacial surgical intervention, such as for instance severe hypertelorism accompanied by skull holes, traditionally requires a first surgery to correctly “resize” the patient cranium and a second surgical session to implant a customized 3D printed prosthesis. Between the two surgical interventions, medical imaging needs to be carried out to aid the design the skull plate. Instead, this paper proposes a CAD/AM-based one-in-all design methodology allowing the surgeons to perform, in a single surgical intervention, both skull correction and implantation. Methods: A strategy envisaging a virtual/mock surgery on a CAD/AM model of the patient cranium so as to plan the surgery and to design the final shape of the cranium plaque is proposed. The procedure relies on patient imaging, 3D geometry reconstruction of the defective skull, virtual planning and mock surgery to determine the hypothetical anatomic 3D model and, finally, to skull plate design and 3D printing. Results: The methodology has been tested on a complex case study. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and a consistent reduction of time and overall cost of the surgery, not to mention the huge benefits on the patient that is subjected to a single surgical operation. Conclusions: Despite a number of AM-based methodologies have been proposed for designing cranial implants or to correct orbital hypertelorism, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first to simultaneously treat osteotomy and titanium cranium plaque.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing | CAD | Cranium surgery | Image processing

[40] Uccheddu F., Ghionzoli M., Volpe Y., Servi M., Furferi R., Governi L., Facchini F., Lo Piccolo R., McGreevy K.S., Martin A., Carfagni M., Messineo A., A Novel Objective Approach to the External Measurement of Pectus Excavatum Severity by Means of an Optical Device, Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 106(1), 221-227, (2018). Abstract
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Background: Current approaches to quantifying the severity of pectus excavatum require internal measurements based on cross-sectional imaging. The aim of this study is to exploit a novel index evaluated on the external surface of the chest with a three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner. Methods: Fifty-one children (41 male, 10 female) between 2 and 17 years of age were evaluated with a 3D optical scanner. Pectus excavatum severity was calculated by using an ad hoc instant 3D scanner and defining an automatic procedure to generate an optical 3D correction index (CI3D). For the latter, an ideal threshold was derived from a statistical analysis, and five blind surveys were collected from pediatric specialists on chest wall deformities. The CI3D was then correlated with blind clinical assessments of PE severity. Results: The cutoff thresholds were determined to optimally discriminate between six degrees of severity of PE patients by a correlation analysis. The correlation coefficient obtained by matching the CI3D with the average subjective severity shows that the proposed method outperforms traditional approaches. Conclusions: The optical 3D index has a good match with the average subjective assessment in distinguishing patients with mild to severe PE. This innovative approach offers several advantages over existing indices, as it is repeatable and does not require cross-sectional imaging. The index might be particularly suitable for monitoring the efficacy of nonoperative treatment and, in the future, for designing an optimal personalized usage of therapeutic devices.

[41] Lapini A., Calamai G., Argenti F., Carfagni M., Application of binaural audio techniques for immersive fruition of cultural heritage, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 364(1), (2018). Abstract
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In this paper we address the issue of enriching the fruition of museums and art shows for the visitors. We preliminary consider the design of an immersive audio environment by means of 3D audio rendering, aiming to provide each user a deeper connection with each exhibited artwork. By exploiting a real-time binaural audio system, artworks become virtual sources of the audio guide voice, making the user perceive they personally speak to her/him. As an advantage, the implementation of the proposed framework relies on basic audio and signal processing techniques, that is, no expensive or personalized equipment for the visitors is required. Furthermore, since the proposed method is independent of the recording stage, existing audio tracks or even real-time speech can be used.

[42] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Luzzi S., Busa L., The Acoustic Design and Requalification of an Auditorium in a Church and of a Historical Theater, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 364(1), (2018). Abstract
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Environmental sustainability is the ability to keep ecological processes within an ecosystem and its biodiversity in the future and, together with economic and social sustainability, contributes to the definition of well-being and progress. In this frame, circular economy and holistic approach in planning urban areas and designing public and private buildings play a decisive role. In the case of restoration, it can even be critical to achieve the best compromise between the desired acoustic quality and the architectural constraints imposed by the structure being restored. Software for simulating sound response in enclosed spaces can help to solve this issue. The paper reports the numerical-experimental method used for the acoustic design and main results obtained in the acoustic requalification design of a church and a historic theater, both located in Tuscany (Italy). In the first case study, a requalification procedure was devoted to transform the church of Rispescia in a multifunctional auditorium by using sustainable materials. The study and design are referred to a building with a significant volume of approximately 1300 m3, where the presence of finishing materials and reflecting furniture determined a high acoustic discomfort, making the hall difficult to use for events like lectures and concerts. After the implementation of the designed interventions, the church has been regularly used for different functions. In the second case study, the proposed method has been applied for the acoustic restoration of the historic theater of Monsummano Terme by modifying its former acoustic design and thus extending its use to include concerts in addition to theatrical performances.

[43] Pelagotti A., Uccheddu F., Massa E., Carfagni M., Comparing two 3D measurement techniques for documenting painted wooden panels surface deformations on a real test case: "mystical Marriage of Saint Catherine" by Renaissance artist Piero di Cosimo, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 364(1), (2018). Abstract
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Ancient wooden panel paintings are an essential part of our cultural heritage. Wood as artworks support has always been very popular and painted panels are largely diffuse in many churches and museums. However, depending on conservation conditions, the wooden panels shape may vary and, if not properly controlled, may lead to some sever damage to the artworks. This paper presents the results of a study on the measurement of paintings surface deformation carried out using two different three-dimensional acquisition devices both making use of structured light. The main goal was to highlight and measure the reliability of such 3D measuring techniques to evaluate deviations from planarity due to the curving and warping of the wood and to document spatial deformation suffered by the painting and monitoring its conservation status.

[44] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Lapini A., Volpe Y., Reverse engineering modeling methods and tools: a survey, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 15(3), 443-464, (2018). Abstract
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Reverse Engineering (RE) is a long-term goal of engineering and computer science; it aims at the reconstruction of CAD models from measured data by means of 3D mathematical surfaces and geometrical features representing the geometry of a physical part. In the last two decades, reviews and surveys have occasionally covered this topic, but a systematic dissertation of modeling methods from a mechanical engineering point of view is still missing. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap; starting from a general description of the overall RE framework (acquisition, segmentation, classification, fitting), both an up-to-date survey and a categorization of available modeling techniques and tools working on 3D data are provided. The main aspects of various strategies are discussed as well, in order to highlight strengths and weaknesses characterizing different approaches. Moreover, an overview of commercial software for RE is presented, considering both dedicated solutions and packages supplied as add-on with ‘traditional’ CAD systems. Finally, possible improvements to be addressed by the research in the RE field are discussed, outlining potential future trends that are still to be investigated.

Keywords: 3D modeling | CAD reconstruction | constrained fitting | Reverse engineering | reverse engineering software

[45] Uccheddu F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Furferi R., Volpe Y., Nocerino E., 3D printing of cardiac structures from medical images: an overview of methods and interactive tools, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(2), 597-609, (2018). Abstract
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The percutaneous interventions in the treatment of structural heart diseases represent nowadays a viable option for patients at high risk for surgery. However, unlike during the traditional open heart surgery, the heart structures to be corrected are not directly visualized by the physician during the interventions. The interpretation of the available medical images is often a demanding task and needs specific skills i.e. clinical experience and complex radiological and echocardiographic analysis. The new trend for cardiovascular diagnosis, surgical planning and intervention is, today, mutually connected with most recent developments in the field of 3D acquisition, interactive modelling and rapid prototyping techniques. This is particularly true when dealing with complex heart diseases since 3D-based techniques can really help in providing an accurate planning of the intervention and to support surgical intervention. To help the research community in confronting with this new trend in medical science, the present work provides an overview on most recent approaches and methodologies for creating physical prototypes of patient-specific cardiac structures, with particular reference to most critical phases such as: 3D image acquisition, interactive image segmentation and restoration, interactive 3D model reconstruction, physical prototyping through additive manufacturing. To this purpose, first, recent techniques for image enhancement to highlight anatomical structures of interest are presented together with the current state of the art of interactive image segmentation. Finally, most suitable techniques for prototyping the retrieved 3D model are investigated so as to derive a number of criteria for manufacturing prototypes useful for planning the medical intervention.

Keywords: 3D modelling | Cardiovascular diseases | Heart | Medical imagery | Rapid prototyping | Surgical planning

[46] Lapini A., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Argenti F., Simulation and design of active control systems for acoustic pulse noise, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 12(2), 573-584, (2018). Abstract
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Active noise control (ANC) techniques have been successfully investigated and implemented for the attenuation of stationary acoustic noise. Furthermore, adaptive methods for impulsive noise have been also presented in the literature, even though the considered statistical models are well suited only for a narrow class of impulsive disturbances that can be faced in realistic scenarios. In this paper, a preliminary study addressing the design of a non-adaptive deterministic ANC system for pulse signals is developed by avoiding any statistical assumption. The theory of Wave Field Synthesis is explicitly exploited in a destructive manner, that is, generating a canceling acoustic pressure field by means of arrays of secondary sources. An ad-hoc interactive software simulator implementing the proposed approach is realized and used to virtually explore the solution spaces of some test case scenarios. Simulations’ results considering linear and planar arrays in the case of free space propagation, as well as in the case of interaction with a hard ground, are presented and compared. Furthermore, the impact of different design solutions proposed to mitigate the impairments due to terrain reflections is evaluated.

Keywords: Active noise control | Array design | Pulse noise | Virtual sources | Wave field synthesis

[47] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Lapini A., Volpe Y., Reverse engineering of mechanical parts: A template-based approach, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 5(2), 145-159, (2018). Abstract
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Template-Based reverse engineering approaches represent a relatively poorly explored strategy in the field of CAD reconstruction from polygonal models. Inspired by recent works suggesting the possibility/opportunity of exploiting a parametric description (i.e. CAD template) of the object to be reconstructed in order to retrieve a meaningful digital representation, a novel reverse engineering approach for the reconstruction of CAD models starting from 3D mesh data is proposed. The reconstruction process is performed relying on a CAD template, whose feature tree and geometric constraints are defined according to the a priori information on the physical object. The CAD template is fitted upon the mesh data, optimizing its dimensional parameters and positioning/orientation by means of a particle swarm optimization algorithm. As a result, a parametric CAD model that perfectly fulfils the imposed geometric relations is produced and a feature tree, defining an associative modelling history, is available to the reverse engineer. The proposed implementation exploits a cooperation between a CAD software package (Siemens NX) and a numerical software environment (MATLAB). Five reconstruction tests, covering both synthetic and real-scanned mesh data, are presented and discussed in the manuscript; the results are finally compared with models generated by state of the art reverse engineering software and key aspects to be addressed in future work are hinted at.

Keywords: 3D mesh | CAD reconstruction | CAD template | Constrained fitting | Particle Swarm Optimization | Reverse engineering

[48] Carfagni M., Facchini F., Furferi R., Ghionzoli M., Governi L., Messineo A., Servi M., Uccheddu F., Volpe Y., A semi-automatic computer-aided method for personalized Vacuum Bell design, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 15(2), 247-255, (2018). Abstract
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Pectus Excavatum, one of the most frequent chest wall deformities, is characterized by a depression of the sternum and costal cartilages. Patients with mild deformities are generally treated conservatively by using the so called Vacuum Bell (VB) i.e. a suction cup to be placed on the patient's sternal region. Three different sizes, as well as a model fitted for young women, of VB are available on the market. Unfortunately, the variability of the surface to be treated, the possible asymmetry of the caved-in area and the prolonged use, can make the device uncomfortable and, in some cases, ineffective for the patient. In order to cope with these issues, the present paper proposes a computer-aided method for customized vacuum bell design to be used by non-expert user, e.g. by medical staff. In particular, the present work entails the development of a system comprising: 1) a dedicated software capable of acquiring the 3D chest geometry - by using a low-cost range sensor, i.e. Kinect v2 - and of processing the point cloud so to generate NURBS surfaces of the chest; 2) a procedural CAD modeling of a personalized VB implemented within Siemens NX 11 CAD environment. Using the devised method, the medical staff is required only to use the 3D scanning system for acquiring the patient chest and to sketch, in a CAD-based interface, the boundary of the area to be treated. Once these tasks are performed, the system automatically builds the personalized VB model, ready to be manufactured.

Keywords: design customization | Procedural CAD modeling | reverse engineering | vacuum bell

[49] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Lapini A., Volpe Y., Curcuruto S., Mazzocchi E., Marsico G., Luzzi S., Bellomini R., Nizzola C.M., Maggi M., Fasanella A., LIFE MONZA: Project description and actions’ updating, Noise Mapping, 5(1), 60-70, (2018). Abstract
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The introduction of Low Emission Zones, urban areas subject to road traffic restrictions in order to ensure compliance with the air pollutants limit values set by the European Directive on ambient air quality (2008/50/EC), is a common and well-established action in the administrative government of cities. The impacts on air quality improvement are widely analysed, whereas the effects and benefits concerning the noise have not been addressed in a comprehensive manner. As a consequence, the definition, the criteria for the analysis and the management methods of a Noise Low Emission Zone are not clearly expressed and shared yet. The LIFE MONZA project (Methodologies fOr Noise low emission Zones introduction And management - LIFE15 ENV/IT/000586) addresses these issues. The first objective of the project, co-funded by the European Commission, is to introduce an easy-replicable method for the identification and the management of the Noise Low Emission Zone, an urban area subject to traffic restrictions, whose impacts and benefits regarding noise issues will be analyzed and tested in the pilot area of the city of Monza, located in Northern Italy. Background conditions, structure, objectives of the project and actions’ progress will be discussed in this article.

Keywords: Bottom-up approach | Environmental noise | Low Emission zones | Low noise paving | Smart noise monitoring system | Top-down approach | Urban planning

[50] Lapini A., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Argenti F., Application of wave field synthesis to active control of highly non-stationary noise, Applied Acoustics, 131, 220-229, (2018). Abstract
X

Active Noise Control (ANC) methods have been successfully applied to the cancellation of stationary noise. Classical ANC systems use adaptive filtering techniques to produce a waveform that is opposite, or counter-phase, to the signal noise we would like to cancel. However, when the noise is of short duration, adaptive filtering cannot be used since convergence is not achieved. In this paper, a novel active control technique for non-stationary noise is presented. The method uses wave field synthesis (WFS) for the construction of the canceling waveform. The system is tailored for an outdoor environment. The noise acoustic field is acquired by microphones and processed by a WFS engine to pilot a linear array of secondary sources. Experimental results, obtained from both simulations and true tests, demonstrate that the proposed method is able to diminish the overall noise perceived in the area covered by the system.

Keywords: Active noise control | Non-stationary noise | Wave field synthesis

[51] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Saccardi M., Volpe Y., Optimizing fabrication outcome in low-cost FDM machines. Part 2 - tests, Manufacturing Technology, 18(4), 552-558, (2018). Abstract
X

Several models of FDM machines, characterized by different architecture and hardware components, have flooded the market in the last 5 years. As a result, given the high sensitivity of FDM to the specific machine characteristics, the search for optimal printing parameters is a renown problem. This two-parts paper proposes an easy-to-follow and low-cost procedure for the characterization of any given FDM machine. The method allows the evaluation of the effects of a wide selection of FDM process parameters on the quality of 3D printed parts. The first part focused on the definition of a series of metrics to be measured on a series of test prints to evaluate the quality of the produced parts. The evaluation of seven quality parameters on a single print is made possible thanks to: i) a specifically designed specimen that is made available to the user and ii) a rigorous and repeatable measurement procedure, which are both discussed in the first part of the paper. This second part presents the characterization procedure, the statistical tools used in the experimentation (DOE tools and principles are adopted throughout the experimentation) and provides guidelines to be used for the characterization of any FDM machine. The whole procedure is tested on a desktop FDM machine to demonstrate obtainable results, proving the efficacy of the proposed methodology and highlight strengths and drawbacks of the approach.

Keywords: 3D printing | Additive manufacturing (AM) | Design of experiments (DOE) | Fused deposition modeling (FDM) | Process optimization

[52] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Saccardi M., Volpe Y., Optimizing fabrication outcome in low-cost FDM machines. Part 1-Metrics, Manufacturing Technology, 18(3), 372-378, (2018). Abstract
X

Several models of FDM machines, characterized by different architecture and hardware components, have flooded the market in the last 5 years. As a result, given the high sensitivity of FDM to the specific machine characteristics, the search for optimal printing parameters is a renown problem. This two-parts paper proposes an easy-to-follow and low-cost procedure for the characterization of any given FDM machine. The method allows the evaluation of the effects of a wide selection of FDM process parameters on the quality of 3D printed parts. The first part focuses on the definition of a series of metrics to be measured on a series of test prints to evaluate the quality of the produced parts. Specifically, several effects are considered: dimensional accuracy, small details, overhang surfaces, ability of printing small holes/thin extrusions and overall quality of the prints. The evaluation of seven quality parameters on a single print is made possible thanks to: i) a specifically designed specimen that is made available to the user and ii) a rigorous and repeatable measurement procedure, which are both discussed in the first part of the paper. The second part presents the characterization procedure, the statistical tools used in the experimentation and provides guidelines to be used for the characterization of any FDM machine. The whole procedure is tested on a desktop FDM machine to demonstrate obtainable results.

Keywords: 3D Printing | Additive Manufacturing (AM) | Design of Experiments (DOE) | Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) | Process Optimization

[53] Furferi R., Governi L., Volpe Y., Puggelli L., Carfagni M., Original strategy for avoiding over-smoothing in SFS problem resolution, International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics, 8(1), 58-73, (2018). Abstract
X

With the aim of retrieving 3D surfaces starting from single shaded images, i.e. for solving the widely known shape from shading problem, an important class of methods is based on minimisation techniques where the expected surface to be retrieved is supposed to be coincident with the one that minimise a properly developed functional, consisting of several contributions. Despite several different contributes that can be explored to define a functional, the so called 'smoothness constraint' is a cornerstone since it is the most relevant contribute to guide the convergence of the minimisation process towards a more accurate solution. Unfortunately, in case input shaded image is characterised by areas where actual brightness changes rapidly, such a constraint introduces an undesired over-smoothing effect for the retrieved surface. The present work proposes an original strategy for avoiding such a typical over-smoothing effect, with regard to the image regions in which this is particularly undesired such as, for instance, zones where surface details are to be preserved in the reconstruction. The proposed strategy is tested against a set of case studies and compared with other traditional SFS-based methods to prove its effectiveness.

Keywords: 3D model | Minimisation | SFS | shape from shading | Smoothing | Smoothness constraint | variational approach

[54] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Volpe Y., 3D geometry reconstruction from orthographic views: An improved method exploiting shading information, Computers in Industry, 92-93, 137-151, (2017). Abstract
X

The demand of new tools devoted to integrate aesthetic design into classic parametric CAD suites has undergone a raising interest from the user community. Industrial tools for reconstructing the 3D geometry of an object starting from 2D representations and for surfacing wireframe models according to designers intent, assumed a high relevance and have experienced a steady evolution. The problem of surfacing wireframe models with consistent closing surface patches is still a hot topic in the computer graphics as well as in the industrial field, as demonstrated by a number of recent works. In this paper, authors propose a procedure for enhancing the surfacing process by using shading information, together with the wireframe model. In particular, this work allows to use shading, represented either in a rendered 3D model or sketched by a designer, for retrieving consistent geometrical information related to the 3D object. The procedure is accompanied by some selected case studies, to highlight its strengths and weaknesses.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction | CAD | Hand-drawn sketches | Surfacing | Wireframe model

[55] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Servi M., Uccheddu F., Volpe Y., On the Performance of the Intel SR300 Depth Camera: Metrological and Critical Characterization, IEEE Sensors Journal, 17(14), 4508-4519, (2017). Abstract
X

Specifically conceived for applications related to face analytics and tracking, scene segmentation, hand/finger tracking, gaming, augmented reality, and RGB-D cameras are nowadays used even as 3-D scanners. Despite depth cameras' accuracy and precision are not comparable with professional 3-D scanners, they still constitute a promising device for reverse engineering (RE) applications in the close range, due to their low cost. This is particularly true for more recent devices, such as, for instance, the RealSense SR300, which promises to be among the best performing close range depth cameras in the market. Given the potentiality of this new device, and since to date a deep investigation on its performances has not been assessed in scientific literature, the main aim of this paper is to characterize and to provide metrological considerations on the Intel RealSense SR300 depth sensor when this is used as a 3-D scanner. To this end, the device sensor performances are first assessed by applying the existing normative guidelines (i.e. the one published by the Association of German Engineers - Verein Deutscher Ingenieure - VDI/VDE 2634) both to a set of raw captured depth data and to a set acquired with optimized setting of the camera. Then, further assessment of the device performances is carried out by applying some strategies proposed in the literature using optimized sensor setting, to reproduce "real life" conditions for the use as a 3-D scanner. Finally, the performance of the device is critically compared against the performance of latest short-range sensors, thus providing a useful guide, for researchers and practitioners, in an informed choice of the optimal device for their own RE application.

Keywords: depth camera | device characterization | SR300 | structured light | temporal multiplexing | VDI/VDE normative

[56] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Servi M., Uccheddu F., Volpe Y., Mcgreevy K., Fast and Low Cost Acquisition and Reconstruction System for Human Hand-wrist-arm Anatomy, Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 1600-1608, (2017). Abstract
X

3D body scanners are nowadays used in a range of applications spanning from health, fashion and fitness to reverse engineering applications for robotics and computer vision. Nowadays very good performances are achievable when using commercial 3D body scanners; however, focusing on relative complex shape of some body details, the results still lack precision and acceptable accuracy. Such critical issue remains unsolved also when dealing with the instantaneous acquisition of the hand-wrist-arm (HWA) anatomy. In this paper, we present a new approach that leverages the emerging 3D depth cameras technologies to design a compact low cost 3D dedicated HWA scanner system capable of delivering almost instantaneous full 3D measurement.

Keywords: 3D body scanner | 3D surface | calibration | depth sensors | hand-wrist-arm anatomy

[57] Massimiliano B., Francesco B., Monica C., Leonardo F., Alessandro L., Fabrizio A., Active noise systems for reducing outdoor noise, 24th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2017, (2017). Abstract
X

An ANC system prototype designed for stationary noise control linked to traditional noise barriers was initially developed by authors in the past years. The encouraging results initially obtained have shown that ANC systems are feasible and should be further investigated to improve their performances. Nevertheless, FXLMS algorithm, considered in the first prototype architecture, is known to be affected by convergence problems that generally arise when a system fails to properly identify the noise to be cancelled; this process may (and often does) yield an instable system, where the control algorithm tries to catch-up its own sound, increasing the overall sound pressure level on the targets as in "avalanche" effect, potentially leading to damage fragile instrumentation. Hence, instability is unacceptable in practical applications and must be avoided or prevented. With this respect, in this manuscript some more robust alternative ANC algorithms have been investigated and experimentally verified.

Keywords: Active noise control | Stability

[58] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Silvaggio R., Curcuruto S., Nencini L., Design of a prototype of a smart noise monitoring system, 24th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2017, (2017). Abstract
X

The paper describes the new smart noise monitoring system designed and implemented into the project named LIFE15 ENV/IT/000586 "Methodologies fOr Noise low emission Zones introduction And management" (LIFE MONZA). The prototype system has been designed keeping in mind the state of the art systems and the monitoring needs of the LIFE MONZA project. The designed system can be considered as a prototype according to the necessary customization in the designing of connections among the hardware components and in the definition of protocols to manage and post process of collected data. The prototype is expected to undergo quite a long testing phase (up to five years) during and after the LIFE MONZA project duration. In this paper, some details related to the designed network are reported. In particular, a detailed definition of the hardware components and specs, the transmitting data techniques, the specifications necessary to collect raw data are described. Furthermore some new procedures to periodically check the noise monitoring system performance are proposed.

Keywords: Environmental noise | Prototype | Smart monitoring system

[59] Silvaggio R., Curcuruto S., Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Volpe Y., Arcangeli G., Nizzola C., Introduction and management of noise low emission zones: Life monza project, 24th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2017, (2017). Abstract
X

The introduction of Low Emission Zones, urban areas subject to road traffic restrictions in order to ensure compliance with the air pollutants limit values, set by the European Directive on ambient air quality (2008/50/EC), is a common and well-established action in the administrative government of cities. The impacts on air quality improvement are widely analyzed, whereas the effects and benefits concerning the noise have not been addressed in a comprehensive manner. The definition, the criteria for analysis and the management methods of a Noise Low Emission Zone are not yet clearly expressed and shared. LIFE MONZA project (Methodologies fOr Noise low emission Zones introduction And management - LIFE15 ENV/IT/000586) addresses these issues. The first objective of the project, co-funded by the European Commission, is to introduce an easy-replicable method for the identification and the management of the Noise Low Emission Zone, an urban area subject to traffic restrictions, whose impacts and benefits regarding noise issues will be analyzed and tested in the pilot area of the city of Monza, located in Northern Italy. Further objectives include the monitoring and the analysis of the effects, due to the introduction of the Noise Low Emission Zone, on air quality improvement and on the wellbeing conditions of the inhabitants of a selected pilot area, the identification of the type of interventions that can induce beneficial and synergistic effects, such as those relating to the planning of traffic flows and the adoption of low-noise pavements, and the active involvement of the population in the definition of a more sustainable lifestyle. Background conditions, structure and objectives of the project will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Environmental noise | Low Emission Zones | Sound urban planning

[60] Lapini A., Biagini M., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Argenti F., Design of active noise control systems for pulse noise, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 621-630, (2017). Abstract
X

Active noise control (ANC) methods have been successfully studied and tested for the cancellation of stationary noise. In the last decade, some adaptive solutions for the case of impulsive noise have been proposed in the literature. Nevertheless, such a model fits a limited class of impulsive disturbances that characterize practical scenarios. In this paper a preliminary study on the design of a non-adaptive deterministic ANC system for pulse signals that relies on no statistical assumptions is developed. The spatial audio rendering framework of Wave Field Synthesis is formally adopted in order to synthesize the cancelling sound field by means of an array of secondary sources. A set of preliminary simulations in free field environment, as well as the impact of array geometry and extension, has been carried out in view of forthcoming geometry and shape optimization of the system.

Keywords: Active noise control | Array design | Pulse noise | Virtual sources | Wave field synthesis

[61] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Volpe Y., Recent strategies for 3D reconstruction using reverse engineering: A bird’s eye view, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 841-850, (2017). Abstract
X

This paper presents a brief review of recent methods and tools available to designers to perform reverse engineering of CAD models starting from 3D scanned data (mesh/points). Initially, the basic RE framework, shared by the vast majority of techniques, is sketched out. Two main RE strategies are subsequently identified and discussed: automatic approaches and user-guided ones.

Keywords: CAD reconstruction | Constrained Fitting | Reverse Engineering

[62] Carfagni M., Uccheddu F., Patient-specific 3D modelling of heart and cardiac structures workflow: An overview of methodologies, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 0, 387-396, (2017). Abstract
X

Cardiovascular diagnosis, surgical planning and intervention are among the most interested in recent developments in the field of 3D acquisition, modelling and rapid prototyping techniques. In case of complex heart disease, to provide an accurate planning of the intervention and to support surgical planning and intervention, an increasing number of Hospitals make use of physical 3D models of the cardiac structure, including heart, obtained using additive manufacturing starting from the 3D model retrieved with medical imagery. The present work aims in providing an overview on most recent approaches and methodologies for creating physical prototypes of patient-specific heart and cardiac structures, with particular reference to most critical phases such as segmentation and aspects concerning converting digital models into physical replicas through rapid prototyping techniques. First, recent techniques for image enhancement to highlight anatomical structures of interest are presented together with the current state of the art of semi-automatic image segmentation. Then, most suitable techniques for prototyping the retrieved 3D model are investigated so as to draft some hints for creating prototypes useful for planning the medical intervention.

Keywords: 3D modelling | 3D printing | Cardiovascular diseases | Heart | Medical imagery | Rapid prototyping | Surgical planning

[63] Borchi F., Carfagni M., Martelli L., Turchi A., Argenti F., Design and experimental tests of active control barriers for low-frequency stationary noise reduction in urban outdoor environment, Applied Acoustics, 114, 125-135, (2016). Abstract
X

Active noise control (ANC) techniques are based on the emission of an antiphase signal in order to cancel the noise produced by a primary source. ANC has been successfully applied especially for reducing noise in confined environments, such as headphones and ducts. In this study, we present an application of ANC concepts to the design of an anti-noise barrier for an outdoor environment and its experimental testing. Even though passive techniques are effective in noise reduction at middle-high frequencies, they become less efficient at low frequencies (below 300 Hz) due to the limited dimensions of commonly deployable barriers. In this paper, we analyze the properties of a low-cost active noise system able to efficiently operate on stationary, almost pure-tone, low-frequency noise, such as that produced by electrical transformers and reactors in power and transformation plants. A prototype has been implemented and on-the-field experimental tests have been carried out. The results (confirmed also by numerical simulations) demonstrate a remarkable efficiency in the far field, with a reduction up to 15 dB with respect to the absence of the ANC system.

Keywords: Active noise control | Active-noise barrier | Low-frequency stationary noise | Urban noise

[64] Lapini A., Biagini M., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Argenti F., Active noise control for pulse signals by Wave Field Synthesis, European Signal Processing Conference, 2016-November, 883-887, (2016). Abstract
X

Active noise control (ANC) techniques have been intensively studied and applied for the cancellation of stationary noise. More recently, adaptive solutions for the case of impulsive noise, i.e. stochastic processes for which statistical moments superior to the first are not defined, have been proposed in the literature. Nevertheless, such a model fits a limited class of impulsive disturbances that could be experienced in practice. This paper introduces a preliminary study on a non-adaptive deterministic ANC technique for pulse signals that relies on no statistical assumptions. In particular, the spatial audio rendering framework of Wave Field Synthesis is formally adopted in order to synthesize the cancelling acoustic field. Simulations in free field environment, including the analysis of impairments such as time mismatch and template mismatch, have been carried out, showing promising performances in terms of noise cancellation.

[65] Furferi R., Governi L., Volpe Y., Carfagni M., Carded tow real-time color assessment: A spectral camera-based system, Sensors (Switzerland), 16(9), (2016). Abstract
X

One of the most important parameters to be controlled during the production of textile yarns obtained by mixing pre-colored fibers, is the color correspondence between the manufactured yarn and a given reference, usually provided by a designer or a customer. Obtaining yarns from raw pre-colored fibers is a complex manufacturing process entailing a number of steps such as laboratory sampling, color recipe corrections, blowing, carding and spinning. Carding process is the one devoted to transform a “fuzzy mass” of tufted fibers into a regular mass of untwisted fibers, named “tow”. During this process, unfortunately, the correspondence between the color of the tow and the target one cannot be assured, thus leading to yarns whose color differs from the one used for reference. To solve this issue, the main aim of this work is to provide a system able to perform a spectral camera-based real-time measurement of a carded tow, to assess its color correspondence with a reference carded fabric and, at the same time, to monitor the overall quality of the tow during the carding process. Tested against a number of differently colored carded fabrics, the proposed system proved its effectiveness in reliably assessing color correspondence in real-time.

Keywords: Carding process | Color assessment | Spectral camera sensor | Spectrophotometry

[66] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Volpe Y., Are we ready to build a system for assisting blind people in tactile exploration of bas-reliefs?, Sensors (Switzerland), 16(9), (2016). Abstract
X

Nowadays, the creation of methodologies and tools for facilitating the 3D reproduction of artworks and, contextually, to make their exploration possible and more meaningful for blind users is becoming increasingly relevant in society. Accordingly, the creation of integrated systems including both tactile media (e.g., bas-reliefs) and interfaces capable of providing the users with an experience cognitively comparable to the one originally envisioned by the artist, may be considered the next step for enhancing artworks exploration. In light of this, the present work provides a description of a first-attempt system designed to aid blind people (BP) in the tactile exploration of bas-reliefs. In detail, consistent hardware layout, comprising a hand-tracking system based on Kinect® sensor and an audio device, together with a number of methodologies, algorithms and information related to physical design are proposed. Moreover, according to experimental test on the developed system related to the device position, some design alternatives are suggested so as to discuss pros and cons.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction | Blind people | Hand-tracking system | Kinect sensor

[67] Luzzi S., Bellomini R., Natale R., Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Importance of public participation in END implementation: Some experiences from Italian agglomerates and infrastructures, Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, 1248-1255, (2016). Abstract
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Information, communication and participation are important keywords for a correct and effective implementation of Directive 2002/49/EC, the Environmental Noise Directive (END). Following the article 9 of END, information to the public must be ensured by Member States as the strategic noise maps are adopted and the action plans are drawn up. Data should be made fully available and disseminated to the public, information must be clear, comprehensible and accessible. Sometimes the participation of public is needed to make the best choice among different solutions for actions of noise reduction plan and acoustic quality improvement in strategic action plans, sometimes the public can be involved, as main stakeholder, in the definition of policies for noise control at local level including regulations for the correct use of entertainment ares and quiet areas as well. In this paper a general review of different scenarios where participation of the public is preferable since it can give crucial contributions is shown. The review is integrated by some examples of good and useful information and participation activities derived by strategic noise mapping and action plans implementation for agglomerates and infrastructures of transport.

Keywords: Information END | Participation

[68] Furferi R., Carfagni M., Volpe Y., Governi L., Nanomaterials-based heating devices for cultural heritage application: A patent survey, Micro and Nanosystems, 8(1), 3-12, (2016). Abstract
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Conservation practices are aimed to implement minimal, targeted and less in-vasive treatments. The conservation profession’s challenges and best practices are therefore becoming more global and mobile, especially when dealing with treatments involving temperature (e.g. painting conservation). The near future of heating devices in art conservation will be with mobile, versatile, accurate and cost effective “smart” devices. For these reasons, the design and manufacturing of heating mats for applications in the Cultural Heritage field moved from early concepts mainly based on electrically heated mats towards more accurate thermo-electrical mild heating devices, especially based on nanomaterials. Despite great scientific efforts have been spent in the last years to create more efficient devices for conservation, there is still room for practically implementing them and, moreover, for protecting new concepts by patenting them. To help the scientific community in getting an overview on the patent state of the art on this important sector, the present work is aimed to provide a survey of patents related to nanomaterials-based heaters to be adopted for artworks conservation. Starting from early works, the paper explores recent patents by selecting the domains referred to nanotechnology sector that are mainly relevant for the heating devices field.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes | Heating mates | Nanomaterials | Nanotechnology | Paintings conservation | Patents

[69] Carfagni M., Governi L., Volpe Y., Development of a software platform for collaborative MCAD based shoe design, 2008 IEEE International Technology Management Conference, ICE 2008, (2016). Abstract
X

In this paper a novel approach, enabling rapid time to market and making shoe collaborative design effectively possible, will be presented. The solution suggested in this work consists of two elements: first, the implementation of a SolidWorks add-on called SYS (SYstem Shoe) whose main goal is to provide a widespread CAD software packages with specific features for shoe design; secondarily the development of a web platform, capable to communicate with and control the SYS add-on. This platform provides the unique opportunity of making the entire system (installed on a server PC) available to external users (small factories concurring to the shoe production chain), without the need of a CAD software own installation. The scenario in which the described system is supposed to work consists of a inter-company network with a main node equipped with the web-CAD platform. This main node acts as a server towards the peripheral nodes (clients: shoe assembly and component-making companies).

Keywords: collaborative design | reverse engineering | Shoe design

[70] Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Curcuruto S., Silvaggio R., Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Licitra G., Palazzuoli D., Melloni A., LIFE+2008 HUSH project results: A new methodology and a new platform for implementing an integrated and harmonized noise Action Plan and proposals for updating Italian legislation and Environmental Noise Directive, Noise Mapping, 3(1), 71-85, (2016).
[71] Aspuru I., Garcia I., Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Wolfert H., Gaudibert P., LIFE+2010 QUADMAP project: A new methodology to select, analyze and manage Quiet Urban Areas defined by the European Directive 2002/49/EC, Noise Mapping, 3(1), 120-129, (2016). Abstract
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Concerning quiet areas, the definition provided by the Environmental Noise Directive (END) is intended to preserve the acoustic environment in those areas where it is considered good, according to general indicators and limits. However, the END is not clear enough to allow appropriate assessment and management in urban environments. The aim of QUADMAP project was to deliver a method and guidelines for the identification, delineation, characterization, improvement and management of Quiet Urban Areas (QUAs) as defined by the END. The Project also wanted to help clarify the definition of a QUA, its meaning and its added value for cities in terms of health, safety and lowering stress levels. In this article, after an introduction of the current European scenario on QUAs, the main aspects of the methodology introduced for the selection, analysis and management of QUAs are described. Eventually, the major results achieved by the Project, in terms of the guideline on QUAs, the implemented interventions and the achieved benefits, are reported and discussed.

Keywords: Action plan | Environmental noise | Noise mapping | Quiet areas | Soundscape

[72] Buonamici F., Carfagni M., Reverse engineering of mechanical parts: A brief overview of existing approaches and possible new strategies, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1B-2016, (2016). Abstract
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Reverse Engineering (RE), also known as "CAD reconstruction", aims at the reconstruction of 3D geometric models of objects/mechanical parts, starting from 3D measured data (points/mesh). In recent years, considerable developments in RE were achieved thanks to both academic and industrial research (e.g. RE software packages). The aim of this work is to provide an overview of state of the art techniques and approaches presented in recent years (considering at the same time tools and methods provided by commercial CAD software and RE systems). In particular, this article focuses on the "constrained fitting" approach, which considers geometrical constraints between the generated surfaces, improving the reconstruction result. On the basis of the overview, possible theoretical principles are drafted with the aim of suggest new strategies to make the CAD reconstruction process more effective in order to obtain more ready/usable CAD models. Finally, a new RE framework is briefly outlined: the proposed approach hypothesizes a tool built within the environment of an existing CAD system and considers the fitting of a custom-built archetypal model, defined with all the a-priori known dimensions and constraints, to the scanned data.

[73] Carfagni M., Puggelli L., An innovative strategy for a step-by-step SFS reconstruction based on variational approach, International Journal of Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 10, 324-331, (2016). Abstract
X

The stylistic design of new industrial products often starts from shaded handmade sketches which, usually, need to be converted into 3D digital models by using CAD software packages for the subsequent design phases. This conversion often represents the bottleneck of the whole development process. Shape from Shading (SFS), which attempts to recover the 3D geometry of an object starting from a single shaded representation, is potentially capable of speeding-up the 3D conversion. However, existing approaches prove to be extremely unstable and error prone mainly due to the under-determination of the SFS problem. In order to increase the performance of shading based reconstruction authors propose a step-by-step variational-based approach. In particular, the problem is solved into multiple steps, each one providing the initialization for the following, so that the solution gradually converges towards the final surface. Tested against a set of case studies, the method proved its effectiveness.

Keywords: 3D design | Computer aided design | Numerical optimization | Shape from shading | Stylistic content | Variational approach

[74] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Asdrubali F., D'Alessandro F., Schiavoni S., Contributions to end interpretation and implementation from the Italian case studies of eu funded projects hush, nadia and quadmap, ICSV 2016 - 23rd International Congress on Sound and Vibration: From Ancient to Modern Acoustics, (2016). Abstract
X

The European Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) provides indications and recommendations about noise mapping, action planning, quiet areas and the communication and dissemination towards citizens. However, for several items only definitions and general indications are made available, without giving specific suggestions about how to deal with them in practice. In this article the main contributions to END interpretation and implementation from the Italian case studies of EU funded projects HUSH, NADIA and QUADMAP are described. LIFE+2008 HUSH (Harmonization of Urban Noise reduction Strategies for Homogeneous action plans) project aimed at giving a contribution to the harmonization of the National and European legislations, regarding urban noise management tools, allowing a definition of coherent procedures able to comply the commitments introduced by National laws and by the END. Starting from the methodology defined and the interventions realized in two pilot areas in Florence, proposals for revision of National legislation and END have been provided, for supporting competent authorities and policy makers. In the LIFE+2009 NADIA (Noise Abatement Demonstrative and Innovative Actions and information to the public) project methods and procedures to achieve the END requirements have been developed, aiming the following main objectives: to improve the methodologies for the realization of noise mappings and action plans, with a particular focus on road traffic noise, to increase the awareness of citizens and of potential stakeholders by focused communication and dissemination activities and to assess the technical and economic feasibility of best practices in tackling road traffic noise. LIFE+2010 QUADMAP project (QUiet Areas Definition and Management in Action Plans) has proposed a method and guidelines for the selection, analysis and management of Quiet Urban Areas (QUAs) as introduced by the END.

[75] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., New common noise assessment methods (CNOS-SOS-EU) for aircraft noise: Comparison with previously available procedures and test in the applicative case study of Florence, Italy, ICSV 2016 - 23rd International Congress on Sound and Vibration: From Ancient to Modern Acoustics, (2016). Abstract
X

In the Tuscany region (Italy) the interest on aircraft noise has always been very keen, due to the presence of the "Amerigo Vespucci" airport of Florence. Environmental issues associated with the airport are strongly perceived by citizens, with particular reference to its acoustic impact: whole districts located near the track, on existing take off/landing routes, suffer from noise limits exceedances and high annoyance. In 2015 this interest grew and spread to other towns near Florence, due to the proposal for a new layout of the "Amerigo Vespucci" airport, consisting in the realization of a new runway, rotated and extended with respect to the current one. All this considered, it is deemed extremely interesting to start a research study about the local aircraft noise impact, according to the current and the future airport configuration. The need for such a study is confirmed by the European Directive 2015/996 which recently introduced new common procedures for the noise determination. In fact, the effectiveness of new calculation methods need to be verified and their adaptability to different territories should be tested. The first aim of the research illustrated in this paper is to compare the calculation methods proposed by European Directive 2015/996 with the previous available ones and to highlight the main criticalities. In addition, a pilot case identified with the "Amerigo Vespucci" airport will be selected and specific models of noise aircraft propagation will be built. In a subsequent phase, noise monitoring campaigns will be performed and the comparison between the simulated and experimental values will give an indication of the models' uncertainty. Finally, the introduction of indicators for the indoor disturbance during teaching activities will be investigated.

[76] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Puggelli L., Volpe Y., Two simple yet effective strategies for avoiding over-smoothing in SFS problem, Journal of Computer Science, 12(3), 128-140, (2016). Abstract
X

Minimization techniques are widely used for retrieving a 3D surface starting from a single shaded image i.e., for solving the shape from shading problem. Such techniques are based on the assumption that expected surface to be retrieved coincides with the one that minimize a properly developed functional, consisting of several contributions. Among the possible contributes defining the functional, the so called "smoothness constraint" is always used since it guides the convergence of the minimization process towards a more accurate solution. Unfortunately, in areas where actually brightness changes rapidly, it also introduces an undesired over-smoothing effect. The present work proposes two simple yet effective strategies for avoiding the typical over-smoothing effect, with regards to the image regions in which this effect is particularly undesired (e.g., areas where surface details are to be preserved in the reconstruction). Tested against a set of case studies the strategies prove to outperform traditional SFS-based methods.

Keywords: 3D model | Minimization | Shape from shading | Smoothing | Smoothness constraint | Variational approach

[77] Francesco B., Monica C., Lorenzo M., Alessio T., Fabrizio A., An active noise barrier system optimized for reducing outdoor stationary noise, 22nd International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2015, (2015). Abstract
X

Active Noise Control (ANC) techniques are based on the sound emission of an antiphase signal in order to cancel a noise produced by a primary source and are efficient at low frequencies. One of the most promising open space application fields for ANC techniques is the development of Active Noise Barriers (ANB), where the control system is paired with a traditional noise barrier. One of the main limits of traditional barriers is that their efficiency is low in the lower frequency range (less than 500 Hz). In this paper we analyze the properties of a low-cost ANB system able to efficiently operate on stationary pure-tone low-frequency noise produced in an electrical station, due to, eg. transformers or reactors. The prototype we realized shows a remarkable efficiency in the far field, with additional abatements up to 15 dB with respect to a traditional noise barrier.

[78] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Petrucci A., Salvini M.S., Statistical analysis on ante-operam data collected in the Quiet Urban Areas selected by the LIFE+2010 QUADMAP project, 22nd International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2015, (2015). Abstract
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QUADMAP (QUiet Areas Definition and Management in Action Plans) is a LIFE+2010 Project on Quiet Urban Areas which aims to deliver a method regarding identification, delineation, characterization, improvement and managing of Quiet Urban Areas (QUAs) as meant in the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC. The project will also help to understand the definition of a QUA, the meaning and the added value for the city and their citizens in terms of health, social safety and lowering stress levels. At the beginning of 2013 the first version of a methodology to select, analyze and manage QUAs has been produced and subsequently applied in ten pilot areas chosen in Firenze, Bilbao and Rotterdam. During the analysis phase, quantitative (noise maps and acoustic measurements) and qualitative (end-users questionnaires, general and non-acoustic information) data have been collected and examined. Once the ante-operam phase of analysis has been completed, the interventions' realization in the pilot areas started and was followed by post-operam surveys. In this paper, results of the carried out statistical analysis based both on quantitative and qualitative data acquired in the city of Florence during the ante-operam phase are presented. In particular, the use of logistic regression and ordinal logistic models is investigated. The use of multidimensional techniques aims to evaluate the net effect of single variables.

[79] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Zonfrillo G., Bellomini R., Wolfert H., Aspuru I., Gaudibert P., Life+2010 QUADMAP project (QUiet areas definition and management in action plans): Results of post operam data analysis and the optimized methodology, 22nd International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2015, (2015). Abstract
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The EU Directive 49/2002/EC on Environmental Noise refers to Quiet Urban Areas (QUAs) as places whose acoustic climate should be preserved because a noise indicator is lower than a threshold established by each Member State. This definition appears to be extremely generic and doesn't provide usable procedures to be applied in each Country. Proposing a solution to overcome the lack of harmonized methodologies for QUAs is the main aim of QUADMAP (QUiet Areas Definition and Management in Action Plans) Project. The results of the Project will facilitate urban planners to apply standard procedures for identification, delimitation and prioritization of QUAs. The Project has a high level of demonstrativeness guaranteed by the fact that the proposed methodology has been tested in a number of pilot areas in Florence (Italy), Bilbao (Spain) and Rotterdam (The Netherlands). The Project started on 1st September 2011 and lasts three years and half. At the beginning of 2013 the harmonized methodology has been defined. The proposed procedures have been tested since February 2013 in all pilot cases and the methodology has been improved, in line with experiences gained during data collection and analysis of the ante-operam scenarios. Since the beginning of 2014, the realization of interventions started, following indications coming from endusers questionnaires, expert analysis, technicians and application of complementary criteria. In the pilot areas of Bilbao interventions have been completed by June 2014, while in Florence and Rotterdam they have been concluded by the end of the same year. In the meantime, post-operam data collection and analysis have started. In this paper results of the post operam data analysis are described and compared with those obtained on the ante-operam phase. Moreover, the main innovative elements introduced in the optimized methodology are illustrated.

[80] Furferi R., Carfagni M., Governi L., Volpe Y., Bogani P., Towards automated and objective assessment of fabric pilling, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 11, (2014). Abstract
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Pilling is a complex property of textile fabrics, representing, for the final user, a non-desired feature to be controlled and measured by companies working in the textile industry. Traditionally, pilling is assessed by visually comparing fabrics with reference to a set of standard images, thus often resulting in inconsistent quality control. A number of methods using machine vision have been proposed all over the world, with almost all sharing the idea that pilling can be assessed by determining the number of pills or the area occupied by the pills on the fabric surface. In the present work a different approach is proposed: instead of determining the number of pills, a machine vision-based procedure is devised with the aim of extracting a number of parameters characterizing the fabric. These are then used to train an artificial neural network to automatically grade the fabrics in terms of pilling. Tested against a set of differently pilled fabrics, the method shows its effectiveness.

Keywords: Computational vision | Image processing | Machine vision system | Neural networks | Pilling | Textile industry

[81] Carfagni M., Puggelli L., Different strategies for rapid prototyping of digital bas-reliefs, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 510, 163-167, (2014). Abstract
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In the last decades several computer-based procedures have been devised with the aim of speeding up the 3D reconstruction from a single image in the form of bas-relief. At the same time, the use of rapid prototyping (RP) technology considerably spread enabling quick manufacture of 3D products directly from 3D modelling systems. The present paper presents a few consideration about different possible strategies for bas-reliefs manufacturing by using the main RP techniques (stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling (FDM) and Polyjet/Multi-jet technology). A practical example is used for discussing pros and cons of the different alternatives. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Keywords: Artistic surfaces | Bas-relief | Rapid prototyping techniques

[82] Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Carfagni M., Borchi F., Governi L., Bartalucci C., Life+2010 Quadmap Project (Quiet Areas Definition and Management in Action Plans): The methodology tested and optimized in pilot cases in Florence, Rotterdam and Bilbao, Proceedings of Forum Acusticum, 2014-January, (2014). Abstract
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Current practices about selection, assessment and management of Quiet Areas in EU Countries, though regulated by the EU Directive 49/2002/EC on Environmental Noise, appear to be extremely fragmented and inhomogeneous. In fact, each country during past years adopted a set of strategies strictly related to specific contexts. Proposing a solution to overcome the lack of harmonized methodologies for Quiet Areas is the main aim of QUADMAP (QUiet Areas Definition and Management in Action Plans) project. The project has a high level of demonstrativeness guaranteed by the fact that the methodology proposed for identification, delimitation and prioritization of QUAs will be tested on a number of case study areas. In particular, it will be applied in a set of pilot cases in Italy, Spain, and in The Netherlands. The project started on 1st September 2011 and lasts three years. At the beginning of 2013 the harmonized methodology has been defined. The proposed procedure has been tested since February 2013 in all pilot cases and optimized according to data collected in the pilot cases. In this paper the optimization procedures are described, with particular attention to those developed in the period April-June 2014.

[83] Carfagni M., Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Governi L., Petrucci A., Weber M., Aspuru I., Bellomini R., Gaudibert P., Life+2010 quadmap project (quiet areas definition and management in action plans): The new methodology obtained after applying the optimization procedures, 21st International Congress on Sound and Vibration 2014, ICSV 2014, 3, 2576-2583, (2014). Abstract
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Current practices about selection, assessment and management of Quiet Areas in EU Countries, though regulated by the EU Directive 49/2002/EC on Environmental Noise, appear to be extremely fragmented and inhomogeneous. In fact, each country during past years adopted a set of strategies strictly related to their specific contexts. Proposing a solution to overcome the lack of harmonized methodologies for Quiet Areas is the main aim of QUADMAP (QUiet Areas Definition and Management in Action Plans) project. The results of the project will facilitate urban planners to apply standard procedures for identification, delimitation and prioritization of Quiet Urban Areas. The project has a high level of demonstrativeness guaranteed by the fact that proposed methodology will be tested on a number of case study areas. In particular, it will be tested in a set of pilot cases in Italy, Spain, and in The Netherlands. The project started on 1st September 2011 and lasts three years. At the end of 2012 the harmonized methodology has been defined. The proposed procedures have been tested since February 2013 in all pilot cases and, recently, the methodology has been optimized, in line with experiences gained during data collection within the pilot cases and analysis of the ante-operam scenarios. In this paper the optimization procedures are described with regards to these experiences gained in the pilot cases.

[84] Furferi R., Governi L., Volpe Y., Puggelli L., Vanni N., Carfagni M., From 2D to 2.5D i.e. from painting to tactile model, Graphical Models, 76(6), 706-723, (2014). Abstract
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Commonly used to produce the visual effect of full 3D scene on reduced depth supports, bas relief can be successfully employed to help blind people to access inherently bi-dimensional works of art. Despite a number of methods have been proposed dealing with the issue of recovering 3D or 2.5D surfaces from single images, only a few of them explicitly address the recovery problem from paintings and, more specifically, the needs of visually impaired and blind people. The main aim of the present paper is to provide a systematic method for the semi-automatic generation of 2.5D models from paintings. Consequently, a number of ad hoc procedures are used to solve most of the typical problems arising when dealing with artistic representation of a scene. Feedbacks provided by a panel of end-users demonstrated the effectiveness of the method in providing models reproducing, using a tactile language, works of art otherwise completely inaccessible.

Keywords: 2.5D model | Minimization techniques | Shape From Shading | Tactile model

[85] Markevicius T., Furferi R., Olsson N., Meyer H., Governi L., Carfagni M., Volpe Y., Hegelbach R., Towards the development of a novel CNTs-based flexible mild heater for art conservation, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, 4(1), (2014). Abstract
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Mild heating devices currently available to conservators are still limited in terms of precision, versatility, mobility, accessibility and cost. Moreover, they lack a range of operational features, such as low power requirements, efficient power use, temperature stability and uniform heat distribution. Carbon nanotubebased technologies can provide a wide range of technical solutions for overcoming these limitations, thereby allowing the development of more precise, flexible and portable heating devices. This work describes the design of an innovative carbon nanotube-based intelligent mobile accurate thermo-electrical mild heating device, to be used in the art conservation field. The device consists of three different types of flexible heating mats with different designs (opaque and ultra-thin/woven and breathable/transparent) and different operational and physical properties. The entire heating system is completed by a control unit that controls, monitors and registers the heating and by a power supply unit. First tests performed on a series of prototypes of the designed heaters showed that the device was able to convey uniform heating on different working materials, thus proving to be effective for thermal consolidation. © 2014 The Author(s).

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes | Cultural heritage | Mild heating devices

[86] Governi L., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Puggelli L., Volpe Y., Digital Bas-Relief Design: A Novel Shape from Shading-Based Method, Computer-Aided Design and Applications, 11(2), 153-164, (2014). Abstract
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Design of products characterized by high stylistic content and organic shapes in the form of bas-relief (e.g. fashion accessories, commemorative plaques and coins) is traditionally performed starting from handmade drawings or photographs that are manually reproduced by highly skilled craftsmen such as sculptors and engravers and finally digitized by means of 3D scanning. Several Computer-based procedures have been devised with the aim of speeding up this process, which is considerably time consuming, subjective and costly; these are mainly based on image processing techniques such as embossing, enhancement, histogram equalization or dynamic range, also implemented in CAD-based commercial software. However, these approaches are characterized by several limitations preventing them from providing a "correct" final geometry. In view of that, the present work describes a novel method for the creation of digital bas-reliefs from a single image using a Shape From Shading (SFS) based approach with interactive initialization. Image processing-based techniques and minimization SFS methods are first used in order to retrieve a rough version of the objective surface; successively, this is used as initialization for the final reconstruction algorithm. Tested on a set of case studies, the method proved to be effective in providing satisfactory digital bas-relief from single images. © 2013 © 2013 CAD Solutions, LLC.

Keywords: digital bas-relief | image processing | shape from shading | shape retrieval

[87] Carfagni M., Nunziati M., Palai M., Two factor user authentication via biometry and neural networks, International Journal of Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 7(8), 764-771, (2013). Abstract
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A multi-factor authentication framework relays on the usage of two or more sources of data for identity retrieval. Moving from authors' previous experimentation on two factor biometric authentication frameworks, the present paper shows the impact of the usage of neural networks as a way to fuse the outcomes of the different factors. The aim is to experiment neural networks as a way to map the multidimensional probabilistic space of a multi-factor biometric framework into the mono-dimensional binary space required by an authentication system.

Keywords: Authentication | Neural networks | Signature | Voice

[88] Furferi R., Governi L., Volpe Y., Carfagni M., Design and assessment of a machine vision system for automatic vehicle wheel alignment, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 10, (2013). Abstract
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Wheel alignment, consisting of properly checking the wheel characteristic angles against vehicle manufacturers' specifications, is a crucial task in the automotive field since it prevents irregular tyre wear andaffects vehicle handling and safety. In recent years, systems based on Machine Vision have been widely studied in order to automatically detect wheels' characteristic angles. In order to overcome the limitations of existing methodologies, due to measurement equipment being mounted onto the wheels, the present work deals with design and assessment of a 3D machine vision-based system for the contactless reconstruction of vehicle wheel geometry, with particular reference to characteristic planes. Such planes, properly referred to as a global coordinate system, are used for determining wheel angles. The effectiveness of the proposed method was tested against a set of measurements carried out using a commercial 3D scanner; the absolute average error in measuring toe and camber angles with the machine vision system resulted in full compatibility with the expected accuracy of wheel alignment systems. © 2013 Furferi et al.

Keywords: Machine vision | Stereovision | Wheel alignment

[89] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Bellomini R., Luzzi S., Natale R., LIFE+2010 QUADMAP project (QUiet areas definition and management in action plans): The proposed methodology and its application in the pilot cases of Firenze, 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 6, 4840-4849, (2013). Abstract
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Current practices about selection, assessment and management of QUAs (Quiet Urban Areas) in EU Countries, though regulated by the EU Directive 49/2002/EC on Environmental Noise (commonly abbreviated END), appear to be extremely fragmented and inhomogeneous. In fact, each country during past years adopted a set of strategies strictly related to their specific contexts. Proposing a solution to overcome the lack of harmonized methodologies for QUAs is the main aim of QUADMAP (QUiet Areas Definition and Management in Action Plans) project. The results of the project will facilitate urban planners to apply standard procedures for identification, delimitation and prioritization of QUAs. The project has a high level of demonstrativeness guaranteed by the fact that the proposed methodology will be tested on a number of case study areas. In particular, it will be tested on a set of pilot cases in Italy, Spain, and The Netherlands. The project started on 2011, September the 1st and lasts three years. At the beginning of 2013 the first version of the harmonized methodology has been defined. The project partners have being testing the procedures making up such a methodology since February 2013 in all pilot cases. The proposed methodology and an overview of the available results in pilot areas selected in the city of Firenze are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Environmental noise directive | Noise | Quiet areas | Soundscape

[90] Meyer H., Saborowski K., Markevicius T., Olsson N., Furferi R., Carfagni M., Carbon nanotubes in art conservation, International Journal of Conservation Science, 4(SPL.ISS.), 633-646, (2013). Abstract
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Ever since their discovery in 1991 carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have inspired scientists and developers of future technologies. They feature an electrical conductivity similar to copper, a thermal conductivity similar to diamond, and a modulus more than hundred times greater than steel. Many companies are working intensively on the development of CNT technology and applications. New catalysts have been developed which are capable of forming the tiny and thin-walled carbon nanotubes without any impurities. Based on these new industrial processes, cost efficient mass production has become viable. Perhaps one of the greatest technological potentials of CNTs at the present time lies in their electrical and thermal properties. CNTs are not only extremely light and robust, but can also efficiently heat up surfaces of any size utmost evenly with very rapid thermal response which can guarantee ultra-steady temperatures over large surface areas as well as short heating and cooling times. In order to use these properties in art conservation, the IMAT-project has been launched. The project is supposed to create a series of innovative and highly accurate mild and flexible heating devices for the conservation of various kinds of cultural heritage.

Keywords: Art conservation | CNT | IMAT-heater | Mild heating | Nanotechnology

[91] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Volpe Y., A vane-motor automatic design procedure, International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 7(3), 147-157, (2013). Abstract
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Because of their features, pneumatic motors are often preferred to their electrical counterparts in a number of industrial applications. In spite of their growing diffusion, to the best of authors knowledge, a well-established design procedure is still missing due to the large number of factors (e.g. friction, fluid-dynamic losses, etc.) introducing non idealities in the motor behaviour. Moving from these considerations, this work aims to illustrate the development of a design methodology, implemented in the form of a prototypal software tool, capable of automatically define all the necessary constructive parameters of vane motors on the basis of a required characteristic curve and to considerably speed-up the whole design process. The methodology is based on three main elements: an experimental-mathematical model obtained by means of a DoE approach; a search algorithm meant to identify the constructive solution best matching the design target; a parametric CAD model which is directly driven by the constructive parameters provided by the mathematical model. The presented methodology, applied to the development of a set of pneumatic vane motors, led to the manufacturing of units fulfilling the design target within an error lower than 3 %, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 2012 Springer-Verlag France.

Keywords: Air motor | Automatic design | Optimization | Parametric modelling

[92] Bartalucci C., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Weber M., Wolfert H., Quiet areas definition and management in action plans: General Overview, 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012, 7, 5554-5560, (2012).
[93] Markevicus T., Olsson N., Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Puggelli L., IMAT project: From innovative nanotechnology to best practices in art conservation, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 7616 LNCS, 784-792, (2012). Abstract
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The research and development of new conservation materials and instrumentation and the integration of contemporary science into the discipline are of fundamental importance in formulating best practices in conservation and preserving cultural heritage assets. With this goal in mind in November 2011, the IMAT project (Intelligent Mobile Accurate Thermo-Electrical mild heating device) was launched under the European Commission's 7th Framework Program (FP7) for research. During the three-year length of the project, coordinated by the University of Florence, a European consortium of researchers representing expertise in conservation, nanotechnology, and thermo-electrical engineering will develop nanotechnology for the IMAT devices specifically designed for highly accurate mild heating in conservation of artworks and other cultural heritage assets. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Keywords: conservation | IMAT | mild heating | nanotubes

[94] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Volpe Y., Tennirelli G., Tactile representation of paintings: An early assessment of possible computer based strategies, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 7616 LNCS, 261-270, (2012). Abstract
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In recent years, a number of works meant to define the criteria for translating two-dimensional art into tactile representation, to be benefit of blind and visually impaired people. Due to technology-related limitations, however, these studies mainly investigated only some kinds of possible representations (e.g. tactile diagrams). This work deals with the analysis of 4 alternative translation strategies, implemented using computer-based tools, to determine the most effective one in delivering blind people a correct perception of pictorial artworks. The outcomes of the study contribute new information to the field of tactile paintings for blind and visually impaired individuals by testing the response of a panel of potential users. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Keywords: blind | Computer-based 3D modeling | haptic exploration | tactile artwork | visually impaired

[95] Borchi F., Carfagni M., Governi L., The H.U.S.H. project - An harmonized methodology for action planning, Proceedings - European Conference on Noise Control, 345-350, (2012). Abstract
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The H.U.S.H. LIFE+ project (Harmonization of Urban noise reduction Strategies for Homogeneous action plans), approved by European Commission into the LIFE+2008 financial program, moves from the evidence that harmonization of noise action planning methods is needed in all the European countries where a former Legislation about noise planning was in force when Environmental Noise Directive (END) 49/2002/EC, [1], was adopted. The general aim is harmonizing national noise management standards with END for obtaining homogeneous noise Action Plans, in order to provide a contribution to the more general need of transposing, implementing and enforcing a common or harmonized environmental legislation among EU countries. Specific aims of the project are: to point out unsolved conflicts among current standards at Regional, National and European level; to define common methods for designing strategic and specific solutions; to define a new development system for action planning; to design guidelines for action plans implementation. In a previous publication, [2], the results of data collection were described and some critical issues were pointed out about noise mapping and action planning procedures. Based on this outcome, during the HUSH project, an harmonized methodology has been developed for noise mapping and action planning and it is presented in this work. © European Acoustics Association.

[96] Carfagni M., Nunziati M., An improved model and feature set for signature recognition, Recent Researches in Computers and Computing - International Conference on Computers and Computing, ICCC'11, 75-80, (2011). Abstract
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Automatic on-line signature recognition has been investigated by several authors in order to allow machines to recognize an user from its own biometric traits. The following paper deals with features and models required in order to allow a machine to learn and discriminate signatures. The proposed solution approaches the signature making process as the motion of a point in a bi-dimensional space and model s statistic properties of the motion via the well known Maximum a Posteriori training of Gaussian Mixture Models. Comparing our approach to state-of-the-art solutions, major advancements have been found. As first, both system accuracy in signature discrimination and system resistance to forgeries have been double. Eventually, the proposed modeling technique leads to smaller templates, whose size is halved with respect to state-of-theart alternatives.

Keywords: Biometry | Maximum a posteriori | On-line signature recognition | Pattern recognition

[97] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Cini E., Migliorini M., Daou M., Cherubini C., Boncinelli P., Computers and electronics in innovative olive oil mill production chain: Development of integrated hardware+software systems for control, simulation, estimation and enhancement of olive oil quality, Agriculture Research and Technology, 1-81, (2011). Abstract
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The evolution of olive oil technology is related to research raised to deepen the understanding of biological and biophysical phenomena during the machining process olives, thus allowing the introduction of sensors able to monitoring the parameters and the process according to the characteristics of olives themselves. Current research has identified manufacturing protocols that can enable the achievement levels of product quality required by the market, mainly by reducing the time between collection and processing of olives and raising the technological level of extraction lines. In this context, the present chapter aims to describe the results of a three-years project developed by the PIN-University of Florence (Italy) in collaboration with the Tuscan Regional Agricultural Development, the Florence Commerce Chamber "Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico- Azienda Speciale CCIAA di Firenze" and the SME "TEM" (Toscana Enologica Mori). The chapter will describe the development of an innovative olive oil extraction process, characterized by a series of automatic controls (sensors, Machine Vision systems, etc.) of several agronomical and technological parameters during the extraction phases. This system allows several settings of the extraction process in order to dynamically modify the quality properties of the olive oil extracted. The oil mill is supported by computers and electronics systems (Machine Vision, sensors and Artificial Neural Network based software) that consents (1) the acquisition of data from the raw material, the extracted oil and the process parameters and (2) the development of a series of algorithms able to estimate the olive oil quality before the extraction process has started and to simulate the process. After some experimental campaigns conducted during the harvesting period of years 2005-2008, the devised approach identified the interrelationships between acquired data and quantitative characteristics of the product extracted. Based on the findings of the analysis of experimental data, software has then been implemented and validated. The validation comprises an iterative process that will impose changes to the software, general procedures, the possible amendment of the basic mathematics of the system, the estimate of the error, the statistical analysis of data and the development of new graphical user interfaces. The results of the devised system have been conducted according in force to European Union Rules standards and have been compared with the ones suggested by the literature. © 2011 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

[98] Furferi R., Carfagni M., A machine vision system for real-time and automatic assessment of olives colour and surface defects, Computer Systems, Support and Technology, 237-254, (2011). Abstract
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The evolution of olive oil technology is related to research raised to deepen the understanding of biological and biophysical phenomena during the machining process olives, thus allowing the introduction of sensors able to monitoring the parameters and the process according to the characteristics of olives themselves. Current research has identified manufacturing protocols that can enable the achievement levels of product quality required by the market, mainly by reducing the time between collection and processing of olives and raising the technological level of extraction lines. In this context, the present paper aims to describe some of the results of a three-years project developed by the PIN-University of Florence (Italy) in collaboration with the Tuscan Regional Agricultural Development, the Florence Commerce Chamber "Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico-Azienda Speciale CCIAA di Firenze" and the SME "TEM" (Toscana Enologica Mori). The paper will describe the development of an innovative Machine Vision system able to 1) acquire, in real-time, images of olives in the conferring phase and 2) to process the acquired images in order to evaluate the ripeness of olives on the basis of their colour and the eventual presence of superficial defects. The devised system has been tested with the data extracted by olives in the harvesting period of year 2006. © 2011 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

[99] Curcuruto S., Silvaggio R., Stortini M., Baldinelli G., Borchi F., Carfagni M., Luzzi S., Bellomini R., Correlation between traffic flows and noise reduction in HUSH project strategic actions, Proceedings of Forum Acusticum, 659-664, (2011). Abstract
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H.U.S.H. "Harmonization of Urban Noise reduction Strategies for Homogeneous action plans" is a project co-funded by European Community's Life+ Program and it has the general goal to contribute to the harmonization of the national and European legislations, regarding the noise management tools, introduced by the END Directive 49/2002, starting from the realization of interventions in two areas of the city of Florence, identified by the Noise Abatement Plan and the Strategic Action Plan as critical areas, considered as pilot cases. Concerning the largest area considered, Peretola-Brozzi, characterized by the presence of many and different noise sources (air, rail and road transport), the attention has been focused on the critical situation analysis resulting from vehicular traffic scenarios. Tools regarding design and traffic management have been used for analysis and evaluation, as well as a computational model for traffic management (Traffic Management Model - TMM) validated with measured data, in order to analyze the current situation and to provide estimates on projected changes, in terms of traffic flows. The results of simulations carried out on traffic flows, related to the different scenarios considered, have been used as input data for the acoustic model, leading to the definition of relationships existing between changing traffic flows and the reducing environmental noise.

[100] Carfagni M., Governi L., Nunziati M., Offline continuous adaptation of templates for signature identification, International Journal of Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 5(6), 1003-1010, (2011). Abstract
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Automatic on-line signature identification is a procedure which allows a machine to identify a subject among a cohort of individuals by using only the subject's signature. The following paper deals with features and models required in order to allow a machine to learn and discriminate people on the basis of such a biometric trait. The proposed solution presents a neural network based framework for template adaptation which has demonstrated to improve the resilience of a system, when it has to face with forgeries, that is, fake signatures which are used in order to attack the system and grant unauthorized access to services. The proposed framework provides an improved security level of 35% with respect to non adapted systems.

Keywords: Adaptation | Artificial neural networks | Identification | Signature

[101] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., Palai M., Volpe Y., "3D reconstruction problem": An automated procedure, Applications of Mathematics and Computer Engineering - American Conference on Applied Mathematics, AMERICAN-MATH'11, 5th WSEAS International Conference on Computer Engineering and Applications, CEA'11, 99-104, (2011). Abstract
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3D CAD techniques represent today a crucial tool in almost all the design fields. Nevertheless, due to a number of well known reasons, multi orthographic view drawings are still widely used; accordingly, the conversion of 2D drawings into 3D CAD models (known in the scientific literature as the "reconstruction problem") is still a key issue. During the last decades a number of works, dealing with the reconstruction problem, have been proposed. On the basis of these works, the authors have developed and implemented an automatic procedure that allows the reconstruction of 3D polyhedral models. The reconstruction procedure involves a number of software routines; by means of them, an initial 2D DXF file is processed and a set of 3D solutions, consistent with the initial drawing, is extracted. The obtained 3D models are subsequently output according to the most common 3D exchange formats (e.g. IGES, STEP, Parasolid, etc.). The proposed procedure and its implementation have been developed in order to achieve two main goals: to introduce researchers into the "reconstruction problem" and to create a common basis in order to methodologically compare different procedures dealing with the "reconstruction problem" itself.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction | CAD | Computational geometry | Engineering drawings | Orthographic projections | Pseudo-wireframe

[102] Borchi F., Carfagni M., The H.U.S.H. project - The geographical data platform for city noise action planning, 20th International Congress on Acoustics 2010, ICA 2010 - Incorporating Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference of the Australian Acoustical Society, 3, 1690-1694, (2010). Abstract
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The H.U.S.H. (Harmonization of Urban noise reduction Strategies for Homogeneous action plans) project moves from the evidence that harmonization of noise action planning methods is needed, not only in Italy but also in all the European countries where a former Legislation about noise planning was existing at the moment of Environmental Noise Directive (END) 49/2002/EC adoption. The general aim is harmonizing national noise management standards with END for obtaining homogeneous noise Action Plans, in order to give contribution to the more general need of transposing, implementing and enforcing a common or harmonized environmental legislation among EU countries. Specific aims of the project are the following ones: a) to point out unsolved conflicts among current standards at Regional, National and European level; b) to define common methods for designing strategic and specific solutions; c) to define a new development system (procedures and database) for action planning by testing it in a pilot case; d) to design guidelines in order to build a system for action plan applications supporting Regional, National and European Law reviews. In this paper the results coming out from a specific action of HUSH project carried on by the University of Florence are described. This specific action focuses to build up the geographical data platform for city action planning. To achieve this aim, a few of city Action Plan data platforms - available in Italy and in European countries-were analyzed and compared referring to address the requirements set out by National, Regional and European regulations.

[103] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Cini E., Migliorini M., Daou M., Cherubini C., Boncinelli P., Computers and electronics in innovative olive oil mill production Chain: Development of integrated hardware+software systems for control, simulation, estimation and enhancement of olive oil quality, Agriculture Research and Technology, 1-81, (2010). Abstract
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The evolution of olive oil technology is related to research raised to deepen the understanding of biological and biophysical phenomena during the machining process olives, thus allowing the introduction of sensors able to monitoring the parameters and the process according to the characteristics of olives themselves. Current research has identified manufacturing protocols that can enable the achievement levels of product quality required by the market, mainly by reducing the time between collection and processing of olives and raising the technological level of extraction lines. In this context, the present chapter aims to describe the results of a three-years project developed by the PIN-University of Florence (Italy) in collaboration with the Tuscan Regional Agricultural Development, the Florence Commerce Chamber "Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico-Azienda Speciale CCIAA di Firenze" and the SME "TEM" (Toscana Enologica Mori). The chapter will describe the development of an innovative olive oil extraction process, characterized by a series of automatic controls (sensors, Machine Vision systems, etc.) of several agronomical and technological parameters during the extraction phases. This system allows several settings of the extraction process in order to dynamically modify the quality properties of the olive oil extracted. The oil mill is supported by computers and electronics systems (Machine Vision, sensors and Artificial Neural Network based software) that consents (1) the acquisition of data from the raw material, the extracted oil and the process parameters and (2) the development of a series of algorithms able to estimate the olive oil quality before the extraction process has started and to simulate the process. After some experimental campaigns conducted during the harvesting period of years 2005-2008, the devised approach identified the interrelationships between acquired data and quantitative characteristics of the product extracted. Based on the findings of the analysis of experimental data, software has then been implemented and validated. The validation comprises an iterative process that will impose changes to the software, general procedures, the possible amendment of the basic mathematics of the system, the estimate of the error, the statistical analysis of data and the development of new graphical user interfaces. The results of the devised system have been conducted according in force to European Union Rules standards and have been compared with the ones suggested by the literature.

[104] Furferi R., Carfagni M., Colour mixing modelling and simulation: Optimization of colour recipe for carded fibres, Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, 2010, (2010). Abstract
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Colour matching between carded and finished fibres is an important challenge for textile industry. The straightforward approach for mixing together some differently coloured fibres in order to obtain a blend of a desired colour is to perform a trial and error approach starting from a given colour recipe and optimizing it with several attempts. Unfortunately, dyeing process so as the carding procedure may result in a carded fibre whose colour is different from the desired one. As a consequence textile companies have to modify the original recipe in order to reduce the gap between the colour of the final product and the desired one. The present work describes a model able to simulate the colour mixing of fibres in order to assess the best recipe. The model consists in two modules: a prediction module predicts the colour of a blend obtained by mixing together several fibres; an optimization module is used to optimize the final recipe. The devised system has been tested for optimizing the recipe of a set of 200 blends. The mean error in predicting the blend colour is about 15 with a variance of 0.165. The time for optimizing the recipe is reduced by 92. Copyright © 2010 Rocco Furferi and Monica Carfagni.

[105] Furferi R., Carfagni M., An as-short-as-possible mathematical assessment of spectrophotometric color matching, Journal of Applied Sciences, 10(18), 2108-2114, (2010). Abstract
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Color match prediction is one of the most important aspects to be considered by industries dealing with colorants. Several generally applicable theoretical models have been proposed so far for helping the colorists in achieving an exact color match. Such approaches, often based on extensive experimental tests and provided of exhaustive results, are differentiated by a specific range of application (textiles, study, paintings, etc.). Therefore, the results are subjected to restrictions or constraints (number of colorants, reliability of the prediction, etc.). The present paper describes, into a mathematical form, three widely known techniques adopted in the scientific literature for evaluating the spectrophotometric color match prediction of a target shade: Kubelka-Munch, Steams-Noechel and Artificial Neural Networks. The proposed method starts from such wide known methodologies and by means of mathematical assessment provides some useful equations to be straightforwardly used for color matching. Moreover an Artificial Neural Network based formulation is provided. The results of the work shows that the expected color distance between the predicted the real color of a shade is less than 0.8, in terms of CTEL*a*b* distance. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Keywords: Absorptivity and the scattering | Color distance | Color formulation | Color matching transfer function | Reflectance

[106] Furferi R., Carfagni M., Prediction of the Color and of the Color Solidity of a Jigger-dyed Cellulose-based Fabric: A Cascade Neural Network Approach, Textile Research Journal, 80(16), 1682-1696, (2010). Abstract
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The color and the color stability of a fabric dyed with a jigger machine are highly dependent on the color of the dyes and on technological parameters, such as the process temperature, pH of the dyebath, and time of dyeing. On the basis of their skill, colorists are capable of choosing the technological parameters and the recipes for dyes in order to obtain the desired dyed fabric. However, they need to perform many tests before reaching the preferred product. As a matter of fact, a straightforward relationship between the color of dyes, process parameters, and final color and color solidity is not found in literature. The present work aims to help the colorist in predicting the color and the color stability of the fabric, without the needing to physically dye it. In detail the paper describes a tool, based on the Cascade Neural Network (CNN), that is able to receive the value of some colorimetric and technological parameters as input and to predict, as output, the color appearance and the color solidity of a fabric dyed with a jigger machine. The CNN is composed of a “color prediction module” (ANN I) and a “color solidity prediction module” (ANN II) that work in cascade. The CNN has been validated by means of a large set of experiments. The mean error between the color prediction and the real values of the dyed fabric, in terms of CIE 1976 (L*, a*, b*) color distance, is equal to 0.47 with a variance of 0.031. The maximum color solidity prediction error is 0.5. © 2010, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.

[107] Carfagni M., Governi L., Meiattini D., Volpe Y., A new methodology for computer aided design of fine porcelain whiteware, 2008 Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, DETC 2008, 3(PART A), 151-158, (2009). Abstract
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Fine porcelain products get their peculiar characteristics at the end of their thermal process. During the firing, the product is subjected to shrinkage and a considerable amount of the material mass becomes viscous, causing the product shape to be modified due to the own object weight. As the final object shape is a relevant characteristic for both usability and aesthetics of the commercial product, the activity purpose was to devise a methodology to automatically detect the raw product shape required to match a provided final geometry. Such a methodology has been implemented by means of commercial CAD/FEM tools and should be used in porcelain products design. The research consists of three parts. During the first one an extensive experimental campaign has been carried out in order to model the behavior of the heat treated material; by using the experimental data a numerical model of the material behavior has been built. in the second part the model reliability has been tested by means of a set of FE analysis. Such an analysis simulates the effects of stresses caused by the real industrial firing process. in the end, during the third part, inverse firing process FE simulations have been performed. These simulations will allow the designer to know the raw-product geometry, in order to obtain the expected finished product. .Copyright © 2008 by ASME.

[108] Carfagni M., Governi L., Meiattini D., Volpe Y., A new methodology for computer aided design of fine porcelain whiteware, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 3(PARTS A AND B), 151-158, (2008). Abstract
X

Fine porcelain products get their peculiar characteristics at the end of their thermal process. During the firing, the product is subjected to shrinkage and a considerable amount of the material mass becomes viscous, causing the product shape to be modified due to the own object weight. As the final object shape is a relevant characteristic for both usability and aesthetics of the commercial product, the activity purpose was to devise a methodology to automatically detect the raw product shape required to match a provided final geometry. Such a methodology has been implemented by means of commercial CAD/FEM tools and should be used in porcelain products design. The research consists of three parts. During the first one an extensive experimental campaign has been carried out in order to model the behavior of the heat treated material; by using the experimental data a numerical model of the material behavior has been built. In the second part the model reliability has been tested by means of a set of FE analysis. Such an analysis simulates the effects of stresses caused by the real industrial firing process. In the end, during the third part, inverse firing process FE simulations have been performed. These simulations will allow the designer to know the raw-product geometry, in order to obtain the expected finished product. Copyright © 2008 by ASME.

[109] Furferi R., Carfagni M., Daou M., Artificial neural network software for real-time estimation of olive oil qualitative parameters during continuous extraction, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 55(2), 115-131, (2007). Abstract
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This work provides a software based on the combination of a artificial neural network (ANN) approach and a numerical method (called "refining algorithm") for the estimation of the acidity level and of peroxides number of olive oil extracted by a continuous extraction process. The estimation is achieved through the measurement of some agronomical and technological parameters commonly measured by the technicians working at the oil mills. The ANN based approach is able to perform a rough prediction of the two parameters; this prediction is then refined by means of the numerical approach. The devised software, developed using a database of experimental data collected in the years 1997-2004 in the Tuscany Region (Italy), is able to estimate the two parameters during the continuous oil extraction, thus allowing a real-time control of the oil quality during the extraction process. The experimental data are related to different kinds of extraction systems: the data collected before 2003 are mainly referred to three phases decanting while the one collected in years 2003-2004, are referred to a two phases decanter. The goal of this approach is to build up a fast and reliable quality control without performing the standard laboratory analysis. The results of the estimation achieved by the ANN based system are compared with the results of the chemical analyses carried out by Florence Commerce Chamber "Laboratorio Chimico Merceologico-Azienda Speciale CCIAA di Firenze" according in force to European Union Rules standards. The mean error in estimation of the parameters with the combination of the ANN approach and the refining algorithm, in comparison with the standard chemical analysis, is in the range 6-8% for an oil extraction with a three phases decanting system and about 6-7% for an oil extraction with a two phases decanting system. The maximum error affecting the method (ANN + Refining) described in this work is about 15% for the first case and about 11% for the second one. The system developed in the present work is actually running on the oil mill "TEM Toscana Enologica Mori" of Florence, Italy. The present work has been financed by the Tuscany Regional Agricultural Development and Innovation Office (ARSIA: Azienda Regionale per lo Sviluppo e l'Innovazione dell'Agricoltura) and is a part of a 3-year project whose objective is to create an entirely software + hardware controlled oil mill. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Artificial neural network | Olive oil | Olive oil acidity level | Olive oil centrifugal process | Peroxides number

[110] Carfagni M., Furferi R., Governi L., A real-time machine-vision system for monitoring the textile raising process, Computers in Industry, 56(8-9), 831-842, (2005). Abstract
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This work provides an automatic and non-intrusive tool to objectively monitoring the raising process by measuring the height and the density of the fibres emerging from a raised cloth (pile). These parameters are assessed by a numerical procedure, which elaborates the images provided by an appositely developed machine-vision system. The proposed approach allows the investigation and the control of the raising process and has been validated by experimental measurements performed on a set of specimens (cloths) with several raising degrees. The comparison between the results obtained by the proposed procedure and the ones coming from a widely accepted textile-measuring device (fabric assurance by simple testing, FAST) is also provided. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Cloth raising | Image processing | Machine-vision design | Pile density | Pile height

[111] Bartolini F., Carfagni M., Governi L., Model-based extraction of femoral medulla ducts from radiographic images, Image and Vision Computing, 22(3), 173-182, (2004). Abstract
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The planning of the hip prosthesis surgical operation is usually performed manually by the surgeon, who 'draws' on a patient's X-ray image the outline of the prosthetic stem in order to choose the one most suitable for the case at hand. In an attempt to give some repeatability and objectivity to the planning phase, a procedure has been devised for hip prosthesis' stem selection based on the extraction of the femoral relevant outlines. This work presents a computer aided method aimed at automatically extracting the medulla duct outlines from a human femur radiographic image. The outlines are retrieved by referring to a suitable geometric model of the generic femoral cross-section; the projection function obtained by simulating the radiographic acquisition of such a model is fitted on the grey-level functions corresponding to the rows of the actual digitised radiographic image by means of a least squares algorithm. The resulting outlines are used in a software tool performing the hip prosthesis pre-operational planning. © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Medical images processing | Model-based image processing | Surgery aiding tools

[112] Carfagni M., Citti P., Governi L., Pierini M., Vibroacoustic optimization of stiffening ribs and damping material distribution on sheet metal parts, Shock and Vibration, 11(3-4), 271-280, (2004). Abstract
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Vehicle noise and vibration levels are basic parameters in passenger comfort. Both static and dynamic stiffness of sheet metal parts is commonly increased by means of stiffening ribs. Vibrations are also reduced by adding a layer of damping material on the floor, the roof, the firewall and other parts of the vehicle. In common practice the panels to be treated are ribbed according to criteria based on the designer's experience, rather than on well defined design procedures and are uniformly covered by a layer of damping material. However, these are not efficient design solutions, especially with regard to the effectiveness of vibration reduction and to weight containment. In this paper a novel approach to achieve an optimal distribution of stiffening ribs and damping material will be presented. The proposed method is based on a Genetic Algorithm (G.A.) procedure which takes into account both the vibroacoustic performance and the weight and cost reduction. A simple case study will be illustrated to demonstrate the Capabilities of the developed procedure.

[113] Carfagni M., Furieri R., Miniati F., Implementation of an approach for reducing the sound power of a generating set, Acta Acustica (Stuttgart), 89(SUPP.), (2003). Abstract
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The European directive 2000/14/CE partially rules the noise impact assessment of industrial machines and equipment designated to an outdoor use in order to obtain significant mitigation strategies of sound noise. This directive has been adopted in Italy by the recent DL n° 262, 4 September 2002. This paper provides an approach for sound suppression and noise control of some moderate-sized generating set. In particular the approach described has been applied to some generating set presenting a high value of sound power in order to reduce it accordingly with the value provided by the normative. The implementation of the method described in the paper concern both the devising of new acoustical mufflers than the design of the carter and the choice of sound absorbing materials. Accordingly we have developed a numeric fluid-dynamic approach to detect the loss of head involved in the flow ducts and for reducing the Transmission Loss respecting the inlet and outlet gas pressure conditions. Furthermore we have designed several different configurations of the carter and the sound power has been checked experimentally. The results of this work proved to be suitable for designing generating sets with sound power less than the maximum provided by the normative.

[114] Borchi F., Carfagni M., An urban noise management system integrated into a geographical information system, Acta Acustica (Stuttgart), 89(SUPP.), (2003). Abstract
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Big and small administrations are more and more interested in the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) for both urban and territorial planning. In a previous research the GIS system was used as support to build a simplified acoustic model to determine the urban noise levels close to the receiver positions and to define the critical areas where the exceeding of the limits occurred. In another research, a procedure was developed in the GIS system to determine what kind of noise reduction interventions were effective and suitable to be assigned in the critical areas. In this research a new procedure was integrated in the GIS system. The procedure was able to assign a priority index to each suitable intervention previously determined. The procedure was defined according to the Italian directives, in particular, the Tuscany Region directive. The new procedure integrated in the GIS system proved to be a valid supporting tool for the decisions of the territory's administration, as it allowed them to know the order in which to realize all the interventions to perform in a certain area.

[115] Carfagni M., A CAD program for the automated checkout and design of Belleville springs, Journal of Mechanical Design, Transactions of the ASME, 124(3), 393-398, (2002). Abstract
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A CAD method for the checkout and design of Belleville springs is presented. The method eliminates the need to resort to conventional trial-and-error techniques. In a matter of seconds, it rapidly and accurately checks out and designs Belleville springs, outputting the load-deflection characteristics in graphic and table formats and can generate a dimensioned drawing. To enable the designer to work in the same environment, the software has been provided with a user-friendly interface for fatigue calculation along with the characteristics of parallel/series assemblies. The algorithms developed and used for each calculation module are illustrated.

[116] Bartolini F., Governi L., Carfagni M., Crispini F., Extracting femoral medulla ducts from radiographic images based on a model of the projection of femur section, IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 2, (2002). Abstract
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This work presents a procedure aimed at automatically extracting the medulla duct outlines from a human femur radiographic image. The outlines are retrieved by referring to a suitable geometric model of the generic femoral cross section; the projection function deriving from such a model is fitted on the grey level values corresponding to the rows of the digitised radiographic image by means of a least square algorithm. The resulting outlines are used in a software system performing the hip prosthesis pre-operational planning.

[117] Carfagni M., Landi L., A CAD methodology for concurrent design of a fuel tank lid, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2, 253-257, (2001). Abstract
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A CAD procedure has been developed to reduce lead times and development costs in the design of automobile components. The associative parametric capability of a CAD platform were applied to the design of a fuel tank lid. It comprises five macro phases: acquisition of the standards, definition of the main functional design constraints, implementation of a hardcopy design flow, transposition on the CAD platform and validation of the design flow. In this paper the first four topics will be discussed focussing on design functional constraints. The procedure is readily applicable to a vast number of complex components.

[118] Hippoliti R., Carfagni M., Pierini M., Caprioli D., Set up and validation for a simulation of a scooter confort bench, SAE Technical Papers, (2001). Abstract
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This research activity was developed in order to build an innovative analytical model of a two wheels vehicle for the simulation of a confort test bench. This model should predict the reaction forces transmitted between the vehicle and the rider in the interface points (grip handles, saddleback, footrest). FEM modelization of a Piaggio's scooter (Hexagon 180cc, 2 strokes) mainframe and its accesories was performed and validated experimentally through a modal eigenvalues and shapes comparison (MAC). Furthrmore a multibody system of the rear suspension was developed, describing the whole vehicle with both flexible and rigid bodies. The dynamic behaviour of this suspension system was validated experimentally (since a test bench was realized) in both the cases of a shaker excitation and of the engine running at different speeds (2500/3500 rpm). The final aim was to obtain a good agreement in the comparison between the experimental results and the virtual simulation of the scooter running on a confort test bench. This useful methodology could be used in order to predict, from the early design stage, the ride comfort of a scooter. Copyright © 2001 ATA, SAE International and SAE of Japan.

[119] Carfagni M., Governi L., Pierini M., A genetic algorithm method for optimizing rib arrangements in dynamically excited panels, Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering, ISMA, 37-42, (2000). Abstract
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A genetic algorithm has been designed to optimize the arrangement of stiffening ribs that serve to reduce vibrations and noise in dynamically excited panels. The algorithm was tested on the finite element model of a flat panel whose ribs were modeled by raising some of the nodes. The proposed algorithm, validated by comparison with a panel derived from a commercial software package optimization procedure, allows designers to investigate unconventional rib arrangements and evaluate their performance.

[120] Bongini D., Carfagni M., Governi L., Hippin: A semiautomatic computer program for selecting hip prosthesis femoral components, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 63(2), 105-115, (2000). Abstract
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This work illustrates a computer program designed to aid surgeons in selecting the hip prosthesis femoral component during the preoperation planning stage of hip replacement surgery. Starting from the processing of the patient's coxo-femoral region X-ray image, the program, called Hippin, interacts with the user to outline the femoral region, including the head and the inner contour of the proximal femur. It automatically examines all possible couplings with the patient's femur outlines from a database containing the outlines of the available prostheses created by digitizing the templates normally used in preoperation planning. The resulting images enable the surgeon to visually compare all the alternatives. In addition, the program provides numerical values for the distances between the physiological rotation and prosthesis centers, helping the surgeon in selecting from among the possibilities. The program has been validated by comparing the computer results with actual surgeon selections. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

Keywords: Hip prosthesis | Image processing | Preoperation planning

[121] Carfagni M., Citti P., Palloni F., Pierini M., Bloemhof H., Application of a simplified method for the dynamic simulation of multilayer panels, Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference - IMAC, 2, 1436-1441, (2000). Abstract
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A new approach to the finite element simulation of the dynamic behavior of trimmed panels with an equivalent material is illustrated. By taking into account both the bending and membrane effects in a shell element, the proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of conventional methods, i.e., excessive calculation times and, in the case of software using equivalent shells, application limited solely to flat plates. Testing conducted on several finite element models of various complexities has validated the simplicity and reliability of the method.

[122] Carfagni M., Citti P., Palloni F., Pierini M., Bloemhof H., Application of a simplified method for the dynamic simulation of multilayer panels, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 4062, (2000). Abstract
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A new approach to the finite element simulation of the dynamic behavior of trimmed panels with an equivalent material is illustrated. By taking into account both the bending and membrane effects in a shell element, the proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of conventional methods, i.e., excessive calculation times and, in the case of software using equivalent shells, application limited solely to flat plates. Testing conducted on several finite element models of various complexities has validated the simplicity and reliability of the method.

[123] Carfagni M., Pierini M., Determining the loss factor by the power input method (pim), part 1: Numerical investigation, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Transactions of the ASME, 121(3), 417-421, (1999). Abstract
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Damping must be accurately determined in the design and/or optimization of vehicle and aircraft trim. Yet, owing to the complexity of the dynamic interaction among the components in trimmed panel systems, until now it has been difficult to obtain reliable damping estimates. In this work, the power input method (PIM), which compares dissipated energy to the structure’s strain energy, was evaluated as a damping evaluation tool. Numerical simulations were used to analyze the lumped mass system (with custom software) and the plates (with commercial finite element software) and consequently to evaluate the assumptions required to apply the PIM. It was thus possible to find a way of minimizing the effect of the assumptions on the results, whose importance would be fundamental in the successive phase involving the experimental application of the method. © 1999 by ASME.

[124] Carfagni M., Pierini M., Determining the loss factor by tlie power input method (piivi), part 2: Experimental investigation with impact hammer excitation, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Transactions of the ASME, 121(3), 422-428, (1999). Abstract
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Damping must be accurately determined in the design and/or optimization of vehicle and aircraft trim. Yet, owing to the complexity of the dynamic interaction among the components in trimmed panel systems, until now it has been difficult to obtain reliable damping estimates. The power input method (PIM) was numerically investigated in Part 1 of this work. The results regarding how to reduce the effects of the assumptions required to apply the method were put into practice through the experimental activity with impact hammer excitation described in this work. The experimental testing was conducted on flat and bent steel plates of various sizes trimmed with damping material. A method, called the “numerical updating technique” (NUT), was developed to reduce the number of measuring points and the effects of the discretization on the kinetic energy estimation. Comparison of the numerical and experimental results has validated the reliability and suitability of the proposed method. © 1999 by ASME.

[125] Baldanzini N., Beraldo F., Carfagni M., Experimental investigation of noise sources in a needle roller bearing system, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 7A-1999, 1303-1310, (1999). Abstract
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An experimental investigation was undertaken to determine the causes of noise emission scatter in hosiery machines. Following the experimental measurement of the sound power levels, the hosiery machine's mechanical system was assembled and tested with components of various sizes. The results indicated that the source of the noise emissions was a bearing's outer race. Analysis of the outer race's roundness profile in relation to vibrations provided accurate predictions of machine behavior. On the basis of a correlation between noise and vibrations, a practical method of online monitoring was developed.

Keywords: Fault Detection | Needle Roller Bearings | Noise and Vibrations | Online Monitoring

[126] Carfagni M., Lenzi E., Pierini M., Loss factor as a measure of mechanical damping, Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference - IMAC, 1, 580-584, (1998). Abstract
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The problem of damping representation and measurement is investigated. Among the many parameters found in literature, the most comprehensive is loss factor η. Several definitions of η are feasible, but in linear problems they all should reduce to the ratio of the in-phase and quadrature parts of the associated complex modulus. This work surveys measuring methods for materials and structures with respect to the way they express η, either by approximated or correct expressions. Since some commonly used techniques such as the Oberst method do not follow the definition of η, special care is required when dealing with damping values obtained by different methods and in different environments. On the whole, non-homogeneous values must be expected, owing to the physical differences among the phenomena that enable damping measurement.

[127] Carfagni M., Citti P., Pierini M., Determining loss factors using the power input method with shaker excitation, Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference - IMAC, 1, 585-590, (1998). Abstract
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This work describes the third phase in the authors' development of an experimental procedure for determining the loss factor by the power input method (PIM). Unlike in the second phase in which the excitation was provided by an impact hammer, the excitation in the third phase was provided by a shaker. Experimental testing performed on a special-design setup validated the effects of parameters such as shaker mass, excitation point position, non-perpendicular force input, and specimen size and shape, as well as repeatability. In the fourth phase, the number and shape of the structure portions to be used in the measuring procedure will be determined.

[128] Carfagni M., Landi L., Pierini M., Methods for shrinking finite element models of carbodies in white, Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference - IMAC, 1, 450-456, (1997). Abstract
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This work presents a set of methods for simplifying finite element (FE) models without reducing their accuracy in terms of global static and dynamic behavior. The methods were developed to simplify the FE models of carbodies in white without affecting their static and low-frequency dynamics. The simplified models allow structural variations to be theorized and simulated, while accurately representing physical reality.

[129] Carfagni M., Citti P., Pierini M., Simplified finite element modelling of acoustically treated structures, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 204(5), 705-716, (1997). Abstract
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The application of non-optimized damping and phono-absorbent materials to automotive systems has not proved fully satisfactory in abating noise and vibration. The objective of this work was to develop a simple finite element modelling procedure that would allow optimizing structures such as a car body-in-white in terms of vibroacoustic behavior from the design stage. A procedure was developed to determine the modifications to be made in the mass, stiffness and damping characteristics in the finite element (FE) modelling of a metal structure meshed with shell elements so that the model would describe the behavior of the acoustically treated structure. To validate the modifications, a numerical-experimental comparison of the velocities on the vibrating surface was carried out, followed by a numerical-experimental comparison of the sound pressures generated by the vibrating plate. In the comparison a simple monopole model was used, in which each area of vibrating surface could be likened to a point source. The simulation and experimental procedures, previously validated for the metal structure, were then applied to multi-layered panels. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated velocities and sound pressures resulted for all the multi-layered panel configurations examined. © 1997 Academic Press Limited.

[130] Ge S.L., Nerli G., Carfagni M., Optimization of noise and vibration of a cylindrical cam mechanism using inertial compensation techniques, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 1C-1997, (1997). Abstract
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An innovative concept has been developed in which the dynamic behaviour of a cylindrical cam mechanism is modified using inertial compensation techniques. Elastic and magnetic compensation systems are incorporated in the experimental acoustic and acceleration analysis procedure. Both compensation systems have a remarkable effect on the reduction of the noise and vibration levels produced by the impact between the cam follower and the groove inversions. However, individually they both have different influences on the groove junctions. Generally they both have a considerable effect on the integral cam mechanism in terms of reducing emitted sound levels. The results also show that the difference in emitted sound levels before and after modification is approximately 3 dB. This conclusion means that the difference of the equivalent sound level is roughly equal to a reduction of about thirty percent below the original level with the compensation devices in position.

Keywords: Cylindrical cam mechanism | Elastic system | Inertial compensation | Instantaneous power level | Magnetic system | Shuttle

[131] Carfagni M., Citti P., Using experimental modal analysis to simulate the dynamic behavior of underwater structures, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 1923(pt 2), 1460-1465, (1993). Abstract
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This paper presents the theoretical basis of an innovative method in which the structure's experimental modal parameters (modal frequencies and shapes) in air are used in calculating its modal parameters in water, knowing only the structure's external geometry and position in water. The formulas will serve to develop the software in the second, forthcoming, phase of the work.

[132] Braccesi C., Carfagni M., Citti P., Method for simulating the dynamic behavior of underwater robot structures, 1993 International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 502-508, (1993). Abstract
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This work was carried out as part of a project aimed at evaluating the dynamic behavior of robot structures in water. A procedure for predicting the structure's modal parameters in water using its modal parameters in air as a starting point is described and applied. The results, presented for simple structures but fully applicable to more complex ones, show that the problem of the structure-fluid coupling can be solved with limited calculation resources.

[133] Blasi C., Carfagni M., Carfagni S., Use of impulsive actions for the structural identification of slender monumental buildings, Structural Repair and Maintenance of Historical Buildings II, 121-132, (1991). Abstract
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This paper presents a procedure of dynamic identification for slender monuments, such as towers and bell-towers, based on the use of impulsive dynamic actions, applied by means of a pendulum provided with a piezoelectric force transducer for measuring strength, and on the interpretation of data by means of a numeric model. It also gives the results of the studies made with this procedure on the fourteenth century bell-tower of the Church of the Badia in Florence.

[134] Carfagni M., Substructuring as a modal analysis design tool, The International journal of analytical and experimental modal analysis, 6(4), 251-270, (1991). Abstract
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An easy-to-use method has been developed by which substructures' experimental and/or numerical modal parameters are used to numerically simulate the dynamic behavior of a combined structure whatever its composition. The modal parameters of the combined structure are thus obtained without having to physically combine the constituent substructures and/or without having to physically test one or more of the substructures.

[135] Braccesi C., Carfagni M., Corvi A., Ioele E., The method of finite elements in evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the Ilizarov apparatus, Archivio "Putti" di chirurgia degli organi di movimento, 37(1), 97-105, (1989). Abstract
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An accurate, rapid response technique for ascertaining the mechanical behavior of the Ilizarov apparatus has been developed. A widely-adopted numerical method (finite elements), is used to achieve simulation of the apparatus configuration, whereby the orthopedic surgeon is able to custom tailor the apparatus to the clinical situation. Experimental activity verifies the validity of the finite element simulation and provides information on the magnitude and type of loads affecting the apparatus during implantation. From this information it is possible to inocuously derive objective parameters characterizing the evolution of patient rehabilitation.

[136] Braccesi C., Carfagni M., Rissone P., Using force signals to monitor mechanical systems, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 3(2), 111-122, (1989). Abstract
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A method has been developed to enhance the applicability of automatic pattern recognition to the monitoring of mechanical systems by: reducing the size of the defect-classification databases through the use of signal reconstruction. This appreciably shortens the experimental testing phase. Eliminating the influence of the system's dynamic characteristics on the defective component through the measurement of defect-generated forces. This means that standard components may be characterised at manufacturing level prior to machine assembly. In addition, once the component defects have been characterised according to the proposed method, it is possible to achieve total system monitoring from a single pre-selected measuring point. Experimental testing carried out on an actual bearing test rig has validated these capabilities. © 1989.

[137] Braccesi C., Carfagni M., Using experimental modal analysis to simulate structural dynamic modifications, Technical review - Bruel & Kjaer English ed., 1-22, (1988). Abstract
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Modal analysis is a technique used to verify the dynamic behavior of systems, and to validate results obtained through numerical methods such as finite elements analysis. Furthermore, this technique can also be profitably used for simulating changes in dynamic behavior due to structural mass and stiffness modifications. Corresponding calculation programs have been developed for modal analysis systems such as SMS, and have been experimentally confirmed.

[138] Braccesi C., Carfagni M., Reduction of inertia effects in the drive to a doffer comb, (1988). Abstract
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A balancing torsion bar compensates for inertia effects in doffer comb drive.